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Sample records for abnormal mitochondrial morphology

  1. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology as early pathological changes in human models of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-Chong; Denton, Kyle R; Wang, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), characterized by specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons, is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene and subsequent decreased levels of functional SMN. How the deficiency of SMN, a ubiquitously expressed protein, leads to spinal motor neuron-specific degeneration in individuals affected by SMA remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of SMN in mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human motor neurons by generating SMA type 1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiating these cells into spinal motor neurons. The initial specification of spinal motor neurons was not affected, but these SMA spinal motor neurons specifically degenerated following long-term culture. Moreover, at an early stage in SMA spinal motor neurons, but not in SMA forebrain neurons, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and mitochondrial transport were significantly reduced in axons. Knocking down of SMN expression led to similar mitochondrial defects in spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells, confirming that SMN deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, the application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mitigated the impairment in mitochondrial transport and morphology and rescued motor neuron degeneration in SMA long-term cultures. Furthermore, NAC ameliorated the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in SMA spinal motor neurons, suggesting that NAC might rescue apoptosis and motor neuron degeneration by improving mitochondrial health. Overall, our data demonstrate that SMN deficiency results in abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology and a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial health, which are implicated in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in SMA.

  2. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models.

    PubMed

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-03-15

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1(WT) and mutant SOD1(G93A)) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43(A315T)) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) mice, but not in SOD1(WT). At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1(G93A) mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43(A315T) mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved.

  3. Mechanical ventilation triggers abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; Azuelos, Ilan; Jung, Boris; Giordano, Christian; Matecki, Stefan; Hussain, Sabah; White, Kathryn; Li, Tong; Liang, Feng; Benedetti, Andrea; Gentil, Benoit J; Burelle, Yan; Petrof, Basil J

    2015-05-01

    The diaphragm is a unique skeletal muscle designed to be rhythmically active throughout life, such that its sustained inactivation by the medical intervention of mechanical ventilation (MV) represents an unanticipated physiological state in evolutionary terms. Within a short period after initiating MV, the diaphragm develops muscle atrophy, damage, and diminished strength, and many of these features appear to arise from mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, in response to metabolic perturbations, mitochondria fuse, divide, and interact with neighboring organelles to remodel their shape and functional properties-a process collectively known as mitochondrial dynamics. Using a quantitative electron microscopy approach, here we show that diaphragm contractile inactivity induced by 6 h of MV in mice leads to fragmentation of intermyofibrillar (IMF) but not subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria. Furthermore, physical interactions between adjacent organellar membranes were less abundant in IMF mitochondria during MV. The profusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 were unchanged, whereas abundance and activation status of the profission protein Drp1 were increased in the diaphragm following MV. Overall, our results suggest that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities characterized by excessive fission-fragmentation represent early events during MV, which could potentially contribute to the rapid onset of mitochondrial dysfunction, maladaptive signaling, and associated contractile dysfunction of the diaphragm.

  4. Mitochondrial Abnormality Associates with Type-Specific Neuronal Loss and Cell Morphology Changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pienaar, Ilse S.; Elson, Joanna L.; Racca, Claudia; Nelson, Glyn; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Morris, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) associates with abnormal functions, including certain motor and nonmotor symptoms. This realization has led to low-frequency stimulation of the PPN for treating patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who are refractory to other treatment modalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PPN neuronal loss and the therapeutic substrate for the clinical benefits following PPN stimulation remain poorly characterized, hampering progress toward designing more efficient therapies aimed at restoring the PPN's normal functions during progressive parkinsonism. Here, we investigated postmortem pathological changes in the PPN of PD cases. Our study detected a loss of neurons producing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their output and glycinergic neurons, along with the pronounced loss of cholinergic neurons. These losses were accompanied by altered somatic cell size that affected the remaining neurons of all neuronal subtypes studied here. Because studies showed that mitochondrial dysfunction exists in sporadic PD and in PD animal models, we investigated whether altered mitochondrial composition exists in the PPN. A significant up-regulation of several mitochondrial proteins was seen in GABAergic and glycinergic neurons; however, cholinergic neurons indicated down-regulation of the same proteins. Our findings suggest an imbalance in the activity of key neuronal subgroups of the PPN in PD, potentially because of abnormal inhibitory activity and altered cholinergic outflow. PMID:24099985

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  7. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  8. Analysis of Mitochondrial Network Morphology in Cultured Myoblasts from Patients with Mitochondrial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sládková, J; Spáčilová, J; Čapek, M; Tesařová, M; Hansíková, H; Honzík, T; Martínek, J; Zámečník, J; Kostková, O; Zeman, J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphology was studied in cultivated myoblasts obtained from patients with mitochondrial disorders, including CPEO, MELAS and TMEM70 deficiency. Mitochondrial networks and ultrastructure were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. A heterogeneous picture of abnormally sized and shaped mitochondria with fragmentation, shortening, and aberrant cristae, lower density of mitochondria and an increased number of "megamitochondria" were found in patient myoblasts. Morphometric Fiji analyses revealed different mitochondrial network properties in myoblasts from patients and controls. The small number of cultivated myoblasts required for semiautomatic morphometric image analysis makes this tool useful for estimating mitochondrial disturbances in patients with mitochondrial disorders.

  9. Mitochondrial morphology-emerging role in bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Yoon, Yisang

    2012-12-15

    Dynamic change in mitochondrial shape is a cellular process mediated mainly by fission and fusion of mitochondria. Studies have shown that mitochondrial fission and fusion are directly and indirectly associated with mitochondrial maintenance, bioenergetic demand, and cell death. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are frequently observed in response to changes in the surrounding cellular milieu, such as metabolic flux, that influence cellular bioenergetics. Connections between morphological regulation and the bioenergetic status of mitochondria are emerging as reciprocally responsive processes, though the nature of the signaling remains to be defined. Given the pivotal role mitochondria play in cellular fate, tight regulation of fission and fusion is therefore critical to preserving normal cellular physiology. Here we describe recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms governing mitochondrial morphology and their emerging role in mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  10. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Wang, Xinglong

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the most early and prominent features in vulnerable neurons in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, a concept that has revolutionized our basic understanding of the regulation of mitochondrial structure and function which has far-reaching significance in studies of health and disease. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in mitochondrial dynamics in AD brain and models and the potential underlying mechanisms. This review highlights the recent work demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and distribution in AD models and discusses how these abnormalities may contribute to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:22531428

  11. The small GTPase Arf1 modulates mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Ackema, Karin B; Hench, Jürgen; Böckler, Stefan; Wang, Shyi Chyi; Sauder, Ursula; Mergentaler, Heidi; Westermann, Benedikt; Bard, Frédéric; Frank, Stephan; Spang, Anne

    2014-11-18

    The small GTPase Arf1 plays critical roles in membrane traffic by initiating the recruitment of coat proteins and by modulating the activity of lipid-modifying enzymes. Here, we report an unexpected but evolutionarily conserved role for Arf1 and the ArfGEF GBF1 at mitochondria. Loss of function of ARF-1 or GBF-1 impaired mitochondrial morphology and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similarly, mitochondrial defects were observed in mammalian and yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aberrant clusters of the mitofusin Fzo1 accumulated in arf1-11 mutants and were resolved by overexpression of Cdc48, an AAA-ATPase involved in ER and mitochondria-associated degradation processes. Yeast Arf1 co-fractionated with ER and mitochondrial membranes and interacted genetically with the contact site component Gem1. Furthermore, similar mitochondrial abnormalities resulted from knockdown of either GBF-1 or contact site components in worms, suggesting that the role of Arf1 in mitochondrial functioning is linked to ER-mitochondrial contacts. Thus, Arf1 is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and dynamics, independent of its role in vesicular traffic.

  12. Mitochondrial morphology is altered in atrophied skeletal muscle of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe; Picard, Martin; St-Jean Pelletier, Félix; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Auger, Marie-Joëlle; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; St-Pierre, David H; Gouspillou, Gilles

    2015-07-20

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Evidence suggests that accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in sarcopenia, which could be triggered by impaired mitophagy. Mitochondrial function, mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology are interconnected aspects of mitochondrial biology, and may coordinately be altered with aging. However, mitochondrial morphology has remained challenging to characterize in muscle, and whether sarcopenia is associated with abnormal mitochondrial morphology remains unknown. Therefore, we assessed the morphology of SubSarcolemmal (SS) and InterMyoFibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in skeletal muscle of young (8-12wk-old) and old (88-96wk-old) mice using a quantitative 2-dimensional transmission electron microscopy approach. We show that sarcopenia is associated with larger and less circular SS mitochondria. Likewise, aged IMF mitochondria were longer and more branched, suggesting increased fusion and/or decreased fission. Accordingly, although no difference in the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Drp1) was observed, a mitochondrial fusion index (Mfn2-to-Drp1 ratio) was significantly increased in aged muscles. Our results reveal that sarcopenia is associated with complex changes in mitochondrial morphology that could interfere with mitochondrial function and mitophagy, and thus contribute to aging-related accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia.

  13. Regulation and quantification of cellular mitochondrial morphology and content.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Karl J; Nooteboom, Marco; Nilsson, Linn I H; Nikolaisen, Julie; Sokolewicz, Maciek; Grefte, Sander; Pettersen, Ina K N; Dyrstad, Sissel; Hoel, Fredrik; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in signal transduction, redox homeostasis and cell survival, which extends far beyond their classical functioning in ATP production and energy metabolism. In living cells, mitochondrial content ("mitochondrial mass") depends on the cell-controlled balance between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation. These processes are intricately linked to changes in net mitochondrial morphology and spatiotemporal positioning ("mitochondrial dynamics"), which are governed by mitochondrial fusion, fission and motility. It is becoming increasingly clear that mitochondrial mass and dynamics, as well as its ultrastructure and volume, are mechanistically linked to mitochondrial function and the cell. This means that proper quantification of mitochondrial morphology and content is of prime importance in understanding mitochondrial and cellular physiology in health and disease. This review first presents how cellular mitochondrial content is regulated at the level of mitochondrial biogenesis, degradation and dynamics. Next we discuss how mitochondrial dynamics and content can be analyzed with a special emphasis on quantitative live-cell microscopy strategies.

  14. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS.

  15. Human Misato regulates mitochondrial distribution and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi . E-mail: yo@gifu-u.ac.jp; Okano, Yukio

    2007-04-15

    Misato of Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DML1 are conserved proteins having a homologous region with a part of the GTPase family that includes eukaryotic tubulin and prokaryotic FtsZ. We characterized human Misato sharing homology with Misato of D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae DML1. Tissue distribution of Misato exhibited ubiquitous distribution. Subcellular localization of the protein studied using anti-Misato antibody suggested that it is localized to the mitochondria. Further experiments of fractionating mitochondria revealed that Misato was localized to the outer membrane. The transfection of Misato siRNA led to growth deficiencies compared with control siRNA transfected HeLa cells, and the Misato-depleted HeLa cells showed apoptotic nuclear fragmentation resulting in cell death. After silencing of Misato, the filamentous mitochondrial network disappeared and fragmented mitochondria were observed, indicating human Misato has a role in mitochondrial fusion. To examine the effects of overexpression, COS-7 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding EGFP-Misato. Its overexpression resulted in the formation of perinuclear aggregations of mitochondria in these cells. The Misato-overexpressing cells showed low viability and had no nuclei or a small and structurally unusual ones. These results indicated that human Misato has a role(s) in mitochondrial distribution and morphology and that its unregulated expression leads to cell death.

  16. Human Misato regulates mitochondrial distribution and morphology.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masashi; Okano, Yukio

    2007-04-15

    Misato of Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DML1 are conserved proteins having a homologous region with a part of the GTPase family that includes eukaryotic tubulin and prokaryotic FtsZ. We characterized human Misato sharing homology with Misato of D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae DML1. Tissue distribution of Misato exhibited ubiquitous distribution. Subcellular localization of the protein studied using anti-Misato antibody suggested that it is localized to the mitochondria. Further experiments of fractionating mitochondria revealed that Misato was localized to the outer membrane. The transfection of Misato siRNA led to growth deficiencies compared with control siRNA transfected HeLa cells, and the Misato-depleted HeLa cells showed apoptotic nuclear fragmentation resulting in cell death. After silencing of Misato, the filamentous mitochondrial network disappeared and fragmented mitochondria were observed, indicating human Misato has a role in mitochondrial fusion. To examine the effects of overexpression, COS-7 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding EGFP-Misato. Its overexpression resulted in the formation of perinuclear aggregations of mitochondria in these cells. The Misato-overexpressing cells showed low viability and had no nuclei or a small and structurally unusual ones. These results indicated that human Misato has a role(s) in mitochondrial distribution and morphology and that its unregulated expression leads to cell death.

  17. Mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Linsey; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial shape as well as various mitochondrial functions and quality control. This is of particular interest in the beta-cell because of the key role mitochondria play in the regulation of beta-cell insulin secretion function. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes. Genetic tools that shift the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission result in alterations to beta-cell function and viability. Additionally, conditions that induce beta-cell dysfunction, such as exposure to a high nutrient environment, disrupt mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. While it has been shown that mitochondria display a fragmented morphology in islets of diabetic patients and animal models, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here, we review the current literature on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in the beta-cell as well as some of the unanswered question in this field.

  18. Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age.

    PubMed

    Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED.

  19. Mitochondrial morphological features are associated with fission and fusion events.

    PubMed

    Westrate, Laura M; Drocco, Jeffrey A; Martin, Katie R; Hlavacek, William S; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant remodeling through the regulation of two opposing processes, mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although several key regulators and physiological stimuli have been identified to control mitochondrial fission and fusion, the role of mitochondrial morphology in the two processes remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated whether morphological features extracted from time-lapse live-cell images of mitochondria could be used to predict mitochondrial fate. That is, we asked if we could predict whether a mitochondrion is likely to participate in a fission or fusion event based on its current shape and local environment. Using live-cell microscopy, image analysis software, and supervised machine learning, we characterized mitochondrial dynamics with single-organelle resolution to identify features of mitochondria that are predictive of fission and fusion events. A random forest (RF) model was trained to correctly classify mitochondria poised for either fission or fusion based on a series of morphological and positional features for each organelle. Of the features we evaluated, mitochondrial perimeter positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fission event. Similarly mitochondrial solidity (compact shape) positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fusion event. Our results indicate that fission and fusion are positively correlated with mitochondrial morphological features; and therefore, mitochondrial fission and fusion may be influenced by the mechanical properties of mitochondrial membranes.

  20. Kif5 regulates mitochondrial movement, morphology, function and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Iworima, Diepiriye G; Pasqualotto, Bryce A; Rintoul, Gordon L

    2016-04-01

    Due to the unique architecture of neurons, trafficking of mitochondria throughout processes to regions of high energetic demand is critical to sustain neuronal health. It has been suggested that compromised mitochondrial trafficking may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the consequences of disrupted kif5c-mediated mitochondrial trafficking on mitochondrial form and function in primary rat cortical neurons. Morphological changes in mitochondria appeared to be due to remodelling, a phenomenon distinct from mitochondrial fission, which resulted in punctate-shaped mitochondria. We also demonstrated that neurons displaying punctate mitochondria exhibited relatively decreased ROS and increased cellular ATP levels using ROS-sensitive GFP and ATP FRET probes, respectively. Somewhat unexpectedly, neurons overexpressing the dominant negative form of kif5c exhibited enhanced survival following excitotoxicity, suggesting that the impairment of mitochondrial trafficking conferred some form of neuroprotection. However, when neurons were exposed to H2O2, disruption of kif5c exacerbated cell death indicating that the effect on cell viability was dependent on the mode of toxicity. Our results suggest a novel role of kif5c. In addition to mediating mitochondrial transport, kif5c plays a role in the mechanism of regulating mitochondrial morphology. Our results also suggest that kif5c mediated mitochondrial dynamics may play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function and in turn cellular health. Moreover, our studies demonstrate an interesting interplay between the regulation of mitochondrial motility and morphology.

  1. COX assembly factor ccdc56 regulates mitochondrial morphology by affecting mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1.

    PubMed

    Ban-Ishihara, Reiko; Tomohiro-Takamiya, Shiho; Tani, Motohiro; Baudier, Jacques; Ishihara, Naotada; Kuge, Osamu

    2015-10-07

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that alter their morphology in response to cellular signaling and differentiation through balanced fusion and fission. In this study, we found that the mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase ATAD3A interacted with ccdc56/MITRAC12/COA3, a subunit of the cytochrome oxidase (COX)-assembly complex. Overproduction of ccdc56 in HeLa cells resulted in fragmented mitochondrial morphology, while mitochondria were highly elongated in ccdc56-repressed cells by the defective recruitment of the fission factor Drp1. We also found that mild and chronic inhibition of COX led to mitochondrial elongation, as seen in ccdc56-repressed cells. These results indicate that ccdc56 positively regulates mitochondrial fission via regulation of COX activity and the mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, and thus, suggest a novel relationship between COX assembly and mitochondrial morphology.

  2. Maintenance of mitochondrial morphology is linked to maintenance of the mitochondrial genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hanekamp, Theodor; Thorsness, Mary K; Rebbapragada, Indrani; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Seebart, Corrine; Darland, Monica R; Coxbill, Jennifer A; Updike, Dustin L; Thorsness, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, certain mutant alleles of YME4, YME6, and MDM10 cause an increased rate of mitochondrial DNA migration to the nucleus, carbon-source-dependent alterations in mitochondrial morphology, and increased rates of mitochondrial DNA loss. While single mutants grow on media requiring mitochondrial respiration, any pairwise combination of these mutations causes a respiratory-deficient phenotype. This double-mutant phenotype allowed cloning of YME6, which is identical to MMM1 and encodes an outer mitochondrial membrane protein essential for maintaining normal mitochondrial morphology. Yeast strains bearing null mutations of MMM1 have altered mitochondrial morphology and a slow growth rate on all carbon sources and quantitatively lack mitochondrial DNA. Extragenic suppressors of MMM1 deletion mutants partially restore mitochondrial morphology to the wild-type state and have a corresponding increase in growth rate and mitochondrial DNA stability. A dominant suppressor also suppresses the phenotypes caused by a point mutation in MMM1, as well as by specific mutations in YME4 and MDM10. PMID:12454062

  3. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhou, Zehua; Zheng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Guiying; Bu, Guojun; Fraser, Paul E; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by fusion and fission machinery. Impaired mitochondria dynamics cause various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Appoptosin (encoded by SLC25A38) is a mitochondrial carrier protein that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Appoptosin overexpression causes overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas appoptosin downregulation abolishes β-amyloid-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal death during Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we found that overexpression of appoptosin resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in a manner independent of its carrier function, ROS production or caspase activation. Although appoptosin did not affect levels of mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion (MFN1 and MFN2), inner-membrane fusion (OPA1) and fission [DRP1 (also known as DNM1L) and FIS1] proteins, appoptosin interacted with MFN1 and MFN2, as well as with the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCH5) but not OPA1, FIS1 or DRP1. Appoptosin overexpression impaired the interaction between MFN1 and MFN2, and mitochondrial fusion. By contrast, co-expression of MFN1, MITOL and a dominant-negative form of DRP1, DRP1(K38A), partially rescued appoptosin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, whereas co-expression of FIS1 aggravated appoptosin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that appoptosin can interact with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

  4. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Manczak, Maria; Mao, Peizhong; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria causes synaptic mitochondrial failure and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of Aβ in mitochondrial activity and synaptic alterations in neurons from a mouse model of AD. Using primary neurons from a well-characterized Aβ precursor protein transgenic (AβPP) mouse model (Tg2576 mouse line), for the first time, we studied mitochondrial activity, including axonal transport of mitochondria, mitochondrial dynamics, morphology and function. Further, we also studied the nature of Aβ-induced synaptic alterations, and cell death in primary neurons from Tg2576 mice, and we sought to determine whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 could mitigate the effects of oligomeric Aβ. We found significantly decreased anterograde mitochondrial movement, increased mitochondrial fission and decreased fusion, abnormal mitochondrial and synaptic proteins and defective mitochondrial function in primary neurons from AβPP mice compared with wild-type (WT) neurons. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a large number of small mitochondria and structurally damaged mitochondria, with broken cristae in AβPP primary neurons. We also found an increased accumulation of oligomeric Aβ and increased apoptotic neuronal death in the primary neurons from the AβPP mice relative to the WT neurons. Our results revealed an accumulation of intraneuronal oligomeric Aβ, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies, and ultimately causing neurodegeneration in AβPP cultures. However, we found that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 restored mitochondrial transport and synaptic viability, and decreased the percentage of defective mitochondria, indicating that SS31 protects mitochondria and synapses from Aβ toxicity.

  5. Reincarnation in cultured muscle of mitochondrial abnormalities. Two patients with epilepsy and lactic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Britton, D E; Adornato, B T; Eiben, R M

    1978-12-01

    Two unrelated 9-year-old boys failed to thrive from ages 5 and 4 years, and had focal cerebral seizures followed by transcent hemipareses. Histochemistry of their muscle biopsies showed "ragged-red" fibers, which ultrastructurally contained clusters of mitochondria having loss of crisp delineation of crista membranes and contained amorphous inclusion material and parallel-packed cristae and sometimes paracrystalline inclusions. In the patients' cultured muscles, similar mitochondrial abnormalities were present. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, introduced to the medium of cultures of normal human muscle, produced mitochondrial abnormalities similar to those of the patients', and the medium of the patients' muscle cultures worsened the mitochondrial abnormalities. This study, in demonstrating a mitochondrial defect reproducible in the cultured muscle fibers and, therefore, intrinsic to the ragged-red muscle fibers themselves, raises the possibility of a collateral mitochondrial defect in CNS cells as part of a multicellular mitochondriopathy.

  6. Fully automated software for quantitative measurements of mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    McClatchey, P Mason; Keller, Amy C; Bouchard, Ron; Knaub, Leslie A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo dynamic changes in morphology in order to adapt to changes in nutrient and oxygen availability, communicate with the nucleus, and modulate intracellular calcium dynamics. Many recent papers have been published assessing mitochondrial morphology endpoints. Although these studies have yielded valuable insights, contemporary assessment of mitochondrial morphology is typically subjective and qualitative, precluding direct comparison of outcomes between different studies and likely missing many subtle effects. In this paper, we describe a novel software technique for measuring the average length, average width, spatial density, and intracellular localization of mitochondria from a fluorescent microscope image. This method was applied to distinguish baseline characteristics of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs), primary Goto-Kakizaki rat aortic smooth muscle cells (GK SMCs), primary Wistar rat aortic smooth muscle cells (Wistar SMCs), and SH-SY5Ys (human neuroblastoma cell line). Consistent with direct observation, our algorithms found SH-SY5Ys to have the greatest mitochondrial density, while HUVECs were found to have the longest mitochondria. Mitochondrial morphology responses to temperature, nutrient, and oxidative stressors were characterized to test algorithm performance. Large morphology changes recorded by the software agreed with direct observation, and subtle but consistent morphology changes were found that would not otherwise have been detected. Endpoints were consistent between experimental repetitions (R=0.93 for length, R=0.93 for width, R=0.89 for spatial density, and R=0.74 for localization), and maintained reasonable agreement even when compared to images taken with compromised microscope resolution or in an alternate imaging plane. These results indicate that the automated software described herein allows quantitative and objective characterization of mitochondrial morphology from fluorescent microscope images.

  7. Age-dependent changes in mitochondrial morphology and volume are not predictors of lifespan.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Saroj G; Rolland, Stéphane G; Conradt, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of skeletal muscle degeneration during aging. One mechanism through which mitochondrial dysfunction can be caused is through changes in mitochondrial morphology. To determine the role of mitochondrial morphology changes in age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, we studied mitochondrial morphology in body wall muscles of the nematodeC. elegans. We found that in this tissue, animals display a tubular mitochondrial network, which fragments with increasing age. This fragmentation is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial volume. Mitochondrial fragmentation and volume loss occur faster under conditions that shorten lifespan and occur slower under conditions that increase lifespan. However, neither mitochondrial morphology nor mitochondrial volume of five- and seven-day old wild-type animals can be used to predict individual lifespan. Our results indicate that while mitochondria in body wall muscles undergo age-dependent fragmentation and a loss in volume, these changes are not the cause of aging but rather a consequence of the aging process.

  8. Early degenerative changes in transgenic mice expressing mutant huntingtin involve dendritic abnormalities but no impairment of mitochondrial energy production.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, P; Charles, V; Chen, E Y; Reddy, P H; Kordower, J H; Whetsell, W O; Schwarcz, R; Tagle, D A

    2001-06-01

    Mitochondrial defects, which occur in the brain of late-stage Huntington's disease (HD) patients, have been proposed to underlie the selective neuronal loss in the disease. To shed light on the possible role of mitochondrial energy impairment in the early phases of HD pathophysiology, we carried out Golgi impregnation and quantitative histochemical/biochemical studies in HD full-length cDNA transgenic mice that were symptomatic but had not developed to a stage in which neuronal loss could be documented. Golgi staining showed morphologic abnormalities that included a significant decrease in the number of dendritic spines and a thickening of proximal dendrites in striatal and cortical neurons. In contrast, measurements of mitochondrial electron transport Complexes I-IV did not reveal changes in the striatum and cerebral cortex in these mice. Examination of the neostriatum and cerebral cortex in human presymptomatic and pathological Grade 1 HD cases also showed no change in the activity of mitochondrial Complexes I-IV. These data suggest that dendritic alterations precede irreversible cell loss in HD, and that mitochondrial energy impairment is a consequence, rather than a cause, of early neuropathological changes.

  9. Mutations in the SPTLC1 protein cause mitochondrial structural abnormalities and endoplasmic reticulum stress in lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Myers, Simon J; Malladi, Chandra S; Hyland, Ryan A; Bautista, Tara; Boadle, Ross; Robinson, Phillip J; Nicholson, Garth A

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) cause the typical length-dependent axonal degeneration hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN1). Transmission electron microscopy studies on SPTLC1 mutant lymphoblasts derived from patients revealed specific structural abnormalities of mitochondria. Swollen mitochondria with abnormal cristae were clustered around the nucleus, with some mitochondria being wrapped in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Total mitochondrial counts revealed a significant change in mitochondrial numbers between healthy and diseased lymphocytes but did not reveal any change in length to width ratios nor were there any changes to cellular function. However, there was a notable change in ER homeostasis, as assessed using key ER stress markers, BiP and ERO1-Lα, displaying reduced protein expression. The observations suggest that SPTLC1 mutations cause mitochondrial abnormalities and ER stress in HSN1 cells.

  10. Melatonin prevents abnormal mitochondrial dynamics resulting from the neurotoxicity of cadmium by blocking calcium-dependent translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Nixian; Li, YuMing; Zhang, Huiliang; Tang, Ju; Li, Huijuan; Feng, Min; Deng, Ping; Guo, Pan; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Wang; Reiter, Russel J; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental toxin and occupational pollutant that is considered to be a potential risk factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics are increasingly implicated in mitochondrial damage in various neurological pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics contributed to Cd-induced neurotoxicity and whether melatonin has any neuroprotective properties. After cortical neurons were exposed to 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr), the morphology of their mitochondria significantly changed from the normal tubular networks into punctuated structures within 3 hr. Following this pronounced mitochondrial fragmentation, Cd treatment led to signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased ATP content, and mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) loss. However, 1 mM melatonin pretreatment efficiently attenuated the Cd-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which improved the turnover of mitochondrial function. In the brain tissues of rats that were intraperitoneally given 1 mg/kg CdCl2 for 7 days, melatonin also ameliorated excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial damage in vivo. Melatonin's protective effects were attributed to its roles in preventing cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload, which blocked the recruitment of Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is involved in cadmium-induced neurotoxicity. Melatonin has significant pharmacological potential in protecting against the neurotoxicity of Cd by blocking the disbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission.

  11. CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

  12. Multi-parametric analysis and modeling of relationships between mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Yara; Bernardo-Faura, Marti; Richter, Daniela; Wolf, Thomas; Brors, Benedikt; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Eils, Roland; Brady, Nathan R

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria exist as a network of interconnected organelles undergoing constant fission and fusion. Current approaches to study mitochondrial morphology are limited by low data sampling coupled with manual identification and classification of complex morphological phenotypes. Here we propose an integrated mechanistic and data-driven modeling approach to analyze heterogeneous, quantified datasets and infer relations between mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic events. We initially performed high-content, multi-parametric measurements of mitochondrial morphological, apoptotic, and energetic states by high-resolution imaging of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Subsequently, decision tree-based analysis was used to automatically classify networked, fragmented, and swollen mitochondrial subpopulations, at the single-cell level and within cell populations. Our results revealed subtle but significant differences in morphology class distributions in response to various apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, key mitochondrial functional parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential and Bax activation, were measured under matched conditions. Data-driven fuzzy logic modeling was used to explore the non-linear relationships between mitochondrial morphology and apoptotic signaling, combining morphological and functional data as a single model. Modeling results are in accordance with previous studies, where Bax regulates mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial morphology influences mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, we established and validated a platform for mitochondrial morphological and functional analysis that can be readily extended with additional datasets. We further discuss the benefits of a flexible systematic approach for elucidating specific and general relationships between mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis.

  13. Mitochondrial outer membrane proteome of Trypanosoma brucei reveals novel factors required to maintain mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei.

  14. Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Loss Underlie Memory Deficits Seen in Mouse Models of Obesity and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Isaura V.A.; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired memory in humans, and obesity induced by high-fat diets leads to cognitive deficits in rodents and in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how high-fat diets contribute to memory impairment. Therefore, we tested the effect of a high-fat diet on memory in male and female control non-transgenic (Non-Tg) and triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mice and determined if a high-fat diet caused similar ultrastructural abnormalities to those observed in AD. Behavior was assessed in mice on control or high-fat diet at 4, 8, or 14 months of age and ultrastructural analysis at 8 months of age. A high-fat diet increased body weight, fat weight, and insulin levels with some differences in these metabolic responses observed between Non-Tg and 3xTgAD mice. In both sexes, high-fat feeding caused memory impairments in Non-Tg mice and accelerated memory deficits in 3xTgAD mice. In 3xTgAD mice, changes in hippocampal mitochondrial morphology were observed in capillaries and brain neuropil that were accompanied by a reduction in synapse number. A high-fat diet also caused mitochondria abnormalities and a reduction in synapse number in Non-Tg mice, but did not exacerbate the changes seen in 3xTgAD mice. Our data demonstrate that a high-fat diet affected memory in Non-Tg mice and produced similar impairments in mitochondrial morphology and synapse number comparable to those seen in AD mice, suggesting that the detrimental effects of a high-fat diet on memory might be due to changes in mitochondrial morphology leading to a reduction in synaptic number. PMID:27802235

  15. Modulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1

    SciTech Connect

    Kieper, Nicole; Holmstroem, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Wolburg, Hartwig; Ziviani, Elena; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Kahle, Philipp J.; Krueger, Rejko

    2010-04-15

    Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Morphology of the adrenal medulla indicating multiple neuroectodermal abnormalities in pheochromocytoma patients.

    PubMed

    Jansson, S; Tisell, L E; Hansson, G

    1988-01-01

    25 of 85 (29.4%) consecutive patients operated on for pheochromocytoma had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. Medullary thyroid carcinoma was the most common associated neuroectodermal abnormality followed by von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. Other abnormalities were intracranial tumors, parathyroid hyperplasia and midgut carcinoid. The adrenal medulla was studied to find out morphological characteristics in patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities. All patients with multiple pheochromocytomas (n = 7) and all patients with hyperplasia of the extratumoral adrenal medulla (n = 13) had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. It is important to detect the associated neuroectodermal abnormalities because they can be lethal. Patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities often have hereditary syndromes.

  17. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  18. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial loss and mutant huntingtin oligomers in Huntington's disease: implications for selective neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Reddy, Arubala P.; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J.; Mao, Peizhong; Tagle, Danilo A.; Hemachandra Reddy, P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondrial dynamics in the progression of Huntington's disease (HD). We measured the mRNA levels of electron transport chain genes, and mitochondrial structural genes, Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), Fis1 (fission 1), Mfn1 (mitofusin 1), Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), Opa1 (optric atrophy 1), Tomm40 (translocase of outermembrane 40) and CypD (cyclophilin D) in grade III and grade IV HD patients and controls. The mutant Htt oligomers and the mitochondrial structural proteins were quantified in the striatum and frontal cortex of HD patients. Changes in expressions of the electron transport chain genes were found in HD patients and may represent a compensatory response to mitochondrial damage caused by mutant Htt. Increased expression of Drp1 and Fis1 and decreased expression of Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Tomm40 were found in HD patients relative to the controls. CypD was upregulated in HD patients, and this upregulation increased as HD progressed. Significantly increased immunoreactivity of 8-hydroxy-guanosine was found in the cortical specimens from stage III and IV HD patients relative to controls, suggesting increased oxidative DNA damage in HD patients. In contrast, significantly decreased immunoreactivities of cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b were found in HD patients relative to controls, indicating a loss of mitochondrial function in HD patients. Immunoblotting analysis revealed 15, 25 and 50 kDa mutant Htt oligomers in the brain specimens of HD patients. All oligomeric forms of mutant Htt were significantly increased in the cortical tissues of HD patients, and mutant Htt oligomers were found in the nucleus and in mitochondria. The increase in Drp1, Fis1 and CypD and the decrease in Mfn1 and Mfn2 may be responsible for abnormal mitochondrial dynamics that we found in the cortex of HD patients, and may contribute to neuronal damage in HD patients. The presence of mutant Htt

  19. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial loss and mutant huntingtin oligomers in Huntington's disease: implications for selective neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Reddy, Arubala P; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J; Mao, Peizhong; Tagle, Danilo A; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondrial dynamics in the progression of Huntington's disease (HD). We measured the mRNA levels of electron transport chain genes, and mitochondrial structural genes, Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), Fis1 (fission 1), Mfn1 (mitofusin 1), Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), Opa1 (optric atrophy 1), Tomm40 (translocase of outermembrane 40) and CypD (cyclophilin D) in grade III and grade IV HD patients and controls. The mutant Htt oligomers and the mitochondrial structural proteins were quantified in the striatum and frontal cortex of HD patients. Changes in expressions of the electron transport chain genes were found in HD patients and may represent a compensatory response to mitochondrial damage caused by mutant Htt. Increased expression of Drp1 and Fis1 and decreased expression of Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Tomm40 were found in HD patients relative to the controls. CypD was upregulated in HD patients, and this upregulation increased as HD progressed. Significantly increased immunoreactivity of 8-hydroxy-guanosine was found in the cortical specimens from stage III and IV HD patients relative to controls, suggesting increased oxidative DNA damage in HD patients. In contrast, significantly decreased immunoreactivities of cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b were found in HD patients relative to controls, indicating a loss of mitochondrial function in HD patients. Immunoblotting analysis revealed 15, 25 and 50 kDa mutant Htt oligomers in the brain specimens of HD patients. All oligomeric forms of mutant Htt were significantly increased in the cortical tissues of HD patients, and mutant Htt oligomers were found in the nucleus and in mitochondria. The increase in Drp1, Fis1 and CypD and the decrease in Mfn1 and Mfn2 may be responsible for abnormal mitochondrial dynamics that we found in the cortex of HD patients, and may contribute to neuronal damage in HD patients. The presence of mutant Htt

  20. Morphological and functional abnormalities in mitochondria associated with synaptic degeneration in prion disease.

    PubMed

    Sisková, Zuzana; Mahad, Don Joseph; Pudney, Carianne; Campbell, Graham; Cadogan, Mark; Asuni, Ayodeji; O'Connor, Vincent; Perry, Victor Hugh

    2010-09-01

    Synaptic and dendritic pathology is a well-documented component of prion disease. In common with other neurodegenerative diseases that contain an element of protein misfolding, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of synaptic degeneration. In particular, in prion disease the relationship between synaptic malfunction, degeneration, and mitochondria has been neglected. We investigated a wide range of mitochondrial parameters, including changes in mitochondrial density, inner membrane ultrastructure, functional properties and nature of mitochondrial DNA from hippocampal tissue of mice with prion disease, which have ongoing synaptic pathology. Our results indicate that despite a lack of detectable changes in either mitochondrial density or expression of the mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial function was impaired when compared with age-matched control animals. We observed changes in mitochondrial inner membrane morphology and a reduction in the cytochrome c oxidase activity relative to a sustained level of mitochondrial proteins such as porin and individual, functionally important subunits of complex II and complex IV. These data support the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to occur due to inhibition or modification of respiratory complex rather than deletions of mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, these changes were seen in the stratum radiatum where synaptic pathology is readily detected, indicating that mitochondrial function is impaired and could potentially contribute to or even initiate the synaptic pathology in prion disease.

  1. Abnormalities of mitochondrial functioning can partly explain the metabolic disorders encountered in sarcopenic gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Mosoni, Laurent; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Oudot, Alexandra; Fontaine, Eric; Vergely, Catherine; Keriel, Christiane; Rochette, Luc; Leverve, Xavier; Demaison, Luc

    2007-04-01

    Aging triggers several abnormalities in muscle glycolytic fibers including increased proteolysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis. Since the mitochondria are the main site of substrate oxidation, ROS production and programmed cell death, we tried to know whether the cellular disorders encountered in sarcopenia are due to abnormal mitochondrial functioning. Gastrocnemius mitochondria were extracted from adult (6 months) and aged (21 months) male Wistar rats. Respiration parameters, opening of the permeability transition pore and ROS production, with either glutamate (amino acid metabolism) or pyruvate (glucose metabolism) as a respiration substrate, were evaluated at different matrix calcium concentrations. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and respiratory complex activities as well as their contents measured by Western blotting analysis were determined. Furthermore, the fatty acid profile of mitochondrial phospholipids was also measured. At physiological calcium concentration, state III respiration rate was lowered by aging in pyruvate conditions (-22%), but not with glutamate. The reduction of pyruvate oxidation resulted from a calcium-dependent inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system and could provide for the well-known proteolysis encountered during sarcopenia. Matrix calcium loading and aging increased ROS production. They also reduced the oxidative phosphorylation. This was associated with lower calcium retention capacities, suggesting that sarcopenic fibers are more prone to programmed cell death. Aging was also associated with a reduced mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, which does not intervene in toxic ROS overproduction but could explain the lower calcium retention capacities. Despite a lower content, cytochrome c oxidase displayed an increased activity associated with an increased n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of mitochondrial phospholipids. In conclusion, we propose that mitochondria obtained from aged muscle

  2. Inhibition of NAPDH Oxidase 2 (NOX2) Prevents Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Abnormalities Caused by Saturated Fat in Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leroy C; Barca, Emanuele; Subramanyam, Prakash; Komrowski, Michael; Pajvani, Utpal; Colecraft, Henry M; Hirano, Michio; Morrow, John P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity.

  3. Geranylgeraniol and Neurological Impairment: Involvement of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Zweyer, Marina; Bortul, Roberta; Loganes, Claudia; Girardelli, Martina; Baj, Gabriele; Monasta, Lorenzo; Celeghini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the cholesterol pathway is an anomaly observed in human diseases, many of which have in common neurological involvement and unknown pathogenesis. In this study we have used Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) as a disease-model in order to investigate the link between the deregulation of the mevalonate pathway and the consequent neurodegeneration. The blocking of the mevalonate pathway in a neuronal cell line (Daoy), using statins or mevalonate, induced an increase in the expression of the inflammasome gene (NLRP3) and programmed cell death related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The morphology of the mitochondria changed, clearly showing the damage induced by oxidative stress and the decreased membrane potential associated with the alterations of the mitochondrial function. The co-administration of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) reduced the inflammatory marker and the damage of the mitochondria, maintaining its shape and components. Our data allow us to speculate about the mechanism by which isoprenoids are able to rescue the inflammatory marker in neuronal cells, independently from the block of the mevalonate pathway, and about the fact that cell death is mitochondria-related. PMID:26978350

  4. Geranylgeraniol and Neurological Impairment: Involvement of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Morphology.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Zweyer, Marina; Bortul, Roberta; Loganes, Claudia; Girardelli, Martina; Baj, Gabriele; Monasta, Lorenzo; Celeghini, Claudio

    2016-03-11

    Deregulation of the cholesterol pathway is an anomaly observed in human diseases, many of which have in common neurological involvement and unknown pathogenesis. In this study we have used Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) as a disease-model in order to investigate the link between the deregulation of the mevalonate pathway and the consequent neurodegeneration. The blocking of the mevalonate pathway in a neuronal cell line (Daoy), using statins or mevalonate, induced an increase in the expression of the inflammasome gene (NLRP3) and programmed cell death related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The morphology of the mitochondria changed, clearly showing the damage induced by oxidative stress and the decreased membrane potential associated with the alterations of the mitochondrial function. The co-administration of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) reduced the inflammatory marker and the damage of the mitochondria, maintaining its shape and components. Our data allow us to speculate about the mechanism by which isoprenoids are able to rescue the inflammatory marker in neuronal cells, independently from the block of the mevalonate pathway, and about the fact that cell death is mitochondria-related.

  5. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  6. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options.

  7. A free energy model for observed morphology of mitochondrial cristae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljon, Arlette; Ghochani, Mariam; Nulton, Jim; Salamon, Peter; Frey, Terrence; Rabinovitch, Avinoam

    2010-03-01

    Electron tomograms have revealed that in normal mitochondria the inner membrane self-assembles into a complex structure that contains both tubular and flat lamellar cristae components. This structure, which contains one matrix compartment, is believed to be essential to the proper functioning of mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell. It was indeed observed that the morphology is lost during programmed cell death - the mitochondrial inner membrane transforms into multiple vesicular matrix compartments. We have been able to construct a model in which the observed morphology can be obtained by minimizing the system's free energy. The model assumes that mechanical forces act on the membrane, which we believe to be exerted by proteins. In order to test the model, we measured the structural features of mitochondria in HeLa cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts using 3D electron tomography. Data obtained from different mitochondria show excellent agreement. The model predicts that the crista membrane structure of healthy mitochondria is stabilized by tensile forces of the order of 10 pN, comparable to those typical of motor proteins. The model also predicts reasonable values for the pressure difference across and the surface tension of crista membranes.

  8. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    PubMed

    Luz, Anthony L; Rooney, John P; Kubik, Laura L; Gonzalez, Claudia P; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  9. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Anthony L.; Rooney, John P.; Kubik, Laura L.; Gonzalez, Claudia P.; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes. PMID:26106885

  10. Extreme developmental temperatures result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.

    PubMed

    Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-06-01

    Increases in extreme environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of extreme cold nest temperatures on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from extreme heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on extreme nest temperatures and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of extreme hot nest temperatures, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles.

  11. Pim-1 preserves mitochondrial morphology by inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1 translocation.

    PubMed

    Din, Shabana; Mason, Matthew; Völkers, Mirko; Johnson, Bevan; Cottage, Christopher T; Wang, Zeping; Joyo, Anya Y; Quijada, Pearl; Erhardt, Peter; Magnuson, Nancy S; Konstandin, Mathias H; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-04-09

    Mitochondrial morphological dynamics affect the outcome of ischemic heart damage and pathogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has been identified as a mediator of mitochondrial morphological changes and cell death during cardiac ischemic injury. In this study, we report a unique relationship between Pim-1 activity and Drp1 regulation of mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes challenged by ischemic stress. Transgenic hearts overexpressing cardiac Pim-1 display reduction of total Drp1 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of Drp1-(S637), and inhibition of Drp1 localization to the mitochondria. Consistent with these findings, adenoviral-induced Pim-1 neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) retain a reticular mitochondrial phenotype after simulated ischemia (sI) and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial sequestration. Interestingly, adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs show increased expression of Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only protein p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), which has been previously shown to induce Drp1 accumulation at mitochondria and increase sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Overexpression of the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis-dominant negative adenovirus attenuates localization of Drp1 to mitochondria in adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs promotes reticular mitochondrial morphology and inhibits cell death during sI. Therefore, Pim-1 activity prevents Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria and preserves reticular mitochondrial morphology in response to sI.

  12. Mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in Triticum aestivum roots in response to rotenone and antimycin A.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Daniya; Ponomareva, Anastasiya; Gazizova, Natalia; Minibayeva, Farida

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable of fusion and fission as a part of cellular responses to various signals, such as the shifts in the redox status of a cell. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) is involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with complexes I and III contributing the most to this process. Disruptions of ETC. can lead to increased ROS generation. Here, we demonstrate the appearance of giant mitochondria in wheat roots in response to simultaneous application of the respiratory inhibitors rotenone (complex I of mitochondrial ETC.) and antimycin A (complex III of mitochondrial ETC.). The existence of such megamitochondria was temporary, and following longer treatment with inhibitors mitochondria resumed their conventional size and oval shape. Changes in mitochondrial morphology were accompanied with a decrease in mitochondrial potential and an unexpected increase in oxygen consumption. Changes in mitochondrial morphology and activity may result from the fusion and fission of mitochondria induced by the disruption of mitochondrial ETC. Results from experiments with the inhibitor of mitochondrial fission Mdivi-1 suggest that the retarded fission may facilitate plant mitochondria to appear in a fused shape. The processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission are involved in the regulation of the efficacy of the functions of the respiratory chain complexes and ROS metabolism during stresses. The changes in morphology of mitochondria, along with the changes in their functional activity, can be a part of the strategy of the plant adaptation to stresses.

  13. Mutant huntingtin, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, and selective synaptic degeneration in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P

    2012-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the HD gene. HD is characterized by chorea, seizures, involuntary movements, dystonia, cognitive decline, intellectual impairment and emotional disturbances. Research into mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondria has found that mutant Htt interacts with the mitochondrial protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), enhances GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity, and causes excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal distribution, leading to defective axonal transport of mitochondria and selective synaptic degeneration. This article summarizes latest developments in HD research and focuses on the role of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and defective axonal transport in HD neurons. This article also discusses the therapeutic strategies that decrease mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal damage in HD.

  14. Abnormal aortic arch morphology in Turner syndrome patients is a risk factor for hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Devos, Daniël; Van Herck, Koen; Demulier, Laurent; Buysse, Wesley; De Schepper, Jean; De Wolf, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.

  15. Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-11-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and optic nerve head was studied in primate eyes after central retinal artery occlusion. Within 2 hours of the vascular occlusion the inner retinal layers undergo watery (isosmotic) swelling. This watery swelling of axons and astroglia extends into the nerve head as far back as the anterior boundary of the scleral lamina cribrosa. The swelling is increased 4 hours after the occlusion, and by 24 hours disintegration has occurred. At the optic nerve head mitochondria and vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum begin to accumulate within 2 hours. The accumulation increases at 4 hours and persists to 24 hours. The watery swelling seems characteristic of ischaemic axons. Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via the healthy axon segment to the boundary, but they cannot proceed further into the ischaemic zone. Such accumulation is typical of locations where rapid orthograde axonal transport or retrograde axonal transport is blocked. In contrast, when slow axonal flow is impaired, the swelling is characterised by an excess of cytoplasmic gel without a marked accumulation of organelles. Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems fundamentally different. From morphological findings we suspect that, in experimental glaucoma, intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport. Watery swelling may not occur unless the ischaemic injury to cell metabolism is more advanced. In contrast, in experimental papilloedema, the swelling results predominantly from impaired slow axoplasmic flow.

  16. Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and optic nerve head was studied in primate eyes after central retinal artery occlusion. Within 2 hours of the vascular occlusion the inner retinal layers undergo watery (isosmotic) swelling. This watery swelling of axons and astroglia extends into the nerve head as far back as the anterior boundary of the scleral lamina cribrosa. The swelling is increased 4 hours after the occlusion, and by 24 hours disintegration has occurred. At the optic nerve head mitochondria and vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum begin to accumulate within 2 hours. The accumulation increases at 4 hours and persists to 24 hours. The watery swelling seems characteristic of ischaemic axons. Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via the healthy axon segment to the boundary, but they cannot proceed further into the ischaemic zone. Such accumulation is typical of locations where rapid orthograde axonal transport or retrograde axonal transport is blocked. In contrast, when slow axonal flow is impaired, the swelling is characterised by an excess of cytoplasmic gel without a marked accumulation of organelles. Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems fundamentally different. From morphological findings we suspect that, in experimental glaucoma, intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport. Watery swelling may not occur unless the ischaemic injury to cell metabolism is more advanced. In contrast, in experimental papilloedema, the swelling results predominantly from impaired slow axoplasmic flow. Images PMID:6173060

  17. [Morphological abnormalities among the offspring of irradiated pines (pinus sylvestris L.) from chernobyl populations].

    PubMed

    Igonina, E V; Fedotov, I S; Korotkevich, A Iu; Rubanovich, A V

    2012-01-01

    The significant changes of the quantitative signs and the increase in the frequency of morphological abnormalities were found among the offspring of pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident. We have detected that the typical effects of radiation exposure (stimulation, inhibition, abnormalities of morphogenesis) are transmitted to the offspring of irradiated pine trees. The mechanisms of their occurrence are discussed.

  18. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration as early events in Alzheimer's disease: implications to mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Tripathi, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Tirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P; Calkins, Marcus J; Reddy, Arubala P; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria

    2012-05-01

    Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are early events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlates of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid beta (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.

  19. Progressive dopaminergic alterations and mitochondrial abnormalities in LRRK2 G2019S knock in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, M.; Hinkle, K.; Davies, P.; Trushina, E.; Fiesel, F.; Christenson, T.; Schroeder, A.; Zhang, L.; Bowles, E.; Behrouz, B.; Lincoln, S.; Beevers, J.; Milnerwood, A.; Kurti, A.; McLean, P. J.; Fryer, J. D.; Springer, W.; Dickson, D.; Farrer, M.; Melrose, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most common genetic cause of late onset Parkinson’s disease. The physiological and pathological roles of LRRK2 are yet to be fully determined but evidence points towards LRRK2 mutations causing a gain in kinase function, impacting on neuronal maintenance, vesicular dynamics and neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of physiological levels of mutant LRRK2, we created knock in mice harboring the most common LRRK2 mutation G2019S in their own genome. We have performed comprehensive dopaminergic, behavioral and neuropathological analyses in this model up to 24 months of age. We find elevated kinase activity in the brain of both heterozygous and homozygous mice. Although normal at 6 months, by 12 months of age, basal and pharmacologically induced extracellular release of dopamine is impaired in both heterozygous and homozygous mice, corroborating previous findings in transgenic models over-expressing mutant LRRK2. Via in vivo microdialysis measurement of basal and drug- evoked extracellular release of dopamine and its metabolites, our findings indicate that exocytotic release from the vesicular pool is impaired. Furthermore, profound mitochondrial abnormalities are evident in the striatum of older homozygous G2019S mice, which are consistent with mitochondrial fission arrest. We anticipate the G2019S will be a useful pre-clinical model for further evaluation of early mechanistic events in LRRK2 pathogenesis and for second-hit approaches to model disease progression. PMID:25836420

  20. Phosphatidylethanolamine deficiency in Mammalian mitochondria impairs oxidative phosphorylation and alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Tasseva, Guergana; Bai, Helin Daniel; Davidescu, Magdalena; Haromy, Alois; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vance, Jean E

    2013-02-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, but the role of phospholipids, particularly the nonbilayer-forming lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in mitochondrial function is poorly understood. Elimination of mitochondrial PE (mtPE) synthesis via phosphatidylserine decarboxylase in mice profoundly alters mitochondrial morphology and is embryonic lethal (Steenbergen, R., Nanowski, T. S., Beigneux, A., Kulinski, A., Young, S. G., and Vance, J. E. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 40032-40040). We now report that moderate <30% depletion of mtPE alters mitochondrial morphology and function and impairs cell growth. Acute reduction of mtPE by RNAi silencing of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase and chronic reduction of mtPE in PSB-2 cells that have only 5% of normal phosphatidylserine synthesis decreased respiratory capacity, ATP production, and activities of electron transport chain complexes (C) I and CIV but not CV. Blue native-PAGE analysis revealed defects in the organization of CI and CIV into supercomplexes in PE-deficient mitochondria, correlated with reduced amounts of CI and CIV proteins. Thus, mtPE deficiency impairs formation and/or membrane integration of respiratory supercomplexes. Despite normal or increased levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins in mtPE-deficient cells, and no reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondria were extensively fragmented, and mitochondrial ultrastructure was grossly aberrant. In general, chronic reduction of mtPE caused more pronounced mitochondrial defects than did acute mtPE depletion. The functional and morphological changes in PSB-2 cells were largely reversed by normalization of mtPE content by supplementation with lyso-PE, a mtPE precursor. These studies demonstrate that even a modest reduction of mtPE in mammalian cells profoundly alters mitochondrial functions.

  1. Sevoflurane postconditioning attenuates cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via restoring mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jin; Wu, Jianjiang; Xie, Peng; Maimaitili, Yiliyaer; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Background Anesthetic postconditioning is a cellular protective approach whereby exposure to a volatile anesthetic renders a tissue more resistant to subsequent ischemic/reperfusion event. Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that SPostC protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury by maintaining/restoring mitochondrial morphological integrity, a critical determinant of cell fate. Methods Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs) were subjected to H/R injury (3 h of hypoxia followed by 3 h reoxygenation). Intervention with SPostC (2.4% sevoflurane) was administered for 15 min upon the onset of reoxygenation. Cell viability, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, cell death, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were assessed after intervention. Mitochondrial fusion and fission regulating proteins (Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) were assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting was performed to determine the level of protein expression. Results Cardiomyocyte H/R injury resulted in significant increases in LDH release and cell death that were concomitant with reduced cell viability and reduced mitochondrial interconnectivity (mean area/perimeter ratio) and mitochondrial elongation, and with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mPTP opening. All the above changes were significantly attenuated by SPostC. Furthermore, H/R resulted in significant reductions in mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 and significant enhancement of fission proteins Drp1 and Fis1. SPostC significantly enhanced Mfn2 and Opa1 and reduced Drp1, without significant impact on Mfn1 and Fis1. Conclusions Sevoflurane postconditioning attenuates cardiomyocytes hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (HRI) by restoring

  2. A simple ImageJ macro tool for analyzing mitochondrial network morphology in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Valente, Andrew J; Maddalena, Lucas A; Robb, Ellen L; Moradi, Fereshteh; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-03-14

    Mitochondria exist in a dynamic cycle of fusion and fission whose balance directly influences the morphology of the 'mitochondrial network', a term that encompasses the branched, reticular structure of fused mitochondria as well as the separate, punctate individual organelles within a eukaryotic cell. Over the past decade, the significance of the mitochondrial network has been increasingly appreciated, motivating the development of various approaches to analyze it. Here, we describe the Mitochondrial Network Analysis (MiNA) toolset, a relatively simple pair of macros making use of existing ImageJ plug-ins, allowing for semi-automated analysis of mitochondrial networks in cultured mammalian cells. MiNA is freely available at https://github.com/ScienceToolkit/MiNA. The tool incorporates optional preprocessing steps to enhance the quality of images before converting the images to binary and producing a morphological skeleton for calculating nine parameters to quantitatively capture the morphology of the mitochondrial network. The efficacy of the macro toolset is demonstrated using a sample set of images from SH-SY5Y, C2C12, and mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell cultures treated under different conditions and exhibiting hyperfused, fused, and fragmented mitochondrial network morphologies.

  3. Neonatal mitochondrial abnormalities due to PINK1 deficiency: Proteomics reveals early changes relevant to Parkinson׳s disease

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Lance M.; Purnell, Phillip R.; Stauch, Kelly L.; Fox, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson׳s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affects roughly 7–10 million people worldwide. A wide array of research has suggested that PD has a mitochondrial component and that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs well in advance of the clinical manifestation of the disease. Previous work by our lab has categorized the mitochondrial disorder associated with Parkinson׳s disease in a PINK1 knockout rat model. This model develops Parkinson׳s disease in a spontaneous, predictable manner. Our findings demonstrated PINK1-deficient rats at 4 months of age had mitochondrial proteomic and functional abnormalities before the onset of Parkinsonian symptoms (6 months) such as the movement disorder, loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, or the progressive degeneration present at 9 months. With this in mind, our group investigated the PINK1 knockout genetic rat model at postnatal day 10 to determine if the observed alterations at 4 months were present at an earlier time point. Using a proteomic analysis of brain mitochondria, we identified significant mitochondrial proteomic alterations in the absence of mitochondrial functional changes suggesting the observed alterations are part of the mitochondrial pathways leading to PD. Specifically, we identified differentially expressed proteins in the PINK1 knockout rat involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid metabolism demonstrating abnormalities occur well in advance of the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Additionally, 13 of the differentially expressed proteins have been previously identified in older PINK1 knockout animals as differentially regulated suggesting these proteins may be viable markers of the PD pathology, and further, the abnormally regulated pathways could be targeted for therapeutic interventions. All raw data can be found in Supplementary Table 1. PMID:26866053

  4. Get1p and Get2p are required for maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and normal cardiolipin levels.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit S; Fei, Naomi; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2016-05-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes. CL deficiency leads to defects in mitochondrial function. Using a targeted synthetic lethality screen to identify defects that exacerbate CL deficiency, we determined that deletion of mitochondrial morphology genes in cells lacking CL leads to severe growth defects. We show that ER membrane proteins Get1p and Get2p are required for maintaining normal levels of CL. We propose that these proteins regulate the level of CL by maintaining wild type-like tubular mitochondrial morphology. The genetic interactions observed in this study identify novel physiological modifiers that are required for maintenance of CL levels and mitochondrial morphology.

  5. G alpha12 is targeted to the mitochondria and affects mitochondrial morphology and motility.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2008-08-01

    G alpha12 constitutes, along with G alpha13, one of the four families of alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. We found that the N terminus of G alpha12, but not those of other G alpha subunits, contains a predicted mitochondrial targeting sequence. Using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation, we demonstrated that up to 40% of endogenous G alpha12 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells colocalize with mitochondrial markers. N-terminal sequence of G alpha12 fused to GFP efficiently targeted the fusion protein to mitochondria. G alpha12 with mutated mitochondrial targeting sequence was still located in mitochondria, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms for mitochondrial localization. Lysophosphatidic acid, one of the known stimuli transduced by G alpha12/13, inhibited mitochondrial motility, while depletion of endogenous G alpha12 increased mitochondrial motility. G alpha12Q229L variants uncoupled from RhoGEFs (but not fully functional activated G alpha12Q229L) induced transformation of the mitochondrial network into punctate mitochondria and resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. All examined G alpha12Q229L variants reduced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at Ser-70, while only mutants unable to bind RhoGEFs also decreased cellular levels of Bcl-2. These G alpha12 mutants were also more efficient Hsp90 interactors. These findings are the first demonstration of a heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit specifically targeted to mitochondria and involved in the control of mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  6. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology and cell cycle by microRNA-214 targeting Mitofusin2.

    PubMed

    Bucha, Sudha; Mukhopadhyay, Debashis; Bhattacharyya, Nitai Pada

    2015-10-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the increase in CAG repeats beyond 36 at the exon1 of the gene Huntingtin (HTT). Among the various dysfunctions of biological processes in HD, transcription deregulation due to abnormalities in actions of transcription factors has been considered to be one of the important pathological conditions. In addition, deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been described in HD. Earlier, expression of microRNA-214 (miR-214) has been shown to increase in HD cell models and target HTT gene; the expression of the later being inversely correlated to that of miR-214. In the present communication, we observed that the expressions of several HTT co-expressed genes are modulated by exogenous expression of miR-214 or by its mutant. Among several HTT co-expressed genes, MFN2 was shown to be the direct target of miR-214. Exogenous expression of miR-214, repressed the expression of MFN2, increased the distribution of fragmented mitochondria and altered the distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle. In summary, we have shown that increased expression of miR-214 observed in HD cell model could target MFN2, altered mitochondrial morphology and deregulated cell cycle. Inhibition of miR-214 could be a possible target of intervention in HD pathogenesis.

  7. Changes, and the Relevance Thereof, in Mitochondrial Morphology during Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Wu, Yanru; Choi, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The roles of mitochondria in various physiological functions of vascular endothelial cells have been investigated extensively. Morphological studies in relation to physiological functions have been performed. However, there have been few reports of morphological investigations related to stem cell differentiation. This was the first morphological study of mitochondria in relation to endothelial differentiation and focused on quantitative analysis of changes in mitochondrial morphology, number, area, and length during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into endothelial-like cells. To induce differentiation, we engaged vascular endothelial growth factors and flow-induced shear stress. Cells were classified according to the expression of von Willebrand factor as hMSCs, differentiating cells, and almost fully differentiated cells. Based on imaging analysis, we investigated changes in mitochondrial number, area, and length. In addition, mitochondrial networks were quantified on a single-mitochondrion basis by introducing a branch form factor. The data indicated that the mitochondrial number, area per cell, and length were decreased with differentiation. The mitochondrial morphology became simpler with progression of differentiation. These findings could be explained in view of energy level during differentiation; a higher level of energy is needed during differentiation, with larger numbers of mitochondria with branches. Application of this method to differentiation into other lineages will explain the energy levels required to control stem cell differentiation. PMID:27517609

  8. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 protects against mutant huntingtin-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2015-12-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in striatal neurons that stably express mutant Htt (STHDhQ111/Q111) and wild-type (WT) Htt (STHDhQ7/Q7). Using gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods, we studied (i) mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, (ii) mitochondrial function and (iii) ultra-structural changes in mutant Htt neurons relative to WT Htt neurons. We also studied these parameters in Mdivil-treated and untreated WT and mutant Htt neurons. Increased expressions of mitochondrial fission genes, decreased expression of fusion genes and synaptic genes were found in the mutant Htt neurons relative to the WT Htt neurons. Electron microscopy of the mutant Htt neurons revealed a significantly increased number of mitochondria, indicating that mutant Htt fragments mitochondria. Biochemical analysis revealed defective mitochondrial functioning. In the Mdivil-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes were down-regulated, and fusion genes were up-regulated, suggesting that Mdivil decreases fission activity. Synaptic genes were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with mRNA findings. The TEM studies revealed that increased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria were present in Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Increased synaptic and mitochondrial fusion genes and decreased fission genes were found in the Mdivi1-treated WT Htt neurons, indicating that Mdivi1 beneficially affects healthy neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mdivi1 is protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons and that Mdivi1 may be a promising molecule for the treatment of HD patients.

  9. Sideroflexin 3 is an α-synuclein-dependent mitochondrial protein that regulates synaptic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Inês S.; Graham, Laura C.; Carter, Roderick N.; Morton, Nicholas M.; Hammachi, Fella; Kunath, Tilo; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Carpanini, Sarah M.; Manson, Jean C.; Lamont, Douglas J.; Wishart, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Synuclein plays a central role in Parkinson's disease, where it contributes to the vulnerability of synapses to degeneration. However, the downstream mechanisms through which α-synuclein controls synaptic stability and degeneration are not fully understood. Here, comparative proteomics on synapses isolated from α-synuclein−/− mouse brain identified mitochondrial proteins as primary targets of α-synuclein, revealing 37 mitochondrial proteins not previously linked to α-synuclein or neurodegeneration pathways. Of these, sideroflexin 3 (SFXN3) was found to be a mitochondrial protein localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Loss of SFXN3 did not disturb mitochondrial electron transport chain function in mouse synapses, suggesting that its function in mitochondria is likely to be independent of canonical bioenergetic pathways. In contrast, experimental manipulation of SFXN3 levels disrupted synaptic morphology at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. These results provide novel insights into α-synuclein-dependent pathways, highlighting an important influence on mitochondrial proteins at the synapse, including SFXN3. We also identify SFXN3 as a new mitochondrial protein capable of regulating synaptic morphology in vivo. PMID:28049716

  10. A new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology.

    PubMed

    Hodneland Nilsson, Linn Iren; Nitschke Pettersen, Ina Katrine; Nikolaisen, Julie; Micklem, David; Avsnes Dale, Hege; Vatne Røsland, Gro; Lorens, James; Tronstad, Karl Johan

    2015-11-24

    Changes in mitochondrial amount and shape are intimately linked to maintenance of cell homeostasis via adaptation of vital functions. Here, we developed a new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology. This was achieved by making a genetic reporter construct where a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), controls expression of mitochondria targeted green fluorescent protein (mitoGFP). HeLa cells with the reporter construct demonstrated inducible expression of mitoGFP upon activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) with AICAR. We established stable reporter cells where the mitoGFP reporter activity corresponded with mitochondrial biogenesis both in magnitude and kinetics, as confirmed by biochemical markers and confocal microscopy. Quantitative 3D image analysis confirmed accordant increase in mitochondrial biomass, in addition to filament/network promoting and protecting effects on mitochondrial morphology, after treatment with AICAR. The level of mitoGFP reversed upon removal of AICAR, in parallel with decrease in mtDNA. In summary, we here present a new GFP-based genetic reporter strategy to study mitochondrial regulation and dynamics in living cells. This combinatorial reporter concept can readily be transferred to other cell models and contexts to address specific physiological mechanisms.

  11. Computational imaging reveals mitochondrial morphology as a biomarker of cancer phenotype and drug response

    PubMed Central

    Giedt, Randy J.; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Pathania, Divya; Yang, Katherine S.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Vinegoni, Claudio; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria, which are essential organelles in resting and replicating cells, can vary in number, mass and shape. Past research has primarily focused on short-term molecular mechanisms underlying fission/fusion. Less is known about longer-term mitochondrial behavior such as the overall makeup of cell populations’ morphological patterns and whether these patterns can be used as biomarkers of drug response in human cells. We developed an image-based analytical technique to phenotype mitochondrial morphology in different cancers, including cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. We demonstrate that (i) cancer cells of different origins, including patient-derived xenografts, express highly diverse mitochondrial phenotypes; (ii) a given phenotype is characteristic of a cell population and fairly constant over time; (iii) mitochondrial patterns correlate with cell metabolic measurements and (iv) therapeutic interventions can alter mitochondrial phenotypes in drug-sensitive cancers as measured in pre- versus post-treatment fine needle aspirates in mice. These observations shed light on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the biology and drug response of cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that image-based mitochondrial phenotyping can provide biomarkers for assessing cancer phenotype and drug response. PMID:27609668

  12. [Ultrastructural observation of morphologically abnormal sperm: Advances in studies and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-xiong; Shi, Yi-chao; Yang, Shen-min

    2016-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructural abnormalities are often associated with sperm motility, the integrity of genetic material, and the fertilization potential. The investigation of sperm ultrastructural abnormalities is based on the evolution of microscopy techniques. In his paper, we review the improvement of the microscopy techniques and the ultrastructure of several specific morphological defects and he apoptotic spermatogenic cells in order to expound the significance of sperm ultrastructural observation in clinical practice. We deem it necessary to analyze the sperm ultrastructure before exploring the pathology and adopting assisted reproductive technology for some special patients with teratozoospermia.

  13. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Willems, Peter H G M; Pellegrini, Mina; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan A M; Blanchet, Lionel; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (Δψ). The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of Δψ and mitochondrial morphology. This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in Δψ and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss how combining high-content and high-throughput strategies can be used for analysis of genetic and/or drug-induced effects at the level of individual organelles, cells and cell populations. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  14. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P < 0.01) and aspect ratio (1.97 ± 0.83 vs. 3.63 ± 2.13, P < 0.01) and circularity (0.75 ± 0.16 vs. 0.45 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) but not size (0.28 ± 0.31 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 μm(2)). Frequency distributions for mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology.

  15. Fertilization and embryo quality of mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Hyojeong; Lee, Jang Mi; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate fertilization and embryo quality of dysmorphic mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods The fertilization rate (FR) and embryo quality were compared among 58 dysmorphic and 42 normal form oocytes (control 1) obtained from 35 consecutive ICSI cycles, each of which yielded at least one dysmorphic mature oocyte, performed over a period of 5 years. The FR and embryo quality of 441 normal form oocytes from another 119 ICSI cycles that did not involve dysmorphic oocytes served as control 2. Dysmorphic oocytes were classified as having a dark cytoplasm, cytoplasmic granularity, cytoplasmic vacuoles, refractile bodies in the cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, an oval shape, an abnormal zona pellucida, a large perivitelline space, debris in the perivitelline space, or an abnormal polar body (PB). Results The overall FR was significantly lower in dysmorphic oocytes than in normal form oocytes in both the control 1 and control 2 groups. However, embryo quality in the dysmorphic oocyte group and the normal form oocyte groups at day 3 was similar. The FR and embryo quality were similar in the oocyte groups with a single abnormality and multiple abnormalities. Specific abnormalities related with a higher percentage of top-quality embryos were dark cytoplasm (66.7%), abnormal PB (50%), and cytoplasmic vacuoles (25%). Conclusion The fertilization potential of dysmorphic oocytes in our study was lower, but their subsequent embryonic development and embryo quality was relatively good. We were able to define several specific abnormalities related with good or poor embryo quality. PMID:26815385

  16. Combination of density gradient centrifugation and swim-up methods effectively decreases morphologically abnormal sperms

    PubMed Central

    YAMANAKA, Masaya; TOMITA, Kazuhisa; HASHIMOTO, Shu; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; SATOH, Manabu; KATO, Hiromi; HOSOI, Yoshihiko; INOUE, Masayasu; NAKAOKA, Yoshiharu; MORIMOTO, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up techniques have been reported for semen preparation in assisted reproductive techniques in humans. We investigated whether semen preparation using a combination of DGC and swim-up techniques could effectively decrease morphologically abnormal human sperms at the ultrastructural level. Semen samples were obtained from 16 infertile males and fractionated by swim-up following DGC. Ultrastructural abnormalities of sperms obtained from original semen, lower layer of swim-up following DGC, and upper layer of swim-up following DGC were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The correlation among ultrastructural head abnormality in sperms from the upper layer of swim-up, fertilization in in vitro fertilization, and pregnancy after embryo transfer was also investigated. Furthermore, sperms with DNA fragmentation in the samples processed via a combination of DGC and swim-up was assessed in a sperm chromatin structure assay. Ultrastructural abnormalities in sperm heads and tails in the upper layer after swim-up following DGC was the lowest among the three groups. Sperms with nuclear vacuoles were the most difficult to eliminate using a combination of DGC and swim-up in all types of head abnormalities. A negative correlation was confirmed between the fertilization rates of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and head abnormality of sperms obtained from the upper layer of the swim-up following DGC. Sperms with DNA fragmentation were effectively decreased using the combination of two techniques. In conclusion, the combination of DGC and swim-up effectively decreased the number of sperms with ultrastructural abnormalities both in the head and in the tail. However, sperms with ultrastructural abnormalities that cannot be completely decreased using a combination of DGC and swim-up may impair fertilization in some cases of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:27616283

  17. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cardiac function is energetically demanding, reliant on efficient well-coupled mitochondria to generate adenosine triphosphate and fulfill the cardiac demand. Predictably then, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiac pathologies, often related to metabolic disease, most commonly diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by decreased left ventricular function, arises independently of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of Ca2+ handling, metabolic changes, and oxidative stress are observed in DCM, abnormalities reflected in alterations in mitochondrial energetics. Cardiac tissue from DCM patients also presents with altered mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a possible role of mitochondrial dynamics in its pathological progression. Recent Advances: Abnormal mitochondrial morphology is associated with pathologies across diverse tissues, suggesting that this highly regulated process is essential for proper cell maintenance and physiological homeostasis. Highly structured cardiac myofibers were hypothesized to limit alterations in mitochondrial morphology; however, recent work has identified morphological changes in cardiac tissue, specifically in DCM. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported independently from observations of altered mitochondrial morphology in DCM. The temporal relationship and causative nature between functional and morphological changes of mitochondria in the establishment/progression of DCM is unclear. Future Directions: Altered mitochondrial energetics and morphology are not only causal for but also consequential to reactive oxygen species production, hence exacerbating oxidative damage through reciprocal amplification, which is integral to the progression of DCM. Therefore, targeting mitochondria for DCM will require better mechanistic characterization of morphological distortion and bioenergetic dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1545–1562. PMID

  18. Effects of Fcj1-Mos1 and mitochondrial division on aggregation of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids and organelle morphology.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kie; Tamura, Yasushi; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged into DNA-protein complexes called nucleoids, which are distributed as many small foci in mitochondria. Nucleoids are crucial for the biogenesis and function of mtDNA. Here, using a yeast genetic screen for components that control nucleoid distribution and size, we identify Fcj1 and Mos1, two evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial proteins that maintain the connection between the cristae and boundary membranes. These two proteins are also important for establishing tubular morphology of mitochondria, as mitochondria lacking Fcj1 and Mos1 form lamellar sheets. We find that nucleoids aggregate, increase in size, and decrease in number in fcj1 and mos1 cells. In addition, Fcj1 form punctate structures and localized adjacent to nucleoids. Moreover, connecting mitochondria by deleting the DNM1 gene required for organelle division enhances aggregation of mtDNA nucleoids in fcj1 and mos1 cells, whereas single deletion of DNM1 does not affect nucleoids. Conversely, deleting F1Fo-ATP synthase dimerization factors generates concentric ring-like cristae, restores tubular mitochondrial morphology, and suppresses nucleoid aggregation in these mutants. Our findings suggest an unexpected role of Fcj1-Mos1 and organelle division in maintaining the distribution and size of mtDNA nucleoids.

  19. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk.

  20. Exploring the Effect of Asymmetric Mitochondrial DNA Introgression on Estimating Niche Divergence in Morphologically Cryptic Species

    PubMed Central

    Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W.

    2014-01-01

    If potential morphologically cryptic species, identified based on differentiated mitochondrial DNA, express ecological divergence, this increases support for their treatment as distinct species. However, mitochondrial DNA introgression hampers the correct estimation of ecological divergence. We test the hypothesis that estimated niche divergence differs when considering nuclear DNA composition or mitochondrial DNA type as representing the true species range. We use empirical data of two crested newt species (Amphibia: Triturus) which possess introgressed mitochondrial DNA from a third species in part of their ranges. We analyze the data in environmental space by determining Fisher distances in a principal component analysis and in geographical space by determining geographical overlap of species distribution models. We find that under mtDNA guidance in one of the two study cases niche divergence is overestimated, whereas in the other it is underestimated. In the light of our results we discuss the role of estimated niche divergence in species delineation. PMID:24743746

  1. Abnormal Mitochondrial cAMP/PKA Signaling Is Involved in Sepsis-Induced Mitochondrial and Myocardial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Neviere, Remi; Delguste, Florian; Durand, Arthur; Inamo, Jocelyn; Boulanger, Eric; Preau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors couple to Gs-proteins leading to transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activation and cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. Cyclic AMP is also produced in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates respiration through protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of respiratory chain complexes. We hypothesized that a blunted mitochondrial cAMP-PKA pathway would participate in sepsis-induced heart dysfunction. Adult male mice were subjected to intra-abdominal sepsis. Mitochondrial respiration of cardiac fibers and myocardial contractile performance were evaluated in response to 8Br-cAMP, PKA inhibition (H89), soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition (KH7), and phosphodiesterase inhibition (IBMX; BAY60-7550). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiratory rates of cardiac fibers were reduced in septic mice. Compared with controls, stimulatory effects of 8Br-cAMP on respiration rates were enhanced in septic fibers, whereas inhibitory effects of H89 were reduced. Ser-58 phosphorylation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-1 was reduced in septic hearts. In vitro, incubation of septic cardiac fibers with BAY60-7550 increased respiratory control ratio and improved cardiac MVO2 efficiency in isolated septic heart. In vivo, BAY60-7550 pre-treatment of septic mice have limited impact on myocardial function. Mitochondrial cAMP-PKA signaling is impaired in the septic myocardium. PDE2 phosphodiesterase inhibition by BAY60-7550 improves mitochondrial respiration and cardiac MVO2 efficiency in septic mice. PMID:27973394

  2. Incidence, structure and morphological classification of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lizette; Soley, John T

    2011-03-01

    Little detailed information is currently available on the incidence and morphological characteristics of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and of ratites in general. This situation is further compounded by the lack of a uniform system for the morphological classification of avian sperm defects. Considering the important role that sperm morphology plays in the assessment of semen quality, a detailed description of avian sperm defects is of paramount importance. Based on morphological data provided by light and electron microscopy, a mean of 17.3% abnormal sperm was recorded in semen samples collected from the distal deferent duct of four adult emus during the middle of the breeding season. Four categories of defects were identified. Head defects (57.2% of total defects) consisted of bent heads, macrocephalic heads, round heads and acephalic sperm. Zones of incomplete chromatin condensation and retained cytoplasmic droplets appeared to be implicated in head bending, while giant heads were often associated with multiple tails. Acephalic sperm revealed a complete tail devoid of a head which was replaced by a small spherical structure. Tail defects (22.6% of total defects) were subdivided into neck/midpiece defects and principal piece defects. In the neck/midpiece region disjointed sperm were the exclusive defect noted and were characterized by the complete separation of the head and midpiece in the neck region but within the confines of the plasmalemma. Defects observed in the principal piece were subdivided into short tails, coiled tails and multiple tails. No conclusive evidence was obtained that tail coiling represented the 'Dag' defect. Biflagellate sperm were the most common form of multiple tails, demonstrating two complete tails with all the normal structural elements. Cytoplasmic droplets (13.9% of total defects) were classified as a separate defect. The location and eccentric positioning of retained cytoplasmic droplets was similar to that

  3. Akt protects the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by modulating mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R; Dongworth, Rachel K; Kalkhoran, Siavash; Pyakurel, Aswin; Scorrano, Luca; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism through which the protein kinase Akt (also called PKB), protects the heart against acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is not clear. Here, we investigate whether Akt mediates its cardioprotective effect by modulating mitochondrial morphology. Transfection of HL-1 cardiac cells with constitutively active Akt (caAkt) changed mitochondrial morphology as evidenced by an increase in the proportion of cells displaying predominantly elongated mitochondria (73 ± 5.0 % caAkt vs 49 ± 5.8 % control: N=80 cells/group; p< 0.05). This effect was associated with delayed time taken to induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 2.4 ± 0.5 fold; N=80 cells/group: p< 0.05); and reduced cell death following simulated IRI (32.8 ± 1.2 % caAkt vs 63.8 ± 5.6 % control: N=320 cells/group: p< 0.05). Similar effects on mitochondrial morphology, MPTP opening, and cell survival post-IRI, were demonstrated with pharmacological activation of Akt using the known cardioprotective cytokine, erythropoietin (EPO). The effect of Akt on inducing mitochondrial elongation was found to be dependent on the mitochondrial fusion protein, Mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), as ablation of Mfn1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) abrogated Akt-mediated mitochondrial elongation. Finally, in vivo pre-treatment with EPO reduced myocardial infarct size (as a % of the area at risk) in adult mice subjected to IRI (26.2 ± 2.6 % with EPO vs 46.1 ± 6.5 % in control; N=7/group: p< 0.05), and reduced the proportion of cells displaying myofibrillar disarray and mitochondrial fragmentation observed by electron microscopy in adult murine hearts subjected to ischaemia from 5.8 ± 1.0 % to 2.2 ± 1.0 % (N=5 hearts/group; p< 0.05). In conclusion, we found that either genetic or pharmacological activation of Akt protected the heart against acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury by modulating mitochondrial morphology.

  4. Morphological and functional abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were combined to identify morphological and functional abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter morphology and functional connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced functional connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent morphological and functional deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the morphological and functional abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive morphological changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS.

  5. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function.

  6. Primary fibroblasts of NDUFS4(-/-) mice display increased ROS levels and aberrant mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Federica; Grefte, Sander; Roestenberg, Peggy; Joosten-Wagenaars, Jori; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2013-09-01

    The human NDUFS4 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the first mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex (CI) and, when mutated, is associated with progressive neurological disorders. Here we analyzed primary muscle and skin fibroblasts from NDUFS4(-/-) mice with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial morphology. NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts displayed an inactive CI subcomplex on native gels but proliferated normally and showed no obvious signs of apoptosis. Oxidation of the ROS sensor hydroethidium was increased and mitochondria were less branched and/or shorter in NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts. We discuss the relevance of these findings with respect to previous results and therapy development.

  7. Mutant desmin substantially perturbs mitochondrial morphology, function and maintenance in skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Winter, Lilli; Wittig, Ilka; Peeva, Viktoriya; Eggers, Britta; Heidler, Juliana; Chevessier, Frederic; Kley, Rudolf A; Barkovits, Katalin; Strecker, Valentina; Berwanger, Carolin; Herrmann, Harald; Marcus, Katrin; Kornblum, Cornelia; Kunz, Wolfram S; Schröder, Rolf; Clemen, Christoph S

    2016-09-01

    Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction is a feature in a wide variety of human protein aggregate diseases caused by mutations in different proteins, both in the central nervous system and in striated muscle. The functional relationship between the expression of a mutated protein and mitochondrial dysfunction is largely unknown. In particular, the mechanism how this dysfunction drives the disease process is still elusive. To address this issue for protein aggregate myopathies, we performed a comprehensive, multi-level analysis of mitochondrial pathology in skeletal muscles of human patients with mutations in the intermediate filament protein desmin and in muscles of hetero- and homozygous knock-in mice carrying the R349P desmin mutation. We demonstrate that the expression of mutant desmin causes disruption of the extrasarcomeric desmin cytoskeleton and extensive mitochondrial abnormalities regarding subcellular distribution, number and shape. At the molecular level, we uncovered changes in the abundancy and assembly of the respiratory chain complexes and supercomplexes. In addition, we revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA- and nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins in parallel with large-scale deletions in mtDNA and reduced mtDNA copy numbers. Hence, our data demonstrate that the expression of mutant desmin causes multi-level damage of mitochondria already in early stages of desminopathies.

  8. [Cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Luis, David; Hullin, Thomas; Fayssoil, Abdallah

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are multi-system disorders in relation with mitochondrial DNA and/or nuclear DNA abnormalities. Clinical pictures are heterogeneous, involving endocrine, cardiac, neurologic or sensory systems. Cardiac involvements are morphological and electrical disturbances. Prognosis is worsened in case of cardiac impairment. Treatments are related to the type of cardiac dysfunction including medication or pacemaker implantation.

  9. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  10. Abnormal interaction of VDAC1 with amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau causes mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between voltage-dependent anion channel 1 protein (VDAC1) and amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using brain specimens from AD patients, control subjects and 6-, 12- and 24-month-old Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, we studied VDAC1 protein levels. Further, we also studied the interaction between VDAC1 and Aβ (monomers and oligomers) and phosphorylated tau, using cortical issues from AD patients, control subjects, APP, APP/PS1 and 3XTg.AD mice. We also studied age- and VDAC1-linked, mutant APP/Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in APP and non-transgenic wild-type (WT) mice. We found progressively increased levels of VDAC1 in the cortical tissues from the brains of patients with AD, relative to control subjects, and significantly increased levels of VDAC1 in the cerebral cortices of 6-, 12- and 24-month-old APP transgenic mice, relative to the age-matched control WT mice. Interestingly, we found VDAC1 interacted with Aβ and phosphorylated tau in the brains from AD patients and from APP, APP/PS1 and 3XTg.AD mice. We found progressively increased mitochondrial dysfunction in APP mice relative to WT mice. These observations led us to conclude that VDAC1 interacts with Aβ, and phosphorylated tau may in turn block mitochondrial pores, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD pathogenesis. Based on current study observations, we propose that reduced levels of VDAC1, Aβ and phosphorylated tau may reduce the abnormal interaction between VDAC1 and APP, VDAC1 and Aβ, and VDAC1 and phosphorylated tau; and that reduced levels of VDAC1, Aβ and phosphorylated tau may maintain normal mitochondrial pore opening and pore closure, ultimately leading to normal mitochondrial function, mitochondria supplying ATP to nerve terminals and boosting synaptic and cognitive function in AD. PMID:22926141

  11. Bioenergetic flux, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial morphology dynamics in AD and MCI cybrid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diana F.; Selfridge, J. Eva; Lu, Jianghua; E, Lezi; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Michaelis, Elias K.; Yan, ShiDu; Cardoso, Sandra M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergetic dysfunction occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical syndrome that frequently precedes symptomatic AD. In this study, we modeled AD and MCI bioenergetic dysfunction by transferring mitochondria from MCI, AD and control subject platelets to mtDNA-depleted SH-SY5Y cells. Bioenergetic fluxes and bioenergetics-related infrastructures were characterized in the resulting cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines. Relative to control cybrids, AD and MCI cybrids showed changes in oxygen consumption, respiratory coupling and glucose utilization. AD and MCI cybrids had higher ADP/ATP and lower NAD+/NADH ratios. AD and MCI cybrids exhibited differences in proteins that monitor, respond to or regulate cell bioenergetic fluxes including HIF1α, PGC1α, SIRT1, AMPK, p38 MAPK and mTOR. Several endpoints suggested mitochondrial mass increased in the AD cybrid group and probably to a lesser extent in the MCI cybrid group, and that the mitochondrial fission–fusion balance shifted towards increased fission in the AD and MCI cybrids. As many of the changes we observed in AD and MCI cybrid models are also seen in AD subject brains, we conclude reduced bioenergetic function is present during very early AD, is not brain-limited and induces protean retrograde responses that likely have both adaptive and mal-adaptive consequences. PMID:23740939

  12. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  13. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology.

    PubMed

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-05-21

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture.

  14. Extracellular regulated kinase phosphorylates mitofusin 1 to control mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Aswin; Savoia, Claudia; Hess, Daniel; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-04-16

    Controlled changes in mitochondrial morphology participate in cellular signaling cascades. However, the molecular mechanisms modifying mitochondrial shape are largely unknown. Here we show that the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade member extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates the pro-fusion protein mitofusin (MFN) 1, modulating its participation in apoptosis and mitochondrial fusion. Phosphoproteomic and biochemical analyses revealed that MFN1 is phosphorylated at an atypical ERK site in its heptad repeat (HR) 1 domain. This site proved essential to mediate MFN1-dependent mitochondrial elongation and apoptosis regulation by the MEK/ERK cascade. A mutant mimicking constitutive MFN1 phosphorylation was less efficient in oligomerizing and mitochondria tethering but bound more avidly to the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAK, facilitating its activation and cell death. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation and MEK/ERK activation required an intact MFN1(T562). Our data identify MFN1 as an ERK target to modulate mitochondrial shape and apoptosis.

  15. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06265.001 PMID:25997101

  16. Phosphorylation and cleavage of presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) promotes changes in mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaraju, Danny V.; Xu, Liqun; Letellier, Marie-Claude; Bandaru, Sirisha; Zunino, Rodolfo; Berg, Eric A.; McBride, Heidi M.; Pellegrini, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Remodeling of mitochondria is a dynamic process coordinated by fusion and fission of the inner and outer membranes of the organelle, mediated by a set of conserved proteins. In metazoans, the molecular mechanism behind mitochondrial morphology has been recruited to govern novel functions, such as development, calcium signaling, and apoptosis, which suggests that novel mechanisms should exist to regulate the conserved membrane fusion/fission machinery. Here we show that phosphorylation and cleavage of the vertebrate-specific Pβ domain of the mammalian presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL) protease can influence mitochondrial morphology. Phosphorylation of three residues embedded in this domain, Ser-65, Thr-69, and Ser-70, impair a cleavage at position Ser77–Ala78 that is required to initiate PARL-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings reveal that PARL phosphorylation and cleavage impact mitochondrial dynamics, providing a blueprint to study the molecular evolution of mitochondrial morphology. PMID:17116872

  17. Acquired Mitochondrial Abnormalities, Including Epigenetic Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase 2, in Pulmonary Hypertension and Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    There is no cure for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Therapies lack efficacy and/or are toxic, reflecting a failure to target disease abnormalities that are distinct from processes vital to normal cells. NSCLC and PAH share reversible mitochondrial-metabolic abnormalities which may offer selective therapeutic targets. The following mutually reinforcing, mitochondrial abnormalities favor proliferation, impair apoptosis, and are relatively restricted to PAH and cancer cells: (1) Epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) by methylation of CpG islands creates a pseudohypoxic redox environment that causes normoxic activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α). (2) HIF-1α increases expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), which impairs oxidative metabolism and promotes a glycolytic metabolic state. (3) Mitochondrial fragmentation, partially due to mitofusin-2 downregulation, promotes proliferation. This review focuses on the recent discovery that decreased expression of SOD2, a putative tumor-suppressor gene and the major source of H2O2, results from hypermethylation of CpG islands. In cancer and PAH hypermethylation of a site in the enhancer region of intron 2 inhibits SOD2 transcription. In normal PASMC, SOD2 siRNA decreases H2O2 and activates HIF-1α. In PAH, reduced SOD2 expression decreases H2O2, reduces the cytosol and thereby activates HIF-1α. This causes a glycolytic shift in metabolism and increases the proliferation/apoptosis ratio by downregulating Kv1.5 channels, increasing cytosolic calcium, and inhibiting caspases. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which restores SOD2 expression, corrects the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance in PAH and cancer cells. The specificity of PAH for lung vessels may relate to the selective upregulation of DNA methyltransferases that mediate CpG methylation in PASMC (DNA MT-1A and -3B). SOD2 augmentation inactivates HIF-1α in PAH

  18. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility.

  19. Identification of Sphaeroma terebrans via morphology and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xiu-Feng; HAN, Chong; ZHONG, Cai-Rong; XU, Jun-Qiu; HUANG, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopoda, is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical mangroves. The taxonomy of S. terebrans is usually based on morphological characteristics, with its molecular identification still poorly understood. The number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod are considered as the major morphological characteristics in S. terebrans, which can cause difficulty in regards to accurate identification. In this study, we identified S. terebrans via molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the validity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of genus Sphaeroma, including species S. terebrans, S. retrolaeve, and S. serratum, was examined. The mitochondrial COI gene sequences of all specimens were sequenced and analysed. The interspecific Kimura 2-parameter distances were higher than intraspecific distances and no intraspecific-interspecific distance overlaps were observed. In addition, genetic distance and nucleotide diversity (π) exhibited no differences within S. terebrans. Our results revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene can serve as a valid DNA barcode for the identification of S. terebrans. Furthermore, the number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod were found to be unreliable taxonomic characteristics for S. terebrans. PMID:27686791

  20. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic

  1. Changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by calcium or rotenone in primary astrocytes occur predominantly through ros-mediated remodeling.

    PubMed

    Deheshi, Samineh; Dabiri, Bahram; Fan, Susu; Tsang, Michelle; Rintoul, Gordon L

    2015-06-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria have been primarily attributed to fission and fusion, while the more pliable transformations of mitochondria (remodeling, rounding, or stretching) have been largely overlooked. In this study, we quantify the contributions of fission and remodeling to changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by the Ca(2+) ionophore 4Br-A23187 and the metabolic toxin rotenone. We also examine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling. In agreement with our previous studies, mitochondrial remodeling, not fission, is the primary contributor to Ca(2+) -mediated changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by 4Br-A23187 in rat cortical astrocytes. Treatment with rotenone produced similar results. In both paradigms, remodeling was selectively blocked by antioxidants whereas fission was not, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism for mitochondrial remodeling. In support of this hypothesis, inhibition of endogenous ROS by overnight incubation in antioxidants resulted in elongated reticular networks of mitochondria. Examination of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes revealed that they largely acted in concert during the remodeling process. While mitochondrial morphology is traditionally ascribed to a net output of fission and fusion processes, in this study we provide evidence that the acute pliability of mitochondria can be a dominant factor in determining their morphology. More importantly, our results suggest that the remodeling process is independently regulated through a ROS-signaling mechanism. Mitochondrial morphology is traditionally ascribed to a balance of fission and fusion processes. We have shown that mitochondria can undergo more pliable transformations; remodeling, rounding, or stretching. We demonstrate that remodeling, not fission, is the primary contributor to calcium mediated changes in mitochondrial morphology in primary astrocytes. Others have shown fission is mediated by calcineurin

  2. Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological

  3. Early Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PINK1 Knockout Rats.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Boska, Michael D; Fox, Howard S

    2016-01-01

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are responsible for an autosomal recessive, familial form of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 protein is a Ser/Thr kinase localized to the mitochondrial membrane and is involved in many processes including mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and proteasomal function. Using a new PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) rat model, we found altered brain metabolomic markers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified changes in mitochondrial pathways with quantitative proteomics using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry, and demonstrated mitochondrial functional alterations through measurement of oxygen consumption and acidification rates. The observed alterations included reduced creatine, decreased levels of complex I of the electron transport chain, and increased proton leak in the electron transport chain in PINK1 KO rat brains. In conjunction, these results demonstrate metabolomic and mitochondrial alterations occur during the asymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease in this model. These results indicate both potential early diagnostic markers and therapeutic pathways that can be used in PD.

  4. Correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    He, M; Tan, L

    2015-12-15

    This study explored the correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage. Three unusual sperm morphologies were selected for the experimental group namely case 1 (95% headless sperm), case 2 (98% headless sperm), and case 3 (100% headless sperm), and the control group consisted of 2 subjects (20 and 15% headless sperm). For case 1, the patient was negative for sexually transmitted diseases and had normal semen plasma biochemistry, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes, and azoospermia factor (AZF). The aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.6%, and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 84.4%. The partner of this patient did not get pregnant after artificial reproductive technology assistance. For case 2, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.8% and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 95%. This patient and his spouse did not choose assisted reproduction. For case 3, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes and AZF were normal and the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.2%. The wife of this patient gave birth to a healthy baby after ova removal, fertilization and transplantation. For the control group, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei were approximately 0.3 and 30%, respectively. To sum up, sperm ultrastructure of infertile patients suffering from unusual sperm morphology is associated with DNA damage to some extent and can cause infertility. However, pregnancy is still possible through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  5. PMPCA mutations cause abnormal mitochondrial protein processing in patients with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Rebekah K.; Assoum, Mirna; Gakh, Oleksandr; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian A.; Mignot, Cyril; Roze, Emmanuel; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Lévy, Nicolas; Prasad, Chitra; Paton, Tara; Paterson, Andrew D.; Roslin, Nicole M.; Marshall, Christian R.; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Roëckel-Trevisiol, Nathalie; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Mégarbané, André; Isaya, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Non-progressive cerebellar ataxias are a rare group of disorders that comprise approximately 10% of static infantile encephalopathies. We report the identification of mutations in PMPCA in 17 patients from four families affected with cerebellar ataxia, including the large Lebanese family previously described with autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and short stature of Norman type and localized to chromosome 9q34 (OMIM #213200). All patients present with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, and the majority have intellectual disability of variable severity. PMPCA encodes α-MPP, the alpha subunit of mitochondrial processing peptidase, the primary enzyme responsible for the maturation of the vast majority of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, which is necessary for life at the cellular level. Analysis of lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts from patients homozygous for the PMPCA p.Ala377Thr mutation and carriers demonstrate that the mutation impacts both the level of the alpha subunit encoded by PMPCA and the function of mitochondrial processing peptidase. In particular, this mutation impacts the maturation process of frataxin, the protein which is depleted in Friedreich ataxia. This study represents the first time that defects in PMPCA and mitochondrial processing peptidase have been described in association with a disease phenotype in humans. PMID:25808372

  6. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility. PMID:26700320

  7. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-02-15

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility.

  8. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-10

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  9. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

  10. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  11. Mitochondrial-morphology-targeted breeding of industrial yeast strains for alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    Since mitochondrial genes are repressed under high glucose and low O2, and these conditions correspond to the conditions in which yeast cells are exposed during alcohol fermentation, the existence and structure of yeast mitochondria during alcohol fermentation have not been elucidated. Yeast mitochondria can be observed throughout brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) and fragment during brewing. Furthermore, it has been revealed that Fis1 [fission 1 (mitochondrial outer membrane) homologue (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)], which is a transmembrane protein with its C-terminal anchor embedded in the outer membrane of mitochondria, is required for fragmentation of yeast mitochondria during sake brewing. By utilizing this knowledge, a fis1 disruptant of a sake yeast strain has been generated that has a networked mitochondrial structure throughout sake brewing. It transpired that this strain produces a high content of malate, which imparts a crisp acidic taste, during sake brewing. This strategy is a useful and a completely novel strategy towards developing a new yeast strain which produces a high content of malate in sake, and mitochondrial morphology has now emerged as a promising target for the breeding of practical industrial strains.

  12. Human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase deficiency: radical changes in mitochondrial morphology?

    PubMed

    Koopman, Werner J H; Verkaart, Sjoerd; Visch, Henk Jan; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet; Nijtmans, Leo G J; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M

    2007-07-01

    Malfunction of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I (CI), the first and largest complex of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, has been implicated in a wide variety of human disorders. To demonstrate a quantitative relationship between CI amount and activity and mitochondrial shape and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, we recently combined native electrophoresis and confocal and video microscopy of dermal fibroblasts of healthy control subjects and children with isolated CI deficiency. Individual mitochondria appeared fragmented and/or less branched in patient fibroblasts with a severely reduced CI amount and activity (class I), whereas patient cells in which these latter parameters were only moderately reduced displayed a normal mitochondrial morphology (class II). Moreover, cellular ROS levels were significantly more increased in class I compared with class II cells. We propose a mechanism in which a mutation-induced decrease in the cellular amount and activity of CI leads to enhanced ROS levels, which, in turn, induce mitochondrial fragmentation when not appropriately counterbalanced by the cell's antioxidant defense systems.

  13. Distinct types of protease systems are involved in homeostasis regulation of mitochondrial morphology via balanced fusion and fission.

    PubMed

    Saita, Shotaro; Ishihara, Takaya; Maeda, Maki; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Ishihara, Naotada

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically regulated by fusion and fission. Several GTPase proteins control fusion and fission, and posttranslational modifications of these proteins are important for the regulation. However, it has not been clarified how the fusion and fission is balanced. Here, we report the molecular mechanism to regulate mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells. Ablation of the mitochondrial fission, by repression of Drp1 or Mff, or by over-expression of MiD49 or MiD51, results in a reduction in the fusion GTPase mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) in outer membrane and long form of OPA1 (L-OPA1) in inner membrane. RNAi- or CRISPR-induced ablation of Drp1 in HeLa cells enhanced the degradation of Mfns via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). We further found that UPS-related protein BAT3/BAG6, here we identified as Mfn2-interacting protein, was implicated in the turnover of Mfns in the absence of mitochondrial fission. Ablation of the mitochondrial fission also enhanced the proteolytic cleavage of L-OPA1 to soluble S-OPA1, and the OPA1 processing was reversed by inhibition of the inner membrane protease OMA1 independent on the mitochondrial membrane potential. Our findings showed that the distinct degradation systems of the mitochondrial fusion proteins in different locations are enhanced in response to the mitochondrial morphology.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  15. Abnormal Morphology of Fibrillin Microfibrils in Fibroblast Cultures from Patients with Neonatal Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Maurice; Raghunath, Michael; Cisler, Jason; Bevins, Charles L.; DePaepe, Anne; Di Rocco, Maja; Gregoritch, Jane; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Kaplan, Paige; Kuroki, Yoshikazu; Silberbach, Michael; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Van Thienen, Marie-Noëlle; Vetter, Ulrich; Steinmann, Beat

    1995-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder manifested by variable and pleiotropic features in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The average life span in MFS is about 35 years. A group with much more severe cardiovascular disease and a mean life span of approximately I year also exists. We refer to this latter group as “neonatal Marfan syndrome” (nMFS). Fibrillin defects are now known to be the cause of MFS and nMFS. Immunofluorescence studies were the first to demonstrate this association. Here we describe immunofluorescence studies in a series of 10 neonates and summarize their salient clinical features. In vitro accumulation of fibrillin reactive fibers was assayed using monoclonal antibodies to fibrillin in hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures. As was previously observed in MFS, fibroblast cultures from nMFS patients showed an apparent decrease in accumulation of immunostainable fibrillin. Significantly, however, the morphology of the immunostained fibrils in the nMFS cultures were abnormal and differed not only from control cultures, but also from those seen in cultures of MFS fibroblasts. The nMFS fibrils appeared short, fragmented, and frayed, characteristics that are not seen in MFS. Both the clinical and fibrillin morphology data provide evidence to suggest a useful subclassification of nMFS in the spectrum of MFS. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7778680

  16. Citral exerts its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum by affecting the mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiju; Jing, Guoxing; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Qiuli; Jia, Lei; Tao, Nengguo

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the effect of citral on the mitochondrial morphology and function of Penicillium digitatum. Citral at concentrations of 2.0 or 4.0 μL/mL strongly damaged mitochondria of test pathogen by causing the loss of matrix and increase of irregular mitochondria. The deformation extent of the mitochondria of P. digitatum enhanced with increasing concentrations of citral, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular ATP content and an increase in extracellular ATP content of P. digitatum cells. Oxygen consumption showed that citral resulted in an inhibition in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway of P. digitatum cells, induced a decrease in activities of citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinodehydrogenase and the content of citric acid, while enhancing the activity of malic dehydrogenase in P. digitatum cells. Our present results indicated that citral could damage the mitochondrial membrane permeability and disrupt the TCA pathway of P. digitatum.

  17. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  18. HIV-associated metabolic and morphologic abnormality syndrome. Welcome therapy may have unwelcome effects.

    PubMed

    Cohan, G R

    2000-04-01

    Metabolic and morphologic complications of HAART are probably caused by several interrelated and complex physiologic processes that are just beginning to be understood. Whether there is validity to the current theories regarding mitochondrial toxicity of NRTIs, lipid pathway interruptions of protease inhibitors, or the host immune response itself as the primary culprit remains to be seen. In the interim, physicians should use great caution and be circumspect in their judgment with regard to "quick-fix" treatments of these complications. Furthermore, scientifically unsupported decisions about switching antiretroviral agents in an attempt to alleviate a particular toxic effect may place the patient at risk for antiretroviral-therapy failure. Formal adoption of a case definition of HAMMAS remains a priority for the scientific community, because anecdotal observations compiled to date do not yet constitute a discrete syndrome. A clear case definition, possibly modeled after criteria for defining rheumatic diseases, will greatly facilitate properly designed research trials to elucidate causes and possible treatments of this troublesome syndrome.

  19. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  20. Heterogeneity in mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential is independent of the nuclear division cycle in multinucleate fungal cells.

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, John P; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2012-03-01

    In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influence the adjacent cytoplasm, we tested whether local mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in A. gossypii are associated with the division state of a nearby nucleus. We found that mitochondria exhibit substantial heterogeneity in both morphology and membrane potential within a single multinucleated cell. Notably, differences in mitochondrial morphology or potential are not associated with a specific nuclear division state. Heterokaryon mutants with a mixture of nuclei with deletions of and wild type for the mitochondrial fusion/fission genes DNM1 and FZO1 exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology and severe growth and sporulation defects. This dominant effect suggests that the gene products may be required locally near their expression site rather than diffusing widely in the cell. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics are essential in these large syncytial cells, yet morphology and membrane potential are independent of nuclear cycle state.

  1. The influence of chronic fluorosis on mitochondrial dynamics morphology and distribution in cortical neurons of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Dong; Guan, Zhi-Zhong; Liu, Yan-Jie; Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Kai-Lin; Pan, Ji-Gang; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic fluorosis on the dynamics (including fusion and fission proteins), fragmentation, and distribution of mitochondria in the cortical neurons of the rat brain in an attempt to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the brain damage associated with excess accumulation of fluoride. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups of 20 each, that is, the untreated control group (drinking water naturally containing <0.5 mg fluoride/l, NaF), the low-fluoride group (whose drinking water was supplemented with 10 mg fluoride/l) and the high-fluoride group (50 mg fluoride/l). After 6 months of exposure, the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), fission-1 (Fis1), and dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) at both the protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR, respectively. Moreover, mitochondrial morphology and distribution in neurons were observed by transmission electron or fluorescence microscopy. In the cortices of the brains of rats with chronic fluorosis, the level of Mfn1 protein was clearly reduced, whereas the levels of Fis1 and Drp1 were elevated. The alternations of expression of the mRNAs encoding all three of these proteins were almost the same as the corresponding changes at the protein levels. The mitochondria were fragmented and the redistributed away from the axons of the cortical neurons. These findings indicate that chronic fluorosis induces abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, which might in turn result in a high level of oxidative stress.

  2. Kinesin family 17 (osmotic avoidance abnormal-3) is dispensable for photoreceptor morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Tam, Beatrice M.; Ying, Guoxing; Wu, Sen; Hauswirth, William W.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Moritz, Orson L.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, homodimeric [kinesin family (KIF) 17, osmotic avoidance abnormal-3 (OSM-3)] and heterotrimeric (KIF3) kinesin-2 motors are required to establish sensory cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT) where KIF3 and KIF17 cooperate to build the axoneme core and KIF17 builds the distal segments. However, the function of KIF17 in vertebrates is unresolved. We expressed full-length and motorless KIF17 constructs in mouse rod photoreceptors using adeno-associated virus in Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors using a transgene and in ciliated IMCD3 cells. We found that tagged KIF17 localized along the rod outer segment axoneme when expressed in mouse and X. laevis photoreceptors, whereas KIF3A was restricted to the proximal axoneme. Motorless KIF3A and KIF17 mutants caused photoreceptor degeneration, likely through dominant negative effects on IFT. KIF17 mutant lacking the motor domain translocated to nuclei after exposure of a C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Germ-line deletion of Kif17 in mouse did not affect photoreceptor function. A rod-specific Kif3/Kif17 double knockout mouse demonstrated that KIF17 and KIF3 do not act synergistically and did not prevent rhodopsin trafficking to rod outer segments. In summary, the nematode model of KIF3/KIF17 cooperation apparently does not apply to mouse photoreceptors in which the photosensory cilium is built exclusively by KIF3.—Jiang, L., Tam, B. M., Ying, G., Wu, S., Hauswirth, W. W., Frederick, J. M., Moritz, O. L., Baehr, W. Kinesin family 17 (osmotic avoidance abnormal-3) is dispensable for photoreceptor morphology and function. PMID:26229057

  3. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  4. Membrane trafficking and mitochondrial abnormalities precede subunit c deposition in a cerebellar cell model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Fossale, Elisa; Wolf, Pavlina; Espinola, Janice A; Lubicz-Nawrocka, Tanya; Teed, Allison M; Gao, Hanlin; Rigamonti, Dorotea; Cattaneo, Elena; MacDonald, Marcy E; Cotman, Susan L

    2004-01-01

    Background JNCL is a recessively inherited, childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease most-commonly caused by a ~1 kb CLN3 mutation. The resulting loss of battenin activity leads to deposition of mitochondrial ATP synthase, subunit c and a specific loss of CNS neurons. We previously generated Cln3Δex7/8 knock-in mice, which replicate the common JNCL mutation, express mutant battenin and display JNCL-like pathology. Results To elucidate the consequences of the common JNCL mutation in neuronal cells, we used P4 knock-in mouse cerebella to establish conditionally immortalized CbCln3 wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous neuronal precursor cell lines, which can be differentiated into MAP-2 and NeuN-positive, neuron-like cells. Homozygous CbCln3Δex7/8 precursor cells express low levels of mutant battenin and, when aged at confluency, accumulate ATPase subunit c. Recessive phenotypes are also observed at sub-confluent growth; cathepsin D transport and processing are altered, although enzyme activity is not significantly affected, lysosomal size and distribution are altered, and endocytosis is reduced. In addition, mitochondria are abnormally elongated, cellular ATP levels are decreased, and survival following oxidative stress is reduced. Conclusions These findings reveal that battenin is required for intracellular membrane trafficking and mitochondrial function. Moreover, these deficiencies are likely to be early events in the JNCL disease process and may particularly impact neuronal survival. PMID:15588329

  5. Abnormal Subcortical Brain Morphology in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cui Ping; Bai, Zhi Lan; Zhang, Xiao Na; Zhang, Qiu Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the involvement of subcortical brain structures in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and persistent pain as the defining symptom of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), little attention has been paid to the morphometric measurements of these subcortical nuclei in patients with KOA. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential morphological abnormalities of subcortical brain structures in patients with KOA as compared to the healthy control subjects by using high-resolution MRI. Structural MR data were acquired from 26 patients with KOA and 31 demographically similar healthy individuals. The MR data were analyzed by using FMRIB’s integrated registration and segmentation tool. Both volumetric analysis and surface-based shape analysis were performed to characterize the subcortical morphology. The normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in the KOA group than in the control group (P = 0.004). There was also a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus in KOA as compared to the control group (P = 0.027). Detailed surface analyses further localized these differences with a greater involvement of the left hemisphere (P < 0.05, corrected) for the caudate nucleus. Hemispheric asymmetry (right larger than left) of the caudate nucleus was found in both KOA and control groups. Besides, no significant correlation was found between the structural data and pain intensities. Our results indicated that patients with KOA had statistically significant smaller normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus and a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus as compared to the control subjects. Further investigations are necessary to characterize the role of caudate nucleus in the course of chronicity of pain associated with KOA. PMID:26834629

  6. Specific degradation of phosphatidylglycerol is necessary for proper mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, Lucia; Čermáková, Petra; Horváth, Anton; Baile, Matthew G; Claypool, Steven M; Griač, Peter; Malínský, Jan; Balážová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    In yeast, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is a minor phospholipid under standard conditions; it can be utilized for cardiolipin (CL) biosynthesis by CL synthase, Crd1p, or alternatively degraded by the phospholipase Pgc1p. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants crd1Δ and pgc1Δ both accumulate PG. Based on analyses of the phospholipid content of pgc1Δ and crd1Δ yeast, we revealed that in yeast mitochondria, two separate pools of PG are present, which differ in their fatty acid composition and accessibility for Pgc1p-catalyzed degradation. In contrast to CL-deficient crd1Δ yeast, the pgc1Δ mutant contains normal levels of CL. This makes the pgc1Δ strain a suitable model to study the effect of accumulation of PG per se. Using fluorescence microscopy, we show that accumulation of PG with normal levels of CL resulted in increased fragmentation of mitochondria, while in the absence of CL, accumulation of PG led to the formation of large mitochondrial sheets. We also show that pgc1Δ mitochondria exhibited increased respiration rates due to increased activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Taken together, our results indicate that not only a lack of anionic phospholipids, but also excess PG, or unbalanced ratios of anionic phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes, have harmful consequences on mitochondrial morphology and function.

  7. Differential microstructural and morphological abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from cortical and deep gray matter.

    PubMed

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Chan, Chun-Chung; Leung, Lam-Ming; Wong, Chun-Sing; Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-05-01

    One aim of this study is to use non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for capturing microstructural abnormalities in gray matter of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The other aim is to compare DKI metrics against thickness of cortical gray matter and volume of deep gray matter, respectively. A cohort of 18 patients with AD, 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 normal controls underwent morphological and DKI MR imaging. Images were investigated using regions-of-interest-based analyses for deep gray matter and vertex-wise analyses for cortical gray matter. In deep gray matter, more regions showed DKI parametric abnormalities than atrophies at the early MCI stage. Mean kurtosis (MK) exhibited the largest number of significant abnormalities among all DKI metrics. At the later AD stage, diffusional abnormalities were observed in fewer regions than atrophies. In cortical gray matter, abnormalities in thickness were mainly in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, which fit the locations of known early pathological changes. Microstructural abnormalities were predominantly in the parietal and even frontal lobes, which fit the locations of known late pathological changes. In conclusion, MK can complement conventional diffusion metrics for detecting microstructural changes, especially in deep gray matter. This study also provides evidence supporting the notion that microstructural changes predate morphological changes. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2495-2508, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans increased abnormal sperm morphology without alterations in aneuploidy: The Yucheng study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-Chi; Li, Ming-Chieh; Lee, Yeu-Chin; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2016-12-01

    In 1979, more than 2000 persons ingested rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans; this event was called the "Yucheng accident." An increased percentage of oligospermia, reduced ability of sperm to penetrate oocytes, and reduced percentage of male offspring were reported in Yucheng men. This study examined whether the sperm sex ratio and chromosome aneuploidy are responsible for our observed findings in Yucheng men. In 1999-2000, Yucheng men and their neighborhood referents aged 37-50 years were recruited for physical examination, followed by semen analysis. The semen samples were analyzed for chromosomal aneuploidy through fluorescent in situ hybridization according to an established procedure in our laboratory. A total of 50 Yucheng men and 34 neighborhood referents volunteered to participate in the study. Although abnormal morphology was mildly increased, no differences were observed in sperm percentages, with normal numbers of chromosomes X, Y, and 8 in the two groups. The percentage of sperm with aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes or chromosome 8 and of that with diploidy did not vary between both groups. The normal X/Y sperm ratio was not different between the groups. However, among Yucheng men, 8% had a normal X/Y sperm ratio of >1.4, and no neighborhood referent showed such an elevated X/Y ratio. Chromosomal aneuploidy was not elevated in Yucheng men. The mechanisms underlying the reduced sperm capability of oocyte penetration and changed offspring sex ratio in Yucheng men remain undetermined.

  9. The oral administration of D-galactose induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; da Silva, Sabrina; Luz, Aline Pereira da; Schiavo, Gustavo Luiz; Batista-Silva, Hemily; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emílio Luiz; Quevedo, João

    2017-02-24

    D-Galactose (D-gal) chronic administration via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes has been used as a model of aging and Alzheimer disease in rodents. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of D-gal causes memory impairments, a reduction in the neurogenesis of adult mice, an increase in the levels of the amyloid precursor protein and oxidative damage; However, the effects of oral D-gal remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral administration of D-gal induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain of rats. Male Wistar rats (4 months old) received D-gal (100 mg/kg v.o.), during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th or 8th weeks by oral gavage. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was measured in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks after the administration of D-gal. The activity of the respiratory chain complex I was found to have increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 6th and 8th weeks, while the activity of the respiratory chain complex II increased in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the hippocampus and in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the prefrontal cortex. The activity of complex II-III increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in each week of oral D-gal treatment. The activity of complex IV increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment the activity increased only in hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study showed that the oral administration of D-gal increased the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III and IV in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the administration of D-gal via the oral route seems to cause the alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes observed in brain neurodegeneration.

  10. Lack of FTSH4 Protease Affects Protein Carbonylation, Mitochondrial Morphology, and Phospholipid Content in Mitochondria of Arabidopsis: New Insights into a Complex Interplay.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Skibior-Blaszczyk, Renata; Czarna, Malgorzata; Kolodziejczak, Marta; Kwasniak-Owczarek, Malgorzata; Parys, Katarzyna; Funk, Christiane; Janska, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    FTSH4 is one of the inner membrane-embedded ATP-dependent metalloproteases in mitochondria of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In mutants impaired to express FTSH4, carbonylated proteins accumulated and leaf morphology was altered when grown under a short-day photoperiod, at 22°C, and a long-day photoperiod, at 30°C. To provide better insight into the function of FTSH4, we compared the mitochondrial proteomes and oxyproteomes of two ftsh4 mutants and wild-type plants grown under conditions inducing the phenotypic alterations. Numerous proteins from various submitochondrial compartments were observed to be carbonylated in the ftsh4 mutants, indicating a widespread oxidative stress. One of the reasons for the accumulation of carbonylated proteins in ftsh4 was the limited ATP-dependent proteolytic capacity of ftsh4 mitochondria, arising from insufficient ATP amount, probably as a result of an impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), especially complex V. In ftsh4, we further observed giant, spherical mitochondria coexisting among normal ones. Both effects, the increased number of abnormal mitochondria and the decreased stability/activity of the OXPHOS complexes, were probably caused by the lower amount of the mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin. We postulate that the reduced cardiolipin content in ftsh4 mitochondria leads to perturbations within the OXPHOS complexes, generating more reactive oxygen species and less ATP, and to the deregulation of mitochondrial dynamics, causing in consequence the accumulation of oxidative damage.

  11. Egestion of asbestos fibers in Tetrahymena results in early morphological abnormalities. A step in the induction of heterogeneous cell lines?

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1989-01-01

    In Tetrahymena populations exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers, many cells develop morphological abnormalities within 1-2 hours. The abnormalities are mainly large or small protrusions or indentations, or flattened parts of the cell surface and most often located in the posterior part of the cell. They are formed repeatedly in all cells but are also continuously repaired so that the fraction of cells affected represents an equilibrium between these two processes. Their formation is connected with egestion of the large bundles of fibers formed by phagocytosis. Such effects of egestion of fibers do not seem to have been reported previously. Egestion of a bundle of fibers is much slower than for other types of undigestible residues. In contrast to normal exocytosis occurring invariably at the cytoproct, egestion of asbestos often occurs in the posterior part of the cell outside the cytoproct. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of either very slow or extra-cytoproctal egestion in Tetrahymena. Cells with large abnormalities have a greater tendency to develop into "early heterogeneous" cells than the average abnormal cell. Some of these give rise to hereditarily stable heterogeneous cell lines of Tetrahymena. The morphological abnormalities are probably caused by mechanical action of the crocidolite fibers resulting in local damage of the cytoskeletal elements responsible for normal cell shape. The heterogenous cell lines may arise when cellular structures carrying non-genic cytotactically inherited information are modified. The relevance of these ideas to the induction of cancer by asbestos is briefly discussed.

  12. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (Bayesian posterior probability >0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these evolutionary relationships suggests that (i) a larval life history stage reevolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times; (ii) there is no phylogenetic support for the “Out of Appalachia” hypothesis of plethodontid origins; and (iii) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative. PMID:15365171

  13. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Modulates the S-Nitrosoproteome and the Mitochondrial Morphology in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tsan-Wan; Chen, Ying-Lun; Wu, Chien-Yi; Yu, Pei-Ling; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Huang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the endogenous gaseous molecules promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) which has cardioprotective functions. However, the role of the H2S-mediated protein S-nitrosoproteome and its subsequent physiological response remains unclear. Methods Endothelial cells EAhy 926 were treated with 50 μM of H2S for 2 hours. The NO bound S-nitrosoproteins were purified by a biotin-switch and then digested by trypsin. Resulting peptides from control and H2S treatment were separately labeled by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation 114/115, quantified by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry and analyzed by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software. The microP software was applied to analyze the morphological changes of mitochondria. Results With the treatment of H2S, 416 S-nitrosylated proteins were identified. IPA analysis showed that these proteins were involved in five signaling pathways. The NO-bound cysteine residues and the S-nitrosylation levels (115/114) were shown for ten S-nitrosoproteins. Western blot further verified the S-nitrosylation of thioredoxin-dependant peroxide reductase, cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome b-c1 complex that are involved in the mitochondrial signaling pathway. H2O2-induced mitochondrial swelling can be reduced by the pretreatment of H2S. Conclusions The H2S-mediated endothelial S-nitrosoproteome has been confirmed. In the present study, we have proposed the cardioprotective role of H2S via maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27713610

  15. A Mutation in a Novel Yeast Proteasomal Gene, RPN11/MPR1, Produces a Cell Cycle Arrest, Overreplication of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA, and an Altered Mitochondrial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Teresa; Ricci, Carlo; Porro, Danilo; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Frontali, Laura

    1998-01-01

    We report here the functional characterization of an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, MPR1, coding for a regulatory proteasomal subunit for which the name Rpn11p has been proposed. For this study we made use of the mpr1-1 mutation that causes the following pleiotropic defects. At 24°C growth is delayed on glucose and impaired on glycerol, whereas no growth is seen at 36°C on either carbon source. Microscopic observation of cells growing on glucose at 24°C shows that most of them bear a large bud, whereas mitochondrial morphology is profoundly altered. A shift to the nonpermissive temperature produces aberrant elongated cell morphologies, whereas the nucleus fails to divide. Flow cytometry profiles after the shift to the nonpermissive temperature indicate overreplication of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Consistently with the identification of Mpr1p with a proteasomal subunit, the mutation is complemented by the human POH1 proteasomal gene. Moreover, the mpr1-1 mutant grown to stationary phase accumulates ubiquitinated proteins. Localization of the Rpn11p/Mpr1p protein has been studied by green fluorescent protein fusion, and the fusion protein has been found to be mainly associated to cytoplasmic structures. For the first time, a proteasomal mutation has also revealed an associated mitochondrial phenotype. We actually showed, by the use of [rho°] cells derived from the mutant, that the increase in DNA content per cell is due in part to an increase in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, microscopy of mpr1-1 cells grown on glucose showed that multiple punctate mitochondrial structures were present in place of the tubular network found in the wild-type strain. These data strongly suggest that mpr1-1 is a valuable tool with which to study the possible roles of proteasomal function in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:9763452

  16. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER-mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W; Drousiotou, Anthi; Petrou, Petros P

    2017-03-01

    Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria.

  17. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, M; Kanari, Y; Yokoya, A; Narita, A; Fujii, K

    2015-09-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death.

  18. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and morphology elucidate an extinct island radiation of Indian Ocean giant tortoises (Cylindraspis).

    PubMed Central

    Austin, J. J.; Arnold, E. N.

    2001-01-01

    Ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences were used for investigating the evolution of an entire clade of extinct vertebrates, the endemic tortoises (Cylindraspis) of the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. Mitochondrial DNA corroborates morphological evidence that there were five species of tortoise with the following relationships: Cylindraspis triserrata ((Cylindraspis vosmaeri and Cylindraspis peltastes) (Cylindraspis inepta and Cylindraspis indica)). Phylogeny indicates that the ancestor of the group first colonized Mauritius where speciation produced C. triserrata and the ancestor of the other species including a second sympatric Mauritian form, C. inepta. A propagule derived from this lineage colonized Rodrigues 590 km to the east, where a second within-island speciation took place producing the sympatric C. vosmaeri and C. peltastes. A recent colonization of Réunion 150 km to the southwest produced C. indica. In the virtual absence of predators, the defensive features of the shells of Mascarene tortoises were largely dismantled, apparently in two stages. 'Saddlebacked' shells with high fronts evolved independently on all three islands. This and other features, such as a derived jaw structure and small body size, may be associated with niche differentiation in sympatric species and may represent a striking example of parallel differentiation in a large terrestrial vertebrate. The history of Mascarene tortoises contrasts with that of the Galápagos, where only a single species is present and surviving populations are genetically much more similar. However, they too show some reduction in anti-predator mechanisms and multiple development of populations with saddlebacked shells. PMID:11749704

  19. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and morphology elucidate an extinct island radiation of Indian Ocean giant tortoises (Cylindraspis).

    PubMed

    Austin, J J; Arnold, E N

    2001-12-22

    Ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences were used for investigating the evolution of an entire clade of extinct vertebrates, the endemic tortoises (Cylindraspis) of the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. Mitochondrial DNA corroborates morphological evidence that there were five species of tortoise with the following relationships: Cylindraspis triserrata ((Cylindraspis vosmaeri and Cylindraspis peltastes) (Cylindraspis inepta and Cylindraspis indica)). Phylogeny indicates that the ancestor of the group first colonized Mauritius where speciation produced C. triserrata and the ancestor of the other species including a second sympatric Mauritian form, C. inepta. A propagule derived from this lineage colonized Rodrigues 590 km to the east, where a second within-island speciation took place producing the sympatric C. vosmaeri and C. peltastes. A recent colonization of Réunion 150 km to the southwest produced C. indica. In the virtual absence of predators, the defensive features of the shells of Mascarene tortoises were largely dismantled, apparently in two stages. 'Saddlebacked' shells with high fronts evolved independently on all three islands. This and other features, such as a derived jaw structure and small body size, may be associated with niche differentiation in sympatric species and may represent a striking example of parallel differentiation in a large terrestrial vertebrate. The history of Mascarene tortoises contrasts with that of the Galápagos, where only a single species is present and surviving populations are genetically much more similar. However, they too show some reduction in anti-predator mechanisms and multiple development of populations with saddlebacked shells.

  20. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER–mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W.; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria. PMID:28137759

  1. A phylogeny of howler monkeys (Cebidae: Alouatta) based on mitochondrial, chromosomal and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Federico; Valerio, Alejandro A; Retana, Axel P

    2004-09-01

    The current taxonomic status of the species and subspecies belonging to the genus Alouatta is addressed by combined phylogenetic analysis using morphological, kariotipyc and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytocrome oxidase II and cytochrome B). Our result demonstrated that Alouatta palliata is the most basal taxon for the genus in concordance with previous studies, as well as showing the validity of the taxon Alouatta sara as a species. Also our analysis shows that the sex chromosome has evolved from a XY/XX system to a X1X2Y1Y2/X1X1X2X2 system within the genus, as well as an increase in the size and complexity of the hioideal bone.

  2. Altered mitochondrial morphology and defective protein import reveal novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Iqbal, Sobia; O'Leary, Michael F N; Menzies, Keir J; Saleem, Ayesha; Ding, Shuzhe; Hood, David A

    2013-09-01

    The function Bax and/or Bak in constituting a gateway for mitochondrial apoptosis in response to apoptotic stimuli has been unequivocally demonstrated. However, recent work has suggested that Bax/Bak may have unrecognized nonapoptotic functions related to mitochondrial function in nonstressful environments. Wild-type (WT) and Bax/Bak double knockout (DKO) mice were used to determine alternative roles for Bax and Bak in mitochondrial morphology and protein import in skeletal muscle. The absence of Bax and/or Bak altered mitochondrial dynamics by regulating protein components of the organelle fission and fusion machinery. Moreover, DKO mice exhibited defective mitochondrial protein import, both into the matrix and outer membrane compartments, which was consistent with our observations of impaired membrane potential and attenuated expression of protein import machinery (PIM) components in intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Furthermore, the cytosolic chaperones heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were markedly increased with the deletion of Bax/Bak, indicating that the cytosolic environment related to protein folding may be changed in DKO mice. Interestingly, endurance training fully restored the deficiency of protein import in DKO mice, likely via the upregulation of PIM components and through improved cytosolic chaperone protein expression. Thus our results emphasize novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in mitochondrial function and provide evidence, for the first time, of a curative function of exercise training in ameliorating a condition of defective mitochondrial protein import.

  3. Stoichiometric expression of mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 modulates mitochondrial morphology and cristae structure via Opa1L cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoungchun; Ahn, Younghee; Kang, Sung-Myung; Park, Youngjin; Jeon, You-Jin; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2015-06-15

    Deregulation of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 40 (mtHsp40) and dysfunction of mtHsp70 are associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 may play roles in modulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fragmentation induced by mtHsp40 deregulation and mtHsp70 dysfunction remains unclear. In addition, the functional link between mitochondrial morphology change upon deregulated mtHsp40/mtHsp70 and mitochondrial function has been unexplored. Our coimmunoprecipitation and protein aggregation analysis showed that both overexpression and depletion of mtHsp40 accumulated aggregated proteins in fragmented mitochondria. Moreover, mtHsp70 loss and expression of a mtHsp70 mutant lacking the client-binding domain caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Together the data suggest that the molecular ratio of mtHsp40 to mtHsp70 is important for their chaperone function and mitochondrial morphology. Whereas mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 was not altered, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) short isoform accumulated in fragmented mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fragmentation in this study results from aberration of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. Finally, we found that fragmented mitochondria were defective in cristae development, OXPHOS, and ATP production. Taken together, our data suggest that impaired stoichiometry between mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 promotes Opa1L cleavage, leading to cristae opening, decreased OXPHOS, and triggering of mitochondrial fragmentation after reduction in their chaperone function.

  4. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  5. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-08-15

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways.

  6. Early Functional and Morphologic Abnormalities in the Diabetic Nyxnob Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Tarchick, Matthew J.; Bassiri, Parastoo; Rohwer, Rebecca M.; Samuels, Ivy S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The electroretinogram c-wave is generated by the summation of the positive polarity hyperpolarization of the apical RPE membrane and a negative polarity slow PIII response of Müller glia cells. Therefore, the c-wave reduction noted in prior studies of mouse models of diabetes could reflect a reduction in the RPE component or an increase in slow PIII. The present study used a genetic approach to distinguish between these two alternatives. Methods Nyxnob mice lack the ERG b-wave, revealing the early phase of slow PIII. To visualize changes in slow PIII due to diabetes, Nyxnob mice were given streptozotocin (STZ) injections to induce diabetes or received vehicle as a control. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks of sustained hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL), standard strobe flash ERG and dc-ERG testing were conducted. Histological analysis of the retina was performed. Results A reduced c-wave was noted at the 1 week time point, and persisted at later time points. In comparison, slow PIII amplitudes were unaffected after 1 week of hyperglycemia, but were significantly reduced in STZ mice at the 2-week time point. The decrease in amplitude occurred before any identifiable decrease to the a-wave. At the later time point, the a-wave became involved, although the slow PIII reductions were more pronounced. Morphological abnormalities in the RPE, including increased thickness and altered melanosome distribution, were identified in diabetic animals. Conclusions Because the c-wave and slow PIII were both reduced, these results demonstrated that diabetes-induced reductions to the c-wave cannot be attributed to an early increase in the Müller glia-derived potassium conductance. Furthermore, because the a-wave, slow PIII and c-wave reductions were not equivalent, and varied in their onset, the reductions cannot reflect the same mechanism, such as a change in membrane resistance. The presence of small changes to RPE architecture indicate that the c-wave reductions present in diabetic mice

  7. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein hFis1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and fission through self-interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serasinghe, Madhavika N.; Yoon, Yisang

    2008-11-15

    Mitochondrial fission in mammals is mediated by at least two proteins, DLP1/Drp1 and hFis1. DLP1 mediates the scission of mitochondrial membranes through GTP hydrolysis, and hFis1 is a putative DLP1 receptor anchored at the mitochondrial outer membrane by a C-terminal single transmembrane domain. The cytosolic domain of hFis1 contains six {alpha}-helices ({alpha}1-{alpha}6) out of which {alpha}2-{alpha}5 form two tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) folds. In this study, by using chimeric constructs, we demonstrated that the cytosolic domain contains the necessary information for hFis1 function during mitochondrial fission. By using transient expression of different mutant forms of the hFis1 protein, we found that hFis1 self-interaction plays an important role in mitochondrial fission. Our results show that deletion of the {alpha}1 helix greatly increased the formation of dimeric and oligomeric forms of hFis1, indicating that {alpha}1 helix functions as a negative regulator of the hFis1 self-interaction. Further mutational approaches revealed that a tyrosine residue in the {alpha}5 helix and the linker between {alpha}3 and {alpha}4 helices participate in hFis1 oligomerization. Mutations causing oligomerization defect greatly reduced the ability to induce not only mitochondrial fragmentation by full-length hFis1 but also the formation of swollen ball-shaped mitochondria caused by {alpha}1-deleted hFis1. Our data suggest that oligomerization of hFis1 in the mitochondrial outer membrane plays a role in mitochondrial fission, potentially through participating in fission factor recruitment.

  8. Pathogenetic transition in the morphology of abnormal sperm in the testes and the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymides of male rats after treatment with 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken L; Takahashi, Naofumi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Kuwahara, Maki; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Teramoto, Shoji

    2006-10-01

    In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of tailless sperm, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) was administered to Jcl:SD male rats at daily oral doses of 0, 10 or 15mg/kg for 5 days. Sperm were collected from the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymides on days 1, 7 and 14 after the last dosing (D1, D7 and D14, respectively), counted and examined morphologically by phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy. The incidence of abnormal sperm was significantly increased in the DNOC 15mg/kg group. On D1, peeled sperm (loss of mitochondrial sheath at the proximal end of the middle piece) was frequently observed in the caput epididymides, whereas sperm in the corpus and cauda epididymides had normal morphology. Distribution of the peeled sperm changed as time passed and the corpus epididymides showed a peak incidence on D7. On D14, the highest incidence of abnormal sperm was observed in the cauda epididymides, where the major abnormality was tailless. Similar effects were also found in the 10mg/kg group but were less potent. Transmission electron microscopy of testicular sperm on D1 revealed the presence of elongated spermatids that lacked the mitochondrial sheath at the proximal end of the middle piece, although the round and elongating spermatids looked normal. These results suggest that DNOC exposure of male rats primarily causes partial loss of the mitochondrial sheath in the testicular elongated spermatids, and that the affected sperm become tailless by D14 after reaching the cauda epididymides.

  9. Calcium-induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum contacts in rat brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Golic, I; Velickovic, K; Markelic, M; Stancic, A; Jankovic, A; Vucetic, M; Otasevic, V; Buzadzic, B; Korac, B; Korac, A

    2014-09-09

    Mitochondria are key organelles maintaining cellular bioenergetics and integrity, and their regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis has been investigated in many cell types. We investigated the short-term Ca-SANDOZ® treatment on brown adipocyte mitochondria, using imaging and molecular biology techniques. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Ca-SANDOZ® drinking or tap water (control) drinking for three days. Alizarin Red S staining showed increased Ca2+ level in the brown adipocytes of treated rats, and potassium pyroantimonate staining localized electron-dense regions in the cytoplasm, mitochondria and around lipid droplets. Ca-SANDOZ® decreased mitochondrial number, but increased their size and mitochondrial cristae volume. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous enlarged and fusioned-like mitochondria in the Ca-SANDOZ® treated group compared to the control, and megamitochondria in some brown adipocytes. The Ca2+ diet affected mitochondrial fusion as mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) were increased, and mitochondrial fission as dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) was decreased. Confocal microscopy showed a higher colocalization rate between functional mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The level of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) was elevated, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These results suggest that Ca-SANDOZ® stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial-ER contacts and the thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes.

  10. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts. PMID:26758245

  11. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-13

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts.

  12. Morphological adaptation with no mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the coastal plain swamp sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Cordero, P.J.; Droege, S.; Fleischer, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    We estimated genetic differentiation between morphologically distinct tidal marsh populations of Swamp Sparrows (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) and the more wide-spread inland populations (M. g. georgiana and M. g. ericrypta). The tidal marsh populations are consistently grayer with more extensive black markings (particularly in the crown), and their bills are larger. These differences are variously shared with other species of salt marsh birds and small mammals. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (5' end of control region, COII/tlys/ATPase8, and ND2) of Swamp Sparrows and found low levels of genetic variation and no evidence of geographic structure. These results suggest a rapid and recent geographic expansion of Swamp Sparrows from restricted Pleistocene populations. Morphological differentiation has occurred without long-term genetic isolation, suggesting that selection on the divergent traits is intense. The grayer and more melanistic plumage is probably cryptic coloration for foraging on tidal mud, which tends to be grayish as a result of the formation of iron sulfides, rather than iron oxides, under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Epididymal hypo-osmolality induces abnormal sperm morphology and function in the estrogen receptor alpha knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Avenel; Shur, Barry D; Ko, CheMyong; Chambon, Pierre; Hess, Rex A

    2010-05-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) is highly expressed in the efferent ductules of all species studied as well as in the epididymal epithelium in mice and other select species. Male mice lacking ESR1 (Esr1KO) are infertile, but transplantation studies demonstrated that Esr1KO germ cells are capable of fertilization when placed in a wild-type reproductive tract. These results suggest that extratesticular regions, such as the efferent ductules and epididymis, are the major source of pathological changes in Esr1KO males. Previous studies have shown alterations in ion and fluid transporters in the efferent duct and epididymal epithelia of Esr1KO males, leading to misregulation of luminal fluid pH. To determine the effect of an altered epididymal milieu on Esr1KO sperm, we assayed sperm morphology in the different regions of the epididymis. Sperm recovered from the epididymis exhibited abnormal flagellar coiling and increased incidence of spontaneous acrosome reactions, both of which are consistent with exposure to abnormal epididymal fluid. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the osmolality of the Esr1KO fluid was reduced relative to wild type, consistent with prior reports of inappropriate fluid absorption from the efferent ductules. This, along with the finding that morphological defects increased with transit through the epididymal duct, suggests that the anomalies in sperm are a consequence of the abnormal luminal environment. Consistent with this, incubating Esr1KO sperm in a more wild-type-like osmotic environment significantly rescued the abnormal flagellar coiling. This work demonstrates that Esr1KO mice exhibit an abnormal fluid environment in the lumen of the efferent ducts and epididymis, precluding normal sperm maturation and instead resulting in progressive deterioration of sperm that contributes to infertility.

  14. Swimming attenuates D-galactose-induced brain aging via suppressing miR-34a-mediated autophagy impairment and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Jie; Liu, Xingran; Chang, Jingru; Zhao, Qingxia; Jia, Shaohui; Fan, Jingjing; Chen, Ning

    2017-03-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the regulatory role of miR-34a in aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) during exercise intervention, we constructed a rat model with (D-galactose) D-gal-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment coupled with dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, determined the mitigation of cognitive impairment of D-gal-induced aging rats during swimming intervention, and evaluated miR-34a-mediated functional status of autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. Meanwhile, whether the up-regulation of miR-34a can lead to dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y cells with silenced miR-34a by the transfection of miR-34a inhibitor. Results indicated that swimming intervention could significantly attenuate cognitive impairment, rescue the up-regulation of miR-34a, mitigate the dysfunctional autophagy, and inhibit the increase of Drp1 in D-gal-induced aging model rats. In contrast, miR-34a inhibitor in cell model not only attenuated D-gal-induced autophagy impairment, but also decreased the expression of Drp1 and Mfn2. Therefore, swimming training can attenuate the impairment of miR-34a-mediated autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics during D-gal-induced aging process in rat hippocampal tissue, which may be one of the mechanisms for delaying brain aging through swimming training, and miR-34a could be the novel therapeutic target for aging-related diseases such as AD.

  15. Instability of the mitofusin Fzo1 regulates mitochondrial morphology during the mating response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Neutzner, Albert; Youle, Richard J

    2005-05-13

    Mitochondria form a highly dynamic network that is shaped by continuous fission and fusion of these organelles. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two machineries are involved in this process, one of which includes the mitochondrial fusion promoting GTPase Fzo1. Although a role for the F-box protein Mdm30 in regulating the stability of Fzo1 has been proposed, the molecular basis for the regulation of the fission to fusion ratio of mitochondria remains unknown. To discern the mechanism of the regulation of mitochondrial morphology, we arrested cells at different stages of the cell cycle and examined mitochondrial morphology as well as the stability of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins. In response to a G1 arrest evoked by the mating pheromone alpha factor the mitochondrial network fragmented into small pieces, which was accompanied by dramatic down-regulation of Fzo1. Mating pheromone also triggered the degradation of Fzo1 produced under the control of a constitutive promoter, and Fzo1 was stabilized upon proteasome inhibition, indicating a role for the proteasome system in the degradation of Fzo1. However, deletion of MDM30 did not stabilize Fzo1 after mating pheromone treatment, showing a different mechanism from the previously reported process of steady state Fzo1 regulation. We show an example for a regulated change of the mitochondrial fission to fusion ratio during the life cycle of budding yeast. Proteasomal degradation of Fzo1 in response to the mating pheromone is proposed to mediate the remodeling of the mitochondrial network during the process of mating.

  16. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells.

    PubMed

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria assemble into flexible networks. Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. Established in, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. In combination with super-resolution images, MitoLoc uses 3D reconstruction to calculate six geometrical classifiers which differentiate network morphologies in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants, under oxidative stress and in cells lacking mtDNA, even when the network is fragmented to a similar extent. We find that mitochondrial fission and a decline in membrane potential do regularly, but not necessarily, co-occur. MitoLoc hence simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. Marker plasmid open-source software as well as the mathematical procedures are made openly available.

  17. MicroRNA-181c targets Bcl-2 and regulates mitochondrial morphology in myocardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjiang; Li, Jing; Chi, Hongjie; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Cai, Jun; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the development of heart failure. Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis in the intrinsic pathway. The main regulator of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is Bcl-2 family which includes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or inducing mRNA degradation. It has been proposed that microRNAs play critical roles in the cardiovascular physiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has found that microRNA-181c, a miRNA expressed in the myocardial cells, plays an important role in the development of heart failure. With bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that miR-181c could target the 3′ untranslated region of Bcl-2, one of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Thus, we have suggested that miR-181c was involved in regulation of Bcl-2. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Cultured myocardial cells were transfected with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c. We found that the level of miR-181c was inversely correlated with the Bcl-2 protein level and that transfection of myocardial cells with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c resulted in significant changes in the levels of caspases, Bcl-2 and cytochrome C in these cells. The increased level of Bcl-2 caused by the decrease in miR-181c protected mitochondrial morphology from the tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. PMID:25898913

  18. Abnormal sperm morphology in mouse germ cells after short-term exposures to acetamiprid, propineb, and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Rasgele, Pinar Göç

    2014-03-01

    Pesticides are one of the most potent environmental contaminants, which accumulate in biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. Acetamiprid (Acm), a neonicotinoid insecticide, and Propineb (Pro), a dithiocarbamate fungicide, are widely used to control sucking insects and fungal infections on crops, respectively. The present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effects of these compounds, individually and in mixtures, in mouse germ cells by using the sperm morphology assay. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.625, 1.25, and 2.50 μg mL⁻¹ of Acm, 12.5, 25, and 50 μg mL⁻¹ of Pro, and their mixture at the same concentrations over 24 and 48 h. Acm did not significantly increase the percentage of abnormal sperm at any concentration. The frequency of abnormal sperm significantly increased after 24 and 48 h of exposure to 50 μg mL⁻¹ of Pro. The mixtures of 2.50 μg mL⁻¹ of Acm and 50 μg mL⁻¹ of Pro induced sperm abnormalities antagonistically both after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Results suggest that Acm was non-genotoxic for mouse germ cells, while Pro may have been a germ cell mutagen due to the observed increase in the frequency of sperm abnormalities. However, to gain better insight into the mutagenicity and DNA damaging potential of both of these pesticides, further studies at molecular level should be done.

  19. Increases in morphologically abnormal sperm in rats exposed to Co60 irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lock, L F; Soares, E R

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of testicular exposure to different doses of Co60 radiation on sperm morphology in F-344 rats. The results indicate that from 150 rad to 500 rad gamma irradiation causes statistically significant, dose-related increased in 1) the percent of morphologically aberrant sperm and 2) the frequency of tailless sperm. Both of these effects were detectable in sperm which were derived from treated spermatid, spermatocytes, and spermatogonial cells. These data indicate that the development of a sperm morphology assay in rats is feasible.

  20. Morphology of mitochondrial nucleoids, mitochondria, and nuclei during meiosis and sporulation of the yeast Saccharomycodes ludwigii.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Isamu; Nakahara, Ayumi; Ito, Kohei

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids), mitochondria, and nuclei was investigated during meiosis and sporulation of the diploid cells of the ascosporogenic yeast Saccharomycodes ludwigii. The mt-nucleoids appeared as discrete dots uniformly distributed in stationary-phase cells as revealed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Throughout first and second meiotic divisions, the mt-nucleoids moved to be located close to the dividing nuclei with the appearance of dots. On the other hand, mitochondria, which had tubular or fragmented forms in stationary-phase cells, increasingly fused with each other to form elongated mitochondria during meiotic prophase as revealed by 3,3' -dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide [DiOC(6)(3)] staining. Mitochondria assembled to be located close to dividing nuclei during first and second meiotic divisions, and were finally incorporated into spores. During the first meiotic division, nuclear division occurred in any direction parallel, diagonally, or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cell. In contrast, the second meiotic division was exclusively parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cell. The behavior of dividing nuclei explains the formation of a pair of spores with opposite mating types at both ends of cells. In the course of this study, it was also found that ledges between two spores were specifically stained with DiOC(6)(3).

  1. Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

  2. Essential control of mitochondrial morphology and function by chaperone-mediated autophagy through degradation of PARK7

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Cai, Zhibiao; Tao, Kai; Zeng, Weijun; Lu, Fangfang; Yang, Ruixin; Feng, Dayun; Gao, Guodong; Yang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a selective degradation system, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival under stress conditions. Increasing evidence points to an important role for the dysfunction of CMA in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the mechanisms by which CMA regulates neuronal survival under stress and its role in neurodegenerative diseases are not fully understood. PARK7/DJ-1 is an autosomal recessive familial PD gene. PARK7 plays a critical role in antioxidative response and its dysfunction leads to mitochondrial defects. In the current study, we showed that CMA mediated the lysosome-dependent degradation of PARK7. Importantly, CMA preferentially removed the oxidatively damaged nonfunctional PARK7 protein. Furthermore, CMA protected cells from mitochondrial toxin MPP+-induced changes in mitochondrial morphology and function, and increased cell viability. These protective effects were lost under PARK7-deficiency conditions. Conversely, overexpression of PARK7 significantly attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death exacerbated by blocking CMA under oxidative stress. Thus, our findings reveal a mechanism by which CMA protects mitochondrial function by degrading nonfunctional PARK7 and maintaining its homeostasis, and dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to the neuronal stress and death in PD pathogenesis. PMID:27171370

  3. Drp1-Dependent Mitochondrial Fission Plays Critical Roles in Physiological and Pathological Progresses in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenxia; Huang, Yong; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Current research has demonstrated that mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function are maintained by the balanced regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion, and perturbation of the homeostasis between these processes has been related to cell or organ dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial redistribution. Abnormal mitochondrial fusion induces the fragmentation of mitochondria from a tubular morphology into pieces; in contrast, perturbed mitochondrial fission results in the fusion of adjacent mitochondria. A member of the dynamin family of large GTPases, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), effectively influences cell survival and apoptosis by mediating the mitochondrial fission process in mammals. Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission is an intricate process regulating both cellular and organ dynamics, including development, apoptosis, acute organ injury, and various diseases. Only after clarification of the regulative mechanisms of this critical protein in vivo and in vitro will it set a milestone for preventing mitochondrial fission related pathological processes and refractory diseases. PMID:28098754

  4. Drp1-Dependent Mitochondrial Fission Plays Critical Roles in Physiological and Pathological Progresses in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenxia; Huang, Yong; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-13

    Current research has demonstrated that mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function are maintained by the balanced regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion, and perturbation of the homeostasis between these processes has been related to cell or organ dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial redistribution. Abnormal mitochondrial fusion induces the fragmentation of mitochondria from a tubular morphology into pieces; in contrast, perturbed mitochondrial fission results in the fusion of adjacent mitochondria. A member of the dynamin family of large GTPases, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), effectively influences cell survival and apoptosis by mediating the mitochondrial fission process in mammals. Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission is an intricate process regulating both cellular and organ dynamics, including development, apoptosis, acute organ injury, and various diseases. Only after clarification of the regulative mechanisms of this critical protein in vivo and in vitro will it set a milestone for preventing mitochondrial fission related pathological processes and refractory diseases.

  5. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  6. Normal sperm morphology and changes of semen characteristics and abnormal morphological spermatozoa among peri-mating seasons in captive japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Murase, Tetsuma; Nakamura, Sachiko; Komatsu, Takeshi; Tsubota, Toshio; Asano, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain morphological data for normal spermatozoa and to investigate seasonal changes (the early, mid- and post-mating seasons) in abnormal morphology of spermatozoa and the characteristics of semen in Japanese black bears. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 34 captive male Japanese black bears a total of 74 times. Length of head, width of head, length of midpiece and total length of the spermatozoa were 6.3 +/- 0.4, 4.5 +/- 0.3, 10.4 +/- 0.7 and 69.6 +/- 3.1 mum (mean +/- SD; 20 semen, 200 spermatozoa), respectively. In the semen collected during the mid-mating season, ejaculate volume, ejaculate pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, viability and intact acrosomes were 0.46 +/- 0.36 ml, 7.3 +/- 0.4, 659 +/- 644 x 10(6)/ml, 214 +/- 208 x 10(6), 82.9 +/- 9.6%, 89.3 +/- 9.5% and 97.0 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- SD; n=21, in ejaculate pH n=8), respectively. Sperm motility and viability in the early (n=7) and mid-mating (n=21) seasons were significantly higher than in the post-mating (n=8) season. The rates of detached heads in the early and mid-mating season were significantly lower than in the post-mating season. The main abnormal morphologies observed (mean +/- SD%; n=23) were simply bent tail (19.9 +/- 22.6), distal droplets (13.5 +/- 11.7), proximal droplets (9.6 +/- 7.8), teratoid spermatozoa (6.7 +/- 10.7), knobbed acrosome (4.9 +/- 8.6), acrosome damage (3.7 +/- 2.8) and bent midpiece (3.7 +/- 5.1). The data will be useful for artificial breeding and further research on male reproductive physiology in this species.

  7. Methamphetamine induces abnormal sperm morphology, low sperm concentration and apoptosis in the testis of male rats.

    PubMed

    Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2011-08-01

    Methamphetamine has been reported to be an important drug in the field of reproductive toxicology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methamphetamine administrations on sperm morphology, sperm concentration and apoptotic activity inside seminiferous tubule in male rats. Rats were administered a dose of 8 mg kg(-1) , intraperitoneally (IP), for acute group and a dose of 4 mg kg(-1) , IP, once daily for 14 days for sub-acute group. Percentage of normal sperm morphology was decreased in acute group when compared with control. Total numbers of sperm count were significantly decreased in acute and sub-acute groups. Apoptotic activities were most abundant in the seminiferous tubules of acute treated animals with a highly significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells per tubule. Those effects of methamphetamine seem to be dose-dependent. The results suggest that methamphetamine not only works as drug of abuse in central nervous system, but also in gametogenesis of males.

  8. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology and function by stearoylation of TFR1.

    PubMed

    Senyilmaz, Deniz; Virtue, Sam; Xu, Xiaojun; Tan, Chong Yew; Griffin, Julian L; Miller, Aubry K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2015-09-03

    Mitochondria are involved in a variety of cellular functions, including ATP production, amino acid and lipid biogenesis and breakdown, signalling and apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and ageing. Although transcriptional mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial abundance are known, comparatively little is known about how mitochondrial function is regulated. Here we identify the metabolite stearic acid (C18:0) and human transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1; also known as TFRC) as mitochondrial regulators. We elucidate a signalling pathway whereby C18:0 stearoylates TFR1, thereby inhibiting its activation of JNK signalling. This leads to reduced ubiquitination of mitofusin via HUWE1, thereby promoting mitochondrial fusion and function. We find that animal cells are poised to respond to both increases and decreases in C18:0 levels, with increased C18:0 dietary intake boosting mitochondrial fusion in vivo. Intriguingly, dietary C18:0 supplementation can counteract the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by genetic defects such as loss of the Parkinson's disease genes Pink or Parkin in Drosophila. This work identifies the metabolite C18:0 as a signalling molecule regulating mitochondrial function in response to diet.

  9. Mdm31 protein mediates sensitivity to potassium ionophores but does not regulate mitochondrial morphology or phospholipid trafficking in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Branislav; Lajdova, Dana; Abelovska, Lenka; Balazova, Maria; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2015-03-01

    Mdm31p is an inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein with unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutants lacking Mdm31p contain only a few giant spherical mitochondria with disorganized internal structure, altered phospholipid composition and disturbed ion homeostasis, accompanied by increased resistance to the electroneutral K+ /H+ ionophore nigericin. These phenotypes are interpreted as resulting from diverse roles of Mdm31p, presumably in linking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to the machinery involved in segregation of mitochondria, in mediating cation transport across IMM and in phospholipid shuttling between mitochondrial membranes. To investigate which of the roles of Mdm31p are conserved in ascomycetous yeasts, we analysed the Mdm31p orthologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our results demonstrate that, similarly to its S. cerevisiae counterpart, SpMdm31 is a mitochondrial protein and its absence results in increased resistance to nigericin. However, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, Sz. pombe cells lacking SpMdm31 are also less sensitive to the electrogenic K+ ionophore valinomycin. Moreover, mitochondria of the fission yeast mdm31Δ mutant display no changes in morphology or phospholipid composition. Therefore, in terms of function, the two orthologous proteins appear to have considerably diverged between these two evolutionarily distant yeast species, possibly sharing only their participation in ion homeostasis.

  10. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  11. A morphologic study of the airway structure abnormalities in patients with asthma by high-resolution computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Luo, Jian; Du, Wen; Zhang, Lan-Lan; He, Li-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Airway structure changes, termed as airway remodeling, are common in asthma patients due to chronic inflammation, which can be assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Considering the controversial conclusions in the correlation of morphologic abnormalities with clinical feature and outcome, we aimed to further specify and evaluate the structural abnormalities of Chinese asthmatics by HRCT. Methods From August 2012 to February 2015, outpatients with asthma were recruited consecutively in the Asthma Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Standard HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed to collect information of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, mucus impaction, emphysema, mosaic perfusion, atelectasis, and spirometric parameters. We reported the incidence of each structural abnormality in HRCT and compared it among different asthmatic severities. Results A total of 123 asthmatics were enrolled, among which 84 (68.3%) were female and 39 (31.7%) were male. At least one structural abnormality was detected by HRCT in 85.4% asthmatics, and the incidence of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, mucus impaction, emphysema, mosaic perfusion, and atelectasis was 57.7%, 51.2%, 22%, 24.4%, 5.7% and 1.6%, respectively. The incidences of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilation and emphysema were significantly increased by asthma severity (P<0.05), while incidences of mucus impaction (26/27, 96.30%), mosaic perfusion (6/7, 85.71%) and atelectasis (2/2, 100%) were mainly found in severe asthma. We found a longer asthma history (28.13±18.55 years, P<0.001, P=0.003), older age (51.30±10.70 years, P=0.022, P=0.006) and lower predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) (41.97±15.19, P<0.001, P<0.001) and ratio of forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) (48.01±9.55, P<0.001, P<0.001) in patients with severe bronchial dilation compared with those in

  12. Brain flexibility and balance and gait performances mark morphological and metabolic abnormalities in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Douraied; Walker, Paul M; Aho, Serge; Tavernier, Béatrice; Giroud, Maurice; Tzourio, Christophe; Ricolfi, Frédéric; Brunotte, François

    2008-12-01

    Although previous studies have found that cerebral white matter hyperintensities are associated with balance-gait disorders, no proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data at the plane of the basal ganglia have been published. We investigated a possible relationship between balance performance and brain metabolite ratios or structural MRI measurements. We also included neuropsychological tests to determine whether such tests are related to structural or metabolic findings. All 80 participants were taken from the cohort of the Three-City study (Dijon-Bordeaux-Montpellier, France). The ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) were calculated in the basal ganglia, thalami and insular cortex. We used univariate regression to identify which variables predicted changes in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr, and completed the analysis with a multiple linear or logistic regression. After the multivariate analysis including hypertension, age, balance-gait, sex, white matter lesions, brain atrophy and body mass index, only balance-gait performance remained statistically significant for NAA/Cr (p=0.01) and for deep white-matter lesions (p=0.02). The Trail-Making Test is independently associated with brain atrophy and periventricular white-matter hyperintensities. Neuronal and axonal integrity at the plane of the basal ganglia is associated with balance and gait in the elderly, whereas brain flexibility is associated with structural MRI brain abnormalities.

  13. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  14. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Lischinsky, Julieta E; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10-12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  15. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  16. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders.

  17. A proteomic screen with Drosophila Opa1-like identifies Hsc70-5/Mortalin as a regulator of mitochondrial morphology and cellular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shamik; Chinthapalli, Balaji

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by conserved proteins involved in fusion and fission processes. The mammalian Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) that functions in mitochondrial fusion is associated with Optic Atrophy and has been implicated in inner membrane cristae remodeling during cell death. Here, we show Drosophila Optic atrophy 1-like (Opa1-like) influences mitochondrial morphology through interaction with 'mitochondria-shaping' proteins like Mitochondrial assembly regulatory factor (Marf) and Drosophila Mitofilin (dMitofilin). To gain an insight into Opa1-like's network, we delineated bonafide interactors like dMitofilin, Marf, Serine protease High temperature requirement protein A2 (HTRA2), Rhomboid-7 (Rho-7) along with novel interactors such as Mortalin ortholog (Hsc70-5) from Drosophila mitochondrial extract. Interestingly, RNAi mediated down-regulation of hsc70-5 in Drosophila wing imaginal disc's peripodial cells resulted in fragmented mitochondria with reduced membrane potential leading to proteolysis of Opa1-like. Increased ecdysone activity induced dysfunctional fragmented mitochondria for clearance through lysosomes, an effect enhanced in hsc70-5 RNAi leading to increased cell death. Over-expression of Opa1-like rescues mitochondrial morphology and cell death in prepupal tissues expressing hsc70-5 RNAi. Taken together, we have identified a novel interaction between Hsc70-5/Mortalin and Opa1-like that influences cellular homeostasis through mitochondrial fusion.

  18. The mitochondrial genomes of Campodea fragilis and C. lubbocki(Hexapoda: Diplura): high genetic divergence in a morphologically uniformtaxon

    SciTech Connect

    Podsiadlowski, L.; Carapelli, A.; Nardi, F.; Dallai, R.; Koch,M.; Boore, J.L.; Frati, F.

    2005-12-01

    Mitochondrial genomes from two dipluran hexapods of the genus Campodea have been sequenced. Gene order is the same as in most other hexapods and crustaceans. Secondary structures of tRNAs reveal specific structural changes in tRNA-C, tRNA-R, tRNA-S1 and tRNA-S2. Comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid composition, as well as structural features of both ribosomal RNA subunits, reveal substantial differences among the analyzed taxa. Although the two Campodea species are morphologically highly uniform, genetic divergence is larger than expected, suggesting a long evolutionary history under stable ecological conditions.

  19. Effects of silica and titanium oxide particles on a human neural stem cell line: morphology, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression of differentiation markers.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Inoue, Yuriko; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Ikeda, Keiichi; Usui, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kim, Seung U; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-02

    Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm) have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs) line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 µm) and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 µm). Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations = 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker) at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations =62.5 µg/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure.

  20. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury.

  1. Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6.

  2. The Heuristic of Form: Mitochondrial Morphology and the Explanation of Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, the search for the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation by biochemists paralleled the description of mitochondrial form by George Palade and Fritiof Sjöstrand using electron microscopy. This paper explores the extent to which biochemists studying oxidative phosphorylation took mitochondrial form into account in the formulation of hypotheses, design of experiments, and interpretation of results. By examining experimental approaches employed by the biochemists studying oxidative phosphorylation, and their interactions with Palade, I suggest that use of mitochondrial form as a guide to experimentation and interpretation varied considerably among investigators. Most notably, Peter Mitchell, whose chemiosmotic hypothesis was ultimately the basis of the correct mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, incorporated crucial aspects of mitochondrial form into his model that others failed to recognize. I discuss these historical observations in terms of the background and training of the biochemists, as well as a proposed heuristic of form, whose use may increase the possibility that biologically meaningful molecular mechanisms will be discovered.

  3. Presynaptic mitochondrial morphology in monkey prefrontal cortex correlates with working memory and is improved with estrogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2014-01-07

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause-related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on the energy-demanding recurrent excitation of neurons within Brodmann's Area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the number and morphology (straight, curved, or donut-shaped) of mitochondria in dlPFC presynaptic boutons are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and that these metrics correlate with delayed response (DR) accuracy, a well-characterized measure of dlPFC-dependent working memory. Although presynaptic bouton density or size was not significantly different across groups distinguished by age or menses status, DR accuracy correlated positively with the number of total and straight mitochondria per dlPFC bouton. In contrast, DR accuracy correlated inversely with the frequency of boutons containing donut-shaped mitochondria, which exhibited smaller active zone areas and fewer docked synaptic vesicles than those with straight or curved mitochondria. We then examined the effects of estrogen administration to test whether a treatment known to improve working memory influences mitochondrial morphology. Aged ovariectomized monkeys treated with vehicle displayed significant working memory impairment and a concomitant 44% increase in presynaptic donut-shaped mitochondria, both of which were reversed with cyclic estradiol treatment. Together, our data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may benefit cognitive aging, in part by promoting mitochondrial and synaptic health in the dlPFC.

  4. Frequent discordance between morphology and mitochondrial DNA in a species group of European water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T; Turner, Lucy; Foster, Garth N

    2017-01-01

    The Hydroporus memnonius species group includes both widespread and range restricted diving beetle taxa in the western Palaearctic, some of which have been divided into a number of geographical subspecies. Of these, Hydroporus necopinatus is distributed in the far west of Europe, from central Spain to southern Britain, and has been split into three subspecies, occurring in Iberia (necopinatus sst.), France (robertorum) and England (roni) respectively-the last of these being a rare example of an insect taxon apparently endemic to northern Europe. Here we explore inter-relationships between populations and subspecies of H. necopinatus and related members of the Hydroporus melanarius subgroup, using mitochondrial COI sequence data. We reveal widespread discordance between mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and morphology in areas where H. necopinatus and H. melanarius come into contact, consistent with historical introgressive hybridization between these taxa. In light of this discordance, the lack of clear genetic divergence between H. necopinatus subspecies, and the fact that both robertorum and roni are morphologically intermediate between H. necopinatus sstr. and H. melanarius, we suggest that these taxa may be of hybridogenic origin, rather than representing discrete evolutionary lineages.

  5. Frequent discordance between morphology and mitochondrial DNA in a species group of European water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy; Foster, Garth N.

    2017-01-01

    The Hydroporus memnonius species group includes both widespread and range restricted diving beetle taxa in the western Palaearctic, some of which have been divided into a number of geographical subspecies. Of these, Hydroporus necopinatus is distributed in the far west of Europe, from central Spain to southern Britain, and has been split into three subspecies, occurring in Iberia (necopinatus sst.), France (robertorum) and England (roni) respectively—the last of these being a rare example of an insect taxon apparently endemic to northern Europe. Here we explore inter-relationships between populations and subspecies of H. necopinatus and related members of the Hydroporus melanarius subgroup, using mitochondrial COI sequence data. We reveal widespread discordance between mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and morphology in areas where H. necopinatus and H. melanarius come into contact, consistent with historical introgressive hybridization between these taxa. In light of this discordance, the lack of clear genetic divergence between H. necopinatus subspecies, and the fact that both robertorum and roni are morphologically intermediate between H. necopinatus sstr. and H. melanarius, we suggest that these taxa may be of hybridogenic origin, rather than representing discrete evolutionary lineages. PMID:28289570

  6. Resolution of the Hylobates phylogeny: congruence of mitochondrial D-loop sequences with molecular, behavioral, and morphological data sets.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Danielle J; Morales, Juan Carlos; Melnick, Don J

    2007-11-01

    Gibbons of the genus Hylobates likely speciated very rapidly following isolation by rising sea levels during the Pleistocene. We sequenced the hypervariable region I (HV-I) of the mitochondrial D-loop to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group. Although the results clearly supported monophyly of each of the six species, the relationships among them were not clearly resolved by these data alone. A homogeneity test against published data sets of a coding mitochondrial locus (ND3-ND4 region), behavioral characters (vocalizations), and morphological traits (including skeletal and soft tissue anatomy) revealed no significant incongruence, and combining them resulted in a phylogenetic tree with much stronger support. The Kloss's gibbon (H. klossii), long considered a primitive taxon based on morphology, shares many molecular and vocal characteristics with the Javan gibbon (H. moloch), and appear as the most recently derived species. The northernmost species (H. lar and H. pileatus) are the most basal taxa. These data suggest that ancestral gibbons radiated from north to south. Unlike other markers, the HV-I region can accurately identify members of different gibbon species much like a DNA barcode, with potential applications to conservation.

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the limelight of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Beal, M. Flint; Thomas, Bobby

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with unknown etiology. It is marked by widespread neurodegeneration in the brain with profound loss of A9 midbrain dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. Several theories of biochemical abnormalities have been linked to pathogenesis of PD of which mitochondrial dysfunction due to an impairment of mitochondrial complex I and subsequent oxidative stress seems to take the center stage in experimental models of PD and in postmortem tissues of sporadic forms of illness. Recent identification of specific gene mutations and their influence on mitochondrial functions has further reinforced the relevance of mitochondrial abnormalities in disease pathogenesis. In both sporadic and familial forms of PD abnormal mitochondrial paradigms associated with disease include impaired functioning of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, aging associated damage to mitochondrial DNA, impaired calcium buffering, and anomalies in mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. Here we provide an overview of specific mitochondrial functions affected in sporadic and familial PD that play a role in disease pathogenesis. We propose to utilize these gained insights to further streamline and focus the research to better understand mitochondria's role in disease development and exploit potential mitochondrial targets for therapeutic interventions in PD pathogenesis. PMID:19059336

  8. Morphological abnormalities, impaired fetal development and decrease in myostatin expression following somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Se-Il; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; You, Sang-Young; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-05-01

    Several mammals, including dogs, have been successfully cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but the efficiency of generating normal, live offspring is relatively low. Although the high failure rate has been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei during the cloning process, the exact cause is not fully known. To elucidate the cause of death in cloned offspring, 12 deceased offspring cloned by SCNT were necropsied. The clones were either stillborn just prior to delivery or died with dyspnea shortly after birth. On gross examination, defects in the anterior abdominal wall and increased heart and liver sizes were found. Notably, a significant increase in muscle mass and macroglossia lesions were observed in deceased SCNT-cloned dogs. Interestingly, the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth during embryogenesis, was down-regulated at the mRNA level in tongues and skeletal muscles of SCNT-cloned dogs compared with a normal dog. Results of the present study suggest that decreased expression of myostatin in SCNT-cloned dogs may be involved in morphological abnormalities such as increased muscle mass and macroglossia, which may contribute to impaired fetal development and poor survival rates.

  9. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  10. The decreased expression of mitofusin-1 and increased fission-1 together with alterations in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats with chronic fluorosis may involve elevated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-Li; Deng, Jie; Lou, Di-Dong; Yu, Wen-Feng; Pei, Jinjing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize changes in the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and fission-1 (Fis1), as well as in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats subjected to chronic fluorosis and to elucidate whether any mitochondrial injury observed is associated with increased oxidative stress. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 3 groups of 20 each, i.e., the untreated control group (natural drinking water containing <0.5mg fluoride/L), the low-fluoride group (drinking water supplemented with 10mg fluoride/L, prepared with NaF) and the high-fluoride group (50mg fluoride/L), and treated for 6 months. Thereafter, renal expression of Mfn1 and Fis1 at both the protein and mRNA levels was determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, respectively. In addition, the malondiadehyde (MDA) was quantitated by the thiobarbituric acid procedure and the total antioxidative capability (T-AOC) by a colorimetric method. The morphology of renal mitochondria was observed under the transmission electron microscope. In the renal tissues of rats with chronic fluorosis, expression of both Mfn1 protein and mRNA was clearly reduced, whereas that of Fis1 was elevated. The level of MDA was increased and the T-AOC lowered. Swollen or fragmented mitochondria in renal cells were observed under the electronic microscope. These findings indicate that chronic fluorosis can lead to the abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and changed morphology in the rat kidney, which in mechanism might be induced by a high level of oxidative stress in the disease.

  11. GNG11 (G-protein γ subunit 11) suppresses cell growth with induction of reactive oxygen species and abnormal nuclear morphology in human SUSM-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takauji, Yuki; Kudo, Ikuru; En, Atsuki; Matsuo, Ryo; Hossain, Mohammad; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Miki, Kensuke; Fujii, Michihiko; Ayusawa, Dai

    2017-04-05

    Enforced expression of GNG11, G-protein γ subunit 11, induces cellular senescence in normal human diploid fibroblasts. We here examined the effect of the expression of GNG11 on the growth of immortalized human cell lines, and found that it suppressed the growth of SUSM-1 cells, but not of HeLa cells. We then compared these two cell lines to understand the molecular basis for the action of GNG11. We found that expression of GNG11 induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal nuclear morphology in SUSM-1 cells but not in HeLa cells. Increased ROS generation by GNG11 would likely be caused by the down-regulation of the antioxidant enzymes in SUSM-1 cells. We also found that SUSM-1 cells, even under normal culture conditions, showed higher levels of ROS and higher incidence of abnormal nuclear morphology than HeLa cells, and that abnormal nuclear morphology was relevant to the increased ROS generation in SUSM-1 cells. Thus, SUSM-1 and HeLa cells showed differences in the regulation of ROS and nuclear morphology, which might account for their different responses to the expression of GNG11. Then, SUSM-1 cells may provide a unique system to study the regulatory relationship between ROS generation, nuclear morphology, and G-protein signaling.

  12. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  13. Deceptive single-locus taxonomy and phylogeography: Wolbachia-associated divergence in mitochondrial DNA is not reflected in morphology and nuclear markers in a butterfly species

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Simonsen, Thomas J; Bromilow, Sean; Wahlberg, Niklas; Sperling, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The satyrine butterfly Coenonympha tullia (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) displays a deep split between two mitochondrial clades, one restricted to northern Alberta, Canada, and the other found throughout Alberta and across North America. We confirm this deep divide and test hypotheses explaining its phylogeographic structure. Neither genitalia morphology nor nuclear gene sequence supports cryptic species as an explanation, instead indicating differences between nuclear and mitochondrial genome histories. Sex-biased dispersal is unlikely to cause such mito-nuclear differences; however, selective sweeps by reproductive parasites could have led to this conflict. About half of the tested samples were infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Using multilocus strain typing for three Wolbachia genes, we show that the divergent mitochondrial clades are associated with two different Wolbachia strains, supporting the hypothesis that the mito-nuclear differences resulted from selection on the mitochondrial genome due to selective sweeps by Wolbachia strains. PMID:24455146

  14. Nonredundant roles of mitochondria-associated F-box proteins Mfb1 and Mdm30 in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology in yeast.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Mark; Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Merz, Sandra; Geimer, Stefan; Langer, Thomas; Westermann, Benedikt

    2006-09-01

    Mitochondria constantly fuse and divide to adapt organellar morphology to the cell's ever-changing physiological conditions. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dynamics. F-box proteins are subunits of both Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligases and non-SCF complexes that regulate a large number of cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the roles of two yeast F-box proteins, Mfb1 and Mdm30, in mitochondrial dynamics. Mfb1 is a novel mitochondria-associated F-box protein. Mitochondria in mutants lacking Mfb1 are fusion competent, but they form aberrant aggregates of interconnected tubules. In contrast, mitochondria in mutants lacking Mdm30 are highly fragmented due to a defect in mitochondrial fusion. Fragmented mitochondria are docked but nonfused in Deltamdm30 cells. Mitochondrial fusion is also blocked during sporulation of homozygous diploid mutants lacking Mdm30, leading to a mitochondrial inheritance defect in ascospores. Mfb1 and Mdm30 exert nonredundant functions and likely have different target proteins. Because defects in F-box protein mutants could not be mimicked by depletion of SCF complex and proteasome core subunits, additional yet unknown factors are likely involved in regulating mitochondrial dynamics. We propose that mitochondria-associated F-box proteins Mfb1 and Mdm30 are key components of a complex machinery that regulates mitochondrial dynamics throughout yeast's entire life cycle.

  15. Multiple Lines of Evidence Localize Signaling, Morphology, and Lipid Biosynthesis Machinery to the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane of Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Owen; Taylor, Nicolas L.; Carrie, Chris; Eubel, Holger; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Zhang, Botao; Narsai, Reena; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial outer membrane is notoriously difficult to deduce by orthology to other organisms, and biochemical enrichments are inevitably contaminated with the closely associated inner mitochondrial membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In order to identify novel proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we integrated a quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of highly enriched and prefractionated samples with a number of confirmatory biochemical and cell biology approaches. This approach identified 42 proteins, 27 of which were novel, more than doubling the number of confirmed outer membrane proteins in plant mitochondria and suggesting novel functions for the plant outer mitochondrial membrane. The novel components identified included proteins that affected mitochondrial morphology and/or segregation, a protein that suggests the presence of bacterial type lipid A in the outer membrane, highly stress-inducible proteins, as well as proteins necessary for embryo development and several of unknown function. Additionally, proteins previously inferred via orthology to be present in other compartments, such as an NADH:cytochrome B5 reductase required for hydroxyl fatty acid accumulation in developing seeds, were shown to be located in the outer membrane. These results also revealed novel proteins, which may have evolved to fulfill plant-specific requirements of the mitochondrial outer membrane, and provide a basis for the future functional characterization of these proteins in the context of mitochondrial intracellular interaction. PMID:21896887

  16. Liver ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial DNA levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: no evidence of mitochondrial damage with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Motoi; Chu, Fanny F S; Au, May; Lu, Helen; Chen, Jennifer; Rietkerk, Sonja; Barrios, Rolando; Farley, John D; Montaner, Julio S; Montessori, Valentina C; Walker, David C; Côté, Hélène C F

    2008-06-19

    Liver mitochondrial toxicity is a concern, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Liver biopsies from HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 14 ON-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and nine OFF-HAART, were assessed by electron microscopy quantitative morphometric analyses. Hepatocytes tended to be larger ON-HAART than OFF-HAART (P = 0.05), but mitochondrial volume, cristae density, lipid volume, mitochondrial DNA and RNA levels were similar. We found no evidence of increased mitochondrial toxicity in individuals currently on HAART, suggesting that concomitant HAART should not delay HCV therapy.

  17. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, Elisabeth; Zhu, Yong; Carpenter, James M; Strassmann, Joan E

    2004-01-01

    Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera) using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group. PMID:15070433

  18. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology show independent evolutionary histories of bedbug Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) on bats and humans.

    PubMed

    Balvín, Ondřej; Munclinger, Pavel; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Vilímová, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    The bedbug, Cimex lectularius, is a well-known human ectoparasite that is reemerging after a long absence of several decades in developed countries of North America and Western Europe. Bedbugs' original hosts were likely bats, and the bedbugs are still common in their roosts. Using morphometry and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S genes, we showed that the populations on bats and humans are largely isolated and differ in morphology. The character of the morphological difference suggests it to be due to adaptation to different hosts, namely adaptations to different sensory, feeding, and dispersal needs. Using the molecular data, we estimated the time of splitting into bat- and human-parasitizing groups using the isolation-with-migration model. The estimate is surprisingly long ago and seems to predate the expansion of modern human from Africa. The gene flow between bat- and human-parasitizing bedbugs is limited and asymmetric with prevailing direction from human-parasitizing populations to bat-parasitizing populations. The differentiation of the populations fits the concept of host races and supports the idea of sympatric speciation. Furthermore, our findings contradict recently formulated hypotheses suggesting bat roosts as a source of bedbug's resurgence as a human pest. Also, we extend the known host range of the bedbug by two bat species.

  19. Mitochondrial abnormality in sensory, but not motor, axons in paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W H; Zheng, H; Zheng, F Y; Nuydens, R; Meert, T F; Bennett, G J

    2011-12-29

    The dose-limiting side effect of the anti-neoplastic agent, paclitaxel, is a chronic distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy that produces sensory dysfunction (hypoesthesia and neuropathic pain) but little or no distal motor dysfunction. Similar peripheral neuropathies are seen with chemotherapeutics in the vinca alkaloid, platinum-complex, and proteasome inhibitor classes. Studies in rats suggest that the cause is a mitotoxic effect on axonal mitochondria. If so, then the absence of motor dysfunction may be due to mitotoxicity that affects sensory axons but spares motor axons. To investigate this, paclitaxel exposure levels in the dorsal root, ventral root, dorsal root ganglion, peripheral nerve, and spinal cord were measured, and the ultrastructure and the respiratory function of mitochondria in dorsal roots and ventral roots were compared. Sensory and motor axons in the roots and nerve had comparably low exposure to paclitaxel and exposure in the spinal cord was negligible. However, sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion had a very high and remarkably persistent (up to 10 days or more after the last injection) exposure to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel evoked a significant increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in the myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons of the dorsal root (as seen previously in the peripheral nerve) but not in the motor axons of the ventral root. Stimulated mitochondrial respiration in the dorsal root was significantly depressed in paclitaxel-treated animals examined 2-4 weeks after the last injection, whereas respiration in the ventral root was normal. We conclude that the absence of motor dysfunction in paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy may be due to the absence of a mitotoxic effect in motor neuron axons, whereas the sensory dysfunction may be due to a mitotoxic effect resulting from the primary afferent neuron's cell body being exposed to high and persistent levels of paclitaxel.

  20. Amelioration of both functional and morphological abnormalities in the retina of a mouse model of ocular albinism following AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Surace, Enrico Maria; Domenici, Luciano; Cortese, Katia; Cotugno, Gabriella; Di Vicino, Umberto; Venturi, Consuelo; Cellerino, Alessandro; Marigo, Valeria; Tacchetti, Carlo; Ballabio, Andrea; Auricchio, Alberto

    2005-10-01

    X-linked recessive ocular albinism type I (OA1) is due to mutations in the OA1 gene (approved gene symbol GPR143), which is expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The Oa1 (Gpr143) knockout mouse (Oa1(-/-)) model recapitulates many of the OA1 retinal morphological anomalies, including a lower number of melanosomes of increased size in the RPE. The Oa1(-/-) mouse also displays some of the retinal developmental abnormalities observed in albino patients such as misrouting of the optic tracts. Here, we show that these anomalies are associated with retinal electrophysiological abnormalities, including significant decrease in a- and b-wave amplitude and delayed recovery of b-wave amplitude from photoreceptor desensitization following bright light exposure. This suggests that lack of Oa1 in the RPE impacts on photoreceptor activity. More interestingly, adeno-associated viral vector-mediated Oa1 gene transfer to the retina of the Oa1(-/-) mouse model results in significant recovery of its retinal functional abnormalities. In addition, Oa1 retinal gene transfer increases the number of melanosomes in the Oa1(-/-) mouse RPE. Our data show that gene transfer to the adult retina unexpectedly rescues both functional and morphological abnormalities in a retinal developmental disorder, opening novel potential therapeutic perspectives for this and other forms of albinism.

  1. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities.

  2. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B.; Navara, Christopher S.; Schatten, Gerald P.

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  3. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B; Navara, Christopher S; Schatten, Gerald P

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  4. Silencing of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-associated gene GDAP1 induces abnormal mitochondrial distribution and affects Ca2+ homeostasis by reducing store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    PubMed

    Pla-Martín, David; Rueda, Carlos B; Estela, Anna; Sánchez-Piris, Maribel; González-Sánchez, Paloma; Traba, Javier; de la Fuente, Sergio; Scorrano, Luca; Renau-Piqueras, Jaime; Alvarez, Javier; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Palau, Francesc

    2013-07-01

    GDAP1 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that acts as a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics. Mutations of the GDAP1 gene cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. We show that GDAP1 interacts with the vesicle-organelle trafficking proteins RAB6B and caytaxin, which suggests that GDAP1 may participate in the mitochondrial movement within the cell. GDAP1 silencing in the SH-SY5Y cell line induces abnormal distribution of the mitochondrial network, reduces the contact between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and alters the mobilization of mitochondria towards plasma membrane upon depletion of ER-Ca(2+) stores. GDAP1 silencing does not affect mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, ER-Ca(2+), or Ca(2+) flow from ER to mitochondria, but reduces Ca(2+) inflow through store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) following mobilization of ER-Ca(2+) and SOCE-driven Ca(2+) entry in mitochondria. Our studies suggest that the pathophysiology of GDAP1-related CMT neuropathies may be associated with abnormal distribution and movement of mitochondria throughout cytoskeleton towards the ER and subplasmalemmal microdomains, resulting in a decrease in SOCE activity and impaired SOCE-driven Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria.

  5. Effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia polysaccharide A on tumor neurosis factor-α induced hepatocyte injury with mitochondrial abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huiling; Wei, Weikun; Wang, Wang; Zha, Zhengqi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Chen; Yin, Hongping; Huang, Fengjie; Wang, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Cordyceps sinensis mycelia polysaccharide A (CPS-A), was isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia by 65% alcohol extraction and ion-exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of CPS-A was 1.2×10(4)Da and the backbone was mainly composed of (1→2)-linked β-d-mannopyranose, (1→2,4)-linked β-d-mannopyranose and (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranose with terminal β-d-mannopyranose and α-d-glucopyranose residues. CPS-A played a protective role against TNF-α induced mitochondria injury in L02 cells via up-regulation of mitofusin 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and membrane potential. CPS-A also played a protective role against TNF-α induced L02 cells apoptosis via up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bid, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and ROS production. Moreover, CPS-A attenuated both the normal expression and overexpression of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) induced by TNF-α administration. In conclusion, CPS-A was involved in TNF-α induced mitochondria abnormality via TNFR1/ROS/Mfn2 pathway.

  6. Phylogeny of three parapatric species of desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor, C. viatica, and C. savignyi: a comparison of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Knaden, Markus; Tinaut, Alberto; Cerda, Xim; Wehner, Sibylle; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Due to morphological comparisons the Tunisian desert ant species Cataglyphis bicolor has been divided into three parapatric species: C. bicolor, C. viatica, and C. savignyi. The species status of the latter is supported by sequence analyses of the mitochondrial CO1 and CO2 region, while analyses of the same mitochondrial region lacked resolution for the separation of C. bicolor and C. viatica. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes points to different population viscosities with C. bicolor queens having longer migration distances than queens of C. viatica. Furthermore, by the use of microsatellites we excluded ongoing gene flow between geographically overlapping populations of C. bicolor and C. viatica, and hence support the morphology-based three-species hypothesis. Concerning the ongoing discussion on the future roles of morphology and molecular biology in systematics we call for a combination of both whenever possible.

  7. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  8. Analysis of mutations in Neurospora crassa ERMES components reveals specific functions related to β-barrel protein assembly and maintenance of mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Lackey, Sebastian W K; Srayko, Martin A; Norton, Kacie A; Nargang, Frank E

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) tethers the er to mitochondria and contains four structural components: Mmm1, Mdm12, Mdm10, and Mmm2 (Mdm34). The Gem1 protein may play a role in regulating ERMES function. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa strains lacking any of Mmm1, Mdm12, or Mdm10 are known to show a variety of phenotypic defects including altered mitochondrial morphology and defects in the assembly of β-barrel proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Here we examine ERMES complex components in N. crassa and show that Mmm1 is an ER membrane protein containing a Cys residue near its N-terminus that is conserved in the class Sordariomycetes. The residue occurs in the ER-lumen domain of the protein and is involved in the formation of disulphide bonds that give rise to Mmm1 dimers. Dimer formation is required for efficient assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. However, no effects are seen on porin assembly or mitochondrial morphology. This demonstrates a specificity of function and suggests a direct role for Mmm1 in Tom40 assembly. Mutation of a highly conserved region in the cytosolic domain of Mmm1 results in moderate defects in Tom40 and porin assembly, as well as a slight morphological phenotype. Previous reports have not examined the role of Mmm2 with respect to mitochondrial protein import and assembly. Here we show that absence of Mmm2 affects assembly of β-barrel proteins and that lack of any ERMES structural component results in defects in Tom22 assembly. Loss of N. crassa Gem1 has no effect on the assembly of these proteins but does affect mitochondrial morphology.

  9. Analysis of Mutations in Neurospora crassa ERMES Components Reveals Specific Functions Related to β-Barrel Protein Assembly and Maintenance of Mitochondrial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, Jeremy G.; Lackey, Sebastian W. K.; Srayko, Martin A.; Norton, Kacie A.; Nargang, Frank E.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) tethers the ER to mitochondria and contains four structural components: Mmm1, Mdm12, Mdm10, and Mmm2 (Mdm34). The Gem1 protein may play a role in regulating ERMES function. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa strains lacking any of Mmm1, Mdm12, or Mdm10 are known to show a variety of phenotypic defects including altered mitochondrial morphology and defects in the assembly of β-barrel proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Here we examine ERMES complex components in N. crassa and show that Mmm1 is an ER membrane protein containing a Cys residue near its N-terminus that is conserved in the class Sordariomycetes. The residue occurs in the ER-lumen domain of the protein and is involved in the formation of disulphide bonds that give rise to Mmm1 dimers. Dimer formation is required for efficient assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. However, no effects are seen on porin assembly or mitochondrial morphology. This demonstrates a specificity of function and suggests a direct role for Mmm1 in Tom40 assembly. Mutation of a highly conserved region in the cytosolic domain of Mmm1 results in moderate defects in Tom40 and porin assembly, as well as a slight morphological phenotype. Previous reports have not examined the role of Mmm2 with respect to mitochondrial protein import and assembly. Here we show that absence of Mmm2 affects assembly of β-barrel proteins and that lack of any ERMES structural component results in defects in Tom22 assembly. Loss of N. crassa Gem1 has no effect on the assembly of these proteins but does affect mitochondrial morphology. PMID:23940790

  10. Mitochondrial sequences of Seriatopora corals show little agreement with morphology and reveal the duplication of a tRNA gene near the control region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flot, J.-F.; Licuanan, W. Y.; Nakano, Y.; Payri, C.; Cruaud, C.; Tillier, S.

    2008-12-01

    The taxonomy of corals of the genus Seriatopora has not previously been studied using molecular sequence markers. As a first step toward a re-evaluation of species boundaries in this genus, mitochondrial sequence variability was analyzed in 51 samples collected from Okinawa, New Caledonia, and the Philippines. Four clusters of sequences were detected that showed little concordance with species currently recognized on a morphological basis. The most likely explanation is that the skeletal characters used for species identification are highly variable (polymorphic or phenotypically plastic); alternative explanations include introgression/hybridization, or deep coalescence and the retention of ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. In all individuals sequenced, two copies of trnW were found on either side of the atp8 gene near the putative D-loop, a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement that may have arisen from a duplication of the trnW-atp8 region followed by a deletion of one atp8.

  11. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hongwu; He, Xiaoming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Methods A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org). Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well. Results IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL) and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE. Significance This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE. PMID:28060866

  12. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  13. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure contributes to hyphal growth, mitochondrial morphology and virulence of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Geißel, Bernadette; Penka, Mirjam; Neubauer, Michael; Wagener, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the primary causative species of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease associated with high mortality rates. Treatment of invasive fungal infection relies on a very limited number of antifungal drug classes. In order to extend the spectrum of antifungal drugs novel target structures have to be identified. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), a recently discovered tether that links mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, is a potential drug target based on its absence in Metazoa. Very recently, it was shown that ERMES is important for the fitness and immune evasion of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We studied the role of the four ERMES core components Mdm10, Mdm12, Mdm34 and Mmm1 in the pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. By construction and characterizing conditional mutants of all four core components and deletion mutants of mdm10 and mdm12, we show that each component is of significant importance for growth of the fungal pathogen. While markedness of the individual mutant phenotypes differed slightly, all components are important for maintenance of the mitochondrial morphology and the intra-organellar distribution of nucleoids. Characterization of the Mmm1 ERMES mutant in a Galleria mellonella infection model indicates that ERMES contributes to virulence of A. fumigatus. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of ERMES could exert antifungal activity against this important pathogen.

  14. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information.

  15. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.

    PubMed

    Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

    2015-01-01

    Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapaj

  16. Stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors reduces intracellular cholesterol accumulation and rescues mitochondrial abnormalities in human neural cell models of Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A; De Nuccio, C; Pepponi, R; Visentin, S; Martire, A; Bernardo, A; Minghetti, L; Popoli, P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann Pick C 1 (NPC1) disease is an incurable, devastating lysosomal-lipid storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, progressive neurological impairment and early death. Current treatments are very limited and the research of new therapeutic targets is thus mandatory. We recently showed that the stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) rescues the abnormal phenotype of fibroblasts from NPC1 patients suggesting that A2AR agonists could represent a therapeutic option for this disease. However, since all NPC1 patients develop severe neurological symptoms which can be ascribed to the complex pathology occurring in both neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the present paper we tested the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 in human neuronal and oligodendroglial NPC1 cell lines (i.e. neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and oligodendroglial MO3.13 transiently transfected with NPC1 small interfering RNA). The down-regulation of the NPC1 protein effectively resulted in intracellular cholesterol accumulation and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Both effects were significantly attenuated by CGS21680 (500 nM). The protective effects of CGS were prevented by the selective A2AR antagonist ZM241385 (500 nM). The involvement of calcium modulation was demonstrated by the ability of Bapta-AM (5-7 μM) in reverting the effect of CGS. The A2A-dependent activity was prevented by the PKA-inhibitor KT5720, thus showing the involvement of the cAMP/PKA signaling. These findings provide a clear in vitro proof of concept that A2AR agonists are promising potential drugs for NPC disease.

  17. Monitoring the change of mitochondrial morphology and its metabolism of the breast cancer cells with the treatment of Hsp70 inhibitor during heat shock by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Biying; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Heat shock (HS) is one of the best-studied exogenous cellular stresses, and all cellular compartments and metabolic processes are involved in HS response. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) expression enhanced during HS mainly localized in subcellular compartments, such as cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochandria. The major inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) modulate cellular homeostasis and promote cellular survival by blocking a caspase independent cell death through its association with apoptosis inducing factor. Mitochondria as the critical elements of HS response that participate in key metabolic reactions, and the changes in mitochonrial morphology may impact on mitochondrial metabolism. In this paper, the changes of mitorchondrial morphology in breast cancer cell have been monitored in real time after heat shock (43 °) by the fluorescence imaging, and the influence of Hsp70 inhibitor on mitochandrial structures have also been investigated. Then the information of mitochondrial metabolism which can be characterized by the level of the mitochondrial membrane potential has also been obtained wihout/with the treatment of Hsp70 inhibitor. Our data indicated that the mitochandrial morphology were related with the mitochandrial membrane potential, and the mitochandrial membrane potential was influenced significantly with the treatment of Hsp70 inhibitor during HS.

  18. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  19. Number and Brightness analysis of alpha-synuclein oligomerization and the associated mitochondrial morphology alterations in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotegher, N.; Gratton, E.; Bubacco, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha-synuclein oligomerization is associated to Parkinson's disease etiopathogenesis. The study of alpha-synuclein oligomerization properties in live cell and the definition of their effects on cellular viability are among fields expected to provide the knowledge required to unravel the mechanism(s) of toxicity that lead to the disease. Methods We used Number and Brightness method, which is a method based on fluorescence fluctuation analysis, to monitor alpha-synuclein tagged with EGFP aggregation in living SH-SY5Y cells. The presence of alpha-synuclein oligomers detected with this method was associated with intracellular structure conditions, evaluated by fluorescence confocal imaging. Results Cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein-EGFP present a heterogeneous ensemble of oligomers constituted by less than 10 monomers, when the protein approaches a threshold concentration value of about 90 nM in the cell cytoplasm. We show that the oligomeric species are partially sequestered by lysosomes and that the mitochondria morphology is altered in cells presenting oligomers, suggesting that these mitochondria may be dysfunctional. Conclusions We showed that alpha-synuclein overexpression in SH-SY5Y causes the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomeric species, whose presence is associated with mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagic-lysosomal pathway activation in live cells. General significance The unique capability provided by the Number and Brightness analysis to study alpha-synuclein oligomers distribution and properties, and the study their association to intracellular components in single live cells is important to forward our understanding of the molecular mechanisms Parkinson’s disease and it may be of general significance when applied to the study of other aggregating proteins in cellular models. PMID:24561157

  20. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable.

  1. Inhibition of ERK-DLP1 signaling and mitochondrial division alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease cybrid cell

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xueqi; Huang, Shengbin; Wu, Long; Wang, Yongfu; Hu, Gang; Li, Guangyue; Zhang, Hongju; Yu, Haiyang; Swerdlow, Russell Howard; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The underlying mechanisms and strategies to repair it remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the direct consequences and potential mechanisms of mitochondrial functional defects associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in AD. Using cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) neurons with incorporated platelet mitochondria from AD and age-matched non-AD human subjects into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted neuronal cells, we observed that AD cybrid cells had significant changes in morphology and function; such changes associate with altered expression and distribution of dynamin-like protein (DLP1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). Treatment with antioxidant protects against AD mitochondria-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mitochondrial fission-fusion imbalances. Notably, inhibition of ERK activation not only attenuates aberrant mitochondrial morphology and function but also restores the mitochondrial fission and fusion balance. These effects suggest a role of oxidative stress-mediated ERK signal transduction in modulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion events. Further, blockade of the mitochondrial fission protein DLP1 by a genetic manipulation with a dominant negative DLP1 (DLP1K38A), its expression with siRNA-DLP1, or inhibition of mitochondrial division with mdivi-1 attenuates mitochondrial functional defects observed in AD cybrid cells. Our results provide new insights into mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from changes in the ERK-fission/fusion (DLP1) machinery and signaling pathway. The protective effect of mdivi-1 and inhibition of ERK signaling on maintenance of normal mitochondrial structure and function holds promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:24252614

  2. Inhibition of ERK-DLP1 signaling and mitochondrial division alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease cybrid cell.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xueqi; Huang, Shengbin; Wu, Long; Wang, Yongfu; Hu, Gang; Li, Guangyue; Zhang, Hongju; Yu, Haiyang; Swerdlow, Russell Howard; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanisms and strategies to repair it remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the direct consequences and potential mechanisms of mitochondrial functional defects associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in AD. Using cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) neurons with incorporated platelet mitochondria from AD and age-matched non-AD human subjects into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted neuronal cells, we observed that AD cybrid cells had significant changes in morphology and function; such changes associate with altered expression and distribution of dynamin-like protein (DLP1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). Treatment with antioxidant protects against AD mitochondria-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mitochondrial fission-fusion imbalances. Notably, inhibition of ERK activation not only attenuates aberrant mitochondrial morphology and function but also restores the mitochondrial fission and fusion balance. These effects suggest a role of oxidative stress-mediated ERK signal transduction in modulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion events. Further, blockade of the mitochondrial fission protein DLP1 by a genetic manipulation with a dominant negative DLP1 (DLP1(K38A)), its expression with siRNA-DLP1, or inhibition of mitochondrial division with mdivi-1 attenuates mitochondrial functional defects observed in AD cybrid cells. Our results provide new insights into mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from changes in the ERK-fission/fusion (DLP1) machinery and signaling pathway. The protective effect of mdivi-1 and inhibition of ERK signaling on maintenance of normal mitochondrial structure and function holds promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for AD.

  3. Conflict of mitochondrial phylogeny and morphology-based classification in a pair of freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea, Tateidae) from New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marlen; Zielske, Susan; Haase, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Morphological classification and mitochondrial phylogeny of a pair of morphologically defined species of New Caledonian freshwater gastropods, Hemistomia cockerelli and Hemistomia fabrorum, were incongruent. We asked whether these two nominal species can be unambiguously distinguished based on shell morphology or whether the taxonomic discrepancy inferred from these character types was reflected in the variation of shell morphology. Our investigations were based on phylogenetic analyses of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, geometric morphometric analyses as well as micro computer tomography. The species presorted to morphospecies by eye overlapped in shell shape. However, statistically, all shells were correctly assigned, but not all of them significantly. Qualitatively, both nominal species can be unambiguously distinguished by the presence/absence of a prominent denticle within the shell. In the phylogenetic analyses, individuals from three populations clustered with the “wrong” morphospecies. In the absence of data from multiple loci, it was assumed for the single specimen from one of these populations that its misplacement was due to a recent hybridization event, based on its very shallow position in the tree. For the other two cases of misplacement neither introgression nor incomplete lineage sorting could be ruled out. Further investigations have to show whether the morphological overlap has a genetic basis or is due to phenotypic plasticity. In conclusion, despite their partly unresolved relationships Hemistomia cockerelli and Hemistomia fabrorum may be considered sister species, which are reliably diagnosable by the presence or absence of the denticle, but have not yet fully differentiated in all character complexes investigated. PMID:27551195

  4. Cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis in endotoxemia is not accompanied by mitochondrial function recovery.

    PubMed

    Vanasco, Virginia; Saez, Trinidad; Magnani, Natalia D; Pereyra, Leonardo; Marchini, Timoteo; Corach, Alejandra; Vaccaro, María Inés; Corach, Daniel; Evelson, Pablo; Alvarez, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis emerges as a compensatory mechanism involved in the recovery process in endotoxemia and sepsis. The aim of this work was to analyze the time course of the cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis process occurring during endotoxemia, with emphasis on the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial function. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (45 days old) were ip injected with LPS (10 mg/kg). Measurements were performed at 0-24 h after LPS administration. PGC-1α and mtTFA expression for biogenesis and p62 and LC3 expression for autophagy were analyzed by Western blot; mitochondrial DNA levels by qPCR, and mitochondrial morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was evaluated as oxygen consumption and respiratory chain complex activity. PGC-1α and mtTFA expression significantly increased in every time point analyzed, and mitochondrial mass was increased by 20% (P<0.05) at 24 h. p62 expression was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner. LC3-II expression was significantly increased at all time points analyzed. Ultrastructurally, mitochondria displayed several abnormalities (internal vesicles, cristae disruption, and swelling) at 6 and 18 h. Structures compatible with fusion/fission processes were observed at 24 h. A significant decrease in state 3 respiration was observed in every time point analyzed (LPS 6h: 20%, P<0.05). Mitochondrial complex I activity was found decreased by 30% in LPS-treated animals at 6 and 24h. Complex II and complex IV showed decreased activity only at 24 h. The present results show that partial restoration of cardiac mitochondrial architecture is not accompanied by improvement of mitochondrial function in acute endotoxemia. The key implication of our study is that cardiac failure due to bioenergetic dysfunction will be overcome by therapeutic interventions aimed to restore cardiac mitochondrial function.

  5. Morphological abnormalities of embryonic cranial nerves after in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for the pathogenesis of autism with multiple developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yasura; Oyabu, Akiko; Imura, Yoshio; Uchida, Atsuko; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Autism is often associated with multiple developmental anomalies including asymmetric facial palsy. In order to establish the etiology of autism with facial palsy, research into developmental abnormalities of the peripheral facial nerves is necessary. In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their cranial nerves were visualized by immunostaining. Treatment with VPA after embryonic day 9 had a significant effect on the peripheral fibers of several cranial nerves. Following VPA treatment, immunoreactivity within the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was significantly reduced. Additionally, abnormal axonal pathways were observed in the peripheral facial nerves. Thus, the morphology of several cranial nerves, including the facial nerve, can be affected by prenatal VPA exposure as early as E13. Our findings indicate that disruption of early facial nerve development is involved in the etiology of asymmetric facial palsy, and may suggest a link to the etiology of autism.

  6. Suppression of abnormal morphology and extracytoplasmic function sigma activity in Bacillus subtilis ugtP mutant cells by expression of heterologous glucolipid synthases from Acholeplasma laidlawii.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Seki, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Glucolipids in Bacillus subtilis are synthesized by UgtP processively transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to diacylglycerol. Here we conclude that the abnormal morphology of a ugtP mutant is caused by lack of glucolipids, since the same morphology arises after abolition of glucolipid production by disruption of pgcA and gtaB, which are involved in UDP-glucose synthesis. Conversely, expression of a monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDG) produced by 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase from Acholeplasma laidlawii (alMGS) almost completely suppressed the ugtP disruptant phenotype. Activation of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigmas (SigM, SigV, and SigX) in the ugtP mutant was decreased by alMGS expression, and was suppressed to low levels by MgSO4 addition. When alMGS and alDGS (A. laidlawii 1,2-diacylglycerol-3-glucose (1-2)-glucosyltransferase producing diglucosyldiacylglycerol (DGlcDG)) were simultaneously expressed, SigX activation was repressed to wild type level. These observations suggest that MGlcDG molecules are required for maintenance of B. subtilis cell shape and regulation of ECF sigmas, and DGlcDG regulates SigX activity.

  7. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice show abnormalities in ovarian function and morphology with the progression of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka-Kanazawa, Saori; Chihara, Masataka; Nakamura, Teppei; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is known to affect reproductive function, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance is essential for a successful pregnancy. To investigate the relationship between autoimmune disease and female reproductive function, we performed a comparative analysis of the ovarian phenotypes for C57BL/6 mice, autoimmune disease-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL/+) mice and congenic MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice harboring a mutation in the Fas gene that speeds disease onset. Both MRL-background strains showed earlier vaginal opening than C57BL/6 mice. The estrous cycle became irregular by 6 and 12 months of age in MRL/lpr mice and mice of the other two strains, respectively. Histological analysis at 3 months revealed that the number of primordial follicles was smaller in MRL-background mice than in C57BL/6 mice after 3 months. In addition, MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice displayed lower numbers of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea at 3 and 6 months, and 6 and 12 months, respectively, than that in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice developed ovarian interstitial glands after 3 and 6 months, respectively. In particular, MRL/lpr mice showed numerous infiltrating lymphocytes within the ovarian interstitia, and partially stratified ovarian surface epithelia with more developed microvilli than that observed in C57BL/6 mice at 6 months. No significant differences in serum hormone levels were observed between the strains. In conclusion, MRL/lpr mice display altered ovarian development, morphology and function consistent with the progression of severe autoimmune disease, as these findings are less severe in MRL/+ counterparts.

  8. Mice lacking GD3 synthase display morphological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve and neuronal disturbances during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Araújo Gomes, Tiago; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration.

  9. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  10. Death-associated Protein 3 Regulates Mitochondrial-encoded Protein Synthesis and Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Xian, Hongxu; Lee, Kit Yee; Xiao, Bin; Wang, Hongyan; Yu, Fengwei; Shen, Han-Ming; Liou, Yih-Cherng

    2015-10-09

    Mitochondrial morphologies change over time and are tightly regulated by dynamic machinery proteins such as dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitofusion 1/2, and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1). However, the detailed mechanisms of how these molecules cooperate to mediate fission and fusion remain elusive. DAP3 is a mitochondrial ribosomal protein that involves in apoptosis, but its biological function has not been well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that DAP3 specifically localizes in the mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of DAP3 in mitochondria leads to defects in mitochondrial-encoded protein synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, depletion of DAP3 dramatically decreases the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser-637 on mitochondria, enhancing the retention time of Drp1 puncta on mitochondria during the fission process. Furthermore, autophagy is inhibited in the DAP3-depleted cells, which sensitizes cells to different types of death stimuli. Together, our results suggest that DAP3 plays important roles in mitochondrial function and dynamics, providing new insights into the mechanism of a mitochondrial ribosomal protein function in cell death.

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  12. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria.

  13. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer’s Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. PMID:26500256

  14. Loss of PLA2G6 leads to elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Bartolome, Fernando; Angelova, Plamena R.; Li, Li; Pope, Simon; Cochemé, Helena M.; Khan, Shabana; Asghari, Shabnam; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The PLA2G6 gene encodes a group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta enzyme that selectively hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids. Mutations in PLA2G6 have been associated with disorders such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type II and Karak syndrome. More recently, PLA2G6 was identified as the causative gene in a subgroup of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread Lewy body pathology and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, supporting a link between PLA2G6 mutations and parkinsonian disorders. Here we show that knockout of the Drosophila homologue of the PLA2G6 gene, iPLA2-VIA, results in reduced survival, locomotor deficits and organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of iPLA2-VIA function leads to a number of mitochondrial abnormalities, including mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, reduced ATP synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA is strongly associated with increased lipid peroxidation levels. We confirmed our findings using cultured fibroblasts taken from two patients with mutations in the PLA2G6 gene. Similar abnormalities were seen including elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane defects, as well as raised levels of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Finally, we demonstrated that deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit lipid peroxidation, were able to partially rescue the locomotor abnormalities seen in aged flies lacking iPLA2-VIA gene function, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential in fibroblasts from patients with PLA2G6 mutations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that loss of normal PLA2G6 gene activity leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent mitochondrial membrane

  15. Altered age-related changes in bioenergetic properties and mitochondrial morphology in fibroblasts from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott P; Duffy, Lynn M; Shaw, Pamela J; Grierson, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in aging, which is a well-established risk factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously modeled metabolic dysregulation in ALS using fibroblasts isolated from sporadic ALS (SALS) and familial ALS patients. In the present study, we show that fibroblasts from SALS patients have an altered metabolic response to aging. Control fibroblasts demonstrated increased mitochondrial network complexity and spare respiratory capacity with age which was not seen in the SALS cases. SALS cases displayed an increase in uncoupled mitochondrial respiration, which was not evident in control cases. Unlike SALS cases, controls showed a decrease in glycolysis and an increase in the oxygen consumption rate/extracellular acidification rate ratio, indicating an increased reliance on mitochondrial function. Switching to a more oxidative state by removing glucose with in the culture media resulted in a loss of the mitochondrial interconnectivity and spare respiratory capacity increases observed in controls grown in glucose. Glucose removal also led to an age-independent increase in glycolysis in the SALS cases. This study is, to the best our knowledge, the first to assess the effect of aging on both mitochondrial and glycolytic function simultaneously in intact human fibroblasts and demonstrates that the SALS disease state shifts the cellular metabolic response to aging to a more glycolytic state compared with age-matched control fibroblasts. This work highlights that ALS alters the metabolic equilibrium even in peripheral tissues outside the central nervous system. Elucidating at a molecular level how this occurs and at what stage in the disease process is crucial to understanding why ALS affects cellular energy metabolism and how the disease alters the natural cellular response to aging.

  16. Phylogeny, species delimitation and convergence in the South American bothriurid scorpion genus Brachistosternus Pocock 1893: Integrating morphology, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Mattoni, Camilo I; Ochoa, José A; Ramírez, Martín J; Ceccarelli, F Sara; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the scorpion genus Brachistosternus Pocock, 1893 (Bothriuridae Simon, 1880) is presented, based on a dataset including 41 of the 43 described species and five outgroups, 116 morphological characters and more than 4150 base-pairs of DNA sequence from the nuclear 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA gene loci, and the mitochondrial 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I gene loci. Analyses conducted using parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference were largely congruent with high support for most clades. The results confirmed the monophyly of Brachistosternus, the nominal subgenus, and subgenus Ministernus Francke, 1985, as in previous analyses based only on morphology, but differed in several other respects. Species from the plains of the Atacama Desert diverged basally whereas the high altitude Andean species radiated from a more derived ancestor, presumably as a consequence of Andean uplift and associated changes in climate. Species limits were assessed among species that contain intraspecific variation (e.g., different morphs), are difficult to separate morphologically, and/or exhibit widespread or disjunct distributions. The extent of convergence in morphological adaptation to life on sandy substrata (psammophily) and the complexity of the male genitalia, or hemispermatophores, was investigated. Psammophily evolved on at least four independent occasions. The lobe regions of the hemispermatophore increased in complexity on three independent occasions, and decreased in complexity on another three independent occasions.

  17. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Pathology in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Hayley; Sillivan, Stephanie; Konradi, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are severe psychiatric illnesses with a combined prevalence of 4%. A disturbance of energy metabolism is frequently observed in these disorders. Several pieces of evidence point to an underlying dysfunction of mitochondria: i) decreased mitochondrial respiration; (ii) changes in mitochondrial morphology; iii) increases in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms and in levels of mtDNA mutations; iv) downregulation of nuclear mRNA molecules and proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration; v) decreased high-energy phosphates and decreased pH in the brain; and vi) psychotic and affective symptoms, and cognitive decline in mitochondrial disorders. Furthermore, transgenic mice with mutated mitochondrial DNA polymerase show mood disorder-like phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the genetic and physiological components of mitochondria and the evidence for mitochondrial abnormalities in BPD and SZ. We will furthermore describe the role of mitochondria during brain development and the effect of current drugs for mental illness on mitochondrial function. Understanding the role of mitochondria, both developmentally as well as in the ailing brain, is of critical importance to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. PMID:20833242

  18. Altered neuronal mitochondrial coenzyme A synthesis in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation caused by abnormal processing, stability, and catalytic activity of mutant pantothenate kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Kotzbauer, Paul T; Truax, Adam C; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2005-01-19

    Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) gene have been identified in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; formerly Hallervorden-Spatz disease). However, the mechanisms by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration are unclear, especially given the existence of multiple pantothenate kinase genes in humans and multiple PanK2 transcripts with potentially different subcellular localizations. We demonstrate that PanK2 protein is localized to mitochondria of neurons in human brain, distinguishing it from other pantothenate kinases that do not possess mitochondrial-targeting sequences. PanK2 protein translated from the most 5' start site is sequentially cleaved at two sites by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, generating a long-lived 48 kDa mature protein identical to that found in human brain extracts. The mature protein catalyzes the initial step in coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis but displays feedback inhibition in response to species of acyl CoA rather than CoA itself. Some, but not all disease-associated point mutations result in significantly reduced catalytic activity. The most common mutation, G521R, results in marked instability of the intermediate PanK2 isoform and reduced production of the mature isoform. These results suggest that NBIA is caused by altered neuronal mitochondrial lipid metabolism caused by mutations disrupting PanK2 protein levels and catalytic activity.

  19. The Significance of the Interleaflet Triangles in Determining the Morphology of Congenitally Abnormal Aortic Valves: Implications for Noninvasive Imaging and Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Justin T; Spicer, Diane E; Mori, Shumpei; Chikkabyrappa, Sathish; Redington, Andrew N; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the normal and abnormal aortic root is paramount if we are to improve not only our assessment of the aortic root and its components but also the surgical approach to reconstructing this complex structure when congenitally malformed. Most anatomic and imaging-based classifications of the normal root recognize and describe the basic components, which include the shape and size of the three aortic sinuses and their three valvar leaflets, as well as the sinutubular junction and proximal ascending aorta. However, the three interposing fibrous interleaflet triangles, which share an intimate relationship with all elements of the root, are often ignored. In consequence, the important role the interleaflet triangles play in determining the function of the normal and congenitally malformed aortic root is underappreciated. Additionally, the subtle asymmetries found in the normal aortic root, such as differences between the sizes of the described components, underlie its hemodynamic efficiency. In this review the authors describe the complex structure of the normal aortic root, contrasting these normal characteristics with those found in the unicuspid and bicuspid variants of congenitally malformed aortic valves. Many of these features are readily recognizable using current imaging modalities and so should become a standard part of the description of aortic valvar disease. The authors believe that this thorough morphologic approach will provide a framework for the re-creation of a more normal aortic root at the time of repair or replacement, thereby improving current outcomes.

  20. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  1. Mutation in the novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein CHCHD10 in a family with autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of the previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established chromosome 22 open reading frame 16 (C22orf16) (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high-scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double-missense mutation (R15S and G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled coil-helix-coiled coil-helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1,481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that the expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria.

  2. Snails in the desert: Assessing the mitochondrial and morphological diversity and the influence of aestivation behavior on lineage differentiation in the Australian endemic Granulomelon Iredale, 1933 (Stylommatophora: Camaenidae).

    PubMed

    Criscione, Francesco; Köhler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Progressive aridification since the mid-Miocene has had a significant influence on the evolution of the biota in the arid zone of central Australia. Especially moisture sensitive groups, such as snails, are often restricted to topographically complex areas, which have acted as refugia in an otherwise inhospitable environment. This historical fragmentation is deemed to be a potent agent of allopatric lineage diversification. Camaenid land snails are amongst only a few terrestrial gastropods that have managed to survive in the arid zone probably due to their ability to escape desiccation through aestivation. Here, we present the first study of the mitochondrial lineage differentiation in an endemic land snail genus from the Australian 'Red Centre', Granulomelon Iredale, 1933. Exposing significant incongruence between mtDNA phylogeny and morphology-based taxonomy, we completely revise the species and genus level taxonomy of this camaenid group. We demonstrate that this genus contains three species, G. grandituberculatum, G. adcockianum and G. squamulosum, which have so far been assigned to different genera: Granulomelon Iredale, 1933 (junior synonym: Baccalena Iredale, 1937), Basedowena Iredale, 1937 and Pleuroxia Ancey, 1887. Two of these species are widespread comprising multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages. Based on a molecular clock estimate, these lineages diverged approximately during the mid-Pleistocene, a period of particularly severe aridification. The phylogeographic patterns are consistent with an isolation-by-distance model in one species but not the other. We suggest that these differences can be attributed to their distinctive aestivation behavior.

  3. Inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase Can Impair Mitochondrial Energetics and Induce Abnormal Ca2+ Cycling and Automaticity in Guinea Pig Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qince; Pogwizd, Steven M.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Zhou, Lufang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides have been used for the treatment of heart failure because of their capabilities of inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA), which raises [Na+]i and attenuates Ca2+ extrusion via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), causing [Ca2+]i elevation. The resulting [Ca2+]i accumulation further enhances Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, generating the positive inotropic effect. However, cardiac glycosides have some toxic and side effects such as arrhythmogenesis, confining their extensive clinical applications. The mechanisms underlying the proarrhythmic effect of glycosides are not fully understood. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which glycosides could cause cardiac arrhythmias via impairing mitochondrial energetics using an integrative computational cardiomyocyte model. In the simulations, the effect of glycosides was mimicked by blocking NKA activity. Results showed that inhibiting NKA not only impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ retention (thus suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging) but also enhanced oxidative phosphorylation (thus increased ROS production) during the transition of increasing workload, causing oxidative stress. Moreover, concurrent blocking of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, but not enhancing of Ca2+ uniporter, alleviated the adverse effects of NKA inhibition. Intriguingly, NKA inhibition elicited Ca2+ transient and action potential alternans under more stressed conditions such as severe ATP depletion, augmenting its proarrhythmic effect. This computational study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying cardiac glycoside-induced arrhythmogenesis. The findings suggest that targeting both ion handling and mitochondria could be a very promising strategy to develop new glycoside-based therapies in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24722410

  4. Mitochondrial inheritance in a mitochondrially mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Egger, J; Wilson, J

    1983-07-21

    Mendelian inheritance involves the transmission to successive generations of DNA contained in genes in the nucleus, but DNA is also contained in mitochondria, where it is believed to be responsible for the encoding of certain mitochondrial enzymes. Since nearly all mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted, one might expect a nonmendelian pattern of inheritance in mitochondrial cytopathy, a syndrome in which there are abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and deficiencies in a variety of mitochondrial enzymes. We studied the pedigrees of 6 affected families whose members we had examined personally and of 24 families described in the literature. In 27 families, exclusively maternal transmission occurred; in 3 there was also paternal transmission in one generation. Altogether, 51 mothers but only 3 fathers had transmitted the condition. These results are consistent with mitochondrial transmission of mitochondrial cytopathy; the inheritance and enzyme defects of mitochondrial cytopathy can be considered in the light of recent evidence that subunits of respiratory-enzyme complexes are encoded solely by mitochondrial DNA. The occasional paternal transmission may be explained if certain enzyme subunits that are encoded by nuclear DNA are affected.

  5. The Maize Ncs2 Abnormal Growth Mutant Has a Chimeric Nad4-Nad7 Mitochondrial Gene and Is Associated with Reduced Complex I Function

    PubMed Central

    Marienfeld, J. R.; Newton, K. J.

    1994-01-01

    The molecular basis of the maternally inherited, heteroplasmic NCS2 mutant of maize was investigated. Analysis of the NCS2 mtDNA showed that it closely resembles the progenitor cmsT mitochondrial genome, except that the mutant genome contains a fused nad4-nad7 gene and is deleted for the small fourth exon of nad4. The rearrangement has occurred at a 16-bp repeat present in the third intron of the nad4 gene and in the second intron of the nad7 gene. Transcripts containing exon 4 of the nad4 gene are greatly reduced in mtRNA preparations from heteroplasmic NCS2 plants; larger transcripts are associated with the first three nad4 exons. Identical 5' ends of the nad4 transcripts have been mapped 396 and 247 bp upstream of the start codon in mtRNAs from both NCS2 and related non-NCS plants. The putative transcription termination signal of nad4 is deleted in mutant DNA, resulting in the production of the unique longer transcripts. The complex transcript pattern associated with nad7 is also altered in the mutant. Both nad4 and nad7 encode subunits of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Oxygen uptake experiments show that the functioning of complex I is specifically reduced in mitochondria isolated from NCS2 mutant plants. PMID:7851780

  6. Developmental programming of obesity and insulin resistance: does mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes play a role?

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Robker, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key defect associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While a number of factors have been suggested to cause defects in insulin action, there is a very strong association between inappropriate lipid deposition in insulin target tissues and the development of insulin resistance. In recent times, a large number of studies have reported changes in markers of mitochondrial metabolism in insulin-resistant individuals, leading to the theory that defects in mitochondrial substrate oxidation are responsible for the buildup of lipid intermediates and the development of insulin resistance. The primary support for the mitochondrial theory of insulin resistance comes from studies in skeletal muscle; however, there is recent evidence in murine models that mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes may also play a role. Oocytes from obese or insulin-resistant mice have been shown to exhibit abnormalities in many different mitochondrial parameters, including mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential. Here we review the findings regarding the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and propose that abnormalities in mitochondrial metabolism in oocytes may predispose to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and thus contribute to the inter-generational programming of metabolic disease.

  7. Mitofusin 2 regulates the oocytes development and quality by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lingjuan; Zhang, Ling; Xiang, Wenpei

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), one of the mitochondrial dynamic proteins plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, it is unknown if Mfn2 influences the quality of oocytes in the process of development by modulating mitochondrial function in vitro. In this study, immature oocytes were transfected with Mfn2-siRNA for 16 h. We found that the expression level of the Mfn2 gene was significantly lower than those of the control group. The rates of maturation and fertility were also found to have declined. Moreover, mitochondrial structure and function, especially the morphogenesis of spindles, were observed as abnormal during meiosis. Thus, the above findings indicate that down-regulation of Mfn2 may have an impact on the maturation and fertilization of immature oocytes in vitro by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function. PMID:27469431

  8. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-09-13

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients' fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation.

  9. Scrotal insulation and its relationship to abnormal morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape of spermatozoa in Holstein-Friesian and Belgian Blue bulls.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Vandaele, Leen; Rijsselaere, Tom; Maes, Dominiek; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Frijters, Adrie; Noordman, Jakomien; Granados, Ana; Dernelle, Eric; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Parrish, John J; Van Soom, Ann

    2011-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to identify the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to elevated testicular temperature in terms of sperm motility, viability, morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape. The latter two valuable parameters are not included in routine semen analysis. Scrotal insulation (SI) was applied for 48 h in 2 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 2 Belgian Blue (BB) bulls and semen was collected at 7 d intervals along with semen collection of a non-insulated bull of each breed. Semen samples were frozen and assigned to 4 groups: period 1 (preinsulation) = -7 d and 0 d, where 0 d = initiation of SI after semen collection; period 2 = 7 d (sperm presumed in the epididymis during SI); period 3 = 14 d to 42 d (cells presumed at spermiogenesis and meiosis stages during SI); period 4 = 49 d to 63 d (cells presumed at spermatocytogenesis stage during SI). The percentages of progressively motile and viable spermatozoa as assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and fluorescence microscopy, respectively were decreased whereas abnormal sperm heads, nuclear vacuoles and tail defects were increased at period 3 (P < 0.05) compared to period 1, 2 or 4 in SI bulls of both HF and BB breeds. Protamine deficient spermatozoa as observed by chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3)) staining were more present (P < 0.05) at period 2 and 3 in both breeds compared to period 1 or 4. Sperm nuclear shape as determined by Fourier harmonic amplitude (FHA) was most affected by heat stress during period 3 (P < 0.01) and a higher response was observed in BB bulls than HF bulls. In conclusion, sperm cells at the spermiogenic and meiotic stages of development are more susceptible to heat stress. The lack of chromatin protamination is the most pertinent result of heat stress, together with subtle changes in sperm head shape, which can be detected by FHA but not by conventional semen analysis.

  10. Peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Moroni, Isabella; Salsano, Ettore; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Why is peripheral neuropathy common but mild in many mitochondrial disorders, and why is it, in some cases, the predominant or only manifestation? Although this question remains largely unanswered, recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have begun to clarify the importance of mitochondrial functioning and distribution in the peripheral nerve. Mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (ie, fusion and fission) frequently result in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. Peripheral neuropathies with different phenotypic presentations occur in mitochondrial diseases associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, or associated with defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V. Our knowledge of mitochondrial disorders is rapidly growing as new nuclear genes are identified and new phenotypes described. Early diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, essential to provide appropriate genetic counselling, has become crucial in a few treatable conditions. Recognising and diagnosing an underlying mitochondrial defect in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy is therefore of paramount importance.

  11. Morphological and molecular identification of marine copepod Dioithona rigida Giesbrecht, 1896 (Crustacea:Cyclopoida) based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences, from Lakshadweep sea, India.

    PubMed

    Radhika, R; Bijoy Nandan, S; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-08-23

    Morphological identification of the marine cyclopoid copepod Dioithona rigida in combination with sequencing a 645 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (mtCOI) gene, collected from offshore waters of Kavarathi Island, Lakshadweep Sea, is presented in this study. Kiefer in 1935 classified Dioithona as a separate genus from Oithona. The main distinguishing characters observed in the collected samples, such as the presence of well-developed P5 with 2 setae, 5 segmented urosome, 12 segmented antennule, compact dagger-like setae on the inner margin of proximal segment of exopod ramus in P1-P4 and engorged portion of P1-bearing a spine, confirmed their morphology to D. rigida. A comparison of setal formulae of the exopod and endopod of D. rigida with those recorded previously by various authors are also presented here. Maximum likelihood Tree analysis exhibited the clustering of D. rigida sequences into a single clade (accession numbers KP972540.1-KR528588.1), which in contrast was 37-42% divergent from other Oithona species. Further intra-specific divergence values of 0-2% also confirmed the genetic identity of D. rigida species. Paracyclopina nana was selected as an out group displayed a diverged array. The present results distinctly differentiated D. rigida from other Oithona species.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna): the species morphologically similar to Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis).

    PubMed

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Six genera of the Arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. The presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. Genera and species of Macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. The genus Ara contains eight extant species. Two of them are classified as medium-sized Macaws and other six species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, large Macaw species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. So far, representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for Ara glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration), Ara macao (predominantly red/scarlet) and Ara militaris (predominantly green) species. Ara ararauna is the second of two Ara species with predominant blue and yellow plumage. Hitherto, close phylogenetic relation of these two species was shown using only ND2 genes or incomplete combined COI/Cytb/ND2 sequences. Therefore, Ara ararauna mitogenome, which was sequenced in this study, will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaws group.

  13. Novel computer vision algorithm for the reliable analysis of organelle morphology in whole cell 3D images--A pilot study for the quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial fragmentation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lautenschläger, Janin; Lautenschläger, Christian; Tadic, Vedrana; Süße, Herbert; Ortmann, Wolfgang; Denzler, Joachim; Stallmach, Andreas; Witte, Otto W; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The function of intact organelles, whether mitochondria, Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), relies on their proper morphological organization. It is recognized that disturbances of organelle morphology are early events in disease manifestation, but reliable and quantitative detection of organelle morphology is difficult and time-consuming. Here we present a novel computer vision algorithm for the assessment of organelle morphology in whole cell 3D images. The algorithm allows the numerical and quantitative description of organelle structures, including total number and length of segments, cell and nucleus area/volume as well as novel texture parameters like lacunarity and fractal dimension. Applying the algorithm we performed a pilot study in cultured motor neurons from transgenic G93A hSOD1 mice, a model of human familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the presence of the mutated SOD1 and upon excitotoxic treatment with kainate we demonstrate a clear fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, with an increase in the number of mitochondrial segments and a reduction in the length of mitochondria. Histogram analyses show a reduced number of tubular mitochondria and an increased number of small mitochondrial segments. The computer vision algorithm for the evaluation of organelle morphology allows an objective assessment of disease-related organelle phenotypes with greatly reduced examiner bias and will aid the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies on a cellular level.

  14. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by the flavone aglycone isovitexin causes aberrant petal and leaf morphology in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A M; van Brederode, J

    1996-05-01

    The morphological mutant "isovitexin" in Silene latifolia (the white campion) has small and up-curled petals and leaves. In this mutant the aglycone isovitexin is the only flavone present in the vacuole. In the present study it is shown that isovitexin has a strong toxic effect on mitochondria that is to a large extent abolished by glycosylation. This effect can be used to explain the aberrant morphology. Isovitexin acts at the level of the ubiquinone pool; cytochrome c - cytochrome aa3 oxidase activity was unaffected, and with either reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or succinate as a respiratory substrate, effects on respiration were found in Silene leaves-, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber- and sweet potato (Ipomoea batata L.) tuber mitochondria. Since in sweet potato electron transport via the cyanide insensitive pathway was also inhibited, with the ubiquinone pool as the only component (besides the dehydrogenases) shared by these two pathways, the site of inhibition must be at this level.

  15. Discrimination of Juvenile Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and Bigeye (T. obesus) Tunas using Mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Liver Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Ivane R.; Babaran, Ricardo P.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2012-01-01

    Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus), to discriminate juvenile tunas caught by purse seine and ringnet sets around fish aggregating devices (FADs) off the Southern Iloilo Peninsula in Central Philippines. We checked individual identifications using the Neighbor-Joining Method and compared results with morphometric analyses and the liver phenotype. We tested 48 specimens ranging from 13 to 31 cm fork length. Morpho-meristic analyses suggested that 12 specimens (25%) were bigeye tuna and 36 specimens (75%) were yellowfin tuna. In contrast, the genetic and liver analyses both showed that 5 specimens (10%) were bigeye tuna and 43 (90%) yellowfin tuna. This suggests that misidentification can occur even with highly stringent morpho-meristic characters and that the mtDNA control region and liver phenotype are excellent markers to discriminate juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye tunas. PMID:22536417

  16. Ketogenic diet slows down mitochondrial myopathy progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Erkkilä, Sofia; Carroll, Christopher J; Peltola-Mjösund, Katja; Tulkki, Valtteri; Mattila, Ismo; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej; Tyynismaa, Henna; Suomalainen, Anu

    2010-05-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases of adult age and of multisystem disorders of childhood. However, no effective treatment exists for these progressive disorders. Cell culture studies suggested that ketogenic diet (KD), with low glucose and high fat content, could select against cells or mitochondria with mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but proper patient trials are still lacking. We studied here the transgenic Deletor mouse, a disease model for progressive late-onset mitochondrial myopathy, accumulating mtDNA deletions during aging and manifesting subtle progressive respiratory chain (RC) deficiency. We found that these mice have widespread lipidomic and metabolite changes, including abnormal plasma phospholipid and free amino acid levels and ketone body production. We treated these mice with pre-symptomatic long-term and post-symptomatic shorter term KD. The effects of the diet for disease progression were followed by morphological, metabolomic and lipidomic tools. We show here that the diet decreased the amount of cytochrome c oxidase negative muscle fibers, a key feature in mitochondrial RC deficiencies, and prevented completely the formation of the mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities in the muscle. Furthermore, most of the metabolic and lipidomic changes were cured by the diet to wild-type levels. The diet did not, however, significantly affect the mtDNA quality or quantity, but rather induced mitochondrial biogenesis and restored liver lipid levels. Our results show that mitochondrial myopathy induces widespread metabolic changes, and that KD can slow down progression of the disease in mice. These results suggest that KD may be useful for mitochondrial late-onset myopathies.

  17. Geniposide Alleviates Amyloid-Induced Synaptic Injury by Protecting Axonal Mitochondrial Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijing; Zhao, Chunhui; Lv, Cui; Liu, Xiaoli; Du, Shijing; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yongyan; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic and mitochondrial pathologies are early events in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal axonal mitochondrial function and transport play crucial roles in maintaining synaptic function by producing high levels of adenosine triphosphate and buffering calcium. However, there can be abnormal axonal mitochondrial trafficking, distribution, and fragmentation, which are strongly correlated with amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced synaptic loss and dysfunction. The present study examined the neuroprotective effect of geniposide, a compound extracted from gardenia fruit in Aβ-treated neurons and an AD mouse model. Geniposide alleviated Aβ-induced axonal mitochondrial abnormalities by increasing axonal mitochondrial density and length and improving mitochondrial motility and trafficking in cultured hippocampal neurons, consequently ameliorating synaptic damage by reversing synaptic loss, addressing spine density and morphology abnormalities, and ameliorating the decreases in synapse-related proteins in neurons and APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. These findings provide new insights into the effects of geniposide administration on neuronal and synaptic functions under conditions of Aβ enrichment. PMID:28179878

  18. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  19. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  20. Mitochondrial inheritance: cell cycle and actin cable dependence of polarized mitochondrial movements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simon, V R; Karmon, S L; Pon, L A

    1997-01-01

    Asymmetric growth and division of budding yeast requires the vectorial transport of growth components and organelles from mother to daughter cells. Time lapse video microscopy and vital staining were used to study motility events which result in partitioning of mitochondria in dividing yeast. We identified four different stages in the mitochondrial inheritance cycle: (1) mitochondria align along the mother-bud axis prior to bud emergence in G1 phase, following polarization of the actin cytoskeleton; (2) during S phase, mitochondria undergo linear, continuous and polarized transfer from mother to bud; (3) during S and G2 phases, inherited mitochondria accumulate in the bud tip. This event occurs concomitant with accumulation of actin patches in this region; and (4) finally, during M phase prior to cytokinesis, mitochondria are released from the bud tip and redistribute throughout the bud. Previous studies showed that yeast mitochondria colocalize with actin cables and that isolated mitochondria contain actin binding and motor activities on their surface. We find that selective destabilization of actin cables in a strain lacking the tropomyosin 1 gene (TPM1) has no significant effect on the velocity of mitochondrial motor activity in vivo or in vitro. However, tpm1 delta mutants display abnormal mitochondrial distribution and morphology; loss of long distance, directional mitochondrial movement; and delayed transfer of mitochondria from the mother cell to the bud. Thus, cell cycle-linked mitochondrial motility patterns which lead to inheritance are strictly dependent on organized and properly oriented actin cables.

  1. Inhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Ligase IIIα Activates Caspase 1-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Roginskaya, Vera; Van Houten, Bennett; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-09-15

    Elevated levels of DNA ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) have been identified as a biomarker of an alteration in DNA repair in cancer cells that confers hypersensitivity to a LigIIIα inhibitor, L67, in combination with a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Because LigIIIα functions in the nucleus and mitochondria, we examined the effect of L67 on these organelles. Here, we show that, although the DNA ligase inhibitor selectively targets mitochondria, cancer and nonmalignant cells respond differently to disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα in cancer cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA, and increased levels of mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species that caused nuclear DNA damage. In contrast, these effects did not occur in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα activated a caspase 1-dependent apoptotic pathway, which is known to be part of inflammatory responses induced by pathogenic microorganisms in cancer, but not nonmalignant cells. These results demonstrate that the disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism elicits different responses in nonmalignant and cancer cells and suggests that the abnormal response in cancer cells may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target cancer cells. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5431-41. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Implications of mitochondrial DNA polyphyly in two ecologically undifferentiated but morphologically distinct migratory birds, the masked and white-browed woodswallows Artamus spp. of inland Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Leo; Wilke, Thomas; Ten Have, Jose; Chesser, R. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The white-browed woodswallow Artamus superciliosus and masked woodswallow A. personatus(Passeriformes: Artamidae) are members of Australia's diverse arid- and semi-arid zone avifauna. Widely sympatric and among Australia's relatively few obligate long-distance temperate-tropical migrants, the two are well differentiated morphologically but not ecologically and vocally. They are pair breeders unlike other Artamus species, which are at least facultative cooperative breeders. For these reasons they are an excellent case in which to use molecular data in integrative study of their evolution from ecological and biogeographical perspectives. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to test whether they are each other's closest relatives, whether they evolved migration independently, whether they have molecular signatures of population expansions like some other Australian arid zone birds, and to estimate the timing of any inferred population expansions. Their mtDNAs are monophyletic with respect to other species of Artamusbut polyphyletic with respect to each other. The two species appear not to have evolved migration independently of each other but their morphological and mtDNA evolution have been strongly decoupled. Some level of hybridization and introgression cannot be dismissed outright as being involved in their mtDNA polyphyly but incomplete sorting of their most recent common ancestor's mtDNA is a simpler explanation consistent with their ecology. Bayesian phylogenetic inference and analyses of diversity within the two species (n=77) with conventional diversity statistics, statistical parsimony, and tests for population expansion vs stability (Tajima's D, Fu's Fsand Ramos-Onsin and Rozas's R2) all favour recent population increases. However, a non-starlike network suggests expansion(s) relatively early in the Pleistocene. Repeated population bottlenecks corresponding with multiple peaks of Pleistocene aridity could explain our findings, which add a new

  3. Increased mitochondrial fission and volume density by blocking glutamate excitotoxicity protect glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ju, Won-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Young; Noh, You Hyun; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Lukas, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Weinreb, Robert N; Perkins, Guy A

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal structure and function of astrocytes have been observed within the lamina cribrosa region of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Glutamate excitotoxicity-mediated mitochondrial alteration has been implicated in experimental glaucoma. However, the relationships among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial alteration and ONH astrocytes in the pathogenesis of glaucoma remain unknown. We found that functional N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NRs) are present in human ONH astrocytes and that glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes have increased expression levels of NRs and the glutamate aspartate transporter. Glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes exhibit mitochondrial fission that is linked to increased expression of dynamin-related protein 1 and its phosphorylation at Serine 616. In BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP or Thy1-CFP transgenic mice, NMDA treatment induced axon loss as well as hypertrophic morphology and mitochondrial fission in astrocytes of the glial lamina. In human ONH astrocytes, NMDA treatment in vitro triggered mitochondrial fission by decreasing mitochondrial length and number, thereby reducing mitochondrial volume density. However, blocking excitotoxicity by memantine (MEM) prevented these alterations by increasing mitochondrial length, number and volume density. In glaucomatous DBA/2J (D2) mice, blocking excitotoxicity by MEM inhibited the morphological alteration as well as increased mitochondrial number and volume density in astrocytes of the glial lamina. However, blocking excitotoxicity decreased autophagosome/autolysosome volume density in both astrocytes and axons in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings provide evidence that blocking excitotoxicity prevents ONH astrocyte dysfunction in glaucomatous neurodegeneration by increasing mitochondrial fission, increasing mitochondrial volume density and length, and decreasing autophagosome/autolysosome formation. GLIA 2015;63:736-753.

  4. Increased Mitochondrial Fission and Volume Density by Blocking Glutamate Excitotoxicity Protect Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Won-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Young; Noh, You Hyun; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Lukas, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Weinreb, Robert N; Perkins, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal structure and function of astrocytes have been observed within the lamina cribrosa region of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Glutamate excitotoxicity-mediated mitochondrial alteration has been implicated in experimental glaucoma. However, the relationships among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial alteration and ONH astrocytes in the pathogenesis of glaucoma remain unknown. We found that functional N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NRs) are present in human ONH astrocytes and that glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes have increased expression levels of NRs and the glutamate aspartate transporter. Glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes exhibit mitochondrial fission that is linked to increased expression of dynamin-related protein 1 and its phosphorylation at Serine 616. In BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP or Thy1-CFP transgenic mice, NMDA treatment induced axon loss as well as hypertrophic morphology and mitochondrial fission in astrocytes of the glial lamina. In human ONH astrocytes, NMDA treatment in vitro triggered mitochondrial fission by decreasing mitochondrial length and number, thereby reducing mitochondrial volume density. However, blocking excitotoxicity by memantine (MEM) prevented these alterations by increasing mitochondrial length, number and volume density. In glaucomatous DBA/2J (D2) mice, blocking excitotoxicity by MEM inhibited the morphological alteration as well as increased mitochondrial number and volume density in astrocytes of the glial lamina. However, blocking excitotoxicity decreased autophagosome/autolysosome volume density in both astrocytes and axons in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings provide evidence that blocking excitotoxicity prevents ONH astrocyte dysfunction in glaucomatous neurodegeneration by increasing mitochondrial fission, increasing mitochondrial volume density and length, and decreasing autophagosome/autolysosome formation. PMID:25557093

  5. Protective effect of intrarenal calcium membrane blockers before or after renal ischemia. Functional, morphological, and mitochondrial studies.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, T J; Arnold, P E; Gordon, J A; Bulger, R E; Dobyan, D C; Schrier, R W

    1984-01-01

    . Mito from NE + V kidneys respired normally, did not accumulate Ca++, and exhibited no alterations in Ca++ uptake or release. Light and electron microscopy also demonstrated morphological protection of V against tubular necrosis and cell injury. Mito from the NE + N kidneys also respired normally and did not accumulate significant amounts of Ca++. The results of the present studies therefore demonstrated that chemically dissimilar calcium entry blockers exert substantial functional, cellular, and morphological protection against experimental ischemic ARF. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that increased cytosolic Ca++ is critically important in the maintenance of renal vasoconstriction and the development of cellular necrosis with subsequent tubular obstruction in NE-induced ischemic ARF. V or N may provide protection against renal injury by retarding any increase in cytosolic Ca++ in renal vasculature and epithelium. Images PMID:6501573

  6. Inhibitors of mitochondrial fission as a therapeutic strategy for diseases with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles, critical for cell survival and death. Recent mitochondrial research revealed that mitochondrial dynamics-the balance of fission and fusion in normal mitochondrial dynamics--is an important cellular mechanism in eukaryotic cell and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology, structure, number, distribution, and function. Research into mitochondria and cell function has revealed that mitochondrial dynamics is impaired in a large number of aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and in several inherited mitochondrial diseases, and that this impairment involves excessive mitochondrial fission, resulting in mitochondrial structural changes and dysfunction, and cell damage. Attempts have been made to develop molecules to reduce mitochondrial fission while maintaining normal mitochondrial fusion and function in those diseases that involve excessive mitochondrial fission. This review article discusses mechanisms of mitochondrial fission in normal and diseased states of mammalian cells and discusses research aimed at developing therapies, such as Mdivi, Dynasore and P110, to prevent or to inhibit excessive mitochondrial fission.

  7. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration.

  8. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2012-07-15

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of

  9. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mitochondrial shaping cuts.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A broad range of cellular processes are regulated by proteolytic events. Proteolysis has now also been established to control mitochondrial morphology which results from the balanced action of fusion and fission. Two out of three known core components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery are under proteolytic control. The GTPase Fzo1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria is degraded along two independent proteolytic pathways. One controls mitochondrial fusion in vegetatively growing cells, the other one acts upon mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Fusion also depends on proteolytic processing of the GTPase Mgm1 by the rhomboid protease Pcp1 in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional links of AAA proteases or other proteolytic components to mitochondrial dynamics are just emerging. This review summarises the current understanding of regulatory roles of proteolytic processes for mitochondrial plasticity.

  11. Monitoring mitochondrial membranes permeability in live neurons and mitochondrial swelling through electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity is essential for mitochondrial function and neuronal viability. Apoptotic stimulus or calcium overload leads to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP ) opening and induces mitochondrial swelling, a common feature of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. The first phenomenon can be evaluated in cells loaded with the dye calcein -AM quenched by cobalt, and mitochondrial swelling can be detected by electron microscopy through the analysis of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Here, we describe a live cell imaging assay to detect mitochondrial permeability transition and the development of a detailed analysis of morphological and ultrastructural changes that mitochondria undergo during this process.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Infection of A549 human type II epithelial cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces changes in mitochondrial morphology, distribution and mass that are dependent on the early secreted antigen, ESAT-6.

    PubMed

    Fine-Coulson, Kari; Giguère, Steeve; Quinn, Frederick D; Reaves, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves the invasion of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). We used Mitotracker Red(®) to assess changes in mitochondrial morphology/distribution and mass from 6 to 48 h post infection (hpi) by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in Mtb-infected A549 type II AECs. During early infection there was no effect on mitochondrial morphology, however, by 48 hpi mitochondria appeared fragmented and concentrated around the nucleus. In flow cytometry experiments, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) decreased by 44% at 48 hpi; double-labelling using antibodies to the integral membrane protein COXIV revealed that these changes were due to a decrease in mitochondrial mass. These changes did not occur with the apathogenic strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ESAT-6 is a virulence factor present in Mtb Erdman but lacking in M. bovis BCG. We performed similar experiments using Mtb Erdman, an ESAT-6 deletion mutant and its complement. MFI decreased at 48 hpi in the parent and complemented strains versus uninfected controls by 52% and 36% respectively; no decrease was detected in the deletion mutant. These results indicate an involvement of ESAT-6 in the perturbation of mitochondria induced by virulent Mtb in AECs and suggest mitophagy may play a role in the infection process.

  14. Pink1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the fission/fusion machinery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufeng; Ouyang, Yingshi; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; McQuibban, Angus; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei

    2008-05-13

    Mitochondria form dynamic tubular networks that undergo frequent morphological changes through fission and fusion, the imbalance of which can affect cell survival in general and impact synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurons in particular. Some core components of the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery, including the dynamin-like GTPases Drp1, Mitofusin, Opa1, and the Drp1-interacting protein Fis1, have been identified. How the fission and fusion processes are regulated under normal conditions and the extent to which defects in mitochondrial fission/fusion are involved in various disease conditions are poorly understood. Mitochondrial malfunction tends to cause diseases with brain and skeletal muscle manifestations and has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether abnormal mitochondrial fission or fusion plays a role in PD pathogenesis has not been shown. Here, we show that Pink1, a mitochondria-targeted Ser/Thr kinase linked to familial PD, genetically interacts with the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery and modulates mitochondrial dynamics. Genetic manipulations that promote mitochondrial fission suppress Drosophila Pink1 mutant phenotypes in indirect flight muscle and dopamine neurons, whereas decreased fission has opposite effects. In Drosophila and mammalian cells, overexpression of Pink1 promotes mitochondrial fission, whereas inhibition of Pink1 leads to excessive fusion. Our genetic interaction results suggest that Fis1 may act in-between Pink1 and Drp1 in controlling mitochondrial fission. These results reveal a cell biological role for Pink1 and establish mitochondrial fission/fusion as a paradigm for PD research. Compounds that modulate mitochondrial fission/fusion could have therapeutic value in PD intervention.

  15. Mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA and Alzheimer's disease. What comes first?

    PubMed

    Mancuso, M; Orsucci, D; Siciliano, G; Murri, L

    2008-10-01

    To date, the beta amyloid (Abeta) cascade hypothesis remains the main pathogenetic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its role in the majority of sporadic AD cases is unclear. The mitochondria play central role in the bioenergetics of the cell and apoptotic cell death. In the past 20 years research has been directed at clarifying the involvement of mitochondria and defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Morphological, biochemical and genetic abnormalities of the mitochondria in several AD tissues have been reported. Impaired mitochondrial respiration, particularly COX deficiency, has been observed in brain, platelets and fibroblasts of AD patients. The "mitochondrial cascade hypothesis" could explain many of the biochemical, genetic and pathological features of sporadic AD. Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could cause energy failure, increased oxidative stress and accumulation of Abeta, which in a vicious cycle reinforces the mtDNA damage and the oxidative stress. Despite the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, no causative mutations in the mtDNA have been detected so far. Indeed, results of studies on the role of mtDNA haplogroups in AD are controversial. In this review we discuss the role of the mitochondria in the cascade of events leading to AD, and we will try to provide an answer to the question "what comes first".

  16. Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction in hypertension-induced cardiac damage

    PubMed Central

    Eirin, Alfonso; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension is critical, as its prevalence continues increasing worldwide. Mitochondria, the primary cellular energy producers, are numerous in parenchymal cells of the heart, kidney, and brain, major target organs in hypertension. These membrane-bound organelles not only maintain cellular respiration but also modulate several functions of the cell including proliferation, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Therefore, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction compromise overall cell functioning. In recent years, significant advances increased our understanding of mitochondrial morphology, bioenergetics, and homeostasis, and in turn of their role in several diseases, so that mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction have been identified in experimental models of hypertension. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the contribution of dysfunctional mitochondria to the pathophysiology of hypertension-induced cardiac damage, as well as available evidence of mitochondrial injury-induced damage in other organs. Finally, we discuss the capability of antihypertensive therapy to ameliorate hypertensive mitochondrial injury, and the potential position of mitochondria as therapeutic targets in patients with hypertension. PMID:25385092

  17. Mitochondria-specific accumulation of amyloid β induces mitochondrial dysfunction leading to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Han, Sun-Ho; Son, Sung Min; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Young-Ju; Byun, Jayoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are best known as the essential intracellular organelles that host the homeostasis required for cellular survival, but they also have relevance in diverse disease-related conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is the key molecule in AD pathogenesis, and has been highlighted in the implication of mitochondrial abnormality during the disease progress. Neuronal exposure to Aβ impairs mitochondrial dynamics and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial Aβ accumulation has been detected in the AD brain. However, the underlying mechanism of how Aβ affects mitochondrial function remains uncertain, and it is questionable whether mitochondrial Aβ accumulation followed by mitochondrial dysfunction leads directly to neuronal toxicity. This study demonstrated that an exogenous Aβ(1-42) treatment, when applied to the hippocampal cell line of mice (specifically HT22 cells), caused a deleterious alteration in mitochondria in both morphology and function. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis blocker rescued the exogenous Aβ(1-42)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the mitochondria-targeted accumulation of Aβ(1-42) in HT22 cells using Aβ(1-42) with a mitochondria-targeting sequence induced the identical morphological alteration of mitochondria as that observed in the APP/PS AD mouse model and exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. In addition, subsequent mitochondrial dysfunctions were demonstrated in the mitochondria-specific Aβ(1-42) accumulation model, which proved indistinguishable from the mitochondrial impairment induced by exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. Finally, cellular toxicity was directly induced by mitochondria-targeted Aβ(1-42) accumulation, which mimics the apoptosis process in exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondria-targeted Aβ(1-42) accumulation is the necessary and sufficient condition for Aβ-mediated mitochondria impairments, and leads

  18. A novel Rieske-type protein derived from an apoptosis-inducing factor-like (AIFL) transcript with a retained intron 4 induces change in mitochondrial morphology and growth arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Furuyama, Isao; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel major transcript, AIFL-I4, is found. {yields} Nuclear localization of AIFL-I4 induces mitochondrial morphology change and suppression of cell proliferation. {yields} AIFL-I4 mutant with a lesion in [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site does not induce these phenotypes. {yields} [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site is essential for these phenotypes. -- Abstract: Apoptosis-inducing factor-like (AIFL) protein contains a Rieske domain and pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase (Pyr{sub r}edox) domain that shows 35% homology to that of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) protein. We identified a novel major transcript of the medaka (Oryzias latipes) AIFL gene that retained intron 4 (AIFL-I4) in embryos and tissues from adult fish. The product of this transcript, AIFL-I4 protein, lacked the Pyr{sub r}edox domain because of a nonsense codon in intron 4. Both AIFL-I4 and full-length AIFL (fAIFL) transcripts were highly expressed in the brain and late embryos, and relative fAIFL and AIFL-I4 expression levels differed among tissues. Transient expression of AIFL-I4 and fAIFL tagged with GFP showed that AIFL-I4 localized in the nucleus, while fAIFL localized throughout the cytoplasm. We also found that overexpression of AIFL-I4 induced a change in mitochondrial morphology and suppression of cell proliferation. AIFL-I4 mutant with a lesion in [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site of the Rieske domain did not induce these phenotypes. This report is the first to demonstrate nuclear localization of a Rieske-type protein translated from the AIFL gene. Our data suggested that the [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site was essential for the nuclear localization and involved in mitochondrial morphology and suppression of cell proliferation.

  19. Investigating complex I deficiency in Purkinje cells and synapses in patients with mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chrysostomou, Alexia; Grady, John P.; Laude, Alex; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cerebellar ataxia is common in patients with mitochondrial disease, and despite previous neuropathological investigations demonstrating vulnerability of the olivocerebellar pathway in patients with mitochondrial disease, the exact neurodegenerative mechanisms are still not clear. We use quantitative quadruple immunofluorescence to enable precise quantification of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein expression in Purkinje cell bodies and their synaptic terminals in the dentate nucleus. Methods We investigated NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 protein expression in 12 clinically and genetically defined patients with mitochondrial disease and ataxia and 10 age‐matched controls. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine heteroplasmy levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in Purkinje cell bodies and inhibitory synapses. Results Our data reveal that complex I deficiency is present in both Purkinje cell bodies and their inhibitory synapses which surround dentate nucleus neurons. Inhibitory synapses are fewer and enlarged in patients which could represent a compensatory mechanism. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy demonstrated similarly high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in cell bodies and synapses. Conclusions This is the first study to use a validated quantitative immunofluorescence technique to determine complex I expression in neurons and presynaptic terminals, evaluating the distribution of respiratory chain deficiencies and assessing the degree of morphological abnormalities affecting synapses. Respiratory chain deficiencies detected in Purkinje cell bodies and their synapses and structural synaptic changes are likely to contribute to altered cerebellar circuitry and progression of ataxia. PMID:26337858

  20. Impaired cerebral mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Fang, Xiangshao; Fu, Yue; Xu, Wen; Jiang, Longyuan; Huang, Zitong

    2014-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA). Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF). We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  1. Mitochondrial Dynamics Protein Drp1 Is Overexpressed in Oncocytic Thyroid Tumors and Regulates Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1 - a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line—and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells’ migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype. PMID:25822260

  2. Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L10 Associates with Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Activity and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Bo; Wang, Ruo-Xi; Jiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, En-dong; Tan, Jie-Qiong; Xu, Hui-Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are important for mitochondrial-encoded protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In addition to their roles in mitoribosome assembly, several mitochondrial ribosome proteins are also implicated in cellular processes like cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MRPL10 regulates cyclin B1/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) activity and mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammalian cells. In Drosophila, inactivation of mRpL10 (the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian MRPL10) in eyes results in abnormal eye development. Furthermore, expression of human cyclin B1 suppresses eye phenotypes and mitochondrial abnormality of mRpL10 knockdown Drosophila. This study identified that the physiological regulatory pathway of MRPL10 and providing new insights into the role of MRPL10 in growth control and mitochondrial function. PMID:27726420

  3. Doublecortin-positive newly born granule cells of hippocampus have abnormal apical dendritic morphology in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2007-08-24

    Here, we describe dentate gyrus newly born granule cells morphology in rats' temporal lobe epilepsy pilocarpine model. Digital reconstruction of doublecortin-positive neurons revealed that apical dendrites had the same total length and number of nodes in epileptic and control animals. Nonetheless, concentric spheres analyses revealed that apical dendrites spatial distribution was radically altered in epileptic animals. The apical dendrites had more bifurcations inside the granular cell layer and more terminations in the inner molecular layer of epileptic dentate gyrus. Branch order analyses showed that second- and third-order dendrites were shorter in epileptic animals. Apical dendrites were concentrated in regions like the inner molecular layer where granular neuron axons, named mossy fibers, sprout in epileptic animals. The combination of altered dendritic morphology and number enhancement of the new granular neurons suggests a deleterious role of hippocampal neurogenesis in epileptogenesis. Being more numerous and with dendrites concentrated in regions where aberrant axon terminals sprout, the new granular neurons could contribute to the slow epileptogenesis at hippocampal circuits commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  4. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  5. HIV-1 Tat Activates Neuronal Ryanodine Receptors with Rapid Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization

    PubMed Central

    Norman, John P.; Perry, Seth W.; Reynolds, Holly M.; Kiebala, Michelle; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Trejo, Margarita; Volsky, David J.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Masliah, Eliezer; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2008-01-01

    Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS), and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR), followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS. PMID:19009018

  6. Compartmentalized Regulation of Parkin-Mediated Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Drosophila Nervous System In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hyun; Tandarich, Lauren C.; Nguyen, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    In neurons, the normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are considered essential for maintaining the functions of the large asymmetric cell and its diverse compartments. Parkin, a E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson's disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal in cells including neurons. However, it is not clear how Parkin functions in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, or whether Parkin-dependent events of the mitochondrial life cycle occur in all neuronal compartments. Here, using the live Drosophila nervous system, we investigated the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics, distribution, morphology, and removal. Contrary to our expectations, we found that Parkin-deficient animals do not accumulate senescent mitochondria in their motor axons or neuromuscular junctions; instead, they contain far fewer axonal mitochondria, and these displayed normal motility behavior, morphology, and metabolic state. However, the loss of Parkin did produce abnormal tubular and reticular mitochondria restricted to the motor cell bodies. In addition, in contrast to drug-treated, immortalized cells in vitro, mature motor neurons rarely displayed Parkin-dependent mitophagy. These data indicate that the cell body is the focus of Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control in neurons, and argue that a selection process allows only healthy mitochondria to pass from cell bodies to axons, perhaps to limit the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkin has been proposed to police mitochondrial fidelity by binding to dysfunctional mitochondria via PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and targeting them for autophagic degradation. However, it is unknown whether and how the PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates the mitochondrial life cycle in neurons in vivo. Using Drosophila motor neurons, we show that parkin disruption generates an abnormal mitochondrial network in cell

  7. Mitochondrial respiration is sensitive to cytoarchitectural breakdown.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Angelin, Alessia A; Wallace, Douglas C; Eckmann, David M

    2016-11-07

    An abundance of research suggests that cellular mitochondrial and cytoskeletal disruption are related, but few studies have directly investigated causative connections between the two. We previously demonstrated that inhibiting microtubule and microfilament polymerization affects mitochondrial motility on the whole-cell level in fibroblasts. Since mitochondrial motility can be indicative of mitochondrial function, we now further characterize the effects of these cytoskeletal inhibitors on mitochondrial potential, morphology and respiration. We found that although they did not reduce mitochondrial inner membrane potential, cytoskeletal toxins induced significant decreases in basal mitochondrial respiration. In some cases, basal respiration was only affected after cells were pretreated with the calcium ionophore A23187 in order to stress mitochondrial function. In most cases, mitochondrial morphology remained unaffected, but extreme microfilament depolymerization or combined intermediate doses of microtubule and microfilament toxins resulted in decreased mitochondrial lengths. Interestingly, these two particular exposures did not affect mitochondrial respiration in cells not sensitized with A23187, indicating an interplay between mitochondrial morphology and respiration. In all cases, inducing maximal respiration diminished differences between control and experimental groups, suggesting that reduced basal respiration originates as a largely elective rather than pathological symptom of cytoskeletal impairment. However, viability experiments suggest that even this type of respiration decrease may be associated with cell death.

  8. Fatal infantile mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy associated with a homozygous OPA1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Ronen; Saada, Ann; Flannery, Padraig J; Burté, Florence; Soiferman, Devorah; Khayat, Morad; Eisner, Verónica; Vladovski, Eugene; Taylor, Robert W; Bindoff, Laurence A; Shaag, Avraham; Mandel, Hanna; Schuler-Furman, Ora; Shalev, Stavit A; Elpeleg, Orly; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset encephalopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects are genetically heterogeneous with defects involving both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Objective To identify the causative genetic defect in two sisters presenting with lethal infantile encephalopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Methods We describe a comprehensive clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic investigation of two affected siblings from a consanguineous family. Molecular genetic analysis was done by a combined approach involving genome-wide autozygosity mapping and next-generation exome sequencing. Biochemical analysis was done by enzymatic analysis and Western blot. Evidence for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability was investigated using long-range and real-time PCR assays. Mitochondrial cristae morphology was assessed with transmission electron microscopy. Results Both affected sisters presented with a similar cluster of neurodevelopmental deficits marked by failure to thrive, generalised neuromuscular weakness and optic atrophy. The disease progression was ultimately fatal with severe encephalopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were globally decreased in skeletal muscle biopsies. They were found to be homozygous for a novel c.1601T>G (p.Leu534Arg) mutation in the OPA1 gene, which resulted in a marked loss of steady-state levels of the native OPA1 protein. We observed severe mtDNA depletion in DNA extracted from the patients’ muscle biopsies. Mitochondrial morphology was consistent with abnormal mitochondrial membrane fusion. Conclusions We have established, for the first time, a causal link between a pathogenic homozygous OPA1 mutation and human disease. The fatal multisystemic manifestations observed further extend the complex phenotype associated with pathogenic OPA1 mutations, in particular the previously unreported association

  9. Mitochondrial diseases of the brain.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Flint Beal, M

    2013-10-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases of the brain, characterized by behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. Ample evidence underpins mitochondrial dysfunction as a central causal factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we discuss the role of mitochondrial dysfunction such as bioenergetics defects, mitochondrial DNA mutations, gene mutations, altered mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial fusion/fission, morphology, size, transport/trafficking, and movement), impaired transcription and the association of mutated proteins with mitochondria in these diseases. We highlight the therapeutic role of mitochondrial bioenergetic agents in toxin and in cellular and genetic animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss clinical trials of bioenergetics agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Lastly, we shed light on PGC-1α, TORC-1, AMP kinase, Nrf2-ARE, and Sirtuins as novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed.

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Baloh, Robert H

    2008-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is perhaps the archetypal disease of axonal degeneration, characteristically involving degeneration of the longest axons in the body. Evidence from both inherited and acquired forms of peripheral neuropathy strongly supports that the primary pathology is in the axons themselves and points to disruption of axonal transport as an important disease mechanism. Recent studies in human genetics have further identified abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics--the fusion, fission, and movement of mitochondria--as a player in the pathogenesis of inherited peripheral neuropathy. This review provides an update on the mechanisms of mitochondrial trafficking in axons and the emerging relationship between the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and axonal degeneration. Evidence suggests mitochondria are a "critical cargo" whose transport is necessary for proper axonal and synaptic function. Importantly, understanding the regulation of mitochondrial movement and the consequences of decreased axonal mitochondrial function may define new paths for therapeutic agents in peripheral neuropathy and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Impaired complex IV activity in response to loss of LRPPRC function can be compensated by mitochondrial hyperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Stéphane G.; Motori, Elisa; Memar, Nadin; Hench, Jürgen; Frank, Stephan; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Conradt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphology changes in response to various stimuli but the significance of this is unclear. In a screen for mutants with abnormal mitochondrial morphology, we identified MMA-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the French Canadian Leigh Syndrome protein LRPPRC (leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing). We demonstrate that reducing mma-1 or LRPPRC function causes mitochondrial hyperfusion. Reducing mma-1/LRPPRC function also decreases the activity of complex IV of the electron transport chain, however without affecting cellular ATP levels. Preventing mitochondrial hyperfusion in mma-1 animals causes larval arrest and embryonic lethality. Furthermore, prolonged LRPPRC knock-down in mammalian cells leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased levels of ATP. These findings indicate that in a mma-1/LRPPRC–deficient background, hyperfusion allows mitochondria to maintain their functions despite a reduction in complex IV activity. Our data reveal an evolutionary conserved mechanism that is triggered by reduced complex IV function and that induces mitochondrial hyperfusion to transiently compensate for a drop in the activity of the electron transport chain. PMID:23878239

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in migraine.

    PubMed

    Yorns, William R; Hardison, H Huntley

    2013-09-01

    Migraine is the most frequent type of headache in children. In the 1980s, scientists first hypothesized a connection between migraine and mitochondrial (mt) disorders. More recent studies have suggested that at least some subtypes of migraine may be related to a mt defect. Different types of evidence support a relationship between mitochondria (mt) and migraine: (1) Biochemical evidence: Abnormal mt function translates into high intracellular penetration of Ca(2+), excessive production of free radicals, and deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which ultimately causes energy failure in neurons and astrocytes, thus triggering migraine mechanisms, including spreading depression. The mt markers of these events are low activity of superoxide dismutase, activation of cytochrome-c oxidase and nitric oxide, high levels of lactate and pyruvate, and low ratios of phosphocreatine-inorganic phosphate and N-acetylaspartate-choline. (2) Morphologic evidence: mt abnormalities have been shown in migraine sufferers, the most characteristic ones being direct observation in muscle biopsy of ragged red and cytochrome-c oxidase-negative fibers, accumulation of subsarcolemmal mt, and demonstration of giant mt with paracrystalline inclusions. (3) Genetic evidence: Recent studies have identified specific mutations responsible for migraine susceptibility. However, the investigation of the mtDNA mutations found in classic mt disorders (mt encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy) has not demonstrated any association. Recently, 2 common mtDNA polymorphisms (16519C→T and 3010G→A) have been associated with pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome and migraine. Also, POLG mutations (eg, p.T851 A, p.N468D, p.Y831C, p.G517V, and p.P163S) can cause disease through impaired replication of mtDNA, including migraine. Further studies to investigate the relationship between mt

  14. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  15. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  16. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    a heterogeneous array of OXPHOS genes coded by either the nDNA or the mtDNA. Genetic defects producing mitochondrial dysfunction include: (1...3. Zhu X, Perry G, Moreira PI, Aliev G, Cash AD, et al. (2006) Mitochondrial abnormalities and oxidative imbalance in Alzheimer disease. J... Alzheimers Dis 9: 147-153. 4. de la Monte SM, Wands JR (2001) Alzheimer -associated neuronal thread protein-induced apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial

  17. Mitochondria-derived ROS bursts disturb Ca2+ cycling and induce abnormal automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qince; Su, Di; O'Rourke, Brian; Pogwizd, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are in close proximity to the redox-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] and uptake [Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)] channels. Thus mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mdROS) could play a crucial role in modulating Ca2+ cycling in the cardiomyocytes. However, whether mdROS-mediated Ca2+ dysregulation translates to abnormal electrical activities under pathological conditions, and if yes what are the underlying ionic mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that pathological mdROS induce Ca2+ elevation by modulating SR Ca2+ handling, which activates other Ca2+ channels and further exacerbates Ca2+ dysregulation, leading to abnormal action potential (AP). We also propose that the morphologies of elicited AP abnormality rely on the time of mdROS induction, interaction between mitochondria and SR, and intensity of mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypotheses, we developed a multiscale guinea pig cardiomyocyte model that incorporates excitation-contraction coupling, local Ca2+ control, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS-induced ROS release. This model, for the first time, includes mitochondria-SR microdomain and modulations of mdROS on RyR and SERCA activities. Simulations show that mdROS bursts increase cytosolic Ca2+ by stimulating RyRs and inhibiting SERCA, which activates the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, Ca2+-sensitive nonspecific cationic channels, and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, eliciting abnormal AP. The morphologies of AP abnormality are largely influenced by the time interval among mdROS burst induction and AP firing, dosage and diffusion of mdROS, and SR-mitochondria distance. This study defines the role of mdROS in Ca2+ overload-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underscores the importance of considering mitochondrial targets in designing new antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25539710

  18. Depletion of Mitofusin-2 Causes Mitochondrial Damage in Cisplatin-Induced Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bobylev, Ilja; Joshi, Abhijeet R; Barham, Mohammed; Neiss, Wolfram F; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2017-01-21

    Sensory neuropathy is a relevant side effect of the antineoplastic agent cisplatin. Mitochondrial damage is assumed to play a critical role in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, but the pathomechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced mitotoxicity and neurodegeneration are incompletely understood. In an animal model of cisplatin-induced neuropathy, we determined in detail the extent and spatial distribution of mitochondrial damage during cisplatin treatment. Changes in the total number of axonal mitochondria during cisplatin treatment were assessed in intercostal nerves from transgenic mice that express cyan fluorescent protein. Further, we explored the impact of cisplatin on the expression of nuclear encoded molecules of mitochondrial fusion and fission, including mitofusin-2 (MFN2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). Cisplatin treatment resulted in a loss of total mitochondrial mass in axons and in an abnormal mitochondrial morphology including atypical enlargement, increased vacuolization, and loss of cristae. These changes were observed in distal and proximal nerve segments and were more prominent in axons than in Schwann cells. Transcripts of fusion and fission proteins were reduced in distal nerve segments. Significant reduced expression levels of the fusion protein MFN2 was detected in nerves of cisplatin-exposed animals. In summary, we provide for the first time an evidence that cisplatin alters mitochondrial dynamics in peripheral nerves. Loss of MFN2, previously implicated in the pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases, also contributes to the pathogenesis in cisplatin-induced neuropathy.

  19. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Tikka, Saara

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  20. The Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Seth D.; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Ishak, Gisele; Gropman, Andrea L.; Saneto, Russell P.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA impacting mitochondrial function result in disease manifestations ranging from early death to abnormalities in all major organ systems and to symptoms that can be largely confined to muscle fatigue. The definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder can be difficult to establish. When the constellation…

  1. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  2. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20–40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  3. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  4. Cambogin exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on breast adenocarcinoma through the induction of NADPH oxidase 1 and the alteration of mitochondrial morphology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianling; Wu, Minfeng; Cai, Bo; Liu, Yurong; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hongsheng; Pan, Yingyi; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-01-01

    Cambogin, a bioactive polycyclic polyprenylated acylphoroglucinol (PPAP) derived from the Garcinia genus, possesses proapoptotic effect in medulloblastoma and breast cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that the proapoptotic effect of cambogin is driven by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we have shown that the inhibitory effect of cambogin on cell proliferation is associated with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial fragmentation. Cambogin also promotes the mutual complex formation of the membrane-bound subunit p22phox of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), as well as the phosphorylation of the cytosolic subunit p47phox, subsequently enhancing membrane-bound NOX1 activity, which leads to increases in intracellular and mitochondrial levels of O2.- and H2O2. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX1 using apocynin (pan-NOX inhibitor), ML171 (NOX1 inhibitor) or siRNA against NOX1 prevents the increases in O2.- and H2O2 levels and the anti-proliferative effect of cambogin. Antioxidants, including SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and EUK-8, are also able to restore cell viability in the presence of cambogin. Besides, cambogin increases the dissociation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) from ASK1, switching the inactive form of ASK1 to the active kinase, subsequently leads to the phosphorylation of JNK/SAPK, which is abolished upon ML171 treatment. The proapoptotic effect of cambogin in breast cancer cells is also aggravated upon knocking down Trx1 in MCF-7 cells. Taken in conjunction, these data indicate that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of cambogin is mediated via inducing NOX1-dependent ROS production and the dissociation of ASK1 and Trx1. PMID:27418140

  5. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  6. Chronic pro-oxidative state and mitochondrial dysfunctions are more pronounced in fibroblasts from Down syndrome foeti with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Claudia; Izzo, Antonella; Scrima, Rosella; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; Manco, Rosanna; Negri, Rosa; Quarato, Giovanni; Cela, Olga; Ripoli, Maria; Prisco, Marina; Gentile, Flaviana; Calì, Gaetano; Pinton, Paolo; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio; Capitanio, Nazzareno

    2013-03-15

    Trisomy of chromosome 21 is associated to congenital heart defects in ∼50% of affected newborns. Transcriptome analysis of hearts from trisomic human foeti demonstrated that genes involved in mitochondrial function are globally downregulated with respect to controls, suggesting an impairment of mitochondrial function. We investigated here the properties of mitochondria in fibroblasts from trisomic foeti with and without cardiac defects. Together with the upregulation of Hsa21 genes and the downregulation of nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, an abnormal mitochondrial cristae morphology was observed in trisomic samples. Furthermore, impairment of mitochondrial respiratory activity, specific inhibition of complex I, enhanced reactive oxygen species production and increased levels of intra-mitochondrial calcium were demonstrated. Seemingly, mitochondrial dysfunction was more severe in fibroblasts from cardiopathic trisomic foeti that presented a more pronounced pro-oxidative state. The data suggest that an altered bioenergetic background in trisomy 21 foeti might be among the factors responsible for a more severe phenotype. Since the mitochondrial functional alterations might be rescued following pharmacological treatments, these results are of interest in the light of potential therapeutic interventions.

  7. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cardiac Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Tocchi, Autumn; Quarles, Ellen K.; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in most developed nations. While it has received the least public attention, aging is the dominant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, as the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases increases dramatically with increasing age. Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. Mitochondria play a great role in these processes, as cardiac function is an energetically demanding process. In this review, we examine mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac aging. Recent research has demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction can disrupt morphology, signaling pathways, and protein interactions; conversely, mitochondrial homeostasis is maintained by mechanisms that include fission/fusion, autophagy, and unfolded protein responses. Finally, we describe some of the recent findings in mitochondrial targeted treatments to help meet the challenges of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging. PMID:26191650

  8. Mitochondrial implications in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease).

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Mishra, Anushree; Wakil, Salma; Pennuto, Maria; Soraru, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial functions are secondarily disturbed in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA). This review focuses on the relation between BSMA and the effect of the expanded polyglutamine (poly-Q) androgen receptor (AR) on mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial functions in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (SBMA) are affected on the molecular, clinical, and therapeutic level. On the molecular level there is down-regulation of various nuclear-DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins by mutant androgen receptor (mAR), colocalization of the mAR with various mitochondrial proteins, association of mAR aggregates with mitochondria resulting in abnormal distribution of mitochondria, mtDNA depletion or multiple mtDNA deletions, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increase in reactive oxidative species, and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. On the clinical level various mitochondrial disorders mimic SBMA, and on the therapeutic level pioglitazone expresses PPAR-γ, cyclosporine-A restores mitochondrial membrane potentials, coenzyme-Q and idebenone reduce oxidative stress, and geldanamycin up-regulates protective mitochondrial heat shock proteins. In conclusion, in BSMA mitochondrial dysfunction results from various interactions of elongated poly-Q AR with mitochondria, mitochondrial proteins, nuclear or mitochondrial DNA, causing oxidative stress, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, or activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. Additionally, mitochondrial disease may mimic BSMA and therapeutic approaches may depend on modifications of mitochondrial pathways.

  9. The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore: A Molecular Target for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.

    2009-01-01

    Effective therapies are needed for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal type of motor neuron disease. Morphological, biochemical, molecular genetic, and cell/animal model studies suggest that mitochondria have potentially diverse roles in neurodegenerative disease mechanisms and neuronal cell death. In human ALS, abnormalities have been found in mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, and mitochondrial cell death proteins indicative of some non-classical form of programmed cell death. Mouse models of ALS are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria. This minireview summarizes work on the how malfunctioning mitochondria might contribute to neuronal death in ALS through the biophysical entity called the mitochondrial permeability pore (mPTP). The major protein components of the mPTP are enriched in mouse motor neurons. Early in the course of disease in ALS mice expressing human mutant superoxide dismutase-1, mitochondria in motor neurons undergo trafficking abnormalities and dramatic remodeling resulting in the formation of mega-mitochondria and coinciding with increased protein carbonyl formation and nitration of mPTP components. The genetic deletion of a major mPTP component, cyclophilin D, has robust effects in ALS mice by delaying disease onset and extending survival. Thus, attention should be directed to the mPTP as rational target for the development of drugs designed to treat ALS. PMID:19651206

  10. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John; Dasgupta, Asish; Huston, Jessica; Chen, Kuang-Huieh; Archer, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an idiopathic cardiopulmonary disease characterized by obstruction of small pulmonary arteries by excessive proliferation and apoptosis-resistance of vascular cells, as well as inflammation, thrombosis and vasoconstriction. Vascular obstruction increases the afterload faced by the right ventricle (RV), leading to RV failure. The proliferative, obstructive vasculopathy of PAH shares several mitochondrial abnormalities with cancer, notably a shift to aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondria in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) normally serve as oxygen sensors. In PAH, acquired mitochondrial abnormalities, including epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disrupt oxygen sensing creating a pseudo-hypoxic environment characterized by normoxic activation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α). The resulting metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg phenomenon) reflects inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. In addition, altered mitochondrial dynamics result in mitochondrial fragmentation. The molecular basis of this structural change includes upregulation and activation of fission mediators, notably dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP-1), and downregulation of fusion mediators, especially mitofusin-2 (MFN2). These pathogenic mitochondrial abnormalities offer new therapeutic targets. Inhibition of mitotic fission or enhancement of fusion in PAH PASMC slows cell proliferation, causes cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis. DRP-1 inhibition or MFN2 gene therapy can regress PAH in experimental models of PAH. This review focuses on the etiology of mitochondrial fragmentation in PAH and explores the therapeutic implications of mitochondrial dynamics in the pulmonary vasculature and RV. PMID:25672499

  11. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics induced by tebufenpyrad and pyridaben in a dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2015-01-01

    Tebufenpyrad and pyridaben are two agro-chemically important acaricides that function like the known mitochondrial toxicant rotenone. Although these two compounds have been commonly used to kill populations of mites and ticks in commercial greenhouses, their neurotoxic profiles remain largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these two pesticides on mitochondrial structure and function in an in vitro cell culture model using the Seahorse bioanalyzer and confocal fluorescence imaging. The effects were compared with rotenone. Exposing rat dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) to tebufenpyrad and pyridaben for 3 h induced dose-dependent cell death with an EC50 of 3.98 μM and 3.77 μM, respectively. Also, tebufenpyrad and pyridaben (3 μM) exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and m-aconitase damage, suggesting that the pesticide toxicity is associated with oxidative damage. Morphometric image analysis with the MitoTracker red fluorescent probe indicated that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben, as well as rotenone, caused abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology, including reduced mitochondrial length and circularity. Functional bioenergetic experiments using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer revealed that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben very rapidly suppressed the basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate similar to that of rotenone. Further analysis of bioenergetic curves also revealed dose-dependent decreases in ATP-linked respiration and respiratory capacity. The luminescence-based ATP measurement further confirmed that pesticide-induced mitochondrial inhibition of respiration is accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to the pesticides tebufenpyrad and pyridaben induces neurotoxicity by rapidly initiating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Our findings also reveal that monitoring the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration with Seahorse could be used

  12. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadafumi

    2006-12-01

    Altered energy metabolism and accumulated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in the brain, associated mtDNA polymorphisms/mutations or nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondria and comorbidity of mood disorders with mitochondrial disorders, together suggest the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the calcium signaling abnormality found in bipolar disorder. We recently produced mice accumulating neuron-specific mtDNA deletions. Bipolar disorder-like behavioral phenotypes of these mice supported this hypothesis. Thus, development of new mood stabilizers acting on mitochondrial function might be warranted.

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    of human diseases arising from defects in mitochondrial ion and ROS homeostasis, energy production and morphology [1]. Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a very good example of this important mitochondrial component on neurodegenerative diseases. Anuradha Yadav, Swati Agrawal, Shashi Kant Tiwari, and Rajnish K. Chaturvedi (CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research / Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, India) [6] remark in their review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD with special focus on the role of oxidative stress and bioenergetic deficits. These alterations may have their origin on pathogenic gene mutations in important genes such as DJ-1, -syn, parkin, PINK1 or LRRK2. These mutations, in turn, may cause defects in mitochondrial dynamics (key events like fission/fusion, biogenesis, trafficking in retrograde and anterograde directions, and mitophagy). This work reviews different strategies to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics in order to ameliorate the neurodegenerative process, with an emphasis on clinical trials reports that indicate their potential. Among them creatine, Coenzyme Q10 and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants/peptides are reported to have the most remarkable effects in clinical trials. They highlight a dual effect of PGC-1α expression on PD prognosis. Whereas a modest expression of this transcriptional co-activator results in positive effects, a moderate to substantial overexpession may have deleterious consequences. As strategies to induce PGC-1α activation, these authors remark the possibility to activate Sirt1 with resveratrol, to use PPAR agonists such as pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, fenofibrate and bezafibrate. Other strategies include the triggering of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway by triterpenoids (derivatives of oleanolic acid) or by Bacopa monniera, the enhancement of ATP production by carnitine and -lipoic acid. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are the prime source of neurodegenerative diseases and

  14. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the three, congruent nuclear and mitochondrial lineage patterns show that “Urbanus belli” in ACG is a complex of three sympatric species. A single strain of Wolbachia present in two of the three cryptic species indicates that Urbanus segnestami Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ01), Urbanus bernikerni Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ02), and Urbanus ehakernae Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ03) may be biologically separated by Wolbachia, as well as by their genetics. Use of parallel sequencing through 454-pyrosequencing improved the utility of ITS2 as a phylogenetic marker and permitted examination of the intra- and interlineage relationships of ITS2 variants within the species complex. Interlineage, intralineage and intragenomic compensatory base pair changes were discovered in the secondary structure of ITS2. Conclusion These findings corroborate the existence of three cryptic species. Our confirmation of a novel cryptic species complex, initially suggested by DNA barcode lineages, argues for using a multi-marker approach coupled with next-generation sequencing for exploration of other suspected species complexes. PMID:25005355

  15. The yeast dynamin-like protein, Mgm1p, functions on the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate mitochondrial inheritance.

    PubMed

    Shepard, K A; Yaffe, M P

    1999-02-22

    The mdm17 mutation causes temperature-dependent defects in mitochondrial inheritance, mitochondrial morphology, and the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Defects in mitochondrial transmission to daughter buds and changes in mitochondrial morphology were apparent within 30 min after shifting cells to 37 degrees C, while loss of the mitochondrial genome occurred after 4-24 h at the elevated temperature. The mdm17 lesion mapped to MGM1, a gene encoding a dynamin-like GTPase previously implicated in mitochondrial genome maintenance, and the cloned MGM1 gene complements all of the mdm17 mutant phenotypes. Cells with an mgm1-null mutation displayed aberrant mitochondrial inheritance and morphology. A version of mgm1 mutated in a conserved residue in the putative GTP-binding site was unable to complement any of the mutant defects. It also caused aberrant mitochondrial distribution and morphology when expressed at high levels in cells that also contained a wild-type copy of the gene. Mgm1p was localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane and fractionated as a component of a high molecular weight complex. These results indicate that Mgm1p is a mitochondrial inheritance and morphology component that functions on the mitochondrial surface.

  16. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei Yu, Ning; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-05

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} concentration, suppressed the expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury. - Highlights: • We study MCU with primary neuron culture. • MCU induces mitochondrial fission. • MCU reverses MIEF1 effect.

  17. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhicong; Dong, Weiyang; Deng, Congrui; Zhao, Renwu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Ruxin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol. The results show that the PM2.5 exposure induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These changes were accompanied by decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase in rat nasal mucosa. PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa. These changes were accompanied by abnormal alterations of mitochondrial structures, including mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorder, and even fission resulting from higher doses of PM2.5. Our data shows that oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction may be the toxic mechanisms that cause nasal lesions after exposure to PM2.5. PMID:28146064

  18. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17163.001 PMID:27623147

  19. The Circadian Nature of Mitochondrial Biology.

    PubMed

    Manella, Gal; Asher, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate the daily changes in physiology and behavior of light-sensitive organisms. These clocks measure about 24 h and tick in a self-sustained and cell-autonomous manner. Mounting evidence points toward a tight intertwining between circadian clocks and metabolism. Although various aspects of circadian control of metabolic functions have been extensively studied, our knowledge regarding circadian mitochondrial function is rudimentary. In this review, we will survey the current literature related to the circadian nature of mitochondrial biology: from mitochondrial omics studies (e.g., proteome, acetylome, and lipidome), through dissection of mitochondrial morphology, to analyses of mitochondrial processes such as nutrient utilization and respiration. We will describe potential mechanisms that are implicated in circadian regulation of mitochondrial functions in mammals and discuss the possibility of a mitochondrial-autonomous oscillator.

  20. The Circadian Nature of Mitochondrial Biology

    PubMed Central

    Manella, Gal; Asher, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate the daily changes in physiology and behavior of light-sensitive organisms. These clocks measure about 24 h and tick in a self-sustained and cell-autonomous manner. Mounting evidence points toward a tight intertwining between circadian clocks and metabolism. Although various aspects of circadian control of metabolic functions have been extensively studied, our knowledge regarding circadian mitochondrial function is rudimentary. In this review, we will survey the current literature related to the circadian nature of mitochondrial biology: from mitochondrial omics studies (e.g., proteome, acetylome, and lipidome), through dissection of mitochondrial morphology, to analyses of mitochondrial processes such as nutrient utilization and respiration. We will describe potential mechanisms that are implicated in circadian regulation of mitochondrial functions in mammals and discuss the possibility of a mitochondrial-autonomous oscillator. PMID:28066327

  1. A Flavonoid Compound Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells via PPAR-β Modulating Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yu-qin; Pan, Zong-fu; Chen, Wen-teng; Xu, Min-hua; Zhu, Dan-yan; Yu, Yong-ping; Lou, Yi-jia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known regarding mitochondrial metabolism in neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. By using a small molecule, present research has investigated the pattern of cellular energy metabolism in neural progenitor cells derived from mouse ES cells. Flavonoid compound 4a faithfully facilitated ES cells to differentiate into neurons morphologically and functionally. The expression and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were examined in neural progenitor cells. PPAR-β expression showed robust upregulation compared to solvent control. Treatment with PPAR-β agonist L165041 alone or together with compound 4a significantly promoted neuronal differentiation, while antagonist GSK0660 blocked the neurogenesis-promoting effect of compound 4a. Consistently, knockdown of PPAR-β in ES cells abolished compound 4a-induced neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, we found that mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn2 was also abolished by sh-PPAR-β, resulting in abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]M) transients as well as impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. In conclusion, we demonstrated that by modulating mitochondrial energy metabolism through Mfn2 and mitochondrial Ca2+, PPAR-β took an important role in neuronal differentiation induced by flavonoid compound 4a. PMID:27315062

  2. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 deficiency is a novel disorder of mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Shahni, Rojeen; Cale, Catherine M; Anderson, Glenn; Osellame, Laura D; Hambleton, Sophie; Jacques, Thomas S; Wedatilake, Yehani; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Chan, Emma; Qasim, Waseem; Plagnol, Vincent; Chalasani, Annapurna; Duchen, Michael R; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Rahman, Shamima

    2015-10-01

    common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, in which abnormalities of mitochondrial morphology have been implicated in disease pathogenesis.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  4. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  5. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatoma Cells Requires the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Paz, José C.; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Liesa, Marc; Segalés, Jessica; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, enhance hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis partly through changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function is influenced by the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events. However, whether glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function through the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is currently unknown. Results: Here, we report that the effects of dexamethasone on mitochondrial function and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells are dependent on the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dexamethasone increased routine oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity, superoxide anion, proton leak, and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells. Under these conditions, dexamethasone altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver. On the basis of these observations, we analyzed the dependence on the Drp1 function of dexamethasone effects on mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis. We show that the increase in mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis induced by dexamethasone are hampered by the inhibition of Drp1 function. Innovation: Our findings provide the first evidence that the effects of glucocorticoids on hepatic metabolism require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial effects of dexamethasone both on mitochondrial respiration and on the gluconeogenic pathway depend on Drp1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 366–378. PMID:22703557

  6. Mitochondrial genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation. Areas of agreement The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases. Areas of controversy The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated. Growing points Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease. PMID:23704099

  7. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei; Yu, Ning; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-05

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca(2+) into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, suppressed the expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca(2+) transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  8. Malfunction in Mitochondrial β-Oxidation Contributes to Lipid Accumulation in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Derived from Citrin Deficiency-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeji; Choi, Jung-Yun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Lee, Beom-Hee; Yoo, Han-Wook; Han, Yong-Mahn

    2016-04-15

    Citrin deficiency (CD) is a recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the citrin gene SLC25A13. CD causes various symptoms related to nutrient metabolism such as urea cycle failure, abnormal amino acid levels, and fatty liver. To understand the pathophysiology of CD, the molecular phenotypes were investigated using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of CD patient (CD-iPSCs). In this study, we demonstrate that aberrant mitochondrial β-oxidation may lead to fatty liver in CD patients. CD-iPSCs normally differentiated into hepatocytes, similar to wild-type iPSCs (WT-iPSCs). However, hepatocytes derived from CD-iPSCs (CD-HLCs) did not exhibit ureogenesis. Cellular triglyceride and lipid granule levels were significantly increased in CD-HLCs compared with WT-HLCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and its target genes which are involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation were downregulated in CD-HLCs, and treatment with a PPAR-α agonist partially reduced the lipid accumulation in CD-HLCs. In addition, the mitochondria in CD-HLCs exhibited abnormal morphologies. Based on these observations, we conclude that the lipid accumulation in CD-HLCs results from dysfunctional mitochondrial β-oxidation and abnormal mitochondrial structure.

  9. Historical Perspective on Mitochondrial Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Garone, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we trace the origins and follow the development of mitochondrial medicine from the premolecular era (1962-1988) based on clinical clues, muscle morphology, and biochemistry into the molecular era that started in 1988 and is still advancing at a brisk pace. We have tried to stress conceptual advances, such as endosymbiosis,…

  10. Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology.

    PubMed

    Norlinder, Erika; Nygren, Arne; Wiklund, Helena; Pleijel, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    The phylogeny of scale-worms, benthic polychaetes carrying dorsal scales (elytra), including taxa from Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Pholoididae, Polynoidae and Sigalionidae (Aphroditiformia), is assessed from the nuclear markers 18SrRNA and 28SrRNA, and mitochondrial 16SrRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and 24 morphological characters. The data sets are analyzed both separately and combined, with Bayesian analyses, maximum likelihood and parsimony. In total, 56 terminal taxa are examined, including 48 taxa from all scale-worm families, and eight out-group species. The results indicate that Aphroditidae and Eulepethidae are the most basally placed families among the scale-worms. The Pholoididae and Pisionidae are positioned within and synonymized with the Sigalionidae, and Pholoidae may be part of the same group. The subfamily Iphioninae falls out as sister group to a clade consisting of Polynoidae and Acoetidae and is elevated to Iphionidae. The families now included in the Aphroditiformia are Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Polynoidae, Iphionidae and Sigalionidae, and the subfamily name Harmothoinae and Acholoinae are treated as a junior synonyms of Polynoinae.

  11. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  12. Ultrastructure of mitochondrial nucleoid and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Prachař, Jarmil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter. They are mainly located in the matrix between cristae inside the mitochondrial tube but they are also frequently found close to the inner mitochondrial surface. In tightly packed form, their interior exhibits sophisticated nucleoprotein regularity. The core surroundings form an electron-lucent thick layer which is probably partitioned into separate chambers. We suggest that the morphology of nucleoids mirrors the mode of energy production, glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation. The new high resolution transmission electron microscopy method enabled us to obtain morphological characteristics on yet unpublished level.

  13. Mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian health and disease.

    PubMed

    Liesa, Marc; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    The meaning of the word mitochondrion (from the Greek mitos, meaning thread, and chondros, grain) illustrates that the heterogeneity of mitochondrial morphology has been known since the first descriptions of this organelle. Such a heterogeneous morphology is explained by the dynamic nature of mitochondria. Mitochondrial dynamics is a concept that includes the movement of mitochondria along the cytoskeleton, the regulation of mitochondrial architecture (morphology and distribution), and connectivity mediated by tethering and fusion/fission events. The relevance of these events in mitochondrial and cell physiology has been partially unraveled after the identification of the genes responsible for mitochondrial fusion and fission. Furthermore, during the last decade, it has been identified that mutations in two mitochondrial fusion genes (MFN2 and OPA1) cause prevalent neurodegenerative diseases (Charcot-Marie Tooth type 2A and Kjer disease/autosomal dominant optic atrophy). In addition, other diseases such as type 2 diabetes or vascular proliferative disorders show impaired MFN2 expression. Altogether, these findings have established mitochondrial dynamics as a consolidated area in cellular physiology. Here we review the most significant findings in the field of mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian cells and their implication in human pathologies.

  14. Distribution of mitochondrial nucleoids upon mitochondrial network fragmentation and network reintegration in HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Smolková, Katarína; Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in nucleoids in complex with accessory proteins, proteins of mtDNA replication and gene expression machinery. A robust mtDNA genome is represented by hundreds to thousands of nucleoids in cell mitochondrion. Detailed information is lacking about the dynamics of nucleoid distribution within the mitochondrial network upon physiological and pathological events. Therefore, we used confocal microscopy to study mitochondrial nucleoid redistribution upon mitochondrial fission and following reintegration of the mitochondrial network. Fission was induced by oxidative stress at respiration inhibition by rotenone or upon elimination of the protonmotive force by uncoupling or upon canceling its electrical component, ΔΨ(m), by valinomycin; and by silencing of mitofusin MFN2. Agent withdrawal resulted in concomitant mitochondrial network reintegration. We found two major principal morphological states: (i) a tubular state of the mitochondrial network with equidistant nucleoid spacing, 1.10±0.2 nucleoids per μm, and (ii) a fragmented state of solitary spheroid objects in which several nucleoids were clustered. We rarely observed singular mitochondrial fragments with a single nucleoid inside and very seldom we observed empty fragments. Reintegration of fragments into the mitochondrial network re-established the tubular state with equidistant nucleoid spacing. The two major morphological states coexisted at intermediate stages. These observations suggest that both mitochondrial network fission and reconnection of the disintegrated network are nucleoid-centric, i.e., fission and new mitochondrial tubule formation are initiated around nucleoids. Analyses of combinations of these morphological icons thus provide a basis for a future mitochondrial morphology diagnostics.

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction in myofibrillar myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy E; Grady, John P; Rocha, Mariana C; Alston, Charlotte L; Rygiel, Karolina A; Barresi, Rita; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-10-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are characterised by focal myofibrillar destruction and accumulation of myofibrillar elements as protein aggregates. They are caused by mutations in the DES, MYOT, CRYAB, FLNC, BAG3, DNAJB6 and ZASP genes as well as other as yet unidentified genes. Previous studies have reported changes in mitochondrial morphology and cellular positioning, as well as clonally-expanded, large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and focal respiratory chain deficiency in muscle of MFM patients. Here we examine skeletal muscle from patients with desmin (n = 6), ZASP (n = 1) and myotilin (n = 2) mutations and MFM protein aggregates, to understand how mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the underlying mechanisms causing disease pathology. We have used a validated quantitative immunofluorescent assay to study respiratory chain protein levels, together with oxidative enzyme histochemistry and single cell mitochondrial DNA analysis, to examine mitochondrial changes. Results demonstrate a small number of clonally-expanded mitochondrial DNA deletions, which we conclude are due to both ageing and disease pathology. Further to this we report higher levels of respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiency compared to age matched controls, although overall levels of respiratory deficient muscle fibres in patient biopsies are low. More strikingly, a significantly higher percentage of myofibrillar myopathy patient muscle fibres have a low mitochondrial mass compared to controls. We concluded this is mechanistically unrelated to desmin and myotilin protein aggregates; however, correlation between mitochondrial mass and muscle fibre area is found. We suggest this may be due to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis in combination with muscle fibre hypertrophy.

  16. Excessive reactive oxygen species induces apoptosis in fibroblasts: Role of mitochondrially accumulated hyaluronic acid binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Ghosh, Ilora Datta, Kasturi

    2008-02-01

    Constitutively expressed HABP1 in normal murine fibroblast cell line induces growth perturbation, morphological abnormalities alongwith initiation of apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that though HABP1 accumulation started in mitochondria from 48 hr of growth, induction of apoptosis with the release of cytochrome c and apoptosome complex formation occurred only after 60 hr. This mitochondrial dysfunction was due to gradual increase in ROS generation in HABP1 overexpressing cells. Along with ROS generation, increased Ca{sup 2+} influx in mitochondria leading to drop in membrane potential was evident. Interestingly, upon expression of HABP1, the respiratory chain complex I was shown to be significantly inhibited. Electronmicrograph confirmed defective mitochondrial ultrastructure. The reduction in oxidant generation and drop in apoptotic cell population accomplished by disruption of HABP1 expression, corroborating the fact that excess ROS generation in HABP1 overexpressing cells leading to apoptosis was due to mitochondrial HABP1 accumulation.

  17. A small natural molecule promotes mitochondrial fusion through inhibition of the deubiquitinase USP30

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wen; Chen, Ziheng; Liu, Haiyang; Yan, Chen; Chen, Ming; Feng, Du; Yan, Chaojun; Wu, Hao; Du, Lei; Wang, Yueying; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Xiaohu; Xia, Laixin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Haijing; Wang, Jun; Song, Zhiyin; Hao, Xiaojiang; Chen, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion is a highly coordinated process that mixes and unifies the mitochondrial compartment for normal mitochondrial functions and mitochondrial DNA inheritance. Dysregulated mitochondrial fusion causes mitochondrial fragmentation, abnormal mitochondrial physiology and inheritance, and has been causally linked with a number of neuronal diseases. Here, we identified a diterpenoid derivative 15-oxospiramilactone (S3) that potently induced mitochondrial fusion to restore the mitochondrial network and oxidative respiration in cells that are deficient in either Mfn1 or Mfn2. A mitochondria-localized deubiquitinase USP30 is a target of S3. The inhibition of USP30 by S3 leads to an increase of non-degradative ubiquitination of Mfn1/2, which enhances Mfn1 and Mfn2 activity and promotes mitochondrial fusion. Thus, through the use of an inhibitor of USP30, our study uncovers an unconventional function of non-degradative ubiquitination of Mfns in promoting mitochondrial fusion. PMID:24513856

  18. A small natural molecule promotes mitochondrial fusion through inhibition of the deubiquitinase USP30.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wen; Chen, Ziheng; Liu, Haiyang; Yan, Chen; Chen, Ming; Feng, Du; Yan, Chaojun; Wu, Hao; Du, Lei; Wang, Yueying; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Xiaohu; Xia, Laixin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Haijing; Wang, Jun; Song, Zhiyin; Hao, Xiaojiang; Chen, Quan

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondrial fusion is a highly coordinated process that mixes and unifies the mitochondrial compartment for normal mitochondrial functions and mitochondrial DNA inheritance. Dysregulated mitochondrial fusion causes mitochondrial fragmentation, abnormal mitochondrial physiology and inheritance, and has been causally linked with a number of neuronal diseases. Here, we identified a diterpenoid derivative 15-oxospiramilactone (S3) that potently induced mitochondrial fusion to restore the mitochondrial network and oxidative respiration in cells that are deficient in either Mfn1 or Mfn2. A mitochondria-localized deubiquitinase USP30 is a target of S3. The inhibition of USP30 by S3 leads to an increase of non-degradative ubiquitination of Mfn1/2, which enhances Mfn1 and Mfn2 activity and promotes mitochondrial fusion. Thus, through the use of an inhibitor of USP30, our study uncovers an unconventional function of non-degradative ubiquitination of Mfns in promoting mitochondrial fusion.

  19. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes of Mitochondrial Components in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirches, E

    2009-01-01

    Although the observation of aerobic glycolysis of tumor cells by Otto v. Warburg had demonstrated abnormalities of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer decades ago, there was no clear evidence for a functional role of mutant mitochondrial proteins in cancer development until the early years of the 21st century. In the year 2000, a major breakthrough was achieved by the observation, that several genes coding for subunits of the respiratory chain (ETC) complex II, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are tumor suppressor genes in heritable paragangliomas, fulfilling Knudson’s classical two-hit hypothesis. A functional inactivation of both alleles by germline mutations and chromosomal losses in the tumor tissue was found in the patients. Later, SDH mutations were also identified in sporadic paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Genes of the mitochondrial ATP-synthase and of mitochondrial iron homeostasis have been implicated in cancer development at the level of cell culture and mouse experiments. In contrast to the well established role of some nuclear SDH genes, a functional impact of the mitochondrial genome itself (mtDNA) in cancer development remains unclear. Nevertheless, the extremely high frequency of mtDNA mutations in solid tumors raises the question, whether this small circular genome might be applicable to early cancer detection. This is a meaningful approach, especially in cancers, which tend to spread tumor cells early into bodily fluids or faeces, which can be screened by non-invasive methods. PMID:19949549

  20. Reversible Inhibition of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis during Linezolid-Related Hyperlactatemia▿

    PubMed Central

    Garrabou, Glòria; Soriano, Alejandro; López, Sònia; Guallar, Jordi P.; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc; Martínez, Jose A.; Casademont, Jordi; Cardellach, Francesc; Mensa, Josep; Miró, Òscar

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the mitochondrial toxicity mechanisms of linezolid-related hyperlactatemia. Five patients on a long-term schedule of linezolid treatment were studied during the acute phase of hyperlactatemia and after clinical recovery and lactate normalization following linezolid withdrawal. Mitochondrial studies were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and consisted of measurement of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial protein synthesis homeostasis (cytochrome c oxidase [COX] activity, COX-II subunit expression, COX-II mRNA abundance, and mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA] content), and overall mitochondrial function (mitochondrial membrane potential and intact-cell oxidative capacity). During linezolid-induced hyperlactatemia, we found extremely reduced protein expression (16% of the remaining content compared to control values [100%], P < 0.001) for the mitochondrially coded, transcribed, and translated COX-II subunit. Accordingly, COX activity was also found to be decreased (51% of the remaining activity, P < 0.05). These reductions were observed despite the numbers of COX-II mitochondrial RNA transcripts being abnormally increased (297%, P = 0.10 [not significant]) and the mitochondrial DNA content remaining stable. These abnormalities persisted even after the correction for mitochondrial mass, which was mildly decreased during the hyperlactatemic phase. Most of the mitochondrial abnormalities returned to control ranges after linezolid withdrawal, lactate normalization, and clinical recovery. Linezolid inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to decreased mitochondrial enzymatic activity, which causes linezolid-related hyperlactatemia, which resolves upon discontinuation of linezolid treatment. PMID:17194826

  1. Mdm12p, a component required for mitochondrial inheritance that is conserved between budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Berger, K H; Sogo, L F; Yaffe, M P

    1997-02-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the MDM12 gene product display temperature-sensitive growth and possess abnormally large, round mitochondria that are defective for inheritance by daughter buds. Analysis of the wild-type MDM12 gene revealed its product to be a 31-kD polypeptide that is homologous to a protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. When expressed in S. cerevisiae, the S. pombe Mdm12p homolog conferred a dominant-negative phenotype of giant mitochondria and aberrant mitochondrial distribution, suggesting partial functional conservation of Mdm12p activity between budding and fission yeast. The S. cerevisiae Mdm12p was localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by subcellular fractionation and immunodetection to the mitochondrial outer membrane and displayed biochemical properties of an integral membrane protein. Mdm12p is the third mitochondrial outer membrane protein required for normal mitochondrial morphology and distribution to be identified in S. cerevisiae and the first such mitochondrial component that is conserved between two different species.

  2. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are defective, the cells do not have enough energy. The unused oxygen and fuel molecules build up in the cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how ... high energy needs, so muscular and neurological problems are common. ...

  3. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology.

  4. Mitochondrial dynamics changes with age in an APPsw/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Lin; Shen, Yang; Wang, Xiao; Wei, Li-Fei; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hui; Wang, Cun-Fu; Xie, Zhao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing research suggests that mitochondrial defects play a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. We aimed to better understand changes in mitochondria with the development and progression of AD. We compared APPsw/PS1dE9 transgenic mice at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old as an animal model of AD and age-matched C57BL/6 mice as controls. The learning ability and spatial memory ability of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice showed significant differences compared with controls until 9 and 12 months. Mitochondrial morphology was altered in hippocampus tissue of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice beginning from the third month. ‘Medullary corpuscle’, which is formed by the accumulation of a large amount of degenerative and fragmented mitochondria in neuropils, may be the characteristic change observed on electron microscopy at a late stage of AD. Moreover, levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins (optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 2) and fission proteins (dynamin-related protein 1 and fission 1) were altered in transgenic mice compared with controls with progression of AD. We found increased levels of fission and fusion proteins in APP/PS1 mice at 3 months, indicating that the presence of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may be events in early AD progression. Changes in mitochondrial preceded the onset of memory decline as measured by the modified Morris water maze test. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics could be a marker for early diagnosis of AD and monitoring disease progression. Further research is needed to study the signaling pathways that govern mitochondrial fission/fusion in AD. PMID:28118288

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  6. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury.

  7. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  10. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  11. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  12. Mitochondrial dynamics in the mouse liver infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina Tu-Wen; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Kin-Mu; Cheng, Po-Ching; Peng, Shih-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics is crucial for regulation of cell homeostasis. Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites known to cause liver disease. Mice infected by S. mansoni show acute symptoms of schistosomiasis after 8 weeks. Hence, in this study, we attempted to assess the direct effects of S. mansoni infection on mice liver, and to explore the expression of mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, and function. Our recent findings show that S. mansoni infection changes mitochondrial morphology and affects mitochondrial functions, which attenuates mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation. S. mansoni-infected mice increases mitochondrial numbers by upregulating of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). This may promote mitochondria generation for accelerating the recovery of mitochondrial functions. Moreover, S. mansoni would disrupt mitochondrial dynamics including induced mitochondrial fission and promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in mice liver. More importantly, S. mansoni further stimulated upregulation both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathway in infected mice liver. The intrinsic pathway was triggered by cytochrome c release. Additionally, NFκB (nuclear factor-kappa B, p65) could play a protective role to inhibit apoptosis through reducing active caspase-3 expression. Therefore, our results confirmed the liver damage mechanism of experimental schistosomiasis in mice model.

  13. MIRO1 influences the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria during embryonic cell division in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Shohei; Nakajima, Masaki; Fujimoto, Masaru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Regulating the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria is essential for embryo development in animals. However, the importance of such regulation is not clearly defined in plants. The evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and motility. We previously demonstrated that MIRO1, an Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of the Miro protein, is required for embryogenesis. An insertional mutation in the MIRO1 gene causes arrest of embryonic cell division, leading to abortion of the embryo at an early stage. Here we investigated the role of MIRO1 in the regulation of mitochondrial behaviour in egg cells and early-stage embryos using GFP-labeled mitochondria. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy revealed that, in miro1 mutant egg cells, mitochondria are abnormally enlarged, although egg cell formation is nearly unaffected. After fertilization and subsequent zygotic cell division, the homozygous miro1 mutant two-celled embryo contained a significantly reduced number of mitochondria in its apical cell compared with the wild type, suggesting that the miro1 mutation inhibits proper intracellular distribution of mitochondria, leading to an arrest of embryonic cell division. Our findings suggest that proper mitochondrial morphology and intracellular distribution are maintained by MIRO1 and are vital for embryonic cell division.

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  15. Mitochondrial Fragmentation Due to Inhibition of Fusion Increases Cyclin B through Mitochondrial Superoxide Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Tejas M.

    2015-01-01

    During the cell cycle, mitochondria undergo regulated changes in morphology. Two particularly interesting events are first, mitochondrial hyperfusion during the G1-S transition and second, fragmentation during entry into mitosis. The mitochondria remain fragmented between late G2- and mitotic exit. This mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation constitutes a checkpoint in some cell types, of which little is known. We bypass the ‘mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation’ checkpoint by inducing fragmented mitochondrial morphology and then measure the effect on cell cycle progression. Using Drosophila larval hemocytes, Drosophila S2R+ cell and cells in the pouch region of wing imaginal disc of Drosophila larvae we show that inhibiting mitochondrial fusion, thereby increasing fragmentation, causes cellular hyperproliferation and an increase in mitotic index. However, mitochondrial fragmentation due to over-expression of the mitochondrial fission machinery does not cause these changes. Our experiments suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fusion increases superoxide radical content and leads to the upregulation of cyclin B that culminates in the observed changes in the cell cycle. We provide evidence for the importance of mitochondrial superoxide in this process. Our results provide an insight into the need for mitofusin-degradation during mitosis and also help in understanding the mechanism by which mitofusins may function as tumor suppressors. PMID:26000631

  16. Correcting mitochondrial fusion by manipulating mitofusin conformations

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Antonietta; Kitsis, Richard N.; Fleischer, Julie A.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Kornfeld, Opher S.; Gong, Guohua; Biris, Nikolaos; Benz, Ann; Qvit, Nir; Donnelly, Sara K; Chen, Yun; Mennerick, Steven; Hodgson, Louis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Dorn, Gerald W

    2017-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions. Based on this model we engineered a cell-permeant minipeptide to destabilize fusion-constrained mitofusin and promote the fusion-permissive conformation, reversing mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured fibroblasts and neurons harboring CMT2A gene defects. The relationship between mitofusin conformational plasticity and mitochondrial dynamism uncovers a central mechanism regulating mitochondrial fusion whose manipulation can correct mitochondrial pathology triggered by defective or imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27775718

  17. The Neuro-Ophthalmology of Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J. Alexander; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Because of the predilection of mitochondrial disorders to involve the optic nerves, extraocular muscles, retina, and even the retrochiasmal visual pathways, the ophthalmologist is often the first physician to be consulted. Disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can result from abnormalities in either the mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial proteins. Inheritance of these mutations will follow patterns specific to their somatic or mitochondrial genetics. Genotype-phenotype correlations are inconstant, and considerable overlap may occur among these syndromes. The diagnostic approach to the patient with suspected mitochondrial disease entails a detailed personal and family history, careful ophthalmic, neurologic, and systemic examination, directed investigations, and attention to potentially life-threatening sequelae. Although curative treatments for mitochondrial disorders are currently lacking, exciting research advances are being made, particularly in the area of gene therapy. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, with its window of opportunity for timely intervention and its accessibility to directed therapy, offers a unique model to study future therapeutic interventions. Most patients and their relatives benefit from informed genetic counseling. PMID:20471050

  18. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction: a neglected component of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, René G; Sperl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Johann W; Kofler, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant mitochondrial structure and function influence tissue homeostasis and thereby contribute to multiple human disorders and ageing. Ten per cent of patients with primary mitochondrial disorders present skin manifestations that can be categorized into hair abnormalities, rashes, pigmentation abnormalities and acrocyanosis. Less attention has been paid to the fact that several disorders of the skin are linked to alterations of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This review article summarizes the contribution of mitochondrial pathology to both common and rare skin diseases. We explore the intriguing observation that a wide array of skin disorders presents with primary or secondary mitochondrial pathology and that a variety of molecular defects can cause dysfunctional mitochondria. Among them are mutations in mitochondrial- and nuclear DNA-encoded subunits and assembly factors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes; mutations in intermediate filament proteins involved in linking, moving and shaping of mitochondria; and disorders of mitochondrial DNA metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and heme synthesis. Thus, we assume that mitochondrial involvement is the rule rather than the exception in skin diseases. We conclude the article by discussing how improving mitochondrial function can be beneficial for aged skin and can be used as an adjunct therapy for certain skin disorders. Consideration of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skin creates a new perspective for both dermatologists and experts in metabolic disease.

  20. A novel mutation 3090 G>A of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA associated with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Coulbault, L; Deslandes, B; Herlicoviez, D; Read, M H; Leporrier, N; Schaeffer, S; Mouadil, A; Lombès, A; Chapon, F; Jauzac, P; Allouche, S

    2007-10-26

    We describe a young woman who presented with a progressive myopathy since the age of 9. Spectrophotometric analysis of the respiratory chain in muscle tissue revealed combined and profound complex I, III, II+III, and IV deficiency ranging from 60% to 95% associated with morphological and histochemical abnormalities of the muscle. An exhaustive screening of mitochondrial transfer and ribosomal RNAs showed a novel G>A substitution at nucleotide position 3090 which was detected only in urine sediment and muscle of the patient and was not found in her mother's blood cells and urine sample. We suggest that this novel de novo mutation in the 16S ribosomal RNA, a nucleotide which is highly conserved in different species, would impair mitochondrial protein synthesis and would cause a severe myopathy.

  1. Mitochondrial Disease: Possible Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram Email Menu Understanding Mitochondrial Disease What is Mito? What is Mitochondrial Disease? Types of Mitochondrial Disease ... Program Frequently Asked Questions Newly Diagnosed Treatments & Therapies Mito 101 MitoFIRST Handbook Current Clinical Trials & Studies Community ...

  2. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  3. Sorting of Sperm by Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, James; Marcos, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have proven that the percentage of morphologically normal sperm is a significant factor in determining the success of assisted reproduction. The velocity of sperm in a microchannel with shear flow subjected to an external field will be explored theoretically. The difference in response between morphologically normal and abnormal sperm will be computed from a statistical approach, to study the feasibility and effectiveness of sorting by an external field to remove abnormal sperm. The full name of this author is Marcos.

  4. Mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David A.; Perry, Justin B.; Allen, Mitchell E.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Cleland, John G. F.; Colucci, Wilson S.; Butler, Javed; Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Pitt, Bertram; Pieske, Burkert; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greene, Stephen J.; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible. Although the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target for therapy to improve cardiac function directly. Mitochondrial abnormalities include impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, shifted metabolic substrate utilization, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, and altered ion homeostasis. In this Consensus Statement, insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure are presented, along with an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to improve the function of the failing heart by targeting mitochondria. PMID:28004807

  5. Stimulation of glutamate receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons causes Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial contraction

    PubMed Central

    Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Li, Viacheslav; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2009-01-01

    Cultured hippocampal neurons expressing mitochondrially targeted enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (mito-eYFP) were used to quantitatively examine mitochondrial remodeling in response to excitotoxic glutamate. Mitochondrial morphology was evaluated using laser spinning-disk confocal microscopy followed by calibrated image processing and 3D image rendering. Glutamate triggered an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and mitochondrial depolarization accompanied by Ca2+-dependent morphological transformation of neuronal mitochondria from “thread-like” to rounded structures. The quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial remodeling revealed that exposure to glutamate resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial volume and surface area concurrent with an increase in sphericity of the organelles. NIM811, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition, attenuated the glutamate-induced sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and suppressed mitochondrial remodeling in the majority of affected neurons, but it did not rescue mitochondrial membrane potential. Shortening, fragmentation, and formation of circular mitochondria with decreased volume and surface area accompanied mitochondrial depolarization with FCCP. However, FCCP-induced morphological alterations appeared to be distinctly different from mitochondrial remodeling caused by glutamate. Moreover, FCCP prevented glutamate-induced mitochondrial remodeling suggesting an important role of Ca2+ influx into mitochondria in the morphological alterations. Consistent with this, in saponin-permeabilized neurons, Ca2+ caused mitochondrial remodeling which could be prevented by Ru360. PMID:19409612

  6. Deregulated Expression of Mitochondrial Proteins Mfn2 and Bcnl3L in Placentae from Sheep Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Czernik, Marta; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Ptak, Grażyna Ewa

    2017-01-01

    In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis. Here, we demonstrated swollen and fragmented mitochondria and low expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), the protein which plays a crucial role in mitochondrial functionality, in SCNT early placentae. Furthermore, reduced expression of the Bcnl3L/Nix protein, which plays a crucial role in selective elimination of damaged mitochondria, was observed and reflected by the accumulation of numerous damaged mitochondria in SCNT placental cells. Likely, this accumulation of damaged organelles led to uncontrolled apoptosis in SCNT placentae, as demonstrated by the high number of apoptotic bodies, fragmented cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, lack of integrity of the nuclear membrane and the perturbed mRNA expression of apoptotic genes (BCL2 and BAX). In conclusion, our data indicate that deregulated expression of Mfn2 and Bcnl3L is responsible for placental abnormalities in SCNT conceptuses. Our results suggest that some nuclear genes, that are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function, do not work well and consequently this influence the function of mitochondria.

  7. Deregulated Expression of Mitochondrial Proteins Mfn2 and Bcnl3L in Placentae from Sheep Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Conceptuses

    PubMed Central

    Czernik, Marta; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Ptak, Grażyna Ewa

    2017-01-01

    In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis. Here, we demonstrated swollen and fragmented mitochondria and low expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), the protein which plays a crucial role in mitochondrial functionality, in SCNT early placentae. Furthermore, reduced expression of the Bcnl3L/Nix protein, which plays a crucial role in selective elimination of damaged mitochondria, was observed and reflected by the accumulation of numerous damaged mitochondria in SCNT placental cells. Likely, this accumulation of damaged organelles led to uncontrolled apoptosis in SCNT placentae, as demonstrated by the high number of apoptotic bodies, fragmented cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, lack of integrity of the nuclear membrane and the perturbed mRNA expression of apoptotic genes (BCL2 and BAX). In conclusion, our data indicate that deregulated expression of Mfn2 and Bcnl3L is responsible for placental abnormalities in SCNT conceptuses. Our results suggest that some nuclear genes, that are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function, do not work well and consequently this influence the function of mitochondria. PMID:28076382

  8. Mitochondrial maintenance failure in aging and role of sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes during aging are partly conserved across species, and suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and proteotoxicity result from mitochondrial malfunction and abnormal mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Mitochondrial maintenance failure may result from trade-offs between mitochondrial turnover versus growth and reproduction, sexual antagonistic pleiotropy and genetic conflicts resulting from uni-parental mitochondrial transmission, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear mutations and loss of epigenetic regulation. Aging phenotypes and interventions are often sex-specific, indicating that both male and female sexual differentiation promote mitochondrial failure and aging. Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging. The data support a model where the genes Sxl in Drosophila, sdc-2 in C. elegans, and Xist in mammals regulate mitochondrial maintenance across generations and in aging. Several interventions that increase life span cause a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), and UPRmt is also observed during normal aging, indicating hormesis. The UPRmt may increase life span by stimulating mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, and/or by inhibiting the production of hormones and toxic metabolites. The data suggest that metazoan life span interventions may act through a common hormesis mechanism involving liver UPRmt, mitochondrial maintenance and sexual differentiation. PMID:25447815

  9. Protective role of melatonin in mitochondrial dysfunction and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the eukaryotic cell through their use of oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered an important contributing factor in a variety of physiopathological situations such as aging, heart ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes and several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in cell death. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species, altered respiratory chain complexes activity and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been suggested as possible factors responsible for impaired mitochondrial function. Therefore, preventing mitochondrial dysfunction could be an effective therapeutic strategy against cellular degenerative processes. Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid located at the level of inner mitochondrial membrane where it plays an important role in mitochondrial bioenergetics, as well as in cell death. Cardiolipin abnormalities have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in a variety of pathological conditions and aging. Melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland, is a well-known antioxidant agent and thus an effective protector of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin was reported to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative damage by preserving cardiolipin integrity, and this may explain, at least in part, the beneficial effect of this compound in mitochondrial physiopathology. In this article, mechanisms through which melatonin exerts its protective role in mitochondrial dysfunction and related disorders are reviewed.

  10. Mitochondrial maintenance failure in aging and role of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2015-06-15

    Gene expression changes during aging are partly conserved across species, and suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and proteotoxicity result from mitochondrial malfunction and abnormal mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Mitochondrial maintenance failure may result from trade-offs between mitochondrial turnover versus growth and reproduction, sexual antagonistic pleiotropy and genetic conflicts resulting from uni-parental mitochondrial transmission, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear mutations and loss of epigenetic regulation. Aging phenotypes and interventions are often sex-specific, indicating that both male and female sexual differentiation promote mitochondrial failure and aging. Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging. The data support a model where the genes Sxl in Drosophila, sdc-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans, and Xist in mammals regulate mitochondrial maintenance across generations and in aging. Several interventions that increase life span cause a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), and UPRmt is also observed during normal aging, indicating hormesis. The UPRmt may increase life span by stimulating mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, and/or by inhibiting the production of hormones and toxic metabolites. The data suggest that metazoan life span interventions may act through a common hormesis mechanism involving liver UPRmt, mitochondrial maintenance and sexual differentiation.

  11. The machinery of mitochondrial inheritance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, M P

    1999-03-05

    The distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division is an essential feature of cell proliferation. Until recently, it was commonly believed that inheritance of mitochondria and other organelles was a passive process, a consequence of their random diffusion throughout the cytoplasm. A growing recognition of the reticular morphology of mitochondria in many living cells, the association of mitochondria with the cytoskeleton, and the coordinated movements of mitochondria during cellular division and differentiation has illuminated the necessity for a cellular machinery that mediates mitochondrial behavior. Characterization of the underlying molecular components of this machinery is providing insight into mechanisms regulating mitochondrial morphology and distribution.

  12. Identification of G8969>A in mitochondrial ATP6 gene that severely compromises ATP synthase function in a patient with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shuzhen; Niedzwiecka, Katarzyna; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Shutian; Liang, Shaoshan; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xie, Honglang; Tribouillard-Tanvier, Déborah; Giraud, Marie-France; Zeng, Caihong; Dautant, Alain; Kucharczyk, Róża; Liu, Zhihong; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Chen, Huimei

    2016-01-01

    Here we elucidated the pathogenesis of a 14-year-old Chinese female who initially developed an isolated nephropathy followed by a complex clinical presentation with brain and muscle problems, which indicated that the disease process was possibly due to a mitochondrial dysfunction. Careful evaluation of renal biopsy samples revealed a decreased staining of cells induced by COX and NADH dehydrogenase activities, and a strong fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. These anomalies were due to the presence of a mutation in the mitochondrial ATP6 gene, G8969>A. This mutation leads to replacement of a highly conserved serine residue at position 148 of the a-subunit of ATP synthase. Increasing the mutation load in cybrid cell lines was paralleled by the appearance of abnormal mitochondrial morphologies, diminished respiration and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. An equivalent of the G8969>A mutation in yeast had dramatic consequences on ATP synthase, with a block in proton translocation. The mutation was particularly abundant (89%) in the kidney compared to blood and urine, which is likely the reason why this organ was affected first. Based on these findings, we suggest that nephrologists should pay more attention to the possibility of a mitochondrial dysfunction when evaluating patients suffering from kidney problems. PMID:27812026

  13. Huaier Cream Protects against Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy by Restoring Mitochondrial Function via PGC-1α Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Che, Ruochen; Zhu, Chunhua; Ding, Guixia; Zhao, Min; Bai, Mi; Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua; Huang, Songming

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which Huaier, a Chinese traditional medicine, protects podocytes remains unclear. We designed the present study to examine whether mitochondrial function restored by PGC-1α serves as the major target of Huaier cream in protecting ADR nephropathy. After ADR administration, the podocytes exhibited remarkable cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, ADR also reduced PGC-1α both in vivo and in vitro. Following the Huaier treatment, the notable downregulation of PGC-1α and its downstream molecule mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were almost entirely blocked. Correspondingly, Huaier markedly ameliorated ADR-induced podocyte injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in both rat kidneys and incubated cells as it inhibited the decrease of nephrin and podocin expression, mtDNA copy number, MMP, and ATP content. Transmission electron microscopy result also showed that Huaier protected mitochondria against ADR-induced severe mitophagy and abnormal changes of ultrastructural morphology. In conclusion, Huaier can protect podocytes against ADR-induced cytotoxicity possibly by reversing the dysfunction of mitochondria via PGC-1α overexpression, which may be a novel therapeutic drug target in glomerular diseases. PMID:25861251

  14. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Axonal degeneration in paraplegin-deficient mice is associated with abnormal mitochondria and impairment of axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Fatima; Quattrini, Angelo; Pirozzi, Marinella; Valsecchi, Valentina; Dina, Giorgia; Broccoli, Vania; Auricchio, Alberto; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Gaeta, Laura; Casari, Giorgio; Ballabio, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2004-01-01

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, axonal degeneration occurs before neuronal death and contributes significantly to patients’ disability. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by selective degeneration of axons of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis. HSP may therefore be considered an exemplary disease to study the local programs mediating axonal degeneration. We have developed a mouse model for autosomal recessive HSP due to mutations in the SPG7 gene encoding the mitochondrial ATPase paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice are affected by a distal axonopathy of spinal and peripheral axons, characterized by axonal swelling and degeneration. We found that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities occurred in synaptic terminals and in distal regions of axons long before the first signs of swelling and degeneration and correlated with onset of motor impairment during a rotarod test. Axonal swellings occur through massive accumulation of organelles and neurofilaments, suggesting impairment of anterograde axonal transport. Retrograde axonal transport is delayed in symptomatic mice. We speculate that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that a timely therapeutic intervention may prevent the loss of axons. PMID:14722615

  16. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Holt, I J; Harding, A E; Morgan-Hughes, J A

    1988-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial myopathy may be caused by mutation of the mitochondrial (mt) genome, restriction fragment length polymorphism in leucocyte mt DNA has been studied in 38 patients with mitochondrial myopathy, 44 of their unaffected matrilineal relatives, and 35 normal control subjects. Previously unreported mt DNA polymorphisms were identified in both patients and controls. No differences in restriction fragment patterns were observed between affected and unaffected individuals in the same maternal line, and there was no evidence of major deletion of mt DNA in patients. This study provides no positive evidence of mitochondrial inheritance in mitochondrial myopathy, but this has not been excluded.

  17. Effects of (-) mammea A/BB isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves and derivatives on mitochondrial membrane of Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Brenzan, M A; Santos, A O; Nakamura, C V; Filho, B P Dias; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Young, M C M; Côrrea, A G; Júnior, J Alvim; Morgado-Díaz, J A; Cortez, D A G

    2012-02-15

    We have previously demonstrated antileishmanial activity on Leishmania amazonensis of the natural (1-2), synthetic (7) and derivatives of coumarin (-) mammea A/BB (3-6) isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological and ultrastructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis induced by these compounds. In promastigote forms, all seven compounds produced significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations, as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbutyl)-4-phenyl-chroman-2-one (3), the most active antileishmanial with LD₅₀ of 0.9 μM), induced cell shrinkage and a rounded appearance of the cells. Parasites incubated in the presence of compound (3) showed ultrastructural changes, such as the appearance of mitochondrial swelling with a reduction in the density of the mitochondrial matrix and the presence of vesicles inside the mitochondrion, indicating damage and significant change in this organelle; abnormal chromatin condensation, alterations in the nuclear envelope, intense atypical cytoplasmic vacuolization, and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles were also observed. In addition, the compound (3) may be acting to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells, leading to death of the parasite.

  18. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yajin; Dong, Yuan; Cheng, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28208618

  19. Mitochondrial respiration without ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ. The UQ biosynthetic precursor DMQ9 accumulates in these cells and can sustain mitochondrial respiration, albeit inefficiently. We demonstrated that efficient rescue of the respiratory deficiency in UQ-deficient cells by UQ analogues is side chain length dependent, and that classical UQ analogues with alkyl side chains such as idebenone and decylUQ are inefficient in comparison with analogues with isoprenoid side chains. Furthermore, Vitamin K2, which has an isoprenoid side chain, and has been proposed to be a mitochondrial electron carrier, had no efficacy on UQ-deficient mouse cells. In our model with liver-specific loss of Mclk1, a large depletion of UQ in hepatocytes caused only a mild impairment of respiratory chain function and no gross abnormalities. In conjunction with previous findings, this surprisingly small effect of UQ depletion indicates a nonlinear dependence of mitochondrial respiratory capacity on UQ content. With this model, we also showed that diet-derived UQ10 is able to functionally rescue the electron transport deficit due to severe endogenous UQ deficiency in the liver, an organ capable of absorbing exogenous UQ. PMID:23847050

  20. Decreased synaptic and mitochondrial density in the postmortem anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, RC; Barksdale, KA; Roche, JK; Lahti, AC

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental illness characterized by psychosis, negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a structurally and functionally diverse region, is one of several brain regions that is abnormal in SZ. The present study compared synaptic organization and mitochondrial number and morphology in postmortem ACC in SZ versus normal control (NC). Total synaptic density in the combined ACC was decreased in SZ, to 72% of normal controls (NCs), due to selective decreases in axospinous synapses, both asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory). These changes were present in layers 3 and 5/6. The density of mitochondria in all axon terminals combined in SZ was decreased to 64% of NC. In layer 3, mitochondrial density was decreased only in terminals forming asymmetric synapses with spines, while in layers 5/6 mitochondrial density was decreased in terminals forming symmetric synapses with spines and dendrites. The proportion of terminals making symmetric synapses that contained mitochondria was significantly lower in SZ than in NCs, especially for symmetric axospinous synapses. The number of mitochondria per neuronal somata was decreased in the ACC in SZ compared to NCs; this finding was present in layers 5-6. The size of mitochondria in neuronal somata and throughout the neuropil was similar in SZ and NCs. Our results, though preliminary, are well supported by the literature, and support an anatomical substrate for some of the altered executive functions found in SZ. PMID:26210550

  1. Clinical features and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: involvement of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; LoGerfo, Annalisa; Calsolaro, Valeria; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which results in the irreversible loss of cortical neurons, particularly in the associative neocortex and hippocampus. AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly people. Apart from the neuronal loss, the pathological hallmarks are extracellular senile plaques containing the peptide beta-amyloid (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles. The Af cascade hypothesis remains the main pathogenetic model, as suggested by familiar AD, mainly associated to mutation in amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes. The remaining 95% of AD patients are mostly sporadic late-onset cases, with a complex aetiology due to interactions between environmental conditions and genetic features of the individual. Mitochondria play a central role in the bioenergetics of the cell and apoptotic cell death. Morphological, biochemical and genetic abnormalities of the mitochondria in several AD tissues have been reported. Impaired mitochondrial respiration, particularly COX deficiency, has been observed in brain, platelets and fibroblasts of AD patients. Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could cause energy failure and increased oxidative stress. No causative mutations in the mtDNA have been detected and studies on mtDNA polymorphisms are controversial, but the "mitochondrial cascade hypothesis" here revised, could explain many of the biochemical, genetic and pathological features of sporadic AD.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in liver failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lane, Maria; Boczonadi, Veronika; Bachtari, Sahar; Gomez-Duran, Aurora; Langer, Thorsten; Griffiths, Alexandra; Kleinle, Stephanie; Dineiger, Christine; Abicht, Angela; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; Horvath, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Liver failure is a heterogeneous condition which may be fatal and the primary cause is frequently unknown. We investigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We studied 45 patients who had liver transplantation due to a variety of clinical presentations. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunodetection of respiratory chain complexes I-V, biochemical activity of respiratory chain complexes II and IV and quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number were investigated in liver tissue collected from the explanted liver during transplantation. Abnormal mitochondrial function was frequently present in this cohort: ten of 40 patients (25 %) had a defect of one or more respiratory chain enzyme complexes on blue native gels, 20 patients (44 %) had low activity of complex II and/or IV and ten (22 %) had a reduced mtDNA copy number. Combined respiratory chain deficiency and reduced numbers of mitochondria were detected in all three patients with acute liver failure. Low complex IV activity in biliary atresia and complex II defects in cirrhosis were common findings. All six patients diagnosed with liver tumours showed variable alterations in mitochondrial function, probably due to the heterogeneity of the presenting tumour. In conclusion, mitochondrial dysfunction is common in severe liver failure in non-mitochondrial conditions. Therefore, in contrast to the common practice detection of respiratory chain abnormalities in liver should not restrict the inclusion of patients for liver transplantation. Furthermore, improving mitochondrial function may be targeted as part of a complex therapy approach in different forms of liver diseases.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA mutations provoke dominant inhibition of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Sauvanet, Cécile; Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane; Salin, Bénédicte; David, Claudine; Massoni-Laporte, Aurélie; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Rojo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that continuously move, fuse and divide. Mitochondrial dynamics modulate overall mitochondrial morphology and are essential for the proper function, maintenance and transmission of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We have investigated mitochondrial fusion in yeast cells with severe defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) due to removal or various specific mutations of mtDNA. We find that, under fermentative conditions, OXPHOS deficient cells maintain normal levels of cellular ATP and ADP but display a reduced mitochondrial inner membrane potential. We demonstrate that, despite metabolic compensation by glycolysis, OXPHOS defects are associated to a selective inhibition of inner but not outer membrane fusion. Fusion inhibition was dominant and hampered the fusion of mutant mitochondria with wild-type mitochondria. Inhibition of inner membrane fusion was not systematically associated to changes of mitochondrial distribution and morphology, nor to changes in the isoform pattern of Mgm1, the major fusion factor of the inner membrane. However, inhibition of inner membrane fusion correlated with specific alterations of mitochondrial ultrastructure, notably with the presence of aligned and unfused inner membranes that are connected to two mitochondrial boundaries. The fusion inhibition observed upon deletion of OXPHOS related genes or upon removal of the entire mtDNA was similar to that observed upon introduction of point mutations in the mitochondrial ATP6 gene that are associated to neurogenic ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) or to maternally inherited Leigh Syndrome (MILS) in humans. Our findings indicate that the consequences of mtDNA mutations may not be limited to OXPHOS defects but may also include alterations in mitochondrial fusion. Our results further imply that, in healthy cells, the dominant inhibition of fusion could mediate the exclusion of OXPHOS-deficient mitochondria from the network of

  4. Cardiolipin and mitochondrial cristae organization.

    PubMed

    Ikon, Nikita; Ryan, Robert O

    2017-03-20

    A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy/tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space. Reconciling ultrastructural data with the lipid composition of the IM provides support for a continuously curved cylindrical bilayer capped by a dome-shaped tip. Strain imposed by the degree of curvature is relieved by an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in monolayer leaflets that comprise cristae membranes. The signature mitochondrial lipid, cardiolipin (~18% of IM phospholipid mass), and phosphatidylethanolamine (34%) segregate to the negatively curved monolayer leaflet facing the crista lumen while the opposing, positively curved, matrix-facing monolayer leaflet contains predominantly phosphatidylcholine. Associated with cristae are numerous proteins that function in distinctive ways to establish and/or maintain their lipid repertoire and structural integrity. By combining unique lipid components with a set of protein modulators, crista membranes adopt and maintain their characteristic morphological and functional properties. Once established, cristae ultrastructure has a direct impact on oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, fusion/fission as well as diseases of compromised energy metabolism.

  5. Metformin restores the mitochondrial network and reverses mitochondrial dysfunction in Down syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Antonella; Nitti, Maria; Mollo, Nunzia; Paladino, Simona; Procaccini, Claudio; Faicchia, Deriggio; Calì, Gaetano; Genesio, Rita; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; Cicatiello, Rita; Polishchuk, Elena; Polishchuk, Roman; Pinton, Paolo; Matarese, Giuseppe; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio

    2017-01-13

    Alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology have been demonstrated in human cells and tissues from individuals with Down syndrome (DS), as well as in DS mouse models. An impaired activity of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α/PPARGC1Adue to the overexpression of chromosome 21 genes, such as NRIP1/RIP140, has emerged as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in DS. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the PGC-1α pathway might indeed reverse this mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Alterations in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Tammineni, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the earliest and most prominent features in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Neurons are metabolically active cells, causing them to be particularly dependent on mitochondrial function for survival and maintenance. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria are characterized by a balance of fusion and fission, transport, and mitophagy, all of which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy can therefore be identified as key pathways in mitochondrial quality control. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in these key aspects of mitochondrial biology in the vulnerable neurons of AD brains and mouse models, and the potential underlying mechanisms of such changes. This review highlights recent findings on alterations in the mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in AD and discusses how these abnormalities impact mitochondrial quality control and thus contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. PMID:26903809

  7. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  8. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  9. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Development of mitochondrial gene replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaharyar M; Bennett, James P

    2004-08-01

    Many "classic" mitochondrial diseases have been described that arise from single homoplasmic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These diseases typically affect nonmitotic tissues (brain, retina, muscle), present with variable phenotypes, can appear sporadically, and are untreatable. Evolving evidence implicates mtDNA abnormalities in diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes, but specific causal mutations for these conditions remain to be defined. Understanding the mtDNA genotype-phenotype relationships and developing specific treatment for mtDNA-based diseases is hampered by inability to manipulate the mitochondrial genome. We present a novel protein transduction technology ("protofection") that allows insertion and expression of the human mitochondrial genome into mitochondria of living cells. With protofection, the mitochondrial genotype can be altered, or exogenous genes can be introduced to be expressed and either retained in mitochondria or be directed to other organelles. Protofection also delivers mtDNA in vivo, opening the way to rational development of mitochondrial gene replacement therapy of mtDNA-based diseases.

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Maheen F; Elwell, Clare; Johnson, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are classified as neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by diminished social communication and interaction. Recently, evidence has accrued that a significant proportion of individuals with autism have concomitant diseases such as mitochondrial disease and abnormalities of energy generation. This has therefore led to the hypothesis that autism may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. We review such studies reporting decreased activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes and reduced gene expression of mitochondrial genes, in particular genes of respiratory chain complexes, in individuals with autism. Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that there is an association of ASD with impaired mitochondrial function; however, many of the studies have small sample sizes and there is variability in the techniques utilised. There is therefore a vital need to utilise novel imaging techniques, such as near-infrared spectroscopy, that will allow non-invasive measurement of metabolic markers for neuronal activity such as cytochrome c oxidase, in order to better establish the link between autism and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27928515

  13. Following mitochondria dynamism: confocal analysis of the organelle morphology.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Francesca R; Corrado, Mauro; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, whose morphology can vary from an elongated and interconnected network to fragmented units. In recent years, outstanding discoveries have linked mitochondrial morphology to the regulation of an increasing number of biological processes, such as biosynthetic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, calcium buffering, and cell death. Here we describe two of the main methods used to analyze the mitochondrial length in fixed cells and the mitochondrial fusion rate in live cells. Moreover, we focus one of the protocols on T cells, as an example of non-adherent cells, which present some particularities and difficulties in the analysis of mitochondrial shape. We also discuss the main mouse models carrying a mitochondrial targeted fluorescent protein, an invaluable tool to deeply investigate in vivo mitochondrial morphology.

  14. A novel Drosophila SOD2 mutant demonstrates a role for mitochondrial ROS in neurodevelopment and disease

    PubMed Central

    Celotto, Alicia M; Liu, Zhaohui; VanDemark, Andrew P; Palladino, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell signaling, survival, and homeostasis. Aberrant ROS lead to disease and contribute to the aging process. Numerous enzymes and vigilant antioxidant pathways are required to regulate ROS for normal cellular health. Mitochondria are a major source of ROS, and mechanisms to prevent elevated ROS during oxidative phosphorylation require super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. SOD2, also known as MnSOD, is targeted to mitochondria and is instrumental in regulating ROS by conversion of superoxides to hydrogen peroxide, which is further broken down into H2O and oxygen. Here, we describe the identification of a novel mutation within the mitochondrial SOD2 enzyme in Drosophila that results in adults with an extremely shortened life span, sensitivity to hyperoxia, and neuropathology. Additional studies demonstrate that this novel mutant, SOD2bewildered, exhibits abnormal brain morphology, suggesting a critical role for this protein in neurodevelopment. We investigated the basis of this neurodevelopmental defect and discovered an increase in aberrant axonal that could underlie the aberrant neurodevelopment and brain morphology defects. This novel allele, SOD2bewildered, provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of increased mitochondrial ROS on neural development, axonal targeting, and neural cell degeneration in vivo. PMID:22950046

  15. Mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez‐Trincado, César; García‐Carvajal, Ivonne; Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac hypertrophy is often initiated as an adaptive response to haemodynamic stress or myocardial injury, and allows the heart to meet an increased demand for oxygen. Although initially beneficial, hypertrophy can ultimately contribute to the progression of cardiac disease, leading to an increase in interstitial fibrosis and a decrease in ventricular function. Metabolic changes have emerged as key mechanisms involved in the development and progression of pathological remodelling. As the myocardium is a highly oxidative tissue, mitochondria play a central role in maintaining optimal performance of the heart. ‘Mitochondrial dynamics’, the processes of mitochondrial fusion, fission, biogenesis and mitophagy that determine mitochondrial morphology, quality and abundance have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease. Studies link mitochondrial dynamics to the balance between energy demand and nutrient supply, suggesting that changes in mitochondrial morphology may act as a mechanism for bioenergetic adaptation during cardiac pathological remodelling. Another critical function of mitochondrial dynamics is the removal of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy, which is dependent on the fission/fusion cycle. In this article, we discuss the latest findings regarding the impact of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy on the development and progression of cardiovascular pathologies, including diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, damage from ischaemia–reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy and decompensated heart failure. We will address the ability of mitochondrial fusion and fission to impact all cell types within the myocardium, including cardiac myocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, we will discuss how these findings can be applied to improve the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26537557

  16. Mitochondrial Biology and Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Siddharth; Liu, Lei; Donmez, Gizem

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are extremely active organelles that perform a variety of roles in the cell including energy production, regulation of calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, and population maintenance through fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of oxidative stress and mutations can contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s (PD), Alzheimer’s (AD), and Huntington’s diseases (HD). Abnormalities of Complex I function in the electron transport chain have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases, inhibiting ATP production and generating reactive oxygen species that can cause major damage to mitochondria Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA can contribute to neurodegenerative disease, although the pathogenesis of these conditions tends to focus on nuclear mutations. In PD, nuclear genome mutations in the PINK1 and parkin genes have been implicated in neurodegeneration [1], while mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 have been implicated in a variety of clinical symptoms of AD [5]. Mutant htt protein is known to cause HD [2]. Much progress has been made to determine some causes of these neurodegenerative diseases, though permanent treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:26903445

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism.

    PubMed

    Legido, Agustín; Jethva, Reena; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Using data of the current prevalence of autism as 200:10,000 and a 1:2000 incidence of definite mitochondrial (mt) disease, if there was no linkage of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mt disease, it would be expected that 1 in 110 subjects with mt disease would have ASD and 1 in 2000 individuals with ASD would have mt disease. The co-occurrence of autism and mt disease is much higher than these figures, suggesting a possible pathogenetic relationship. Such hypothesis was initially suggested by the presence of biochemical markers of abnormal mt metabolic function in patients with ASD, including elevation of lactate, pyruvate, or alanine levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or brain; carnitine level in plasma; and level of organic acids in urine, and by demonstrating impaired mt fatty acid β-oxidation. More recently, mtDNA genetic mutations or deletions or mutations of nuclear genes regulating mt function have been associated with ASD in patients or in neuropathologic studies on the brains of patients with autism. In addition, the presence of dysfunction of the complexes of the mt respiratory chain or electron transport chain, indicating abnormal oxidative phosphorylation, has been reported in patients with ASD and in the autopsy samples of brains. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms linking mt dysfunction and ASD include mt activation of the immune system, abnormal mt Ca(2+) handling, and mt-induced oxidative stress. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development may also be disrupted by mt dysfunction, including mt-induced oxidative stress. The role of the purinergic system linking mt dysfunction and ASD is currently under investigation. In summary, there is genetic and biochemical evidence for a mitochondria (mt) role in the pathogenesis of ASD in a subset of children. To determine the prevalence and type of genetic and biochemical mt defects in ASD, there is a need for further research using the latest genetic technology such as next

  18. A novel role of the ferric reductase Cfl1 in cell wall integrity, mitochondrial function, and invasion to host cells in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Qian, Kefan; Chen, Yulu; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-11-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, causing both superficial mucosal infections and life-threatening systemic diseases. Iron acquisition is an important factor for pathogen-host interaction and also a significant element for the pathogenicity of this organism. Ferric reductases, which convert ferric iron into ferrous iron, are important components of the high-affinity iron uptake system. Sequence analyses have identified at least 17 putative ferric reductase genes in C. albicans genome. CFL1 was the first ferric reductase identified in C. albicans. However, little is known about its roles in C. albicans physiology and pathogenicity. In this study, we found that disruption of CFL1 led to hypersensitivity to chemical and physical cell wall stresses, activation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, abnormal cell wall composition, and enhanced secretion, indicating a defect in CWI in this mutant. Moreover, this mutant showed abnormal mitochondrial activity and morphology, suggesting a link between ferric reductases and mitochondrial function. In addition, this mutant displayed decreased ability of adhesion to both the polystyrene microplates and buccal epithelial cells and invasion of host epithelial cells. These findings revealed a novel role of C. albicans Cfl1 in maintenance of CWI, mitochondrial function, and interaction between this pathogen and the host.

  19. Vimar Is a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Fission through Miro.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lianggong; Lei, Ye; Han, Yanping; Li, Yuhong; Ji, Xunming; Liu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    As fundamental processes in mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fusion, fission and transport are regulated by several core components, including Miro. As an atypical Rho-like small GTPase with high molecular mass, the exchange of GDP/GTP in Miro may require assistance from a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). However, the GEF for Miro has not been identified. While studying mitochondrial morphology in Drosophila, we incidentally observed that the loss of vimar, a gene encoding an atypical GEF, enhanced mitochondrial fission under normal physiological conditions. Because Vimar could co-immunoprecipitate with Miro in vitro, we speculated that Vimar might be the GEF of Miro. In support of this hypothesis, a loss-of-function (LOF) vimar mutant rescued mitochondrial enlargement induced by a gain-of-function (GOF) Miro transgene; whereas a GOF vimar transgene enhanced Miro function. In addition, vimar lost its effect under the expression of a constitutively GTP-bound or GDP-bound Miro mutant background. These results indicate a genetic dependence of vimar on Miro. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial fission played a functional role in high-calcium induced necrosis, and a LOF vimar mutant rescued the mitochondrial fission defect and cell death. This result can also be explained by vimar's function through Miro, because Miro's effect on mitochondrial morphology is altered upon binding with calcium. In addition, a PINK1 mutant, which induced mitochondrial enlargement and had been considered as a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD), caused fly muscle defects, and the loss of vimar could rescue these defects. Furthermore, we found that the mammalian homolog of Vimar, RAP1GDS1, played a similar role in regulating mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a functional conservation of this GEF member. The Miro/Vimar complex may be a promising drug target for diseases in which mitochondrial fission and fusion are dysfunctional.

  20. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas: Pharmacotherapeutic Potential of Natural Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guntuku, Lalita; Naidu, G.M.; Yerra, Veera Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors either benign or malignant originating from the glial tissue. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive form among all gliomas, associated with decimal prognosis due to it's high invasive nature. GBM is also characterized by high recurrence rate and apoptosis resistance features which make the therapeutic targeting very challenging. Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that are acting as focal points in diverse array of cellular functions such as cellular energy metabolism, regulation of ion homeostasis, redox signaling and cell death. Eventual findings of mitochondrial dysfunction include preference of glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and abnormal mitochondria mediated apoptotic machinery are frequently observed in various malignancies including gliomas. In particular, gliomas harbor mitochondrial structure abnormalities, genomic mutations in mtDNA, altered energy metabolism (Warburg effect) along with mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme. Numerous natural compounds have shown efficacy in the treatment of gliomas by targeting mitochondrial aberrant signaling cascades. Some of the natural compounds directly target the components of mitochondria whereas others act indirectly through modulating metabolic abnormalities that are consequence of the mitochondrial dysfunction. The present review offers a molecular insight into mitochondrial pathology in gliomas and therapeutic mechanisms of some of the promising natural compounds that target mitochondrial dysfunction. This review also sheds light on the challenges and possible ways to overcome the hurdles associated with these natural compounds to enter into the clinical market. PMID:26791479

  1. Isolation of Mitochondrial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Translation of mitochondrial encoded mRNAs by mitochondrial ribosomes is thought to play a major role in regulating the expression of mitochondrial proteins. However, the structure and function of plant mitochondrial ribosomes remains poorly understood. To study mitochondrial ribosomes, it is necessary to separate them from plastidic and cytosolic ribosomes that are generally present at much higher concentrations. Here, a straight forward protocol for the preparation of fractions highly enriched in mitochondrial ribosomes from plant cells is described. The method begins with purification of mitochondria followed by mitochondrial lysis and ultracentrifugation of released ribosomes through sucrose cushions and gradients. Dark-grown Arabidopsis cells were used in this example because of the ease with which good yields of pure mitochondria can be obtained from them. However, the steps for isolation of ribosomes from mitochondria could be applied to mitochondria obtained from other sources. Proteomic analyses of resulting fractions have confirmed strong enrichment of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  2. Mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisca; Moraes, Carlos T

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process involving the coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the import of the products of the latter into the organelle and turnover. The mechanisms associated with these events have been intensively studied in the last 20 years and our understanding of their details is much improved. Mitochondrial biogenesis requires the participation of calcium signaling that activates a series of calcium-dependent protein kinases that in turn activate transcription factors and coactivators such as PGC-1alpha that regulates the expression of genes coding for mitochondrial components. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis involves the balance of mitochondrial fission-fusion. Mitochondrial malfunction or defects in any of the many pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis can lead to degenerative diseases and possibly play an important part in aging.

  3. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.

  4. Mitochondrial dynamics and inherited peripheral nerve diseases.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Saveri, Paola; Sagnelli, Anna; Piscosquito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-02

    Peripheral nerves have peculiar energetic requirements because of considerable length of axons and therefore correct mitochondria functioning and distribution along nerves is fundamental. Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the continuous change in size, shape, and position of mitochondria within cells. Abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics produced by mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion (mitofusin-2, MFN2), fission (ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1, GDAP1), and mitochondrial axonal transport usually present with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) phenotype. MFN2 mutations cause CMT type 2A by altering mitochondrial fusion and trafficking along the axonal microtubule system. CMT2A is an axonal autosomal dominant CMT type which in most cases is characterized by early onset and rather severe course. GDAP1 mutations also alter fission, fusion and transport of mitochondria and are associated either with recessive demyelinating (CMT4A) and axonal CMT (AR-CMT2K) and, less commonly, with dominant, milder, axonal CMT (CMT2K). OPA1 (Optic Atrophy-1) is involved in fusion of mitochondrial inner membrane, and its heterozygous mutations lead to early-onset and progressive dominant optic atrophy which may be complicated by other neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in several proteins fundamental for the axonal transport or forming the axonal cytoskeleton result in peripheral neuropathy, i.e., CMT, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), as well as in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Indeed, mitochondrial transport involves directly or indirectly components of the kinesin superfamily (KIF5A, KIF1A, KIF1B), responsible of anterograde transport, and of the dynein complex and related proteins (DYNC1H1, dynactin, dynamin-2), implicated in retrograde flow. Microtubules, neurofilaments, and chaperones such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have a fundamental

  5. Mutations in TFAM, encoding mitochondrial transcription factor A, cause neonatal liver failure associated with mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Ashlee R; Simon, Mariella T; Stover, Alexander; Eftekharian, Shaya; Khanlou, Negar; Wang, Hanlin L; Magaki, Shino; Lee, Hane; Partynski, Kate; Dorrani, Nagmeh; Chang, Richard; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Abdenur, Jose E

    2016-09-01

    In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders that arise as a consequence of defects in mtDNA replication or nucleotide synthesis. Clinical manifestations are variable and include myopathic, encephalomyopathic, neurogastrointestinal or hepatocerebral phenotypes. Through clinical exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense variant (c.533C>T; p.Pro178Leu) in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) segregating in a consanguineous kindred of Colombian-Basque descent in which two siblings presented with IUGR, elevated transaminases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia with progression to liver failure and death in early infancy. Results of the liver biopsy in the proband revealed cirrhosis, micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, cholestasis and mitochondrial pleomorphism. Electron microscopy of muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology and distribution while enzyme histochemistry was underwhelming. Electron transport chain testing in muscle showed increased citrate synthase activity suggesting mitochondrial proliferation, while respiratory chain activities were at the lower end of normal. mtDNA content was reduced in liver and muscle (11% and 21% of normal controls respectively). While Tfam mRNA expression was upregulated in primary fibroblasts, Tfam protein level was significantly reduced. Furthermore, functional investigations of the mitochondria revealed reduced basal respiration and spare respiratory capacity, decreased mtDNA copy number and markedly reduced nucleoids. TFAM is essential for transcription, replication and packaging of mtDNA into nucleoids. Tfam knockout mice display embryonic lethality secondary to severe mtDNA depletion. In this report, for the first time, we associate a homozygous variant in TFAM with a novel mtDNA depletion syndrome.

  6. Caveolin-1 controls mitochondrial function through regulation of m-AAA mitochondrial protease

    PubMed Central

    Volonte, Daniela; Liu, Zhongmin; Shiva, Sruti; Galbiati, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteases ensure mitochondrial integrity and function after oxidative stress by providing mitochondrial protein quality control. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this basic biological function in eukaryotic cells remain largely unknown. Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding protein involved in signal transduction. We find that AFG3L2, a m-AAA type of mitochondrial protease, is a novel caveolin-1-interacting protein in vitro. We show that oxidative stress promotes the translocation of both caveolin-1 and AFG3L2 to mitochondria, enhances the interaction of caveolin-1 with AFG3L2 in mitochondria and stimulates mitochondrial protease activity in wild-type fibroblasts. Localization of AFG3L2 to mitochondria after oxidative stress is inhibited in fibroblasts lacking caveolin-1, which results in impaired mitochondrial protein quality control, an oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis switch and reduced ATP production. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that a lack of caveolin-1 does not alter either mitochondrial number or morphology but leads to the cytoplasmic and proteasome-dependent degradation of complexes I, III, IV and V upon oxidant stimulation. Restoration of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in caveolin-1 null fibroblasts reverts the enhanced glycolysis observed in these cells. Expression of a mutant form of AFG3L2, which has reduced affinity for caveolin-1, fails to localize to mitochondria and promotes degradation of complex IV after oxidative stress. Thus, caveolin-1 maintains mitochondrial integrity and function when cells are challenged with free radicals by promoting the mitochondrial localization of m-AAA protease and its quality control functions. PMID:27705926

  7. Efavirenz Induces Neuronal Autophagy and Mitochondrial Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor in wide use for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although EFV is generally well tolerated, neuropsychiatric toxicity has been well documented. The toxic effects of EFV in hepatocytes and keratinocytes have been linked to mitochondrial perturbations and changes in autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of EFV on mitochondria and autophagy in neuronal cell lines and primary neurons. In SH-SY5Y cells, EFV induced a drop in ATP production, which coincided with increased autophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial depolarization. EFV-induced mitophagy was also detected by colocalization of mitochondria and autophagosomes and use of an outer mitochondrial membrane tandem fluorescent vector. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine increased the cytotoxic effect of EFV, suggesting that autophagy promotes cell survival. EFV also reduces ATP production in primary neurons, induces autophagy, and changes mitochondrial morphology. Overall, EFV is able to acutely induce autophagy and mitochondrial changes in neurons. These changes may be involved in the mechanism leading to central nervous system toxicity observed in clinical EFV use. PMID:25161171

  8. Mitochondrial preconditioning: a potential neuroprotective strategy.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sónia C; Carvalho, Cristina; Cardoso, Susana; Santos, Renato X; Santos, Maria S; Oliveira, Catarina R; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A; Moreira, Paula I

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been known as the powerhouse of the cell. However, these organelles are also pivotal players in neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of chronic brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and cerebral ischemic stroke. Data derived from morphologic, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies indicate that mitochondria constitute a convergence point for neurodegeneration. Conversely, mitochondria have also been implicated in the neuroprotective signaling processes of preconditioning. Despite the precise molecular mechanisms underlying preconditioning-induced brain tolerance are still unclear, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels activation have been shown to be involved in the preconditioning phenomenon. This review intends to discuss how mitochondrial malfunction contributes to the onset and progression of cerebral ischemic stroke and AD and PD, two major neurodegenerative disorders. The role of mitochondrial mechanisms involved in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events will be also discussed. Mitochondrial targeted preconditioning may represent a promising therapeutic weapon to fight neurodegeneration.

  9. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  10. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  11. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in blood cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Johannes K; Morota, Saori; Hansson, Magnus J; Paul, Gesine; Elmér, Eskil

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, where the progressive degeneration of motor neurons results in muscle atrophy, paralysis and death. Abnormalities in both central nervous system and muscle mitochondria have previously been demonstrated in patient samples, indicating systemic disease. In this case-control study, venous blood samples were acquired from 24 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 21 age-matched controls. Platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and mitochondrial oxygen consumption measured in intact and permeabilized cells with additions of mitochondrial substrates, inhibitors and titration of an uncoupler. Respiratory values were normalized to cell count and for two markers of cellular mitochondrial content, citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Mitochondrial function was correlated with clinical staging of disease severity. Complex IV (cytochrome c-oxidase)-activity normalized to mitochondrial content was decreased in platelets from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients both when normalized to citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA copy number. In mononuclear cells, complex IV-activity was decreased when normalized to citrate synthase activity. Mitochondrial content was increased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient platelets. In mononuclear cells, complex I activity declined and mitochondrial content increased progressively with advancing disease stage. The findings are, however, based on small subsets of patients and need to be confirmed. We conclude that when normalized to mitochondria-specific content, complex IV-activity is reduced in blood cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and that there is an apparent compensatory increase in cellular mitochondrial content. This supports systemic involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and suggests further study of mitochondrial function in blood cells as a future biomarker for the

  13. Mitochondrial Diseases and Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Levtova, Alina; Sasarman, Florin

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. An integrative approach encompassing clinical, biochemical, and molecular investigations is required to reach a specific diagnosis. In this review we summarize the clinical and genetic aspects of mitochondrial disorders associated with cardiomyopathy, including disorders of oxidative phosphorylation. It also describes groups of disorders that, although not usually classified as mitochondrial disorders, stem from defects in mitochondrial function (eg, disorders of β-oxidation and the carnitine cycle), are associated with secondary mitochondrial impairment (eg, organic acidurias), and are important diagnostically because they are treatable. Current biochemical and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are described, and a diagnostic algorithm is proposed, to help clinicians in their approach to cardiomyopathies in the context of mitochondrial diseases.

  14. A role for septin 2 in Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Tham, To Nam; Stevens, Julia K; Lagache, Thibault; Persson, Roger; Salles, Audrey; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Oddos, Stéphane; Spang, Anne; Cossart, Pascale; Stavru, Fabrizia

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are essential eukaryotic organelles often forming intricate networks. The overall network morphology is determined by mitochondrial fusion and fission. Among the multiple mechanisms that appear to regulate mitochondrial fission, the ER and actin have recently been shown to play an important role by mediating mitochondrial constriction and promoting the action of a key fission factor, the dynamin-like protein Drp1. Here, we report that the cytoskeletal component septin 2 is involved in Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission in mammalian cells. Septin 2 localizes to a subset of mitochondrial constrictions and directly binds Drp1, as shown by immunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins and by pulldown assays with recombinant proteins. Depletion of septin 2 reduces Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria and results in hyperfused mitochondria and delayed FCCP-induced fission. Strikingly, septin depletion also affects mitochondrial morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans, strongly suggesting that the role of septins in mitochondrial dynamics is evolutionarily conserved.

  15. Improvement of mitochondrial function and dynamics by the metabolic enhancer piracetam.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Carola; Kurz, Christopher; Koch, Konrad A; Eckert, Schamim H; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic enhancer piracetam is used in many countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging, brain injuries, as well as dementia such as AD (Alzheimer's disease). As a specific feature of piracetam, beneficial effects are usually associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In previous studies we were able to show that piracetam enhanced ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential as well as neurite outgrowth in cell and animal models for aging and AD. To investigate further the effects of piracetam on mitochondrial function, especially mitochondrial fission and fusion events, we decided to assess mitochondrial morphology. Human neuroblastoma cells were treated with the drug under normal conditions and under conditions imitating aging and the occurrence of ROS (reactive oxygen species) as well as in stably transfected cells with the human wild-type APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene. This AD model is characterized by expressing only 2-fold more human Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) compared with control cells and therefore representing very early stages of AD when Aβ levels gradually increase over decades. Interestingly, these cells exhibit an impaired mitochondrial function and morphology under baseline conditions. Piracetam is able to restore this impairment and shifts mitochondrial morphology back to elongated forms, whereas there is no effect in control cells. After addition of a complex I inhibitor, mitochondrial morphology is distinctly shifted to punctate forms in both cell lines. Under these conditions piracetam is able to ameliorate morphology in cells suffering from the mild Aβ load, as well as mitochondrial dynamics in control cells.

  16. Autofluorescence microscopy: a non-destructive tool to monitor mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Macko, Peter; Palosaari, Taina; Whelan, Maurice P

    2011-10-30

    Visualization of NADH by fluorescence microscopy makes it possible to distinguish mitochondria inside living cells, allowing structure analysis of these organelles in a non-invasive way. Mitochondrial morphology is determined by the occurrence of mitochondrial fission and fusion. During normal cell function mitochondria appear as elongated tubular structures. However, cellular malfunction induces mitochondria to fragment into punctiform, vesicular structures. This change in morphology is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and early apoptosis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that autofluorescence imaging of mitochondria in living eukaryotic cells provides structural and morphological information that can be used to assess mitochondrial health. We firstly established the illumination conditions that do not affect mitochondrial structure and calculated the maximum safe light dose to which the cells can be exposed. Subsequently, sequential recording of mitochondrial fluorescence was performed and changes in mitochondrial morphology were monitored in a continuous non-destructive way. This approach was then used to assess mitochondrial toxicity induced by potential toxicants exposed to mammalian cells. Both mouse and human cells were used to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity of different compounds with different toxicities. This technique constitutes a novel and promising approach to explore chemical induced toxicity because of its reliability to monitor mitochondrial morphology changes and corresponding toxicity in a non-invasive way.

  17. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-03-19

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation.

  18. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, M.; Schäfer, A.; Seelig, A.; Schultheiß, J.; Wu, M.; Aichler, M.; Leonhardt, J.; Rathkolb, B.; Rozman, J.; Sarioglu, H.; Hauck, S.M.; Ueffing, M.; Wolf, E.; Kastenmueller, G.; Adamski, J.; Walch, A.; Hrabé de Angelis, M.; Neschen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid

  19. A role for ubiquitination in mitochondrial inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fisk, H A; Yaffe, M P

    1999-06-14

    The smm1 mutation suppresses defects in mitochondrial distribution and morphology caused by the mdm1-252 mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells harboring only the smm1 mutation themselves display temperature-sensitive growth and aberrant mitochondrial inheritance and morphology at the nonpermissive temperature. smm1 maps to RSP5, a gene encoding an essential ubiquitin-protein ligase. The smm1 defects are suppressed by overexpression of wild-type ubiquitin but not by overexpression of mutant ubiquitin in which lysine-63 is replaced by arginine. Furthermore, overexpression of this mutant ubiquitin perturbs mitochondrial distribution and morphology in wild-type cells. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Rsp5p is essential for its function in mitochondrial inheritance. A second mutation, smm2, which also suppressed mdm1-252 defects, but did not cause aberrant mitochondrial distribution and morphology, mapped to BUL1, encoding a protein interacting with Rsp5p. These results indicate that protein ubiquitination mediated by Rsp5p plays an essential role in mitochondrial inheritance, and reveal a novel function for protein ubiquitination.

  20. Genetic disorders with both hearing loss and cardiovascular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Belmont, John W; Craigen, William; Martinez, Hugo; Jefferies, John Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There has been a growing appreciation for conditions that affect hearing and which are accompanied by significant cardiovascular disorders. In this chapter we consider several broad classes of conditions including deafness due to abnormal structural development of the inner ear, those with physiological abnormalities in the inner ear sensory apparatus, and conditions with progressive loss of function of sensory cells or middle ear functions. Because of shared developmental controls, inner ear malformations are often associated with congenital heart defects and can be part of complex syndromes that affect other organs and neurodevelopmental outcome. Physiological disorders of the hair cells can lead to hearing loss and can be associated with cardiac arrhythmias, especially long QT syndrome. In addition, cellular energy defects such as mitochondrial disorders can affect maintenance of hair cells and are often associated with cardiomyopathy. Lysosomal storage diseases and other disorders affecting connective tissue can lead to chronic middle ear disease, with conductive hearing loss and also cause cardiac valve disease and/or cardiomyopathy. The genetic basis for these conditions is heterogeneous and includes chromosomal/genomic disorders, de novo dominant mutations, and familial dominant, autosomal-recessive, and mitochondrial (matrilineal) inheritance. Taken together, there are more than 100 individual genes implicated in genetic hearing impairment that are also associated with congenital and/or progressive cardiac abnormalities. These genes encode transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors, components of signal transduction pathways, ion channels, mitochondrial proteins and assembly factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and enzymes involved in lysosomal functions.

  1. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  2. Morphology and molecules on opposite sides of the diversity gradient: four cryptic species of the Cliona celata (Porifera, Demospongiae) complex in South America revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Thiago Silva; Zilberberg, Carla; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele

    2012-01-01

    A great number of marine organisms lack proper morphologic characters for identification and species description. This could promote a wide distributional pattern for a species morphotype, potentially generating many morphologically similar albeit evolutionarily independent worldwide lineages. This work aimed to estimate the genetic variation of South America populations of the Cliona celata species complex. We used COI mtDNA and ITS rDNA as molecular markers and tylostyle length and width as morphological characters to try to distinguish among species. Four distinct clades were found within the South American C. celata complex using both genetic markers. The genetic distances comparisons revealed that scores among those clades were comparable to distances between each clade and series of previously described clionaid species, some of which belong to different genera. Our results also suggest that one of the clades has a broad discontinuous distribution in the Atlantic Ocean, while another presents high gene flow between the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. Conversely, spicule morphology was not able to distinguish each clade, due to the high degree of overlap among them. Therefore, we considered that each recovered clade correspond, in fact, to different species that cannot be differentiated via morphological characters, which are often used to describe species within the C. celata species complex.

  3. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  4. Mitochondrial approaches to protect against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Camara, Amadou K S; Bienengraeber, Martin; Stowe, David F

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart disease), alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury.

  5. Mitochondrial Approaches to Protect Against Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.; Bienengraeber, Martin; Stowe, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart disease), alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury. PMID:21559063

  6. Mitochondrial helicases and mitochondrial genome maintenance

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Aamann, Maria D.; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Stevnsner, Tinna V.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2010-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes that utilize the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to drive unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. Helicases play roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism including DNA repair, DNA replication and transcription. The subcellular locations and functions of several helicases have been studied in detail; however, the roles of specific helicases in mitochondrial biology remain poorly characterized. This review presents important recent advances in identifying and characterizing mitochondrial helicases, some of which also operate in the nucleus. PMID:20576512

  7. Primary Mitochondrial Disease and Secondary Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Importance of Distinction for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Niyazov, Dmitriy M.; Kahler, Stephan G.; Frye, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disease refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in defective cellular energy production due to abnormal oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is diagnosed clinically and ideally, but not always, confirmed by a known or indisputably pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutation. The PMD genes either encode oxphos proteins directly or they affect oxphos function by impacting production of the complex machinery needed to run the oxphos process. However, many disorders have the ‘mitochondrial’ phenotype without an identifiable mtDNA or nDNA mutation or they have a variant of unknown clinical significance. Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction (SMD) can be caused by genes encoding neither function nor production of the oxphos proteins and accompanies many hereditary non-mitochondrial diseases. SMD may also be due to nongenetic causes such as environmental factors. In our practice, we see many patients with clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction based on phenotype, biomarkers, imaging, muscle biopsy, or negative/equivocal mtDNA or nDNA test results. In these cases, it is often tempting to assign a patient's phenotype to ‘mitochondrial disease’, but SMD is often challenging to distinguish from PMD. Fortunately, rapid advances in molecular testing, made possible by next generation sequencing, have been effective at least in some cases in establishing accurate diagnoses to distinguish between PMD and SMD. This is important, since their treatments and prognoses can be quite different. However, even in the absence of the ability to distinguish between PMD and SMD, treating SMD with standard treatments for PMD can be effective. We review the latest findings regarding mitochondrial disease/dysfunction and give representative examples in which differentiation between PMD and SMD has been crucial for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27587988

  8. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperglycaemia-induced coronary microvascular dysfunction: Protective role of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mandar S; Williams, David; Horlock, Duncan; Samarasinghe, Thilini; Andrews, Karen L; Jefferis, Ann-Maree; Berger, Philip J; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P; Kaye, David M

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular complications are now recognized to play a major role in diabetic complications, and understanding the mechanisms is critical. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in the course of the development of complications; the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction may occur in a diabetic rat heart and may act as a source of the oxidative stress. However, the role of endothelial cell-specific mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications is poorly studied. Here, we studied the role of diabetes-induced abnormal endothelial mitochondrial function and the resultant endothelial dysfunction. Understanding the role of endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vasculature is critical in order to develop new therapies. We demonstrate that hyperglycaemia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in microvascular endothelial cells, and that mitochondrial inhibition induces endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that resveratrol acts as a protective agent; resveratrol-mediated mitochondrial protection may be used to prevent long-term diabetic cardiovascular complications.

  9. Mitochondrial network energetics in the heart.

    PubMed

    Aon, Miguel A; Cortassa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    At the core of eukaryotic aerobic life, mitochondrial function like 'hubs' in the web of energetic and redox processes in cells. In the heart, these networks-extending beyond the complex connectivity of biochemical circuit diagrams and apparent morphology-exhibit collective dynamics spanning several spatiotemporal levels of organization, from the cell, to the tissue, and the organ. The network function of mitochondria, i.e., mitochondrial network energetics, represents an advantageous behavior. Its coordinated action, under normal physiology, provides robustness despite failure in a few nodes, and improves energy supply toward a swiftly changing demand. Extensive diffuse loops, encompassing mitochondrial-cytoplasmic reaction/transport networks, control and regulate energy supply and demand in the heart. Under severe energy crises, the network behavior of mitochondria and associated glycolytic and other metabolic networks collapse, thereby triggering fatal arrhythmias.

  10. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  11. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  12. Desmin Cytoskeleton Linked to Muscle Mitochondrial Distribution and Respiratory Function

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Derek J.; Mavroidis, Manolis; Weisleder, Noah; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies have previously suggested potential association of intermediate filaments (IFs) with mitochondria. Thus, we have investigated mitochondrial distribution and function in muscle lacking the IF protein desmin. Immunostaining of skeletal muscle tissue sections, as well as histochemical staining for the mitochondrial marker enzymes cytochrome C oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase, demonstrate abnormal accumulation of subsarcolemmal clumps of mitochondria in predominantly slow twitch skeletal muscle of desmin-null mice. Ultrastructural observation of desmin-null cardiac muscle demonstrates in addition to clumping, extensive mitochondrial proliferation in a significant fraction of the myocytes, particularly after work overload. These alterations are frequently associated with swelling and degeneration of the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial abnormalities can be detected very early, before other structural defects become obvious. To investigate related changes in mitochondrial function, we have analyzed ADP-stimulated respiration of isolated muscle mitochondria, and ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration in situ using saponin skinned muscle fibers. The in vitro maximal rates of respiration in isolated cardiac mitochondria from desmin-null and wild-type mice were similar. However, mitochondrial respiration in situ is significantly altered in desmin-null muscle. Both the maximal rate of ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption and the dissociation constant (Km) for ADP are significantly reduced in desmin-null cardiac and soleus muscle compared with controls. Respiratory parameters for desmin-null fast twitch gastrocnemius muscle were unaffected. Additionally, respiratory measurements in the presence of creatine indicate that coupling of creatine kinase and the adenine translocator is lost in desmin-null soleus muscle. This coupling is unaffected in cardiac muscle from desmin-null animals. All of these studies indicate that desmin IFs play a significant

  13. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifi