Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal motor behavior

  1. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  2. Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

    2013-12-30

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients.

  3. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  4. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  5. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  6. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  7. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  8. Abnormal behavior and associated risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Corrine K; Williams, Priscilla C; Sharp, R Mark

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal behavior, ranging from motor stereotypies to self-injurious behavior, has been documented in captive nonhuman primates, with risk factors including nursery rearing, single housing, and veterinary procedures. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; less is known about the extent of and risk factors for abnormal behavior in baboons. Because abnormal behavior can be indicative of poor welfare, either past or present, the purpose of this study was to survey the presence of abnormal behavior in captive baboons and to identify potential risk factors for these behaviors with an aim of prevention. Subjects were 144 baboons (119 females, 25 males) aged 3-29 (median = 9.18) years temporarily singly housed for research or clinical reasons. A 15-min focal observation was conducted on each subject using the Noldus Observer® program. Abnormal behavior was observed in 26% of the subjects, with motor stereotypy (e.g., pace, rock, swing) being the most common. Motor stereotypy was negatively associated with age when first singly housed (P < 0.005) while self-directed behavior (e.g., hair pull, self-bite) was positively associated with the lifetime number of days singly housed (P < 0.05) and the average number of blood draws per year (P < 0.05). In addition, abnormal appetitive behavior was associated with being male (P < 0.05). Although the baboons in this study exhibited relatively low levels of abnormal behavior, the risk factors for these behaviors (e.g., social restriction, routine veterinary procedures, and sex) appear to remain consistent across primate species.

  9. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  10. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  11. Neonatal White Matter Abnormality Predicts Childhood Motor Impairment in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Alicia J.; Cheong, Jeanie; Doyle, Lex W.; Roberts, Gehan; Lee, Katherine J.; Lim, Jeremy; Hunt, Rod W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children born very preterm are at risk for impaired motor performance ranging from cerebral palsy (CP) to milder abnormalities, such as developmental coordination disorder. White matter abnormalities (WMA) at term have been associated with CP in very preterm children; however, little is known about the impact of WMA on the range of motor…

  12. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barak, B; Feng, G

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here, we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  13. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feng, Guoping

    2016-04-26

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  14. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  15. Motor Abnormalities in Premanifest Persons with Huntington’s Disease: The PREDICT-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Kevin M.; Ross, Christopher A.; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Stout, Julie C.; Queller, Sarah; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The PREDICT-HD study seeks to identify clinical and biological markers of Huntington’s disease in premanifest individuals who have undergone predictive genetic testing. Methods We compared baseline motor data between gene-expansion carriers (cases) and non gene-expansion carriers (controls) using T-tests and Chi-Square. Cases were categorized as near, mid or far from diagnosis using a CAG-based formula. Striatal volumes were calculated using volumetric MRI measurements. Multiple linear regression associated total motor score, motor domains and individual motor items with estimated diagnosis and striatal volumes. Results Elevated total motor scores at baseline were associated with higher genetic probability of disease diagnosis in the near future (partial R2 0.14, p<0.0001) and smaller striatal volumes (partial R2 0.15, p<0.0001). Nearly all motor domain scores showed greater abnormality with increasing proximity to diagnosis, although bradykinesia and chorea were most highly associated with diagnostic immediacy. Among individual motor items, worse scores on finger tapping, tandem gait, Luria, saccade initiation, and chorea show unique association with diagnosis probability. Conclusions Even in this premanifest population subtle motor abnormalities were associated with a higher probability of disease diagnosis and smaller striatal volumes. Longitudinal assessment will help inform whether motor items will be useful measures in preventive clinical trials. PMID:19562761

  16. Central ocular motor abnormalities in Duane's retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, A; Miller, N; Zee, D; Morris, J

    1981-10-01

    Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement disorder characterized by marked limitation or absence of abduction, variable limitation of adduction, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure with retraction of the globe on attempted adduction. We have recently recorded and quantitated ocular motility in five patients with unilateral DRS. In all patients, abduction of the affected eye was greatly limited, whereas adduction was limited, whereas adduction was limited to a lesser degree. Abnormalities in saccadic velocities were found in both the affected eye and the sound eye. Results of testing of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic nystagmus, and optokinetic afternystagmus showed notable asymmetry. Our results suggest that DRS is produced by a primary brainstem abnormality involving premotor structures.

  17. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted. PMID:26147660

  18. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted.

  19. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  20. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  1. MOVEMENT BEHAVIOR AND MOTOR LEARNING. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRATTY, BRYANT J.

    TO BRING TOGETHER DATA RELEVANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN MOVEMENT WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO LEARNING, THE TEXT SURVEYS THE CONCERN OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES WITH MOTOR BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING. WORDS AND DEFINITIONS ARE ESTABLISHED, AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN ACTION SYSTEM IS DISCUSSED. A CONSIDERATION OF PERCEPTION TREATS THE PROCESS OF…

  2. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L; Venø, Morten T; von Schimmelmann, Melanie; Feinberg, Philip; Mann, Silas; Handler, Annie; Kjems, Jørgen; Surmeier, D James; O'Carroll, Dónal; Greengard, Paul; Schaefer, Anne

    2013-12-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks and excitability. miR-128 governs motor activity by suppressing the expression of various ion channels and signaling components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 network that regulate neuronal excitability. In mice, a reduction of miR-128 expression in postnatal neurons causes increased motor activity and fatal epilepsy. Overexpression of miR-128 attenuates neuronal responsiveness, suppresses motor activity, and alleviates motor abnormalities associated with Parkinson's-like disease and seizures in mice. These data suggest a therapeutic potential for miR-128 in the treatment of epilepsy and movement disorders.

  4. Dynamic Primitives of Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Neville; Sternad, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    We present in outline a theory of sensorimotor control based on dynamic primitives, which we define as attractors. To account for the broad class of human interactive behaviors—especially tool use—we propose three distinct primitives: submovements, oscillations and mechanical impedances, the latter necessary for interaction with objects. Due to fundamental features of the neuromuscular system, most notably its slow response, we argue that encoding in terms of parameterized primitives may be an essential simplification required for learning, performance, and retention of complex skills. Primitives may simultaneously and sequentially be combined to produce observable forces and motions. This may be achieved by defining a virtual trajectory composed of submovements and/or oscillations interacting with impedances. Identifying primitives requires care: in principle, overlapping submovements would be sufficient to compose all observed movements but biological evidence shows that oscillations are a distinct primitive. Conversely, we suggest that kinematic synergies, frequently discussed as primitives of complex actions, may be an emergent consequence of neuromuscular impedance. To illustrate how these dynamic primitives may account for complex actions, we briefly review three types of interactive behaviors: constrained motion, impact tasks, and manipulation of dynamic objects. PMID:23124919

  5. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia: correlation with the severity of their motor abnormality.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K; Horie, M; Inukai, K; Kito, H; Shimabukuro, S; Kodama, K

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patients. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severe motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. PMID:2774092

  6. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Cui, Li-Ying; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Jun-Fang; Fang, Jia; Ding, Qing-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described, but its practical meaning, namely its impact on caregiver burden, has not been clearly documented in Chinese population. This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population, and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden. Methods: Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale, Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version, the Frontal Assessment Battery, and the Caregiver Burden Inventory. Results: Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees, with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. Irritability, logopenia, and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list. Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden, with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors. Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected, caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden, physical burden, and total burden than those with no behavioral change. Conclusions: Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND, and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique. Besides, abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers’ burden. PMID:26315075

  7. Correlation between physical anomaly and behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sanyal, Debasish; Roy, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Sumita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The minor physical anomaly (MPA) is believed to reflect abnormal development of the CNS. The aim is to find incidence of MPA and its behavioral correlates in Down syndrome and to compare these findings with the other causes of intellectual disability and normal population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty intellectually disabled people attending a tertiary care set-up and from various NGOs are included in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. MPA are assessed by using Modified Waldrop scale and behavioral abnormality by Diagnostic assessment scale for severely handicapped (DASH II scale). Results: The Down syndrome group had significantly more MPA than other two groups and most of the MPA is situated in the global head region. There is strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the various grouped items of Modified Waldrop scale. Depression subscale is correlated with anomalies in the hands (P < 0.001), feet and Waldrop total items (P < 0.005). Mania item of DASH II scale is related with anomalies around the eyes (P < 0.001). Self-injurious behavior and total Waldrop score is negatively correlated with global head. Conclusion: Down syndrome group has significantly more MPA and a pattern of correlation between MPA and behavioral abnormalities exists which necessitates a large-scale study. PMID:21559153

  8. Basal behavioral characterization of hsf1 deficient mice and its cellular and behavioral abnormalities underlying chronic unpredictable stressors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiongzhao; Cheng, Ming; Peng, Min; Xiao, Xianzhong; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhang, Xiuwu

    2008-11-21

    The heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a major transcriptional factor that controls the rapid induction of heat shock proteins in response to various environmental stressors. In this study, we globally investigated the effect of HSF1 deficiency on animal behaviors during postnatal growth, and abnormalities in hippocampal neurons and behavior in response to chronic unpredictable stressors (CUS). Mouse behaviors were measured in several behavioral paradigms, including elevated plus maze, open field, closed field, T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT), bridge-walking, and wire suspension tests. The hsf1-null mice exhibited reduction in basal anxiety levels and exploratory behavior, and working memory deficits, but normal motor coordination abilities. Chronic unpredictable stressors significantly increased apoptosis in hippocampal CA3 cells in both the hsf1-null and wild-type (WT) mice in the in situ TUNEL staining and induced more anxiety-like behavior in the hsf1-null mice than WT mice in the plus T-maze paradigm. We conclude that hsf1 gene deficiency results in significant abnormalities in mouse basal behaviors and sensitization to chronic unpredictable stressors. PMID:18601956

  9. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  10. Abnormalities of motor function, transcription and cerebellar structure in mouse models of THAP1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-12-20

    DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations. PMID:26376866

  11. Abnormalities of motor function, transcription and cerebellar structure in mouse models of THAP1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-12-20

    DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations.

  12. Quantitative Gait Analysis Using a Motorized Treadmill System Sensitively Detects Motor Abnormalities in Mice Expressing ATPase Defective Spastin.

    PubMed

    Connell, James W; Allison, Rachel; Reid, Evan

    2016-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetic conditions in which there is progressive axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. Autosomal dominant mutations, including nonsense, frameshift and missense changes, in the gene encoding the microtubule severing ATPase spastin are the most common cause of HSP in North America and northern Europe. In this study we report quantitative gait analysis using a motorized treadmill system, carried out on mice knocked-in for a disease-associated mutation affecting a critical residue in the Walker A motif of the spastin ATPase domain. At 4 months and at one year of age homozygous mutant mice had a number of abnormal gait parameters, including in stride length and stride duration, compared to heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Gait parameters in heterozygous animals did not differ from wild-type littermates. We conclude that quantitative gait analysis using the DigiGait system sensitively detects motor abnormalities in a hereditary spastic paraplegia model, and would be a useful method for analyzing the effects of pharmacological treatments for HSP.

  13. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  14. A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias.

    PubMed

    Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the abnormalities of cerebellar motor learning in primary dystonia are solely detectable in more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms, or whether these are also present in other motor learning paradigms that rely heavily on the cerebellum but in addition require a more widespread sensorimotor network. Twenty-six patients with various forms of focal dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated in a motor learning paradigm on a split-belt treadmill. By using reflective markers, three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion analysis system. Adaptation walking parameters were analyzed offline, comparing the different dystonia groups and healthy controls. Patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp were significantly impaired on various adaptation walking parameters. Whereas results of cervical dystonia patients did not differ from healthy controls in terms of adaptation walking parameters, differences in parameters of normal gait were found. We have here demonstrated abnormal sensorimotor adaptation with the split-belt paradigm in patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp. This reinforces the current concept of cerebellar dysfunction in primary dystonia, and that this extends beyond more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms. However, the finding of normal adaptation in cervical dystonia patients indicates that the pattern of cerebellar dysfunction may be slightly different for the various forms of primary focal dystonia, suggesting that actual cerebellar pathology may not be a primary driving force in dystonia.

  15. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  16. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity. PMID:27166294

  17. Self-organisation in the human visual system--visuo-motor processing with congenitally abnormal V1 input.

    PubMed

    Wolynski, Barbara; Kanowski, Martin; Meltendorf, Synke; Behrens-Baumann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2010-11-01

    Due to an abnormal projection of the temporal retina the albinotic primary visual cortex receives substantial input from the ipsilateral visual field. To test whether representation abnormalities are also evident in higher tier visual, and in motor and somatosensory cortices, brain activity was measured with fMRI in 14 subjects with albinism performing a visuo-motor task. During central fixation, a blue or red target embedded in a distractor array was presented for 250 ms in the left or right visual hemifield. After a delay, the subjects were prompted to indicate with left or right thumb button presses the target presence in the upper or lower hemifield. The fMRI responses were evaluated for different regions of interest concerned with visual, motor and somatosensory processing and compared to previously acquired data from 14 controls. The following results were obtained: (1) in albinism the hit rates in the visuo-motor task were indistinguishable from normal. (2) In area MT and the intraparietal sulcus there was an indication of abnormal lateralisation patterns. (3) Largely normal lateralisation patterns were evident in motor and somatosensory cortices. It is concluded that in human albinism, the abnormal visual field representation is made available for visuo-motor processing with a motor cortex that comprises an essentially normal lateralisation. Consequently, specific adaptations of the mechanisms mediating visuo-motor integration are required in albinism. PMID:20863844

  18. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  19. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  20. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

  1. Abnormal Motor Phenotype at Adult Stages in Mice Lacking Type 2 Deiodinase

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. Aim This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Results Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. Conclusions The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders. PMID:25083788

  2. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  3. Anomalous echo: Exploring abnormal experience correlates of emotional motor resonance in Schizophrenia Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sestito, Mariateresa; Raballo, Andrea; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-09-30

    Anomalous experiences such as Basic Symptoms (BS) are considered the first subjective manifestation of the neurobiological substrate of schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a low or high emotional motor resonance occurring in Schizophrenia Spectrum (SzSp) patients was related to patients׳ clinical features and to their anomalous subjective experiences as indexed by the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS). To this aim, we employed a validated paradigm sensitive in evoking a congruent facial mimicry (measured by means of facial electromyographic activity, EMG) through multimodal positive and negative emotional stimuli presentation. Results showed that SzSp patients more resonating with negative emotional stimuli (i.e. Externalizers) had significantly higher scores in BSABS Cluster 3 (Vulnerability) and more psychotic episodes than Internalizers patients. On the other hand, SzSp patients more resonating with positive emotional stimuli (i.e. Externalizers) scored higher in BSABS Cluster 5 (Interpersonal irritation) than Internalizers. Drawing upon a phenomenological-based perspective, we attempted to shed new light on the abnormal experiences characterizing schizophrenia, explaining them in terms of a disruption of the normal self-perception conveyed by the basic, low-level emotional motor mechanisms.

  4. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations. Methods Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed individually (for four weeks) and treated subchronically with ketamine, and naive animals without any manipulations. Adult animals were implanted with E-Mitter transponders intraabdominally to record body temperature and locomotor activity continuously. The circadian rhythm of these parameters and the acute effects of changes in light conditions were analyzed under undisturbed circumstances, and the effects of different interventions (handling, bed changing or intraperitoneal vehicle injection) were also determined. Results Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared to the inactive phase in both groups. Furthermore, the new substrain showed increased short- and long-term variabilities with lower degree of asymmetry suggesting autonomic dysregulation. Conclusions In summary, the new substrain with schizophrenia-related phenomena showed disturbed motor activity and thermoregulation suggesting that these objectively determined parameters can be biomarkers in translational research. PMID:26629908

  5. EEG spectra, behavioral states and motor activity in rats exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Olga A; Gordon, Christopher J

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to organophosphates (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and "excessive dreaming." The central mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to a hyperactivity of the brain cholinergic systems that are involved in sleep regulation. We studied alterations in the EEG, behavioral states, motor activity and core temperature in rats orally administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CHP). Occipital EEG, motor activity and core temperature were recorded with telemetric transmitters. Behavioral sleep-wake states were visually scored. Both doses of CHP produced alterations of the EEG (decrease in power of sigma/beta and increase in slow theta and fast gamma bands) characteristic of arousal. EEG alterations were consistent with behavioral changes such as an increase in wakefulness and a decrease in sleep. Waking immobility was a prevalent behavior. We did not detect any overt signs of CHP toxicity, such as an abnormal posture or gait, suggesting that reduced locomotion can be a result of central effects of CHP (such as activation of cholinergic motor inhibitory system) rather than peripheral (such as an impairment of neuromuscular function). Changes in the EEG and behavior occurred independently of the decrease in core temperature. Increased wakefulness together with reduced motor activity after exposure to CHP seems to be a result of hyperactivity in brain cholinergic neuronal networks. PMID:12175464

  6. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  7. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  8. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal.

  9. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Avisa; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1). The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior. PMID:26089783

  10. Motor vehicle crashes and abnormal driving behaviours in patients with dementia in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zuin, D; Ortiz, H; Boromei, D; Lopez, O L

    2002-01-01

    Studies conducted in industrialized countries have shown that elderly demented subjects have increased risk of car accidents. However, there is no information about the effect of dementia on driving habits in non-industrialized countries. The number of motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and abnormal driving behaviours (ADB) (e.g. not recognizing traffic lights, driving in the middle of the road, etc.) were assessed with a semi-structured interview in 56 demented subjects and 31 elderly controls, all of whom were active drivers, at the Regional Registry of Dementia in Mendoza. Detailed neurological, psychiatric and neuropsychological examinations were also conducted on each subject. The presence of dementia and sex (male) predicted ADB, MVC and number of MVC (two or more). Among demented patients, ADB and MVC were associated with sex (male) and number of MVC was associated with sex (male) and Blessed Dementia Rating Scale for activities of daily living scores. Neither ADB, MCV, or number of MVC were associated with education level, or with cognitive or psychiatric measures. These findings showed that in developing countries, dementia has a significant contribution to MVC and ADB, as occurs in industrialized nations. Consequently, legislation to curb the risk of accidents caused by demented patients should be implemented. Furthermore, physicians must encourage demented patients (or their families) to discontinue driving, even those with mild dementia syndrome.

  11. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  12. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. PMID:27059336

  13. Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill with Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Lauren R.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were: (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (“postural”) knowledge, and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and basic motor skill to dyspraxia in autism. Thirty-seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 typically developing (TD) children, ages 8–13, completed: (a) an examination of basic motor skills, (b) a postural knowledge test assessing praxis discrimination, and (c) a praxis examination. Children with ASD showed worse basic motor skill and postural knowledge than controls. The ASD group continued to show significantly poorer praxis than controls after accounting for age, IQ, basic motor skill, and postural knowledge. Dyspraxia in autism appears to be associated with impaired formation of spatial representations, as well as transcoding and execution. Distributed abnormality across parietal, premotor, and motor circuitry, as well as anomalous connectivity may be implicated. PMID:19702410

  14. Behavioral motor dysfunction in Kv3-type potassium channel-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Joho, R H; Street, C; Matsushita, S; Knöpfel, T

    2006-08-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are expressed in several distinct neuronal subpopulations in brain areas known to be involved in motor control such as cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Depending on the lack of Kv3.1 or Kv3.3 channel subunits, mutant mice show different Kv3-null allele-dependent behavioral alterations that include constitutive hyperactivity, sleep loss, impaired motor performance and, in the case of the Kv3.1/Kv3.3 double mutant, also severe ataxia, tremor and myoclonus (Espinosa et al. 2001, J Neurosci 21, 6657-6665, Genes, Brain Behav 3, 90-100). The lack of Kv3.1 channel subunits is mainly responsible for the constitutively increased locomotor activity and for sleep loss, whereas the absence of Kv3.3 subunits affects cerebellar function, in particular Purkinje cell discharges and olivocerebellar system properties (McMahon et al. 2004, Eur J Neurosci 19, 3317-3327). Here, we describe two sensitive and non-invasive tests to reliably quantify normal and abnormal motor functions, and we apply these tests to characterize motor dysfunction in Kv3-mutant mice. In contrast to wildtype and Kv3.1-single mutants, Kv3.3-single mutants and Kv3 mutants lacking three and four Kv3 alleles display Kv3-null allele-dependent gait alterations. Although the Kv3-null allele-dependent gait changes correlate with reduced motor performance, they appear to not affect the training-induced improvement of motor performance. These findings suggest that altered cerebellar physiology in the absence of Kv3.3 channels is responsible for impaired motor task execution but not motor task learning.

  15. A Framework to Describe, Analyze and Generate Interactive Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Charalambous, Themistoklis; Burdet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    While motor interaction between a robot and a human, or between humans, has important implications for society as well as promising applications, little research has been devoted to its investigation. In particular, it is important to understand the different ways two agents can interact and generate suitable interactive behaviors. Towards this end, this paper introduces a framework for the description and implementation of interactive behaviors of two agents performing a joint motor task. A taxonomy of interactive behaviors is introduced, which can classify tasks and cost functions that represent the way each agent interacts. The role of an agent interacting during a motor task can be directly explained from the cost function this agent is minimizing and the task constraints. The novel framework is used to interpret and classify previous works on human-robot motor interaction. Its implementation power is demonstrated by simulating representative interactions of two humans. It also enables us to interpret and explain the role distribution and switching between roles when performing joint motor tasks. PMID:23226231

  16. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  17. Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm. PMID:23758553

  18. Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm.

  19. Stereotypies and other abnormal repetitive behaviors: potential impact on validity, reliability, and replicability of scientific outcomes.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Normal behavior plays a key role in facilitating homeostasis, especially by allowing the animal to control and modify its environment. Captive environments may interfere with these behavioral responses, and the resulting stress may alter many physiological parameters. Abnormal behaviors indicate that an animal is unable to adjust behaviorally to the captive environment and, hence, may be expressing abnormal physiology. Therefore, captive environments may affect the following aspects of an experiment: validity, by introducing abnormal animals into experiments; reliability, by increasing interindividual variation through the introduction of such individuals; and replicability, by altering the number and type of such individuals between laboratories. Thus, far from increasing variability, enrichment may actually improve validity, reliability, and replicability by reducing the number of abnormal animals introduced into experiments. In this article, the specific example of abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) is explored. ARBs in captive animals appear to involve the same mechanisms as ARBs in human psychiatry, which reflect underlying abnormalities of brain function. ARBs are also correlated with a wide range of behavioral changes that affect experimental outcomes. Thus, ARBs in laboratory animals may compromise validity, reliability, and replicability, especially in behavioral experiments; and enrichments that prevent ARB may enhance validity, reliability, and replicability. Although many links in this argument have been tested experimentally, key issues still remain in the interpretation of these data. In particular, it is currently unclear (1) whether or not the differences in brain function seen in animals performing ARB are abnormal, (2) which common behavioral paradigms are affected by ARB, and (3) whether enrichment does indeed improve the quality of behavioral data. Ongoing and future work addressing these issues is outlined. PMID:15775020

  20. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such “motor simulation”? By combining a musical duet

  1. Behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking mesenchyme-specific Pten.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Cissé, Yasmine M; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Bolon, Brad; Nelson, Randy J; Marsh, Clay B

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and growth. Using a Cre-recombinase approach with Lox sequences flanking the fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1 aka S100A4; a mesenchymal marker), we probed sites of expression using a β-galactosidase Rosa26(LoxP) reporter allele; the transgene driving deletion of Pten (exons 4-5) was found throughout the brain parenchyma and pituitary, suggesting that deletion of Pten in Fsp1-positive cells may influence behavior. Because CNS-specific deletion of Pten influences social and anxiety-like behaviors and S100A4 is expressed in astrocytes, we predicted that loss of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells would result in deficits in social interaction and increased anxiety. We further predicted that environmental enrichment would compensate for genetic deficits in these behaviors. We conducted a battery of behavioral assays on Fsp1-Cre;Pten(LoxP/LoxP) male and female homozygous knockouts (Pten(-/-)) and compared their behavior to Pten(LoxP/LoxP) (Pten(+/+)) conspecifics. Despite extensive physical differences (including reduced hippocampal size) and deficits in sensorimotor function, Pten(-/-) mice behaved remarkably similar to control mice on nearly all behavioral tasks. These results suggest that the social and anxiety-like phenotypes observed in CNS-specific Pten(-/-) mice may depend on neuronal Pten, as lack of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells of the CNS had little effect on these behaviors.

  2. Abnormal behavior in children with temporal lobe epilepsy and ganglioglioma.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Catarina A; Franzon, Renata C; Souza, Elisabete A P; Schmutzler, Kátia M R S; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Queiroz, Luciano de S; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2004-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood is characterized by great clinical, electroencephalographic, and etiological diversity. The prognosis after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in childhood is usually good, with most patients achieving complete seizure control. However, in some children behavior deteriorates postoperatively. We report two girls (2 and 6 years of age) with refractory seizures due to temporal lobe ganglioglioma. They exhibited aggression and hyperactivity since the beginning of their epilepsy. In both patients, behavioral disturbances worsened postoperatively, despite complete seizure control. Patients and parents should be advised about possible behavioral disturbances after epilepsy surgery, especially in the presence of a temporal lobe developmental tumor, even when seizure control is achieved postoperatively.

  3. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  4. Zebrafish embryos exposed to alcohol undergo abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Sylvain, Nicole J; Brewster, Daniel L; Ali, Declan W

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero have significantly delayed gross and fine motor skills, as well as deficiencies in reflex development. The reasons that underlie the motor deficits caused by ethanol (EtOH) exposure remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure (1.5%, 2% and 2.5% EtOH) on motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) larval zebrafish. EtOH treated fish exhibited morphological deformities and fewer bouts of swimming in response to touch, compared with untreated fish. Immunolabelling with anti-acetylated tubulin indicated that fish exposed to 2.5% EtOH had significantly higher rates of motor neuron axon defects. Immunolabelling of primary and secondary motor neurons, using znp-1 and zn-8, revealed that fish exposed to 2% and 2.5% EtOH exhibited significantly higher rates of primary and secondary motor neuron axon defects compared to controls. Examination of red and white muscle fibers revealed that fish exposed to EtOH had significantly smaller fibers compared with controls. These findings indicate that motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology is affected by early alcohol exposure in zebrafish embryos, and that this may be related to deficits in locomotion. PMID:20211721

  5. Concurrent silent strokes impair motor function by limiting behavioral compensation.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Kurio, Kristyn; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-08-01

    Silent strokes occur more frequently than classic strokes; however, symptoms may go unreported in spite of lasting tissue damage. A silent stroke may indicate elevated susceptibility to recurrent stroke, which may eventually result in apparent and lasting impairments. Here we investigated if multiple silent strokes to the motor system challenge the compensatory capacity of the brain to cumulatively result in permanent functional deficits. Adult male rats with focal ischemia received single focal ischemic mini-lesions in the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) or the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), or multiple lesions affecting both SMC and DLS. The time course and outcome of motor compensation and recovery were determined by quantitative and qualitative assessment of skilled reaching and skilled walking. Rats with SMC or DLS lesion alone did not show behavioral deficits in either task. However, the combination of focal ischemic lesions in SMC and DLS perturbed skilled reaching accuracy and disrupted forelimb placement in the ladder rung walking task. These observations suggest that multiple focal infarcts, each resembling a silent stroke, gradually compromise the plastic capacity of the motor system to cause permanent motor deficits. Moreover, these findings support the notion that cortical and subcortical motor systems cooperate when adopting beneficial compensatory movement strategies. PMID:22609330

  6. Increased cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA in affected spinal motor neurons in ALS caused by abnormal autoregulation of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Akihide; Sugai, Akihiro; Kato, Taisuke; Ishihara, Tomohiko; Shiga, Atsushi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Koyama, Misaki; Konno, Takuya; Hirokawa, Sachiko; Yokoseki, Akio; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder. In motor neurons of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a nuclear protein encoded by TARDBP, is absent from the nucleus and forms cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 auto-regulates the amount by regulating the TARDBP mRNA, which has three polyadenylation signals (PASs) and three additional alternative introns within the last exon. However, it is still unclear how the autoregulatory mechanism works and how the status of autoregulation in ALS motor neurons without nuclear TDP-43 is. Here we show that TDP-43 inhibits the selection of the most proximal PAS and induces splicing of multiple alternative introns in TARDBP mRNA to decrease the amount of cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. When TDP-43 is depleted, the TARDBP mRNA uses the most proximal PAS and is increased in the cytoplasm. Finally, we have demonstrated that in ALS motor neurons—especially neurons with mislocalized TDP-43—the amount of TARDBP mRNA is increased in the cytoplasm. Our observations indicate that nuclear TDP-43 contributes to the autoregulation and suggests that the absence of nuclear TDP-43 induces an abnormal autoregulation and increases the amount of TARDBP mRNA. The vicious cycle might accelerate the disease progression of ALS. PMID:27257061

  7. Central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis: evaluation of abnormalities revealed by transcutaneous magnetic stimulation of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, D A; Thompson, A J; Swash, M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the brain and spinal column was used to assess conduction in the descending central motor pathways controlling arm and leg muscles of 20 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 10 normal subjects. The multiple sclerosis patients had relapsing and remitting disease but all were ambulant and in stable clinical remission. Increased central motor conduction times (CMCTs), up to three times normal, were frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis patients and in leg muscles these correlated closely with clinical signs of upper motor neuron disturbance; in the upper limb muscles a higher proportion of subclinical lesions was present. Weak muscles were almost invariably associated with abnormal central conduction but increased CMCTs were also found for 52 of the 104 muscles with normal strength. CMCTs for lower limb muscles were directly related (p less than 0.005) to functional motor disability (Kurtzke and Ambulatory Index Scales). No patient developed clinical evidence of relapse during follow-up of at least 8 months. Magnetic brain stimulation is easy to perform, painless, and safe, and provides clinically relevant information in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:2837538

  8. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

  9. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions.

  10. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions. PMID:26300541

  11. Bimanual non-congruent actions in motor neglect syndrome: a combined behavioral/fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, F.; Turella, L.; Rabuffetti, M.; Cantagallo, A.; Piedimonte, A.; Fainardi, E.; Berti, A.; Fadiga, L.

    2015-01-01

    In Motor Neglect (MN) syndrome, a specific impairment in non-congruent bimanual movements has been described. In the present case-control study, we investigated the neuro-functional correlates of this behavioral deficit. Two right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients, one with (MN+) and one without (MN−) MN, were evaluated by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in a bimanual Circles-Lines (CL) paradigm. Patients were requested to perform right-hand movements (lines-drawing) and, simultaneously, congruent (lines-drawing) or non-congruent (circles-drawing) left-hand movements. In the behavioral task, MN− patient showed a bimanual-coupling-effect, while MN+ patient did not. The fMRI study showed that in MN−, a fronto-parietal network, mainly involving the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), was significantly more active in non-congruent than in congruent conditions, as previously shown in healthy subjects. On the contrary, MN+ patient showed an opposite pattern of activation both in pre-SMA and in PPC. Within this fronto-parietal network, the pre-SMA is supposed to exert an inhibitory influence on the default coupling of homologous muscles, thus allowing the execution of non-congruent movements. In MN syndrome, the described abnormal pre-SMA activity supports the hypothesis that a failure to inhibit ipsilesional motor programs might determine a specific impairment of non-congruent movements. PMID:26500520

  12. Impaired learning and motor behavior in heterozygous Pafah1b1 (Lis1) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Paylor, R; Hirotsune, S; Gambello, M J; Yuva-Paylor, L; Crawley, J N; Wynshaw-Boris, A

    1999-01-01

    Heterozygous mutation or deletion of Pafab1b1 (LIS1) in humans is associated with syndromes with type 1 lissencephaly, a severe brain developmental disorder resulting from abnormal neuronal migration. We have created Lis1 heterozygous mutant mice by gene targeting. Heterozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile, but display global organizational brain defects as a result of impaired neuronal migration. To assess the functional impact of the mutation, Lis1 heterozygous mice and their wild-type littermates were evaluated on a wide variety of behavioral tests. Lis1 mutant mice displayed abnormal hindpaw clutching responses and were impaired on a rotarod test. Lis1 heterozygous mice were also impaired in the spatial learning version of the Morris water task. Impaired motor behavior and spatial learning and memory in Lis1 mutant mice indicates that impaired neuronal migration can have functional effects on complex behavioral responses. The behavioral findings also support the use of the Lis1 mutant mice as a model from human type 1 lissencephaly.

  13. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. Citation: Yang KI, Kim HK, Baek J, Kim DE, Park HK. Abnormal nocturnal behavior due to hypoglycemia in a patient with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):627–629. PMID:26943712

  14. Functional Measurement of Respiratory Muscle Motor Behaviors Using Transdiaphragmatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle must be able to generate sufficient forces to accomplish a range of ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors throughout life. Measurements of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) can be conducted during eupnea, hypoxia (10 % O2)-hypercapnia (5 % CO2), chemical airway stimulation (i.e., sneezing), spontaneously occurring deep breaths (i.e., sighs), sustained airway or tracheal occlusion, and maximal efforts elicited via bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, representing the full range of motor behaviors available by the diaphragm muscle. We provide detailed methods on the in vivo measurements of Pdi in mice. PMID:27492181

  15. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  16. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  17. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  18. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sarah L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  19. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullins, Miranda J.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Gill, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. PMID:25411463

  20. Conservative motor systems, behavioral modulation and neural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Sergio M

    2010-12-01

    Neural plasticity is a term that encompasses a vast array of changes in the nervous system in response to a wide range of environmental disturbances. The conservative manner in which nervous systems produce behavior is explored in the act of scratching the head. Whether the scratching is done with the hind leg (flamingos and axis deer) or the hand (spider monkey), it is shown that, when scratching their heads, animals follow a simple rule to avoid making multiple movements simultaneously with different parts of their bodies. Closer inspection of such a computational cost-saving scheme reveals that neural plasticity may best enhance motor performance when it occurs at higher levels of brain organization. The example of how complex social behavior, play fighting, is organized in rats shows that cortical systems can modify the contextual use of species-typical, or well-learned, behavior patterns, rather than producing new behavior patterns.

  1. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:25631623

  2. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  3. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  5. Abnormal chromosome behavior in human oocytes which remained unfertilized during human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H; Krüger, C; Stauber, M; Vogel, R

    1985-09-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and abnormal embryonic development have previously been observed after human in vitro fertilization (IVF). Chromosomal abnormalities may arise not only after fertilization but even earlier during meiotic maturation of human oocytes in culture. Since chromosomal analysis is simple in oocytes during meiotic maturation, the chromosomal status was analyzed in oocytes which remained unfertilized in a human in vitro fertilization program. In 50 fertilization attempts the chromosomes of 62 unfertilized oocytes could be analyzed; 45 of them were in the process of meiotic maturation. In three oocytes two small polar bodies were observed 16-18 hr after insemination in the absence of fertilization. In one oocyte abnormal chromosome behavior was found during the first meiotic division, and in four oocytes during metaphase of the second meiotic division. These data suggest that chromosomal analysis of unfertilized oocytes in human IVF may improve the understanding human oocyte maturation and fertilization.

  6. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  7. Behavioral abnormality and pharmacologic response in social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Koike, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Taku; Nitta, Atsumi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2009-08-24

    Social isolation (SI) rearing in rodents causes a variety of behavioral changes, including hyperlocomotion, anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits. These behavioral abnormalities in rodents may be related to the symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of long-term SI rearing after weaning on emotional behaviors and cognitive function in mice. Furthermore, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH), clozapine (CLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on SI-induced behavioral changes were examined to measure the predictive validity of SI-reared mice as an animal model for these neuropsychiatric disorders. MPH improved SI-induced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, but had no effect on aggressive behavior. In contrast, CLZ ameliorated aggressive behavior, but not anxiety-like behavior in SI-reared mice. Repeated FLX treatment prevented SI-induced aggressive behavior and social interaction deficits. These findings suggest that SI-induced behavioral abnormality is a psychobehavioral complex relevant to various clinical symptoms observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and that SI-reared mice are a useful animal model to study the pathophysiology/pathogenesis of these diseases.

  8. Motor sequencing abnormalities are the trait marking neurological soft signs of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Esan, Oluyomi; Emsley, Robin; Gureje, Oye

    2015-07-23

    We describe the profile of NSS across the one-year course of schizophrenia in 84 Nigerian first-episode patients. They were assessed at baseline and 3 monthly for 12 months using the Neurological Evaluation Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and treated with flupenthixol decanoate. The pattern of NSS total and sub-category scores obtained from repeated measurements were investigated for responders (≥ 50% reduction of baseline PANSS scores) and non-responders using the method of repeated measures analysis of variance. Trait-like features of NSS categories were quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). NSS were present in 96.4% of the patients at baseline (mean 21.5 ± 11.1). The motor-sequencing sub-category was found unrelated to changes in schizophrenia psychopathology with treatment (positive, r=0.19, p=0.136., negative, r=0.12, p=0.350; disorganization, r=0.16, p=0.245; overall, r=0.20, p=0.112). Regardless of decrements in psychopathology, motor-sequencing scores remained relatively unchanged across the course of the disease (main effects: 'responders' F=2.44, p=0.930, 'poor responders' F=0.27, p=0.764, entire sample F=1.87, p=0.160). ICC was "substantial" at 0.8 (95% C.I=0.6-0.9). Only the motor-sequencing NSS appear to be trait marker of schizophrenia in this sample. Other NSS seem to reflect symptomatic states of the disorder.

  9. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  10. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  11. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. PMID:26943712

  12. Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients' behavior.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2013-01-01

    Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient's intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals' (e.g., attentional) behavior. PMID:24137123

  13. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior. PMID:21206800

  14. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  15. LRRK2 phosphorylation level correlates with abnormal motor behaviour in an experimental model of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Jennifer; Mellone, Manuela; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Zianni, Elisa; Di Luca, Monica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2016-05-11

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. LRRK2 N-terminal domain encompasses several serine residues that undergo phosphorylation influencing LRRK2 function. This work aims at investigating whether LRRK2 phosphorylation/function may be involved in the molecular pathways downstream D1 dopamine receptor leading to LIDs. Here we show that LRRK2 phosphorylation level at serine 935 correlates with LIDs induction and that inhibition of LRRK2 induces a significant increase in the dyskinetic score in L-DOPA treated parkinsonian animals. Our findings support a close link between LRKK2 functional state and L-DOPA-induced abnormal motor behaviour and highlight that LRRK2 phosphorylation level may be implicated in LIDs, calling for novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Transient isolated ocular motor abnormality related to perilesional edema of an acute medullary microbleed: A case report and review of the literatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jee-Young; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Lee, Yong-Seok

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of transient isolated gaze-evoked nystagmus with ocular lateropulsion in a patient with an acute medullary microbleed which was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Considering the correlation between the neural structures involved by the lesion and the ocular motor symptoms of this patient, we suggest that the perilesional edema of the acute medullary microbleed is responsible for this transient ocular motor abnormality.

  17. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system. PMID:26252658

  18. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system. PMID:26252658

  19. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  20. Abnormal turning behavior in Drosophila larvae. Identification and molecular analysis of scribbler (sbb).

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Shaver, S A; Hilliker, A J; Sokolowski, M B

    2000-07-01

    Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler (sbb), a vital gene that encodes a novel protein expressed in the embryonic and larval nervous systems and in the imaginal discs. Larvae with mutations in sbb exhibit abnormally high amounts of turning behavior in the absence of food. sbb is a large gene spanning >50 kb of genomic DNA with four major developmentally regulated transcripts. Transgenic rescue of scribbler behavior was demonstrated by targeting expression of a normal sbb transgene (sbb(+)) expressing one of the major transcripts to the nervous system. The vital function of sbb was restored by ubiquitous expression of this transgene throughout development.

  1. Abnormal turning behavior in Drosophila larvae. Identification and molecular analysis of scribbler (sbb).

    PubMed Central

    Yang, P; Shaver, S A; Hilliker, A J; Sokolowski, M B

    2000-01-01

    Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler (sbb), a vital gene that encodes a novel protein expressed in the embryonic and larval nervous systems and in the imaginal discs. Larvae with mutations in sbb exhibit abnormally high amounts of turning behavior in the absence of food. sbb is a large gene spanning >50 kb of genomic DNA with four major developmentally regulated transcripts. Transgenic rescue of scribbler behavior was demonstrated by targeting expression of a normal sbb transgene (sbb(+)) expressing one of the major transcripts to the nervous system. The vital function of sbb was restored by ubiquitous expression of this transgene throughout development. PMID:10880478

  2. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary to suggestions in educational literature, the gross-motor training program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications for educators and for the development of the technology of generalization are outlined. PMID:3771421

  3. Influence of bilateral motor behaviors on flexible functioning: an embodied perspective.

    PubMed

    Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2011-08-01

    To examine the influence of bilateral motor behaviors on flexibility performance, two studies were conducted. Previous research has shown that when performing unilateral motor behavior that activates the affective and motivational systems of approach versus avoidance (arm flexion vs. extension), it is the congruence between laterality and motor activation that determines flexibility-rigidity functioning (Cretenet & Dru, 2009). When bilateral motor behaviors were performed, a mechanism of embodiment was revealed. It showed that the flexibility scores were determined by the match between the respective qualities of congruence of each of the unilateral motor behaviors performed. These results bring to light an overall embodied mechanism associated with the compatibility of the cognitive impact(s) of each motor behavior performed.

  4. Effect of the home environment on motor and cognitive behavior of infants.

    PubMed

    Miquelote, Audrei F; Santos, Denise C C; Caçola, Priscila M; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de L; Gabbard, Carl

    2012-06-01

    Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics of their home using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development--Infant Scale and motor and cognitive behavior with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--III. Infant's home and motor behavior were assessed at age 9 months and 6 months later with the inclusion of cognitive ability. Results for motor ability indicated that there was an overall improvement in performance from the 1st to the 2nd assessment. We found significant positive correlations between the dimensions of the home (daily activities and play materials) and global motor performance (1st assessment) and fine-motor performance on the 2nd assessment. In regard to cognitive performance (2nd assessment), results indicated a positive association with fine-motor performance. Our results suggest that motor affordances can have a positive impact on future motor ability and speculatively, later cognitive behavior in infants. PMID:22721733

  5. Identification and interpretation of microstructural abnormalities in motor pathways in adolescents born preterm.

    PubMed

    Groeschel, Samuel; Tournier, J-Donald; Northam, Gemma B; Baldeweg, Torsten; Wyatt, John; Vollmer, Brigitte; Connelly, Alan

    2014-02-15

    There has been extensive interest in assessing the long-term effects of preterm birth on brain white matter microstructure using diffusion MRI. Our aim in this study is to explore diffusion MRI differences between adolescents born preterm and term born controls, with a specific interest in characterising how such differences are manifested in white matter regions containing predominantly single or crossing fibre populations. Probabilistic high angular resolution tractography together with large deformation spatial normalisation were used to objectively investigate diffusion tensor parameters at regular intervals along fibre tracts of 45 adolescents born before 33 weeks of gestation and 30 term-born typically developing adolescents. Diffusion parameters were significantly different between preterms and controls at several levels along the cortico-spinal, thalamo-cortical and transcallosal pathways. Within the predominantly single fibre regions of the corpus callosum and internal capsule, in the preterms mean diffusivity (MD) was found to be increased while fractional anisotropy (FA) was decreased compared to controls. In contrast, however, where these pathways traversed the centrum semiovale, FA and MD were both significantly increased. The major contributor to reduced FA in preterms in predominantly single fibre regions was the increased radial eigenvalue (i.e. increased radial diffusivity). In predominantly crossing-fibre regions, the tensor eigenvalues are not meaningful, and the observed increase in FA is likely to be due to a decrease in anisotropy in one of the contributing fibre bundles. Similar differences (although less pronounced) were observed after excluding preterms with radiological signs of preterm brain injury from the sample. In summary, white matter microstructure was found to be altered in motor pathways in adolescents born preterm. Disruption of white matter (WM) microstructure in a single fibre region with resulting higher radial diffusivity

  6. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  7. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  8. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  9. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  10. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Nishida, Yuuya

    2012-01-01

    Summary In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P<0.05). A similar mechanism of velocity control has been known in head movements of the owl and in human saccades. By analogy, this suggests that the frog planned its escape velocity in advance of executing the turn, to make the duration of the escape behavior relatively constant. For escape turns less than 60°, the positive correlation was very strong (r2 = 0.7097, P<0.05). Thus, the frog controlled the angular velocity of small escape turns very accurately and completed the behavior within a constant time. On the other hand, for escape turns greater than 60°, the same correlation was not significant (r2 = 0.065, P>0.05). Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05). This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05). Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning. PMID:23213389

  11. Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) when tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156

  12. Quantitative analysis of abnormal spontaneous behavior and clinical assessment of the stargazer rat.

    PubMed

    Brock, J W; Truett, G E; Ross, K D; Kloster, C A

    1995-06-01

    A new mutant derived from the Zucker rat strain called stargazer (homozygous stg/stg) displays abnormal behavior that is characterized by pronounced arching of the neck ("stargazing"), rapid circling, and conspicuous hyperactivity. Results of serologic assays performed by two independent diagnostic laboratories have indicated that the abnormal behavior in the stargazer is not the result of a viral or bacterial infection. In this report, different groups of stargazer rats and their normal-behaving littermates (heterozygous stg/+) were assessed with regard to spontaneous behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma biochemical profiles. Besides frequent stargazing, the predominant behavioral feature of the stargazers was extreme hyperactivity; they had sevenfold greater activity than the normal littermates (P < 0.05), expressed in the form of rapid ambulation and tail-chasing. The stargazers had significantly greater daily calorie and water consumption, despite being significantly smaller in body weight than the littermates (P < 0.05 for all). However, urine output was not different between the two groups. Heart rate and blood pressure also were not different. Stargazers had significantly lower total triglycerides concentration and lower aminotransferase activity than littermates (P < 0.05 for both), a finding probably related to their smaller body size. It is concluded that stargazer rats are extremely hyperactive but normotensive; heterozygous littermates are behaviorally normal, despite being carriers of the stg gene; and routine diagnostic blood testing revealed no important differences between the stargazers and their unaffected littermates. PMID:7650898

  13. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures. PMID:26779670

  14. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures.

  15. Sensory-motor behavioral characterization of an animal model of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (or Mucopolysaccharidosis VI)

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Paola; Cotugno, Gabriella; Russo, Fabio; Mastrogiacomo, Rosa; Tessitore, Alessandra; Auricchio, Alberto; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Maroteaux-Lamy disease, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, is an MPS disorder caused by mutations in the ARSB gene encoding for the lysosomal enzyme arysulfatase B (ARSB). Deficient ARSB activity leads to lysosomal accumulation of dermatan sulfate in a wide range of tissues and organs. There are various animal models of MPS VI that have been well characterized from a biochemical and morphological point of view. In this study, we report the sensory-motor characterization of MPS VI rats carrying homozygous null ARSB mutations. We show that adult MPS VI rats are specifically impaired in vertical activity and motor endurance. All together, these data are consistent with biochemical findings that show a major impairment in connective tissues, such as joints and bones. The behavioral abnormalities of MPS VI rats represent fundamental endpoints for studies aimed at testing the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches for MPS VI. PMID:24407717

  16. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  17. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.

  18. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

  19. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  20. MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits.

  1. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  3. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  4. Who Should Report Abnormal Behavior at Preschool Age? The Case of Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballespi, Sergi; Jane, Ma Claustre; Riba, Ma Dolors

    2012-01-01

    Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"--a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension--experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine…

  5. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24154668

  6. Deficient grip force control in schizophrenia: behavioral and modeling evidence for altered motor inhibition and motor noise.

    PubMed

    Teremetz, Maxime; Amado, Isabelle; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lindberg, Pavel G; Maier, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Whether upper limb sensorimotor control is affected in schizophrenia and how underlying pathological mechanisms may potentially intervene in these deficits is still being debated. We tested voluntary force control in schizophrenia patients and used a computational model in order to elucidate potential cerebral mechanisms underlying sensorimotor deficits in schizophrenia. A visuomotor grip force-tracking task was performed by 17 medicated and 6 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and by 15 healthy controls. Target forces in the ramp-hold-and-release paradigm were set to 5 N and to 10% maximal voluntary grip force. Force trajectory was analyzed by performance measures and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A computational model incorporating neural control signals was used to replicate the empirically observed motor behavior and to explore underlying neural mechanisms. Grip task performance was significantly lower in medicated and non-medicated schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Three behavioral variables were significantly higher in both patient groups: tracking error (by 50%), coefficient of variation of force (by 57%) and duration of force release (up by 37%). Behavioral performance did not differ between patient groups. Computational simulation successfully replicated these findings and predicted that decreased motor inhibition, together with an increased signal-dependent motor noise, are sufficient to explain the observed motor deficits in patients. PCA also suggested altered motor inhibition as a key factor differentiating patients from control subjects: the principal component representing inhibition correlated with clinical severity. These findings show that schizophrenia affects voluntary sensorimotor control of the hand independent of medication, and suggest that reduced motor inhibition and increased signal-dependent motor noise likely reflect key pathological mechanisms of the sensorimotor deficit.

  7. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis.

  8. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

  9. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  10. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

  11. Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.

  12. The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

  13. Can the Child Behavior Checklist Be Used to Screen for Motor Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piek, Jan P.; Barrett, Nicholas C.; Dyck, Murray J.; Reiersen, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: It has been suggested that one approach to identifying motor impairment in children is to use the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as a screening tool. The current study examined the validity of the CBCL in identifying motor impairment. Method: A total of 398 children, 206 females and 192 males, aged from 3 years 9 months to 14 years 10 months…

  14. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  15. Elevated PEM (Phasic Electromyographic Metric) Rates Identify Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder Patients on Nights Without Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Rye, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity of the phasic electromyographic metric (PEM) to differentiate patients with a history suggestive of rapid eye movement behavior disorder (REMBD) on laboratory nights without overt dream-enactment behavior. Methods: PEM was quantified as the % of 2.5-sec intervals with phasic muscle activity of 100-msec duration with an amplitude of at least 4 times background activity in 11 patients and 31 elderly controls. Data were derived from both REM and NREM sleep from 5 muscle groups (mentalis, left/right anterior tibialis, left/right brachioradialis). Results: Relative to controls, REMBD patients had significantly higher levels of PEM activity in all recordings. The largest differences occurred during REM sleep for the mentalis and brachioradialis channels. Similar results were obtained by limiting quantification of PEM to the final REM period of the night and could be accomplished by individuals with no previous familiarity with polysomnography. Discussion: PEM may be a useful metric to characterize the REM related phasic muscle activity on patients with a history of REMBD, even when no overt dream-enactment behaviors are detected on a laboratory night. Citation: Bliwise DL; Rye DB. Elevated PEM (phasic electromyographic metric) rates identify rapid eye movement behavior disorder patients on nights without behavioral abnormalities. SLEEP 2008;31(6):853–857. PMID:18548830

  16. Relationship between BDNF expression in major striatal afferents, striatum morphology and motor behavior in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Samadi, P; Boutet, A; Rymar, V V; Rawal, K; Maheux, J; Kvann, J-C; Tomaszewski, M; Beaubien, F; Cloutier, J F; Levesque, D; Sadikot, A F

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and transgenic mouse models of HD show neuronal loss in the striatum as a major feature, which contributes to cognitive and motor manifestations. Reduced expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in striatal afferents may play a role in neuronal loss. How progressive loss of BDNF expression in different cortical or subcortical afferents contributes to striatal atrophy and behavioral dysfunction in HD is not known, and may best be determined in animal models. We compared age-dependent alterations of BDNF mRNA expression in major striatal afferents from the cerebral cortex, thalamus and midbrain in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. Corresponding changes in striatal morphology were quantified using unbiased stereology. Changes in motor behavior were measured using an open field, grip strength monitor, limb clasping and a rotarod apparatus. BDNF expression in cortical limbic and midbrain striatal afferents is reduced by age 4 weeks, prior to onset of motor abnormalities. BDNF expression in motor cortex and thalamic afferents is reduced by 6 weeks, coinciding with early motor dysfunction and reduced striatum volume. BDNF loss in afferents progresses until death at 13-15 weeks, correlating with progressive striatal neuronal loss and motor abnormalities. Mutant huntingtin protein expression in R6/2 mice results in progressive loss of BDNF in both cortical and subcortical striatal afferents. BDNF loss in limbic and dopaminergic striatal inputs may contribute to cognitive/psychiatric dysfunction in HD. Subsequent BDNF loss in cortical motor and thalamic afferents may accelerate striatal degeneration, resulting in progressive involuntary movements. PMID:23006318

  17. Genetic damage and the expression of behavioral abnormalities in the progeny of male rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the possible genetic nature of behavioral anomalies, an identifiable genetic endpoint, inherited chromosome translocations in the offspring, was selected to evaluate the relationship to behavior. Young adult male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 50-300 rads of ionizing radiation. Two weeks following their irradiation, the males were mated with four virgin females for one week. During this time, fertilizing sperm were derived from post-meiotic spermatids, the stage of the spermatogenic cycle most sensitive to the mutagenic effects of radiation. Behavioral analyses of the resulting 390 offspring consisted of both motor reflex and motor coordination measurements as well as learning and retention parameters. Significant differences in performance were seen in several of the motor reflex measurements in progeny of males exposed to some of the higher doses of irradiation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the performance of a single learned behavior.

  18. The relationship of motor skills and adaptive behavior skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. Design The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Setting Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. Participants A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12–33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Results Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < 0.01). Children with weaker motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. Conclusions The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion. PMID:25774214

  19. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  20. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    PubMed

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  1. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  2. Motor and behavioral phenotype in conditional mutants with targeted ablation of cortical D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luning; O'Leary, Claire; Kim, Hyun Ah; Parish, Clare L; Massalas, Jim; Waddington, John L; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schütz, Günter; Gantois, Ilse; Lawrence, Andrew J; Drago, John

    2015-04-01

    D1-dopamine receptors (Drd1a) are highly expressed in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and the striatum. A number of human diseases such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia are known to have cortical pathology involving dopamine receptor expressing neurons. To illuminate their functional role, we exploited a Cre/Lox molecular paradigm to generate Emx-1(tox) MUT mice, a transgenic line in which cortical Drd1a-expressing pyramidal neurons were selectively ablated. Emx-1(tox) MUT mice displayed prominent forelimb dystonia, hyperkinesia, ataxia on rotarod testing, heightened anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent abnormalities in a test of social interaction. The latter occurred in the context of normal working memory on testing in the Y-maze and for novel object recognition. Some motor and behavioral abnormalities in Emx-1(tox) MUT mice overlapped with those in CamKIIα(tox) MUT transgenic mice, a line in which both striatal and cortical Drd1a-expressing cells were ablated. Although Emx-1(tox) MUT mice had normal striatal anatomy, both Emx-1(tox) MUT and CamKIIα(tox) MUT mice displayed selective neuronal loss in cortical layers V and VI. This study shows that loss of cortical Drd1a-expressing cells is sufficient to produce deficits in multiple motor and behavioral domains, independent of striatal mechanisms. Primary cortical changes in the D1 dopamine receptor compartment are therefore likely to model a number of core clinical features in disorders such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia. PMID:25684539

  3. Motor and behavioral phenotype in conditional mutants with targeted ablation of cortical D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luning; O'Leary, Claire; Kim, Hyun Ah; Parish, Clare L; Massalas, Jim; Waddington, John L; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schütz, Günter; Gantois, Ilse; Lawrence, Andrew J; Drago, John

    2015-04-01

    D1-dopamine receptors (Drd1a) are highly expressed in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and the striatum. A number of human diseases such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia are known to have cortical pathology involving dopamine receptor expressing neurons. To illuminate their functional role, we exploited a Cre/Lox molecular paradigm to generate Emx-1(tox) MUT mice, a transgenic line in which cortical Drd1a-expressing pyramidal neurons were selectively ablated. Emx-1(tox) MUT mice displayed prominent forelimb dystonia, hyperkinesia, ataxia on rotarod testing, heightened anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent abnormalities in a test of social interaction. The latter occurred in the context of normal working memory on testing in the Y-maze and for novel object recognition. Some motor and behavioral abnormalities in Emx-1(tox) MUT mice overlapped with those in CamKIIα(tox) MUT transgenic mice, a line in which both striatal and cortical Drd1a-expressing cells were ablated. Although Emx-1(tox) MUT mice had normal striatal anatomy, both Emx-1(tox) MUT and CamKIIα(tox) MUT mice displayed selective neuronal loss in cortical layers V and VI. This study shows that loss of cortical Drd1a-expressing cells is sufficient to produce deficits in multiple motor and behavioral domains, independent of striatal mechanisms. Primary cortical changes in the D1 dopamine receptor compartment are therefore likely to model a number of core clinical features in disorders such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia.

  4. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  5. Dynamical behaviors of a plate activated by an induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheutchoua Fossi, D. O.; Woafo, P.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamics and chaotification of a system consisting of an induction motor activating a mobile plate (with variable contents) fixed to a spring are studied. The dynamical model of the device is presented and the electromechanical equations are formulated. The oscillations of the plate are analyzed through variations of the following reliable control parameters: phase voltage supply of the motor, frequency of the external source and mass of the plate. The dynamics of the system near the fundamental resonance region presents jump phenomenon. Mapping of the control parameters planes in terms of types of motion reveals period- n motion, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Anti-control of chaos of the induction motor is also obtained using the field-oriented control associated to the time delay feedback control.

  6. Response-Specific Effects of Pain Observation on Motor Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, India; Poliakoff, Ellen; Gordon, Lucy; Downing, Paul

    2007-01-01

    How does seeing a painful event happening to someone else influence the observer's own motor system? To address this question, we measured simple reaction times following videos showing noxious or innocuous implements contacting corporeal or noncorporeal objects. Key releases in a go/nogo task were speeded, and key presses slowed, after subjects…

  7. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-12-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  8. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  9. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities.

  10. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities. PMID:26504335

  11. Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3α gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3α KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3β+/-mice, GSK-3α mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3α gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3α KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3α gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

  12. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  13. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  14. Applying Behavioral Principles to Motor Vehicle Occupant Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Successful programs designed to encourage protective behaviors (e.g., wearing safety belts and using child safety seats) have applied such behavioral principles as a combination of rewards, feedback, guidance, contingency management, and modeling. (Author/DB)

  15. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed.

  16. Dopamine depletion attenuates some behavioral abnormalities in a hyperdopaminergic mouse model of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Halberstadt, Adam L.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Young, Jared W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with BD suffer from multifaceted symptoms, including hyperactive and psychomotor agitated behaviors. Previously, we quantified hyperactivity, increased exploration, and straighter movements of patients with BD mania in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). A similar BPM profile is observed in mice that are hyperdopaminergic due to reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) functioning. We hypothesized that dopamine depletion through alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) administration would attenuate this mania-like profile. Methods Male and female DAT wild-type (WT; n=26) and knockdown (KD; n=28) mice on a C57BL/6 background were repeatedly tested in the BPM to assess profile robustness and stability. The optimal AMPT dose was identified by treating male C57BL/6 mice (n=39) with vehicle or AMPT (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) at 24, 20, and 4 h prior to testing in the BPM. Then, male and female DAT WT (n=40) and KD (n=37) mice were tested in the BPM after vehicle or AMPT (30 mg/kg) treatment. Results Compared to WT littermates, KD mice exhibited increased activity, exploration, straighter movement, and disorganized behavior. AMPT-treatment reduced hyperactivity and increased path organization, but potentiated specific exploration in KD mice without affecting WT mice. Limitations AMPT is not specific to dopamine and also depletes norepinephrine. Conclusions KD mice exhibit abnormal exploration in the BPM similar to patients with BD mania. AMPT-induced dopamine depletion attenuated some, but potentiated other, aspects of this mania-like profile in mice. Future studies should extend these findings into other aspects of mania to determine the suitability of AMPT as a treatment for BD mania. PMID:24287168

  17. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  18. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus.

  19. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a multifunctional protein, whose exact physiological role remains elusive. Since previous studies indicated a neuroprotective function of PrPC, we investigated whether Prnp knockout mice(Prnp0/0)display age-dependent behavioral abnormalities. Matched sets of Prnp0/0 ...

  20. Structural behavior of solid rocket motor field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Wingate, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis studies conducted on three concepts for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joints are summarized. Deflections and stresses in the Challenger clevis-tang joint are compared with a proposed capture-tang replacement joint and with an alternate bolted joint design. Results indicate deflections and stresses are subsequently reduced in both the capture-tang and bolted joint concepts. The capture-tang and bolted joint designs are respectively 24 and 70 percent heavier than the baseline clevis-tang joint.

  1. Dido mutations trigger perinatal death and generate brain abnormalities and behavioral alterations in surviving adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Julio; Fütterer, Agnes; Trachana, Varvara; Gutiérrez del Burgo, Fernando; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all vertebrate cells have a single cilium protruding from their surface. This threadlike organelle, once considered vestigial, is now seen as a pivotal element for detection of extracellular signals that trigger crucial morphogenetic pathways. We recently proposed a role for Dido3, the main product of the death inducer-obliterator (dido) gene, in histone deacetylase 6 delivery to the primary cilium [Sánchez de Diego A, et al. (2014) Nat Commun 5:3500]. Here we used mice that express truncated forms of Dido proteins to determine the link with cilium-associated disorders. We describe dido mutant mice with high incidence of perinatal lethality and distinct neurodevelopmental, morphogenetic, and metabolic alterations. The anatomical abnormalities were related to brain and orofacial development, consistent with the known roles of primary cilia in brain patterning, hydrocephalus incidence, and cleft palate. Mutant mice that reached adulthood showed reduced life expectancy, brain malformations including hippocampus hypoplasia and agenesis of corpus callosum, as well as neuromuscular and behavioral alterations. These mice can be considered a model for the study of ciliopathies and provide information for assessing diagnosis and therapy of genetic disorders linked to the deregulation of primary cilia. PMID:25825751

  2. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  3. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  4. Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?

    PubMed

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-10-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception.

  5. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  6. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological.

  7. Stochastic kinetics of ribosomes: Single motor properties and collective behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2009-07-01

    Syntheses of protein molecules in a cell are carried out by ribosomes. A ribosome can be regarded as a molecular motor which utilizes the input chemical energy to move on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track that also serves as a template for the polymerization of the corresponding protein. The forward movement, however, is characterized by an alternating sequence of translocation and pause. Using a quantitative model, which captures the mechanochemical cycle of an individual ribosome, we derive an exact analytical expression for the distribution of its dwell times at the successive positions on the mRNA track. Inverse of the average dwell time satisfies a “Michaelis-Menten-type” equation and is consistent with the general formula for the average velocity of a molecular motor with an unbranched mechanochemical cycle. Extending this formula appropriately, we also derive the exact force-velocity relation for a ribosome. Often many ribosomes simultaneously move on the same mRNA track, while each synthesizes a copy of the same protein. We extend the model of a single ribosome by incorporating steric exclusion of different individuals on the same track. We draw the phase diagram of this model of ribosome traffic in three-dimensional spaces spanned by experimentally controllable parameters. We suggest new experimental tests of our theoretical predictions.

  8. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2012-10-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie the maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) that was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both the function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction.

  9. Locomotor corollary activation of trigeminal motoneurons: coupling of discrete motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hänzi, Sara; Banchi, Roberto; Straka, Hans; Chagnaud, Boris P

    2015-06-01

    During motor behavior, corollary discharges of the underlying motor commands inform sensory-motor systems about impending or ongoing movements. These signals generally limit the impact of self-generated sensory stimuli but also induce motor reactions that stabilize sensory perception. Here, we demonstrate in isolated preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles that locomotor corollary discharge provokes a retraction of the mechanoreceptive tentacles during fictive swimming. In the absence of sensory feedback, these signals activate a cluster of trigeminal motoneurons that cause a contraction of the tentacle muscle. This corollary discharge encodes duration and strength of locomotor activity, thereby ensuring a reliable coupling between locomotion and tentacle motion. The strict phase coupling between the trigeminal and spinal motor activity, present in many cases, suggests that the respective corollary discharge is causally related to the ongoing locomotor output and derives at least in part from the spinal central pattern generator; however, additional contributions from midbrain and/or hindbrain locomotor centers are likely. The swimming-related retraction might protect the touch-receptive Merkel cells on the tentacle from sensory over-stimulation and damage and/or reduce the hydrodynamic drag. The intrinsic nature of the coupling of tentacle retraction to locomotion is an excellent example of a context-dependent, direct link between otherwise discrete motor behaviors.

  10. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  11. Apparent and Actual Trajectory Control Depend on the Behavioral Context in Upper Limb Motor Tasks.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    A central problem in motor neuroscience is to understand how we select, plan, and control motor actions. An influential idea is that the motor system computes and implements a desired limb trajectory, an intermediary control process between the behavioral goal (reach a spatial goal) and motor commands to move the limb. The most compelling evidence for trajectory control is that corrective responses are directed back toward the unperturbed trajectory when the limb is disturbed during movement. However, the idea of trajectory control conflicts with optimal control theories that emphasize goal-directed motor corrections. Here we show that corrective responses in human subjects can deviate back toward the unperturbed trajectory, but these reversals were only present when there were explicit limits on movement time. Our second experiment asked whether trajectory control could be generated if the trajectory was made an explicit goal of the task. Participants countered unexpected loads while reaching to a static goal, tracking a moving target, or maintaining their hand within a visually constrained path to a static goal. Corrective responses were directed back toward the constrained path or to intercept the moving target. However, corrections back to the unperturbed path disappeared when reaching to the static target. Long-latency muscle responses paralleled changes in the behavioral goal in both sets of experiments, but goal-directed responses were delayed by 15-25 ms when tracking the moving goal. Our results show the motor system can behave like a trajectory controller but only if a "desired trajectory" is the goal of the task. Significance statement: One of the most influential ideas in motor control is that the motor system computes a "desired trajectory" when reaching to a spatial goal. Here we revisit the experimental paradigm from seminal papers supporting trajectory control to illustrate that corrective responses appear to return to the original trajectory of the

  12. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matt Q.; McCumsey, Stephanie J.; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  13. Motor characteristics determine the rheological behavior of a suspension of microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Richa; Gulvady, Ranjit; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    A suspension of motile cells exhibits complex rheological properties due to their collective motion. We measure the shear viscosity of a suspension of Escherichia coli strains varying in motor characteristics such as duration of run and tumble. At low cell densities, all strains irrespective of their motor characteristics exhibit a linear increase in viscosity with cell density suggesting that the cells behave as a suspension of passive rods with an effective aspect ratio set by the motor characteristics of the bacteria. As the cell density is increased beyond a critical value, the viscosity drops sharply signaling the presence of strongly coordinated motion among bacteria. The critical density depends not only on the magnitude of shear but also the motor characteristics of individual cells. High shear rate disrupts the coordinated motion reducing its behavior, once again, to a suspension of inactive particles.

  14. Graphonomics and its contribution to the field of motor behavior: A position statement.

    PubMed

    Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2015-10-01

    The term graphonomics was conceived in the early 1980s; it defined a multidisciplinary emerging field focused on handwriting and drawing movements. Researchers in the field of graphonomics have made important contribution to the field of motor behavior by developing models aimed to conceptualize the production of fine motor movements using graphical tools. Although skeptics have argued that recent technological advancements would reduce the impact of graphonomic research, a shift of focus within in the field of graphonomics into fine motor tasks in general proves the resilience of the field. Moreover, it has been suggested that the use of fine motor movements due to technological advances has increased in importance in everyday life. It is concluded that the International Graphonomics Society can have a leading role in fostering collaborative multidisciplinary efforts and can help with the dissemination of findings contributing to the field of human movement sciences to a larger public.

  15. The selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist MGS0028 reverses isolation rearing-induced abnormal behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Yano, Koji; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nakazato, Atsuro; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Isolation-induced abnormal behaviors are useful animal models for assessing potential anti-psychotic drugs. This study examined the effect of MGS0028, a selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, on abnormal behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, and deficits of prepulse inhibition in isolation-reared mice. MGS0028 attenuated hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors in isolation-reared mice. The agonist also reversed isolation rearing-induced deficits of prepulse inhibition. On the other hand, MGS0028 did not affect locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition in group-reared mice. These results suggest that the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, MGS0028, is a potential compound for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  16. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGA<28 weeks) or on their relationship with motor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants.

  17. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGA<28 weeks) or on their relationship with motor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. PMID:26555385

  18. Ectopic Cerebellar Cell Migration Causes Maldevelopment of Purkinje Cells and Abnormal Motor Behaviour in Cxcr4 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice. PMID:24516532

  19. Examination of Poststroke Alteration in Motor Unit Firing Behavior Using High-Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Holobar, Ales; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in high-density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition have made it a feasible task to discriminate single motor unit activity from surface EMG interference patterns, thus providing a noninvasive approach for examination of motor unit control properties. In the current study, we applied high-density surface EMG recording and decomposition techniques to assess motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke. Surface EMG signals were collected using a 64-channel 2-D electrode array from the paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of nine hemiparetic stroke subjects at different isometric discrete contraction levels between 2 to 10 N with a 2 N increment step. Motor unit firing rates were extracted through decomposition of the high-density surface EMG signals and compared between paretic and contralateral muscles. Across the nine tested subjects, paretic FDI muscles showed decreased motor unit firing rates compared with contralateral muscles at different contraction levels. Regression analysis indicated a linear relation between the mean motor unit firing rate and the muscle contraction level for both paretic and contralateral muscles (p < 0.001), with the former demonstrating a lower increment rate (0.32 pulses per second (pps)/N) compared with the latter (0.67 pps/N). The coefficient of variation (averaged over the contraction levels) of the motor unit firing rates for the paretic muscles (0.21 ± 0.012) was significantly higher than for the contralateral muscles (0.17 ± 0.014) (p < 0.05). This study provides direct evidence of motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke using surface EMG, which can be an important factor contributing to hemiparetic muscle weakness.

  20. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  1. Abnormal behaviors and developmental disorder of hippocampus in zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521Δ/Δ mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521Δ/Δ pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521+/Δ littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521Δ/Δ mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521Δ/Δ mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521Δ/Δ mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia.

  2. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D–E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype–phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  3. Evaluating the Sensory-Motor Bases of Behavior in the Profoundly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Ruth C.; And Others

    Discussed are the theoretical background and evaluation procedures of the Glenwood Awareness, Manipulation, and Posture Index Number One, an instrument for measuring the sensory-motor bases of behavior in the profoundly retarded. The authors maintain that, by using the processes of recognition, interaction, and mobility as criteria for the…

  4. Reducing the Stress of Intensive Care: Effects on Motor and State Behavior. Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patricia T.

    This report presents outcome data on infant motor activity and behavioral state. Subjects were 45 infants who had birth weight of less than 1,501 grams, were appropriate for gestational age, and were free of major complications. A total of 21 infants were studied during a preintervention (control period), and 24 were studied in a posttraining…

  5. Effects of Visuo-Motor Behavior Rehearsal with Videotaped Modeling on Basketball Shooting Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Steven W.; Fernandez, Salvador J.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed effect of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) with videotaped modeling on basketball shooting performance. Six players on university women's basketball team were pre- and posttested on continuous free throws, noncontinuous free throws, and outside shots. Following five-day VMBR training program, subjects significantly improved in…

  6. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  7. Baseline Cognition, Behavior, and Motor Skills in Children with New-Onset, Idiopathic Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhise, Vikram V.; Burack, Gail D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized…

  8. Regulation of sensory motor circuits used in C. elegans male intromission behavior.

    PubMed

    García, L René

    2014-09-01

    Intromission of a male's copulatory organ into his mate's genital orifice is a behavioral step that is conserved in most terrestrial mating behaviors. The behavior serves to anchor the male to his mate and aids in the transmission of the male's gametes into the female. In all animals, the successful execution of intromission likely involves coordinated sensory/motor regulation coupled with constant self-monitoring. The compact male C. elegans reproductive nervous system provides an accessible experimental model for identification and dissection of the molecular and cellular circuit components that promote different motor outputs required for the transfer of the male's genetic material into the self-fertilizing hermaphrodite. The C. elegans male tail contains forty-one sex-specific muscles and 81 sex-specific neurons, which promote different steps of mating behavior. In this review, I will outline the functional contributions of the male-specific sensory-motor neurons and their postsynaptic muscles that control the motions of the male copulatory spicules during the various phases of intromission behavior and ejaculation. In addition, I will summarize the roles of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels that regulate the outputs of individual circuit components and describe how the intromission circuit uses these molecules to regulate reproductive behavior during male aging and nutritional deprivation.

  9. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Mancini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels. PMID:24910599

  10. Consolidating behavioral and neurophysiologic findings to explain the influence of contextual interference during motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Verwey, Willem; Buchanen, John; Chen, Jing; Rhee, Joohyun; Immink, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Motor sequence learning under high levels of contextual interference (CI) disrupts initial performance but supports delayed test and transfer performance when compared to learning under low CI. Integrating findings from early behavioral work and more recent experimental efforts that incorporated neurophysiologic measures led to a novel account of the role of CI during motor sequence learning. This account focuses on important contributions from two neural regions-the dorsal premotor area and the SMA complex-that are recruited earlier and more extensively during the planning of a motor sequence in a high CI context. It is proposed that activation of these regions is critical to early adaptation of sequence structure amenable to long-term storage. Moreover, greater CI enhances access to newly acquired motor sequence knowledge through (1) the emergence of temporary functional connectivity between neural sites previously described as crucial to successful long-term performance of sequential behaviors, and (2) heightened excitability of M1-a key constituent of the temporary coupled neural circuits, and the primary candidate for storage of motor memory.

  11. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Mancini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels.

  12. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  13. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia.

  14. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. PMID:26231574

  15. A model for the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in human behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rosalie, Simon M; Müller, Sean

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event create a unique transfer domain that specifies a range of potentially successful actions. Transfer comprises anticipatory subconscious and conscious mechanisms. The model also outlines how transfer occurs across a continuum, which depends on the individual's expertise and contextual variables occurring at the incidence of transfer

  16. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life. PMID:26836141

  17. A θ-γ oscillation code for neuronal coordination during motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jun; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Arai, Kensuke; Harukuni, Rie; Fukai, Tomoki

    2013-11-20

    Sequential motor behavior requires a progression of discrete preparation and execution states. However, the organization of state-dependent activity in neuronal ensembles of motor cortex is poorly understood. Here, we recorded neuronal spiking and local field potential activity from rat motor cortex during reward-motivated movement and observed robust behavioral state-dependent coordination between neuronal spiking, γ oscillations, and θ oscillations. Slow and fast γ oscillations appeared during distinct movement states and entrained neuronal firing. γ oscillations, in turn, were coupled to θ oscillations, and neurons encoding different behavioral states fired at distinct phases of θ in a highly layer-dependent manner. These findings indicate that θ and nested dual band γ oscillations serve as the temporal structure for the selection of a conserved set of functional channels in motor cortical layer activity during animal movement. Furthermore, these results also suggest that cross-frequency couplings between oscillatory neuronal ensemble activities are part of the general coding mechanism in cortex.

  18. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p < 0.001), but similar to other rare intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  19. Harmony from chaos? Perceptual-motor delays enhance behavioral anticipation in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Auriel; Kallen, Rachel W; Coey, Charles A; Shockley, Kevin; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Effective interpersonal coordination is fundamental to robust social interaction, and the ability to anticipate a coactor's behavior is essential for achieving this coordination. However, coordination research has focused on the behavioral synchrony that occurs between the simple periodic movements of coactors and, thus, little is known about the anticipation that occurs during complex, everyday interaction. Research on the dynamics of coupled neurons, human motor control, electrical circuits, and laser semiconductors universally demonstrates that small temporal feedback delays are necessary for the anticipation of chaotic events. We therefore investigated whether similar feedback delays would promote anticipatory behavior during social interaction. Results revealed that coactors were not only able to anticipate others' chaotic movements when experiencing small perceptual-motor delays, but also exhibited movement patterns of equivalent complexity. This suggests that such delays, including those within the human nervous system, may enhance, rather than hinder, the anticipatory processes that underlie successful social interaction.

  20. Harmony from Chaos? Perceptual-Motor Delays Enhance Behavioral Anticipation in Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Auriel; Kallen, Rachel W.; Coey, Charles A.; Shockley, Kevin; Richardson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective interpersonal coordination is fundamental to robust social interaction, and the ability to anticipate a co-actor's behavior is essential for achieving this coordination. However, coordination research has focused on the behavioral synchrony that occurs between the simple periodic movements of co-actors and, thus, little is known about the anticipation that occurs during complex, everyday interaction. Research on the dynamics of coupled neurons, human motor control, electrical circuits, and laser semiconductors universally demonstrates that small temporal feedback delays are necessary for the anticipation of chaotic events. We therefore investigated whether similar feedback delays would promote anticipatory behavior during social interaction. Results revealed that co-actors were not only able to anticipate others' chaotic movements when experiencing small perceptual-motor delays, but also exhibited movement patterns of equivalent complexity. This suggests that such delays, including those within the human nervous system, may enhance, rather than hinder, the anticipatory processes that underlie successful social interaction. PMID:26030437

  1. Developmental delay in motor skill acquisition in Niemann-Pick C1 mice reveals abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Paola; Bruno, Francesco; Palladino, Giampiero; Dragotto, Jessica; Petrosini, Laura; Mangia, Franco; Erickson, Robert P; Canterini, Sonia; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective intracellular trafficking of exogenous cholesterol. Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration is the main sign of cerebellar dysfunction in both NPC1 patients and animal models. It has been recently shown that a significant decrease in Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression reduces the proliferative potential of granule neuron precursors in the developing cerebellum of Npc1 (-/-) mice. Pursuing the hypothesis that this developmental defect translates into functional impairments, we have assayed Npc1-deficient pups belonging to the milder mutant mouse strain Npc1 (nmf164) for sensorimotor development from postnatal day (PN) 3 to PN21. Npc1 (nmf164) / Npc1 (nmf164) pups displayed a 2.5-day delay in the acquisition of complex motor abilities compared to wild-type (wt) littermates, in agreement with the significant disorganization of cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture observed between PN11 and PN15. Compared to wt, Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice exhibited a poorer morphological differentiation of Bergmann glia (BG), as indicated by thicker radial shafts and less elaborate reticular pattern of lateral processes. Also BG functional development was defective, as indicated by the significant reduction in GLAST and Glutamine synthetase expression. A reduced VGluT2 and GAD65 expression also indicated an overall derangement of the glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation that PCs receive by climbing/parallel fibers and basket/stellate cells, respectively. Lastly, Npc1-deficiency also affected oligodendrocyte differentiation as indicated by the strong reduction of myelin basic protein. Two sequential 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin administrations at PN4 and PN7 counteract these defects, partially preventing functional impairment of BG and fully restoring the normal patterns of glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation to PCs.These findings indicate that in Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice the derangement of synaptic

  2. Natural descriptions of motor behavior: examples from E. coli and C. elegans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, William

    2007-03-01

    E. coli has a natural behavioral variable - the direction of rotation of its flagellar rotorary motor. Monitoring this one-dimensional behavioral response in reaction to chemical perturbation has been instrumental in the understanding of how E. coli performs chemotaxis at the genetic, physiological, and computational level. Here we apply this experimental strategy to the study of bacterial thermotaxis - a sensory mode that is less well understood. We investigate bacterial thermosensation by studying the motor response of single cells subjected to impulses of heat produced by an IR laser. A simple temperature dependent modification to an existing chemotaxis model can explain the observed temperature response. Higher organisms may have a more complicated behavioral response due to the simple fact that their motions have more degrees of freedom. Here we provide a principled analysis of motor behavior of such an organism -- the roundworm C. elegans. Using tracking video-microscopy we capture a worm's image and extract the skeleton of the shape as a head-to-tail ordered collection of tangent angles sampled along the curve. Applying principal components analysis we show that the space of shapes is remarkably low dimensional, with four dimensions accounting for > 95% of the shape variance. We also show that these dimensions align with behaviorally relevant states. As an application of this analysis we study the thermal response of worms stimulated by laser heating. Our quantitative description of C. elegans movement should prove useful in a wide variety of contexts, from the linking of motor output with neural circuitry to the genetic basis of adaptive behavior.

  3. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction. PMID:19947534

  4. Fish Chromatophores--From Molecular Motors to Animal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Aspengren, Sara; Cheney, Karen L; Wallin, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Chromatophores are pigment-bearing cells of lower vertebrates, including fish that cater for the ability of individual animals to shift body coloration and pattern. Color change provides dynamic camouflage and various kinds of communication. It is also a spectacular example of phenotypic plasticity, and of significant importance for adaptation and survival in novel environments. Through different cellular mechanisms, color change can occur within minutes or more slowly over weeks. Chromatophores have different pigment types and are located not only in the skin, but also in the eyes and internally. While morphological color change, including seasonal color change, has received a lot of interest from evolutionary biologists and behavioral ecologists, the more rapid physiological color change has been largely a research subject for cell physiologists. In this cross-disciplinary review, we have highlighted emerging trends in pigment cell research and identified unsolved problems for future research. PMID:26811288

  5. Fish Chromatophores--From Molecular Motors to Animal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Aspengren, Sara; Cheney, Karen L; Wallin, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Chromatophores are pigment-bearing cells of lower vertebrates, including fish that cater for the ability of individual animals to shift body coloration and pattern. Color change provides dynamic camouflage and various kinds of communication. It is also a spectacular example of phenotypic plasticity, and of significant importance for adaptation and survival in novel environments. Through different cellular mechanisms, color change can occur within minutes or more slowly over weeks. Chromatophores have different pigment types and are located not only in the skin, but also in the eyes and internally. While morphological color change, including seasonal color change, has received a lot of interest from evolutionary biologists and behavioral ecologists, the more rapid physiological color change has been largely a research subject for cell physiologists. In this cross-disciplinary review, we have highlighted emerging trends in pigment cell research and identified unsolved problems for future research.

  6. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Rosenthal, Liana S.; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel E.; Pontone, Gregory M.; McCoy, Arita; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD), is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society-United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Cross-sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS-3 (motor) score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD. Results Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0%) had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028). Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025). Discussion PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD. PMID:25009765

  7. Distributed Effects of Biological Sex Define Sex-Typical Motor Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mowrey, William R.; Bennett, Jessica R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in shared behaviors (for example, locomotion and feeding) are a nearly universal feature of animal biology. Though these behaviors may share underlying neural programs, their kinematics can exhibit robust differences between males and females. The neural underpinnings of these differences are poorly understood because of the often-untested assumption that they are determined by sex-specific body morphology. Here, we address this issue in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which features two sexes with distinct body morphologies but similar locomotor circuitry and body muscle. Quantitative behavioral analysis shows that C. elegans and related nematodes exhibit significant sex differences in the dynamics and geometry of locomotor body waves, such that the male is generally faster. Using a recently proposed model of locomotor wave propagation, we show that sex differences in both body mechanics and the intrinsic dynamics of the motor system can contribute to kinematic differences in distinct mechanical contexts. By genetically sex-reversing the properties of specific tissues and cells, however, we find that sex-specific locomotor frequency in C. elegans is determined primarily by the functional modification of shared sensory neurons. Further, we find that sexual modification of body wall muscle together with the nervous system is required to alter body wave speed. Thus, rather than relying on a single focus of modification, sex differences in motor dynamics require independent modifications to multiple tissue types. Our results suggest shared motor behaviors may be sex-specifically optimized though distributed modifications to several aspects of morphology and physiology. PMID:24478342

  8. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists.

  9. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  10. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  11. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  12. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  13. Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2013-02-01

    Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and α-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS. PMID:23201095

  14. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization.

  15. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. PMID:26048955

  16. Abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, D. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhang, L. J.; Yang, T.; Hu, Q. R.; Lei, M.; Tang, W. H. E-mail: pgli@zstu.edu.cn; Li, P. G. E-mail: pgli@zstu.edu.cn; Li, L. H.

    2015-07-20

    A stable and repeatable abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt sandwich structure without an electroforming process. The low resistance state (LRS) and the high resistance state (HRS) of the device can be distinguished clearly and be switched reversibly under a train of the voltage pulses. The LRS exhibits a conduction of electron tunneling, while the HRS shows a conduction of Schottky-type. The observed phenomena are considered to be related to the migration of oxygen vacancies which changes the space charge region width of the metal/semiconductor interface and results in a different electron transport mechanism.

  17. Adolescent Balloon Analog Risk Task and Behaviors that Influence Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Walthall, Jessica M.; Ryan, Sheryl; Moriarty-Daley, Alison; Riera, Antonio; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking propensity is a pivotal facet of motor vehicle crash involvement and subsequent traumatic injury in adolescents. Clinical encounters are important opportunities to identify teens with high risk-taking propensity who may later experience serious injury. Our objective was to compare self-reports of health risk behavior with performance on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a validated metric of risk-taking propensity, in adolescents during a clinical encounter. 100 adolescent patients from a hospital emergency department and adolescent health clinic completed a computer-based survey of self-reported risk behaviors including substance use behaviors and behaviors that influence crash involvement. They then completed the BART, a validated laboratory-based risk task in which participants earn points by pumping up a computer-generated balloon with greater pumps leading to increased chance of balloon explosion. 20 trials were undertaken. Mean number of pumps on the BART showed a correlation of .243 (p=.015) with self-reported driver/passenger behaviors and attitudes towards driving that influence risk of crash injury. Regression analyses showed that self-reports of substance use and mean number of pumps on the BART uniquely predict self-reports of behaviors influencing the risk of crash injury. The BART is a promising correlate of real-world risk-taking behavior related to traffic safety. It remains a valid predictor of behaviors influencing risk of crash injury when using just 10 trials, suggesting its utility as a quick and effective screening measure for use in busy clinical environments. This tool may be an important link to prevention interventions for those most at-risk for future motor vehicle crash involvement and injury. PMID:24406948

  18. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  19. SPEEDY babies: A putative new behavioral syndrome of unbalanced motor-speech development.

    PubMed

    Haapanen, Marja-Leena; Aro, Tuomo; Isotalo, Elina

    2008-12-01

    Even though difficulties in motor development in children with speech and language disorders are widely known, hardly any attention is paid to the association between atypically rapidly occurring unassisted walking and delayed speech development. The four children described here presented with a developmental behavioral triad: 1) atypically speedy motor development, 2) impaired expressive speech, and 3) tongue carriage dysfunction resulting in related misarticulations. Those characteristics might be phenotypically or genetically clustered. These children didn't have impaired cognition, neurological or mental disease, defective sense organs, craniofacial dysmorphology or susceptibility to upper respiratory infections, particularly recurrent otitis media. Attention should be paid on discordant and unbalanced achievement of developmental milestones. Present children are termed SPEEDY babies, where SPEEDY refers to rapid independent walking, SPEE and DY to dyspractic or dysfunctional speech development and lingual dysfunction resulting in linguoalveolar misarticulations. SPEEDY babies require health care that recognizes and respects their motor skills and supports their needs for motor activities and on the other hand include treatment for impaired speech. The parents may need advice and support with these children.

  20. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174

  1. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  2. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  3. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  4. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  5. Multiplexing of Motor Information in the Discharge of a Collision Detecting Neuron during Escape Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harrison, Reid R; Gabbiani, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Locusts possess an identified neuron, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), conveying visual information about impending collision from the brain to thoracic motor centers. We built a telemetry system to simultaneously record, in freely behaving animals, the activity of the DCMD and of motoneurons involved in jump execution. Co-contraction of antagonistic leg muscles, a required preparatory phase, was triggered after the DCMD firing rate crossed a threshold. Thereafter, the number of DCMD spikes predicted precisely motoneuron activity and jump occurrence. Additionally, the time of DCMD peak firing rate predicted that of jump. Ablation experiments suggest that the DCMD, together with a nearly identical ipsilateral descending neuron, is responsible for the timely execution of the escape. Thus, three distinct features that are multiplexed in a single neuron’s sensory response to impending collision – firing rate threshold, peak firing time, and spike count – likely control three distinct motor aspects of escape behaviors. PMID:21220105

  6. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates motor impairment and neuroinflammation in the MPTP-probenecid-induced parkinsonism mouse model by targeting α-synuclein abnormalities in the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yang; Zhang, Qiu-Shuang; Mu, Zheng; Hu, Jin-Feng; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-01-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is pathologically characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein in specific central nervous system (CNS) regions. Disease development is attributed to α-synuclein abnormalities, particularly aggregation and phosphorylation. The ginsenoside Rg1, an active component of ginseng, possesses neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these activities of Rg1 in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced PD mouse model for the first time and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Oral treatment with Rg1 significantly attenuated the high MPTP-induced mortality, behavior defects, loss of dopamine neurons and abnormal ultrastructure changes in the SNpc. Other assays indicated that the protective effect of Rg1 may be mediated by its anti-neuroinflammatory properties. Rg1 regulated MPTP-induced reactive astrocytes and microglia and decreased the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the SNpc. Rg1 also alleviated the unusual MPTP-induced increase in oligomeric, phosphorylated and disease-related α-synuclein in the SNpc. In conclusion, Rg1 protects dopaminergic neurons, most likely by reducing aberrant α-synuclein-mediated neuroinflammation, and holds promise for PD therapeutics. PMID:26723869

  7. Abnormal vibrissa-related behavior and loss of barrel field inhibitory neurons in 5xFAD transgenics.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, T J; Xue, Y; Kishan Rao, S; Dhanushkodi, A; McDonald, M P

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported lower anxiety in the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, as measured by reduced time on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. This is important because all behaviors in experimental animals must be interpreted in light of basal anxiety and response to novel environments. We conducted a comprehensive anxiety battery in the 5xFAD transgenics and replicated the plus-maze phenotype. However, we found that it did not reflect reduced anxiety, but rather abnormal avoidance of the closed arms on the part of transgenics and within-session habituation to the closed arms on the part of wild-type controls. We noticed that the 5xFAD transgenics did not engage in the whisker-barbering behavior typical of mice of this background strain. This is suggestive of abnormal social behavior, and we suspected it might be related to their avoidance of the closed arms on the plus maze. Indeed, transgenic mice exhibited excessive home-cage social behavior and impaired social recognition, and did not permit barbering by wild-type mice when pair-housed. When their whiskers were snipped the 5xFAD transgenics no longer avoided the closed arms on the plus maze. Examination of parvalbumin (PV) staining showed a 28.9% reduction in PV+ inhibitory interneurons in the barrel fields of 5xFAD mice, and loss of PV+ fibers in layers IV and V. This loss of vibrissal inhibition suggests a putatively aversive overstimulation that may be responsible for the transgenics' avoidance of the closed arms in the plus maze.

  8. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... relatively small and fixed semantics: Store names are typed, businesses are categorized, relationships among... behavior hold true? Can we establish a solid footing in terms of models of normal transaction semantics...

  9. Frequency of climbing behavior as a predictor of altered motor activity in rat forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cíntia; De Lima, Thereza C M; Carobrez, Antonio de Pádua; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2008-11-14

    Previous work has shown that the frequency of climbing behavior in rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) correlated to the section's crosses in the open field test, which suggest it might be taken as a predictor of motor activity in rat FST. To investigate this proposal, the frequency, duration, as well as the ratio duration/frequency for each behavior expressed in the FST (immobility, swimming and climbing) were compared in animals treated with a motor stimulant, caffeine (CAF), and the antidepressant, clomipramine (CLM). Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15min of forced swimming (pre-test) and 24h later received saline (SAL, 1ml/kg, i.p.) or CAF (6.5mg/kg, i.p.) 30min prior a 5-min session (test) of FST. To validate experimental procedures, an additional group of rats received three injections of SAL (1ml/kg, i.p.) or clomipramine (CLM, 10mg/kg, i.p.) between the pre-test and test sessions. The results of the present study showed that both drugs, CLM and CAF, significantly reduced the duration of immobility and significantly increased the duration of swimming. In addition, CAF significantly decreased the ratio of immobility, and CLM significantly increased the ratio of swimming and climbing. Moreover, CLM significantly increased the duration of climbing but only CAF increased the frequency of climbing. Thus, it seems that the frequency of climbing could be a predictor of altered motor activity scored directly in the FST. Further, we believe that this parameter could be useful for fast and reliable discrimination between antidepressant drugs and stimulants of motor activity.

  10. Oral supplements of aqueous extract of tomato seeds alleviate motor abnormality, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone in mice: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Krishna; Muralidhara

    2014-07-01

    Although tomato seeds (an industrial by-product) are known to contain several bioactive compounds, studies describing their health effects are limited. Previously, we evidenced that aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) markedly attenuated rotenone (ROT)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila system. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of TSE in a chronic ROT model of neurotoxicity in mice. Initially, we assessed the potential of oral supplements of TSE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers of oxidative stress in brain regions of mice. Subsequently, employing a co-exposure paradigm, the propensity of TSE (100 mg/kg bw, 3 weeks) to attenuate ROT-induced behavioral phenotype (gait abnormalities, anxiety-like state), oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity was examined. We found that mice provided with TSE supplements exhibited progressive improvement in gait pattern and exploratory behavior. TSE markedly offset ROT-induced oxidative impairments, restored reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and protein carbonyls content in brain regions. Specifically, TSE effectively diminished ROT induced elevation in the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and restored the dopamine levels in striatum. Interestingly, in mitochondria, TSE was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes and redox state. Collectively, our findings in the chronic ROT model demonstrate the ability of TSE to alleviate behavioral phenotype, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Further studies in dopaminergic cell models are necessary to understand the precise molecular mechanism/s by which tomato seed bioactives offer significant neuroprotection. PMID:24831121

  11. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  12. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  13. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Violante, Inês R.; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A.E.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  14. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  15. The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake.

    PubMed

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C

    2014-09-01

    The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with the 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-A(Neo) mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-A(Neo) mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals.

  16. Descending influences on escape behavior and motor pattern in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, P L; Ritzmann, R E

    2001-10-01

    The escape behavior of the cockroach is a ballistic behavior with well characterized kinematics. The circuitry known to control the behavior lies in the thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, and abdominal nerve cord. Some evidence suggests inputs may occur from the brain or suboesophageal ganglion. We tested this notion by decapitating cockroaches, removing all descending inputs, and evoking escape responses. The decapitated cockroaches exhibited directionally appropriate escape turns. However, there was a front-to-back gradient of change: the front legs moved little if at all, the middle legs moved in the proper direction but with reduced excursion, and the rear legs moved normally. The same pattern was seen when only inputs from the brain were removed, the suboesophageal ganglion remaining intact and connected to the thoracic ganglia. Electromyogram (EMG) analysis showed that the loss of or reduction in excursion was accompanied by a loss of or reduction in fast motor neuron activity. The loss of fast motor neuron activity was also observed in a reduced preparation in which descending neural signals were reversibly blocked via an isotonic sucrose solution superfusing the neck connectives, indicating that the changes seen were not due to trauma. Our data demonstrate that while the thoracic circuitry is sufficient to produce directional escape, lesion or blockage of the connective affects the excitability of components of the escape circuitry. Because of the rapidity of the escape response, such effects are likely due to the elimination of tonic descending inputs. PMID:11536194

  17. LIN-41 inactivation leads to delayed centrosome elimination and abnormal chromosome behavior during female meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Rieko; Ashikawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2016-03-01

    During oogenesis, two successive meiotic cell divisions occur without functional centrosomes because of the inactivation and subsequent elimination of maternal centrosomes during the diplotene stage of meiosis I. Despite being a conserved phenomenon in most metazoans, the means by which this centrosome behavior is controlled during female meiosis remain elusive. Here, we conducted a targeted RNAi screening in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad to identify novel regulators of centrosome behavior during oogenesis. We screened 513 genes known to be essential for embryo production and directly visualized GFP-γ-tubulin to monitor centrosome behavior at all stages of oogenesis. In the screening, we found that RNAi-mediated inactivation of 33 genes delayed the elimination of GFP-γ-tubulin at centrosomes during oogenesis, whereas inactivation of nine genes accelerated the process. Depletion of the TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 led to a significant delay in centrosome elimination and to the separation and reactivation of centrosomes during oogenesis. Upon LIN-41 depletion, meiotic chromosomes were abnormally condensed and pulled toward one of the two spindle poles around late pachytene even though the spindle microtubules emanated from both centrosomes. Overall, our work provides new insights into the regulation of centrosome behavior to ensure critical meiotic events and the generation of intact oocytes.

  18. LIN-41 inactivation leads to delayed centrosome elimination and abnormal chromosome behavior during female meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Rieko; Ashikawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2016-01-01

    During oogenesis, two successive meiotic cell divisions occur without functional centrosomes because of the inactivation and subsequent elimination of maternal centrosomes during the diplotene stage of meiosis I. Despite being a conserved phenomenon in most metazoans, the means by which this centrosome behavior is controlled during female meiosis remain elusive. Here, we conducted a targeted RNAi screening in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad to identify novel regulators of centrosome behavior during oogenesis. We screened 513 genes known to be essential for embryo production and directly visualized GFP–γ-tubulin to monitor centrosome behavior at all stages of oogenesis. In the screening, we found that RNAi-mediated inactivation of 33 genes delayed the elimination of GFP–γ-tubulin at centrosomes during oogenesis, whereas inactivation of nine genes accelerated the process. Depletion of the TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 led to a significant delay in centrosome elimination and to the separation and reactivation of centrosomes during oogenesis. Upon LIN-41 depletion, meiotic chromosomes were abnormally condensed and pulled toward one of the two spindle poles around late pachytene even though the spindle microtubules emanated from both centrosomes. Overall, our work provides new insights into the regulation of centrosome behavior to ensure critical meiotic events and the generation of intact oocytes. PMID:26764090

  19. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Greis, Catharina; Ottis, Philipp; Silva, Christopher J; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Wrede, Arne; Koppe, Katharina; Onisko, Bruce; Requena, Jesús R; Govindarajan, Nambirajan; Korth, Carsten; Fischer, Andre; Zerr, Inga

    2014-12-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein whose exact physiological role remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated age-dependent behavioral abnormalities in PrPC-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Prnp0/0 mice showed age-dependent behavioral deficits in memory performance, associative learning, basal anxiety, and nest building behavior. Using a hypothesis-free quantitative proteomic investigation, we found that loss of PrPC affected the levels of neurofilament proteins in an age-dependent manner. In order to understand the biochemical basis of these observations, we analyzed the phosphorylation status of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). We found a reduction in NF-H phosphorylation in both Prnp0/0 mice and in PrPC-deficient cells. The expression of Fyn and phospho-Fyn, a potential regulator for NF phosphorylation, was associated with PrPC ablation. The number of β-tubulin III-positive neurons in the hippocampus was diminished in Prnp0/0 mice relative to WT mice. These data indicate that PrPC plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization, brain function, and age-related neuroprotection. Our work represents the first direct biochemical link between these proteins and the observed behavioral phenotypes.

  20. Regional brain abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: association with cognitive abilities and behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Monterosso, John R; Simon, Tony J; Glahn, David C; Saleh, Peter A; Hill, Nicole M; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2004-06-01

    Children with 22q11.2 microdeletions (Velocardiofacial Syndrome; VCFS) have previously been shown to exhibit learning deficits and elevated rates of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to assess regional brain abnormalities in children with 22q11DS, and to determine the relationship of these measures to neurocognitive and behavioral function. Thirteen children with confirmed deletions and 9 demographically matched comparison subjects were assessed with a neurocognitive battery, behavioral measures, and high-resolution MRI. Twenty-two qllDS children showed a nonsignificant 4.3% global decrease in total brain volume as compared to healthy controls,with differential reduction in white matter, and significantly increased sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in temporal and posterior brain regions. In 22q11 DS subjects, but not controls, bilateral temporal gray and white matter volumes were significant predictors of overall cognitive performance. Further, reduced temporal gray matter was associated with elevated Thought Problems score on the CBCL. Results indicate that global alterations in brain volume are common in children with 22q deletions, particularly those with low IQ and/or behavioral disturbance. Although preliminary,these findings suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits seen in this syndrome,and provide insight into complex gene-brain-behavior relationships. PMID:15788257

  1. Knockdown of zebrafish Lgi1a results in abnormal development, brain defects and a seizure-like behavioral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Rempala, Grzegorz; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disorder, typified by recurrent seizures with underlying neurological disorders or disease. Approximately one-third of patients are unresponsive to currently available therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the genetics and etiology of epilepsy is needed to advance the development of new therapies. Previously, treatment of zebrafish with epilepsy-inducing pharmacological agents was shown to result in a seizure-like phenotype, suggesting that fish provide a tractable model to understand the function of epilepsy-predisposing genes. Here, we report the first model of genetically linked epilepsy in zebrafish and provide an initial characterization of the behavioral and neurological phenotypes associated with morpholino (MO) knockdown of leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1a (lgi1a) expression. Mutations in the LGI1 gene in humans have been shown to predispose to a subtype of autosomal dominant epilepsy. Low-dose Lgi1a MO knockdown fish (morphants) appear morphologically normal but are sensitized to epilepsy-inducing drugs. High-dose Lgi1a morphants have morphological defects which persist into adult stages that are typified by smaller brains and eyes and abnormalities in tail shape, and display hyperactive swimming behaviors. Increased apoptosis was observed throughout the central nervous system of high-dose morphant fish, accounting for the size reduction of neural tissues. These observations demonstrate that zebrafish can be exploited to dissect the embryonic function(s) of genes known to predispose to seizure-like behavior in humans, and offer potential insight into the relationship between developmental neurobiological abnormalities and seizure. PMID:20819949

  2. Sleep spindles predict neural and behavioral changes in motor sequence consolidation.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Marc; Carrier, Julie; Debas, Karen; Lungu, Ovidiu; Fogel, Stuart; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hoge, Richard D; Bellec, Pierre; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive function of sleep spindles in motor sequence consolidation. BOLD responses were acquired in 10 young healthy subjects who were trained on an explicitly known 5-item sequence using their left nondominant hand, scanned at 9:00 pm while performing that same task and then were retested and scanned 12 h later after a night of sleep during which polysomnographic measures were recorded. An automatic algorithm was used to detect sleep spindles and to quantify their characteristics (i.e., density, amplitude, and duration). Analyses revealed significant positive correlations between gains in performance and the amplitude of spindles. Moreover, significant increases in BOLD signal were observed in several motor-related areas, most of which were localized in the right hemisphere, particularly in the right cortico-striatal system. Such increases in BOLD signal also correlated positively with the amplitude of spindles at several derivations. Taken together, our results show that sleep spindles predict neural and behavioral changes in overnight motor sequence consolidation.

  3. Perturbation-evoked responses in primary motor cortex are modulated by behavioral context.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Mohsen; Pruszynski, J Andrew; Murnaghan, Chantelle D; Scott, Stephen H

    2014-12-01

    Corrective responses to external perturbations are sensitive to the behavioral task being performed. It is believed that primary motor cortex (M1) forms part of a transcortical pathway that contributes to this sensitivity. Previous work has identified two distinct phases in the perturbation response of M1 neurons, an initial response starting ∼20 ms after perturbation onset that does not depend on the intended motor action and a task-dependent response that begins ∼40 ms after perturbation onset. However, this invariant initial response may reflect ongoing postural control or a task-independent response to the perturbation. The present study tested these two possibilities by examining if being engaged in an ongoing postural task before perturbation onset modulated the initial perturbation response in M1. Specifically, mechanical perturbations were applied to the shoulder and/or elbow while the monkey maintained its hand at a central target or when it was watching a movie and not required to respond to the perturbation. As expected, corrective movements, muscle stretch responses, and M1 population activity in the late perturbation epoch were all significantly diminished in the movie task. Strikingly, initial perturbation responses (<40 ms postperturbation) remained the same across tasks, suggesting that the initial phase of M1 activity constitutes a task-independent response that is sensitive to the properties of the mechanical perturbation but not the goal of the ongoing motor task.

  4. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task.

    PubMed

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-08-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.

  5. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  6. The Cinderella of Psychology: The Neglect of Motor Control in the Science of Mental Life and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.

    2005-01-01

    One would expect psychology--the science of mental life and behavior--to place great emphasis on the means by which mental life is behaviorally expressed. Surprisingly, however, the study of how decisions are enacted--the focus of motor control research--has received little attention in psychology. This article documents the neglect and considers…

  7. Behavioral Problems in Children with Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Associations with Maladaptive Personality and Marital Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrijmoeth, Cis; Monbaliu, Elegast; Lagast, Emmy; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in children with motor disabilities are commonly based on questionnaires developed for a general population (e.g., Child Behavior CheckList). These questionnaires do not take into account lower levels of intellectual functioning. The first aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parent-reported…

  8. Monkey motor stimulation and altered social behavior during chronic methadone administration.

    PubMed

    Crowley, T J; Hydinger, M; Stynes, A J; Feiger, A

    1975-08-21

    To assess the effects of chronic methadone administration on locomotor, social, and eating behavior od drug-native individuals under circumstances approximating those of methadone "maintenance" clinics, we gave single, daily oral doses of methadone to 5 Macaca radiata monkeys living in a social group. We obtained motor activity counts automatically during 6 weeks of baseline, 10 weeks of drug administration, and 3 weeks of post-drug abstinence. Social behaviors of association, dominance, submission, and sexuality were counted 5 days per week, and animal weights, food eaten and food-reinforced work were recorded. Plasma methadone levels were near those achieved in mechadone clincs. Methadone produced mixed stimulation and sedation in the daytime, with stimulation predominating for 4 hrs following administration. At night the subjects moved less while taking the drug. Associative behaviors were reduced by methadone, but dominance, submission, and sexual behaviors were not altered. The monkeys ate less while taking the drug, losing weight and working less for food. In these primates methadone had significant stimulant properties, impaired important social behaviors, and reduced the potency of food as a reinforcer of work. The results are compared with methadone's effects upon humans.

  9. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects.

  10. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dulcich, Melissa S.; Hartman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  11. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  12. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Ryalls, Brigette O; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  13. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  14. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis.

  15. 6q22.33 microdeletion in a family with intellectual disability, variable major anomalies, and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-11-01

    Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1 Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate.

  16. Abnormal temperature dependent behaviors of intersystem crossing and triplet-triplet annihilation in organic planar heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Yingbing; Yuan, De; Jia, Weiyao; Zhang, Qiaoming; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-electroluminescence was observed at low and high magnetic field strength from organic planar heterojunction devices incorporated common phosphorescent host materials of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) or 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) as an emissive layer. We found that intersystem crossing became stronger with decreasing temperature and that triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) occurred at room temperature but ceased at low temperature. Analyses of the electroluminescence spectra of these devices and their temperature dependences indicated that the population of exciplex states increased at low temperature, which caused the abnormal behavior of intersystem crossing. Additionally, long lifetime of the excitons within mCP or CBP layer may allow TTA to occur at room temperature, while the reduced population of excitons at low temperature may account for the disappearance of TTA even though the excitons had increased lifetime.

  17. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  18. Abnormal brain iron metabolism in Irp2 deficient mice is associated with mild neurological and behavioral impairments.

    PubMed

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J; Leibold, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2-/- mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2-/- mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments.

  19. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging.

    PubMed

    Boger, H A; Mannangatti, P; Samuvel, D J; Saylor, A J; Bender, T S; McGinty, J F; Fortress, A M; Zaman, V; Huang, P; Middaugh, L D; Randall, P K; Jayanthi, L D; Rohrer, B; Helke, K L; Granholm, A-C; Ramamoorthy, S

    2011-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in synaptic plasticity and in the survival and function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In this study, we assessed the effects of a partial genetic deletion of BDNF on motor function and dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter measures by comparing Bdnf(+/-) with wildtype mice (WT) at different ages. Bdnf(+/-) and WT mice had similar body weights until 12 months of age; however, at 21 months, Bdnf(+/-) mice were significantly heavier than WT mice. Horizontal and vertical motor activity was reduced for Bdnf(+/-) compared to WT mice, but was not influenced by age. Performance on an accelerating rotarod declined with age for both genotypes and was exacerbated for Bdnf(+/-) mice. Body weight did not correlate with any of the three behavioral measures studied. Dopamine neurotransmitter markers indicated no genotypic difference in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase, DA transporter (DAT) or vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity at any age. However, DA transport via DAT (starting at 12 months) and VMAT2 (starting at 3 months) as well as KCl-stimulated DA release were reduced in Bdnf(+/-) mice and declined with age suggesting an increasingly important role for BDNF in the release and uptake of DA with the aging process. These findings suggest that a BDNF expression deficit becomes more critical to dopaminergic dynamics and related behavioral activities with increasing age.

  20. Monoaminergic Orchestration of Motor Programs in a Complex C. elegans Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Andrew M.; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Haburcak, Marian; Francis, Michael M.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamines provide chemical codes of behavioral states. However, the neural mechanisms of monoaminergic orchestration of behavior are poorly understood. Touch elicits an escape response in Caenorhabditis elegans where the animal moves backward and turns to change its direction of locomotion. We show that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a Gαo pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor neurons that synapse onto ventral body wall muscles. Extrasynaptic activation of SER-2 facilitates ventral body wall muscle contraction, contributing to the tight ventral turn that allows the animal to navigate away from a threatening stimulus. Tyramine temporally coordinates the different phases of the escape response through the synaptic activation of the fast-acting ionotropic receptor, LGC-55, and extrasynaptic activation of the slow-acting metabotropic receptor, SER-2. Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence. PMID:23565061

  1. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  2. Semi-Automated Assessment of Transdiaphragmatic Pressure Variability across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Martínez, Juan S.; Greising, Sarah M.; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2015-01-01

    We developed and tested a semi-automated algorithm to generate large data sets of ventilatory information (amplitude, premotor drive and timing) across a range of motor behaviors. Adult spontaneously breathing, anesthetized mice (n=27) underwent measurements of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) during eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia, and tracheal occlusion with values ranging from 8±1 to 9±2 to 44±3 cm H2O, respectively. Premotor drive to phrenic motor neurons (estimated by the rate of rise during initial 60 ms) was ~5-fold greater during tracheal occlusion compared to other behaviors. Variability in Pdi amplitude (normalized to spontaneously occurring sighs for each animal) displayed minimal evidence of complex temporal structure or dynamic clustering across the entire period of examination. Using a deterministic model to evaluate predictor variables for Pdi amplitude between successive inspiratory events, there was a large correlation for premotor drive and preceding Pdi amplitude vs. Pdi amplitude (r=0.52). These findings highlight substantial variability in Pdi amplitude that primarily reflects linear components rather than complex, dynamic effects over time. PMID:26003850

  3. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  4. A hybrid electrical/chemical circuit in the spinal cord generates a transient embryonic motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Knogler, Laura D; Ryan, Joel; Saint-Amant, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-07-16

    Spontaneous network activity is a highly stereotyped early feature of developing circuits throughout the nervous system, including in the spinal cord. Spinal locomotor circuits produce a series of behaviors during development before locomotion that reflect the continual integration of spinal neurons into a functional network, but how the circuitry is reconfigured is not understood. The first behavior of the zebrafish embryo (spontaneous coiling) is mediated by an electrical circuit that subsequently generates mature locomotion (swimming) as chemical neurotransmission develops. We describe here a new spontaneous behavior, double coiling, that consists of two alternating contractions of the tail in rapid succession. Double coiling was glutamate-dependent and required descending hindbrain excitation, similar to but preceding swimming, making it a discrete intermediary developmental behavior. At the cellular level, motoneurons had a distinctive glutamate-dependent activity pattern that correlated with double coiling. Two glutamatergic interneurons, CoPAs and CiDs, had different activity profiles during this novel behavior. CoPA neurons failed to show changes in activity patterns during the period in which double coiling appears, whereas CiD neurons developed a glutamate-dependent activity pattern that correlated with double coiling and they innervated motoneurons at that time. Additionally, double coils were modified after pharmacological reduction of glycinergic neurotransmission such that embryos produced three or more rapidly alternating coils. We propose that double coiling behavior represents an important transition of the motor network from an electrically coupled spinal cord circuit that produces simple periodic coils to a spinal network driven by descending chemical neurotransmission, which generates more complex behaviors.

  5. Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator.

    PubMed

    Han, Harry J; Allen, Carolyn C; Buchovecky, Christie M; Yetman, Michael J; Born, Heather A; Marin, Miguel A; Rodgers, Shaefali P; Song, Bryan J; Lu, Hui-Chen; Justice, Monica J; Probst, Frank J; Jankowsky, Joanna L

    2012-08-01

    The tet-off system has been widely used to create transgenic models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion disease. The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. Here we report that neuronal expression of TTA can affect hippocampal cytoarchitecture and behavior in a strain-dependent manner. While studying neurodegeneration in two tet-off Alzheimer's disease models, we unexpectedly discovered neuronal loss within the dentate gyrus of single transgenic TTA controls. Granule neurons appeared most sensitive to TTA exposure during postnatal development, and doxycycline treatment during this period was neuroprotective. TTA-induced degeneration could be rescued by moving the transgene onto a congenic C57BL/6J background and recurred on reintroduction of either CBA or C3H/He backgrounds. Quantitative trait analysis of B6C3 F2 TTA mice identified a region on Chromosome 14 that contains a major modifier of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Although B6 mice were resistant to degeneration, they were not ideal for cognitive testing. F1 offspring of TTA C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ, FVB/NJ, or DBA/1J showed improved spatial learning, but TTA expression caused subtle differences in contextual fear conditioning on two of these backgrounds, indicating that strain and genotype can interact independently under different behavioral settings. All model systems have limitations that should be recognized and mitigated where possible; our findings stress the importance of mapping the effects caused by TTA alone when working with tet-off models.

  6. Modulation of motor cortex neuronal activity and motor behavior during subthalamic nucleus stimulation in the normal primate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Luke A; Xu, Weidong; Baker, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2015-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established surgical therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). An emerging hypothesis is that the therapeutic benefit of DBS is derived from direct modulation of primary motor cortex (M1), yet little is known about the influence of STN DBS on individual neurons in M1. We investigated the effect of STN DBS, delivered at discrete interval intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) of corticospinal tract threshold (CSTT), on motor performance and M1 neuronal activity in a naive nonhuman primate. Motor performance during a food reach and retrieval task improved during low-intensity stimulation (20% CSTT) but worsened as intensity approached the threshold for activation of corticospinal fibers (80% and 100% CSTT). To assess cortical effects of STN DBS, spontaneous, extracellular neuronal activity was collected from M1 neurons before, during, and after DBS at the same CSTT stimulus intensities. STN DBS significantly modulated the firing of a majority of M1 neurons; however, the direction of effect varied with stimulus intensity such that, at 20% CSTT, most neurons were suppressed, whereas at the highest stimulus intensities the majority of neurons were activated. At a population level, firing rates increased as stimulus intensity increased. These results show that STN DBS influences both motor performance and M1 neuronal activity systematically according to stimulus intensity. In addition, the unanticipated reduction in reach times suggests that STN DBS, at stimulus intensities lower than typically used for treatment of PD motor signs, can enhance normal motor performance.

  7. Regulation of Motor Function and Behavior by Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Erich H.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Holmes, Gibran; Diaz, Vivian; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 (ACKR1), previously known as the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines, stands out among chemokine receptors for its high selective expression on Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, consistent with the ability of ACKR1 ligands to activate Purkinje cells in vitro. Nevertheless, evidence for ACKR1 regulation of brain function in vivo has been lacking. Here we demonstrate that Ackr1−/− mice have markedly impaired balance and ataxia when placed on a rotating rod and increased tremor when injected with harmaline, a drug that induces whole-body tremor by activating Purkinje cells. Ackr1−/− mice also exhibited impaired exploratory behavior, increased anxiety-like behavior and frequent episodes of marked hypoactivity under low-stress conditions. The behavioral phenotype of Ackr1−/− mice was the opposite of the phenotype occurring in mice with cerebellar degeneration and the defects persisted when Ackr1 was deficient only on non-hematopoietic cells. We conclude that normal motor function and behavior depend in part on negative regulation of Purkinje cell activity by Ackr1. PMID:24997773

  8. Changes in Sensitivity of Reward and Motor Behavior to Dopaminergic, Glutamatergic, and Cholinergic Drugs in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Eric W.; Krouse, Michael C.; Stringfield, Sierra J.; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Robinson, J. Elliott; Malanga, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1-/Y) mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1-/Y mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1-/Y mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1-/Y than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1-/Y mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1-/Y mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1-/Y mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS. PMID:24205018

  9. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  10. Methylphenidate ('Ritalin') can ameliorate abnormal risk-taking behavior in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shibley; Robbins, Trevor W; Hodges, John R; Mehta, Mitul A; Nestor, Peter J; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-03-01

    The frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia is a significant neurological condition worldwide. There exist few treatments available for the cognitive and behavioural sequelae of fvFTD. Previous research has shown that these patients display risky decision-making, and numerous studies have now demonstrated pathology affecting the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study uses a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure to investigate the effects of a single dose of methylphenidate (40 mg) upon a range of different cognitive processes including those assessing prefrontal cortex integrity. Methylphenidate was effective in 'normalizing' the decision-making behavior of patients, such that they became less risk taking on medication, although there were no significant effects on other aspects of cognitive function, including working memory, attentional set shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, there was an absence of the normal subjective and autonomic responses to methylphenidate seen in elderly subjects. The results are discussed in terms of the 'somatic marker' hypothesis of impaired decision-making following orbitofrontal dysfunction.

  11. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  12. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment.

  13. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice.

  14. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  15. The Sensorimotor System Can Sculpt Behaviorally Relevant Representations for Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coordinate system in which humans learn novel motor skills is controversial. The representation of sensorimotor skills has been extensively studied by examining generalization after learning perturbations specifically designed to be ambiguous as to their coordinate system. Recent studies have found that learning is not represented in any simple coordinate system and can potentially be accounted for by a mixed representation. Here, instead of probing generalization, which has led to conflicting results, we examine whether novel dynamics can be learned when explicitly and unambiguously presented in particular coordinate systems. Subjects performed center–out reaches to targets in the presence of a force field, while varying the orientation of their hand (i.e., the wrist angle) across trials. Different groups of subjects experienced force fields that were explicitly presented either in Cartesian coordinates (field independent of hand orientation), in object coordinates (field rotated with hand orientation), or in anti-object coordinates (field rotated counter to hand orientation). Subjects learned to represent the dynamics when presented in either Cartesian or object coordinates, learning these as well as an ambiguous force field. However, learning was slower for the object-based dynamics and substantially impaired for the anti-object presentation. Our results show that the motor system is able to tune its representation to at least two natural coordinate systems but is impaired when the representation of the task does not correspond to a behaviorally relevant coordinate system. Our results show that the motor system can sculpt its representation through experience to match those of natural tasks. PMID:27588304

  16. The Sensorimotor System Can Sculpt Behaviorally Relevant Representations for Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, David W; Batchelor, Alexandra V; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    The coordinate system in which humans learn novel motor skills is controversial. The representation of sensorimotor skills has been extensively studied by examining generalization after learning perturbations specifically designed to be ambiguous as to their coordinate system. Recent studies have found that learning is not represented in any simple coordinate system and can potentially be accounted for by a mixed representation. Here, instead of probing generalization, which has led to conflicting results, we examine whether novel dynamics can be learned when explicitly and unambiguously presented in particular coordinate systems. Subjects performed center-out reaches to targets in the presence of a force field, while varying the orientation of their hand (i.e., the wrist angle) across trials. Different groups of subjects experienced force fields that were explicitly presented either in Cartesian coordinates (field independent of hand orientation), in object coordinates (field rotated with hand orientation), or in anti-object coordinates (field rotated counter to hand orientation). Subjects learned to represent the dynamics when presented in either Cartesian or object coordinates, learning these as well as an ambiguous force field. However, learning was slower for the object-based dynamics and substantially impaired for the anti-object presentation. Our results show that the motor system is able to tune its representation to at least two natural coordinate systems but is impaired when the representation of the task does not correspond to a behaviorally relevant coordinate system. Our results show that the motor system can sculpt its representation through experience to match those of natural tasks. PMID:27588304

  17. The first mecp2-null zebrafish model shows altered motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, Thomas; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Guyon, Nicolas; Romano, Sebastián A.; Washbourne, Philip; Moens, Cecilia B.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.; Sumbre, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in affected girls. Other symptoms include a rapid regression of motor and cognitive skills after an apparently early normal development. Sporadic mutations in the transcription factor MECP2 has been shown to be present in more than 90% of the patients and several models of MeCP2-deficient mice have been created to understand the role of this gene. These models have pointed toward alterations in the maintenance of the central nervous system rather than its development, in line with the late onset of the disease in humans. However, the exact functions of MeCP2 remain difficult to delineate and the animal models have yielded contradictory results. Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models, mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early development, including spontaneous and sensory-evoked motor anomalies, as well as defective thigmotaxis. PMID:23874272

  18. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jennifer L; Lansdell, Theresa A; Lookingland, Keith J; Baker, Lisa E

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning.

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  20. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  1. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  2. Children with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior Using Chin Movements to Operate Microswitches to Obtain Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tota, Alessia; Antonucci, Massimo; Oliva, Doretta

    2006-01-01

    In these two studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. In Study I, we applied an adapted version of a recently introduced electronic microswitch [Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N.,…

  3. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-03-13

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases.

  4. Early Social Enrichment Rescues Adult Behavioral and Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  5. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  6. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Joshua D; Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Sloan, Denise M; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior--exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors--previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N=40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms.

  7. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  8. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/β-galactosidase (β-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, β-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using β-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably

  9. Inducible Nitric Oxide Inhibitors Block NMDA Antagonist-Stimulated Motoric Behaviors and Medial Prefrontal Cortical Glutamate Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Berger, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS) for studying the neurobehavioral effects of non-competitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801) and phencyclidine (PCP). This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS) aminoguanidine (AG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG, or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP, or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine) and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated mPFC glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in “green tea” and chocolate) may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:26696891

  10. Inducible Nitric Oxide Inhibitors Block NMDA Antagonist-Stimulated Motoric Behaviors and Medial Prefrontal Cortical Glutamate Efflux.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; Darvesh, Altaf S; Berger, S P

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS) for studying the neurobehavioral effects of non-competitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801) and phencyclidine (PCP). This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS) aminoguanidine (AG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG, or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP, or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine) and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated mPFC glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in "green tea" and chocolate) may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia.

  11. Vortex core deformation and stepper-motor ratchet behavior in a superconducting aluminum film containing an array of holes.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondel, J; Gladilin, V N; Silhanek, A V; Gillijns, W; Tempere, J; Devreese, J T; Moshchalkov, V V

    2011-04-01

    We investigated experimentally the frequency dependence of a superconducting vortex ratchet effect by means of electrical transport measurements and modeled it theoretically using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism. We demonstrate that the high frequency vortex behavior can be described as a discrete motion of a particle in a periodic potential, i.e., the so-called stepper-motor behavior. Strikingly, in the more conventional low frequency response a transition takes place from an Abrikosov vortex rectifier to a phase slip line rectifier. This transition is characterized by a strong increase in the rectified voltage and the appearance of a pronounced hysteretic behavior.

  12. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders.

  13. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  14. Extensive early motor and non-motor behavioral deficits are followed by striatal neuronal loss in Knock-in Huntington’s disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Miriam A.; Kosmalska, Agata; Enayati, Joseph; Cohen, Rachel; Zeitlin, Scott; Levine, Michael S.; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by an elongation of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene. Mice with an insertion of an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the mouse huntingtin gene (knock-in mice) most closely model the disease because the mutation is expressed in the proper genomic and protein context. However, few knock-in mouse lines have been extensively characterized and available data suggest marked differences in the extent and time course of their behavioral and pathological phenotype. We have previously described behavioral anomalies in the open field as early as 1 month of age, followed by the appearance at 2 months of progressive huntingtin neuropathology, in a mouse carrying a portion of human exon 1 with approximately 140 CAG repeats inserted into the mouse huntingtin gene. Here we extend these observations by showing that early behavioral anomalies exist in a wide range of motor (climbing, vertical pole, rotarod, and running wheel performance) and non-motor functions (fear conditioning and anxiety) starting at 1–4 months of age, and are followed by progressive gliosis and decrease in DARPP32 (12 months) and a loss of striatal neurons at 2 years. At this age, mice also present striking spontaneous behavioral deficits in their home cage. The data show that this line of knock-in mice reproduces canonical characteristics of Huntington’s disease, preceded by deficits which may correspond to the protracted pre-manifest phase of the disease in humans. Accordingly, they provide a useful model to elucidate early mechanisms of pathophysiology and the progression to overt neurodegeneration. PMID:18805465

  15. An electrostatic mechanism closely reproducing observed behavior in the bacterial flagellar motor.

    PubMed

    Walz, D; Caplan, S R

    2000-02-01

    A mechanism coupling the transmembrane flow of protons to the rotation of the bacterial flagellum is studied. The coupling is accomplished by means of an array of tilted rows of positive and negative charges around the circumference of the rotor, which interacts with a linear array of proton binding sites in channels. We present a rigorous treatment of the electrostatic interactions using minimal assumptions. Interactions with the transition states are included, as well as proton-proton interactions in and between channels. In assigning values to the parameters of the model, experimentally determined structural characteristics of the motor have been used. According to the model, switching and pausing occur as a consequence of modest conformational changes in the rotor. In contrast to similar approaches developed earlier, this model closely reproduces a large number of experimental findings from different laboratories, including the nonlinear behavior of the torque-frequency relation in Escherichia coli, the stoichiometry of the system in Streptococcus, and the pH-dependence of swimming speed in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:10653777

  16. An electrostatic mechanism closely reproducing observed behavior in the bacterial flagellar motor.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, D; Caplan, S R

    2000-01-01

    A mechanism coupling the transmembrane flow of protons to the rotation of the bacterial flagellum is studied. The coupling is accomplished by means of an array of tilted rows of positive and negative charges around the circumference of the rotor, which interacts with a linear array of proton binding sites in channels. We present a rigorous treatment of the electrostatic interactions using minimal assumptions. Interactions with the transition states are included, as well as proton-proton interactions in and between channels. In assigning values to the parameters of the model, experimentally determined structural characteristics of the motor have been used. According to the model, switching and pausing occur as a consequence of modest conformational changes in the rotor. In contrast to similar approaches developed earlier, this model closely reproduces a large number of experimental findings from different laboratories, including the nonlinear behavior of the torque-frequency relation in Escherichia coli, the stoichiometry of the system in Streptococcus, and the pH-dependence of swimming speed in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:10653777

  17. Binocular Perception of 2D Lateral Motion and Guidance of Coordinated Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Fath, Aaron J; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Zannoli, Cass, Alais, and Mamassian (2012) found greater audiovisual lag between a tone and disparity-defined stimuli moving laterally (90-170 ms) than for disparity-defined stimuli moving in depth or luminance-defined stimuli moving laterally or in depth (50-60 ms). We tested if this increased lag presents an impediment to visually guided coordination with laterally moving objects. Participants used a joystick to move a virtual object in several constant relative phases with a laterally oscillating stimulus. Both the participant-controlled object and the target object were presented using a disparity-defined display that yielded information through changes in disparity over time (CDOT) or using a luminance-defined display that additionally provided information through monocular motion and interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Performance was comparable for both disparity-defined and luminance-defined displays in all relative phases. This suggests that, despite lag, perception of lateral motion through CDOT is generally sufficient to guide coordinated motor behavior.

  18. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough's airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system's bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  19. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  20. Premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters: A motored engine study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Yang, Yi; Boehman, Andre L.

    2009-06-15

    An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoate > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)

  1. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow.

  2. Motor neuron pathology and behavioral alterations at late stages in a SMA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fulceri, Federica; Bartalucci, Alessia; Paparelli, Silvio; Pasquali, Livia; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurogenetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The validation of appropriate animal models is key in fostering SMA research. Recent studies set up an animal model showing long survival and slow disease progression. This model is knocked out for mouse SMN (Smn(-/-)) gene and carries a human mutation of the SMN1 gene (SMN1A2G), along with human SMN2 gene. In the present study we used this knock out double transgenic mouse model (SMN2(+/+); Smn(-/-); SMN1A2G(+/-)) to characterize the spinal cord pathology along with motor deficit at prolonged survival times. In particular, motor neuron loss was established stereologically (44.77%) after motor deficit reached a steady state. At this stage, spared motor neurons showed significant cell body enlargement. Moreover, similar to what was described in patients affected by SMA we found neuronal heterotopy (almost 4% of total motor neurons) in the anterior white matter. The delayed disease progression was likely to maintain fair motor activity despite a dramatic loss of large motor neurons. This provides a wonderful tool to probe novel drugs finely tuning the survival of motor neurons. In fact, small therapeutic effects protracted over considerable time intervals (even more than a year) are expected to be magnified. PMID:22306031

  3. Transfer of ballistic motor skill between bilateral and unilateral contexts in young and older adults: neural adaptations and behavioral implications.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Mark R; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral movement rehabilitation is gaining popularity as an approach to improve the recovery not only of bimanual function but also of unilateral motor tasks. While the neural mechanisms mediating the transfer of bilateral training gains into unimanual contexts are not fully understood, converging evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and imaging studies suggests that bimanual movements are not simply the superposition of unimanual tasks undertaken with both (upper) limbs. Here we investigated the neural responses in both hemispheres to bilateral ballistic motor training and the extent to which performance improvements transferred to a unimanual task. Since aging influences interhemispheric interactions during movement production, both young (n = 9; mean age 19.4 yr; 6 women, 3 men) and older (n = 9; 66.3 yr; 7 women, 2 men) adults practiced a bilateral motor task requiring simultaneous "fast-as-possible" abductions of their left and right index fingers. Changes in bilateral and unilateral performance, and in corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition, were assessed. Strong transfer was observed between bimanual and unimanual contexts for both age groups. However, in contrast to previous reports of substantial bilateral cortical adaptations following unilateral training, increases in corticospinal excitability following bilateral training were not statistically reliable, and a release of intracortical inhibition was only observed for older adults. The results indicate that the neural mechanisms of motor learning for bilateral ballistic tasks differ from those that underlie unimanual ballistic performance improvement but that aging results in a greater overlap of the neural mechanisms mediating bilateral and unilateral ballistic motor performance.

  4. Abnormal Corpus Callosum Connectivity, Socio-Communicative Deficits, and Motor Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…

  5. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes. PMID:27371637

  6. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes.

  7. Acute ethanol ingestion produces dose-dependent effects on motor behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Maze, Ian S; Wright, Geraldine A; Mustard, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol consumption produces characteristic behavioral states in animals that include sedation, disorientation, and disruption of motor function. Using individual honey bees, we assessed the effects of ethanol ingestion on motor function via continuous observations of their behavior. Consumption of 1 M sucrose solutions containing a range of ethanol doses led to hemolymph ethanol levels of approximately 40-100 mM. Using ethanol doses in this range, we observed time and dose-dependent effects of ethanol on the percent of time our subjects spent walking, stopped, or upside down, and on the duration and frequency of bouts of behavior. The effects on grooming and flying behavior were more complex. Behavioral recovery from ethanol treatment was both time and ethanol dose dependent, occurring between 12 and 24 h post-ingestion for low doses and at 24-48 h for higher doses. Furthermore, the amount of ethanol measured in honey bee hemolymph appeared to correlate with recovery. We predict that the honey bee will prove to be an excellent model system for studying the influence of ethanol on the neural mechanisms underlying behavior.

  8. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  9. Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Motor Development and Stereotyped Behavior of Developmentally Delayed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1982-01-01

    Four developmentally delayed babies were given semicircular canal stimulation in an effort to facilitate their motor and reflex development. All of the children showed motor and/or reflex changes that were attributable to the vestibular stimulation. In addition, some evidence was obtained linking changes in stereotypic responding to the vestibular…

  10. Brain–Computer Interface Training after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain–Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Stamm, Julie M.; Song, Jie; Remsik, Alexander B.; Nair, Veena A.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain–computer interface (BCI) devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective: This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods: Stroke patients (n = 19) with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST) and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results: No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA) correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training), increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p < 0.05 corrected. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke. PMID:27695404

  11. Brain–Computer Interface Training after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain–Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Stamm, Julie M.; Song, Jie; Remsik, Alexander B.; Nair, Veena A.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain–computer interface (BCI) devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective: This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods: Stroke patients (n = 19) with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST) and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results: No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA) correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training), increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p < 0.05 corrected. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.

  12. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  13. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

  14. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  15. The effects of chronic intracortical microstimulation on neural tissue and fine motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Alexander T.; Boback, Jessica L.; Dammann, John F.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Wester, Brock A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. One approach to conveying sensory feedback in neuroprostheses is to electrically stimulate sensory neurons in the cortex. For this approach to be viable, it is critical that intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) causes minimal damage to the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ICMS on the neuronal tissue across a variety of stimulation regimes in non-human primates. We also examine each animal’s ability to use their hand—the cortical representation of which is targeted by the ICMS—as a further assay of possible neuronal damage. Approach. We implanted electrode arrays in the primary somatosensory cortex of three Rhesus macaques and delivered ICMS four hours per day, five days per week, for six months. Multiple regimes of ICMS were delivered to investigate the effects of stimulation parameters on the tissue and behavior. Parameters included current amplitude (10-100 μA), pulse train duration (1, 5 s), and duty cycle (1/1, 1/3). We then performed a range of histopathological assays on tissue near the tips of both stimulated and unstimulated electrodes to assess the effects of chronic ICMS on the tissue and their dependence on stimulation parameters. Main results. While the implantation and residence of the arrays in the cortical tissue did cause significant damage, chronic ICMS had no detectable additional effect; furthermore, the animals exhibited no impairments in fine motor control. Significance. Chronic ICMS may be a viable means to convey sensory feedback in neuroprostheses as it does not cause significant damage to the stimulated tissue.

  16. Sensory gating of an embryonic zebrafish interneuron during spontaneous motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Knogler, Laura D.; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In all but the simplest monosynaptic reflex arcs, sensory stimuli are encoded by sensory neurons that transmit a signal via sensory interneurons to downstream partners in order to elicit a response. In the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio), cutaneous Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons fire in response to mechanical stimuli and excite downstream glutamatergic commissural primary ascending (CoPA) interneurons to produce a flexion response contralateral to the site of stimulus. In the absence of sensory stimuli, zebrafish spinal locomotor circuits are spontaneously active during development due to pacemaker activity resulting in repetitive coiling of the trunk. Self-generated movement must therefore be distinguishable from external stimuli in order to ensure the appropriate activation of touch reflexes. Here, we recorded from CoPAs during spontaneous and evoked fictive motor behaviors in order to examine how responses to self-movement are gated in sensory interneurons. During spontaneous coiling, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs coincident with contralateral flexions that shunted firing for the duration of the coiling event. Shunting inactivation of CoPAs was caused by a slowly deactivating chloride conductance that resulted in lowered membrane resistance and increased action potential threshold. During spontaneous burst swimming, which develops later, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs that arrived in phase with excitation to ipsilateral motoneurons and provided persistent shunting. During a touch stimulus, short latency glutamatergic inputs produced cationic currents through AMPA receptors that drove a single, large amplitude action potential in the CoPA before shunting inhibition began, providing a brief window for the activation of downstream neurons. We compared the properties of CoPAs to those of other spinal neurons and propose that glycinergic signaling onto CoPAs acts as a corollary discharge signal for reflex inhibition during movement. PMID:25324729

  17. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  18. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  19. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  20. [The effect of different motor regimens modulating spontaneous activity on rat behavior].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, V P; Kiselev, V I; Konev, I V

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed of non-stressful modulation of spontaneous motor activity of rats. Restraint of mobility was found to inhibit spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of muscle activity by means of complication of food-procuring behaviour was accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of motor activity was characterized by stability of orienting-exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity, expression of "freedom response", the best learning and working abilities of the animals. Regimes with imposing or restriction of muscle activity favoured the inhibition of spontaneous activity and the decrease of efficiency of adaptive behaviour. Motor regimes accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity were found to be optimal for adaptive behaviour.

  1. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  2. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors.

  3. Development and Validation of a Computational Model for Predicting the Behavior of Plumes from Large Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jason E.; Black, David L.; Taylor, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust plumes from large solid rocket motors fired at ATK's Promontory test site carry particulates to high altitudes and typically produce deposits that fall on regions downwind of the test area. As populations and communities near the test facility grow, ATK has become increasingly concerned about the impact of motor testing on those surrounding communities. To assess the potential impact of motor testing on the community and to identify feasible mitigation strategies, it is essential to have a tool capable of predicting plume behavior downrange of the test stand. A software package, called PlumeTracker, has been developed and validated at ATK for this purpose. The code is a point model that offers a time-dependent, physics-based description of plume transport and precipitation. The code can utilize either measured or forecasted weather data to generate plume predictions. Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) data and field observations from twenty-three historical motor test fires at Promontory were collected to test the predictive capability of PlumeTracker. Model predictions for plume trajectories and deposition fields were found to correlate well with the collected dataset.

  4. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Results There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  7. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. PMID:26796967

  8. Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in a mutant mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Motor and cognitive functions are severely impaired in Rett syndrome (RTT). Here, we examined local synaptic circuits of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in motor-frontal cortex of male hemizygous MeCP2-null mice at 3–4 weeks of age. We mapped local excitatory input to L2/3 neurons using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation, and compared synaptic input maps recorded from MeCP2-null and wild type (WT) mice. Local excitatory input was significantly reduced in the mutants. The strongest phenotype was observed for lateral (horizontal, intralaminar) inputs, that is, L2/3→2/3 inputs, which showed a large reduction in MeCP2−/y animals. Neither the amount of local inhibitory input to these L2/3 pyramidal neurons nor their intrinsic electrophysiological properties differed by genotype. Our findings provide further evidence that excitatory networks are selectively reduced in RTT. We discuss our findings in the context of recently published parallel studies using selective MeCP2 knockdown in individual L2/3 neurons. PMID:20138994

  9. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  10. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation.

  11. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  12. Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

    2008-12-01

    Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects, developmental delay, schizophrenia and related psychoses. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with microdeletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.

  13. Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:19029900

  14. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N = 40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  15. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy.

  16. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Pérez-Rodríguez, M; Espinosa-García, C; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Maldonado-Castro, M; Querejeta, E; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥200mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. PMID:27495897

  17. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Pérez-Rodríguez, M; Espinosa-García, C; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Maldonado-Castro, M; Querejeta, E; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥200mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system.

  18. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A.; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions.

  19. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  20. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Nicolas; Liberge, Martine; Jaouen, Florence; Ztaou, Samira; Hanini, Marwa; Camon, Jeremy; Deisseroth, Karl; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne

    2015-10-27

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone. PMID:26489458

  1. Thalamocortical Projections onto Behaviorally Relevant Neurons Exhibit Plasticity during Adult Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Biane, Jeremy S; Takashima, Yoshio; Scanziani, Massimo; Conner, James M; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-03-16

    Layer 5 neurons of the neocortex receive direct and relatively strong input from the thalamus. However, the intralaminar distribution of these inputs and their capacity for plasticity in adult animals are largely unknown. In slices of the primary motor cortex (M1), we simultaneously recorded from pairs of corticospinal neurons associated with control of distinct motor outputs: distal forelimb versus proximal forelimb. Activation of ChR2-expressing thalamocortical afferents in M1 before motor learning produced equivalent responses in monosynaptic excitation of neurons controlling the distal and proximal forelimb, suggesting balanced thalamic input at baseline. Following skilled grasp training, however, thalamocortical input shifted to bias activation of corticospinal neurons associated with control of the distal forelimb. This increase was associated with a cell-specific increase in mEPSC amplitude but not presynaptic release probability. These findings demonstrate distinct and highly segregated plasticity of thalamocortical projections during adult learning. PMID:26948893

  2. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  3. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  4. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  6. Splitting of the cerebellar vermis in juvenile rats--effects on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Staden, Mareike; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin; Hermann, Elvis J

    2013-08-01

    Radical resection of malignant midline tumors of the posterior fossa in childhood followed by adjuvant therapies like chemotherapy or radiotherapy often leads to longterm survival and even healing of such patients. Therefore, quality of life becomes particular important. Postoperative neurological deficits, such as cerebellar mutism and ataxia have been attributed to splitting of the cerebellar vermis to remove these tumors. Here, we tested the effect of vermian splitting in juvenile rats on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity. Juvenile male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 23 days, underwent vermian splitting under general anesthesia after medial suboccipital craniotomy (lesioned group, n=16). In sham-lesioned rats, only craniotomy was performed and the dura was opened with release of cerebrospinal fluid (n=16). Naïve rats served as controls (n=14). All groups were tested on day 0 (before surgery), and on days 1-4 and 7 after surgery for locomotor activity, motor coordination, social behavior, and ultrasound vocalization during social interaction. Finally, splitting of the vermis was histologically verified. Social interaction was reduced for two days after surgery in lesioned rats compared to sham-lesioned rats and controls. Vocalization was decreased for one day compared to controls. Locomotor activity was disturbed for several days after surgery in both lesioned and sham-lesioned rats as compared to controls. Deficient social behavior and vocalization after surgery are related to vermian splitting in juvenile rats. These results indicate that similar to the human context vermian splitting can reduce communicative drive in the early postsurgical phase.

  7. Technology-based intervention to help persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities perform environmentally relevant adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2012-08-01

    Persons with a diagnosis of minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities tend to be passive and isolated. A way to help them improve their adaptive behavior (relate to their environment) involves the use of intervention packages combining assistive technology with motivational strategies. The types of assistive technology included in those packages may consist of (a) microswitches allowing direct access to environmental stimuli, (b) combinations of microswitches and voice output communication devices (VOCAs) allowing stimulus access and calls for caregivers' attention, respectively, and (c) computer presentations of stimulus options and microswitches allowing choice among those options and access to them.

  8. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  9. Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harris, A John; Duxson, Marilyn J; Butler, Jane E; Hodges, Paul W; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-14

    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is strap-like, up to 600 mm in length, and contains five to seven neurovascular compartments, each with a neuromuscular endplate zone. Some of its fibers terminate intrafascicularly, whereas others may run the full length of the muscle. To assess the location and timing of activation within motor units of this long muscle, we recorded electromyographic potentials from multiple intramuscular electrodes along sartorius muscle during steady voluntary contraction and analyzed their activity with spike-triggered averaging from a needle electrode inserted near the proximal end of the muscle. Approximately 30% of sartorius motor units included muscle fibers that ran the full length of the muscle, conducting action potentials at 3.9 +/- 0.1 m/s. Most motor units were innervated within a single muscle endplate zone that was not necessarily near the midpoint of the fiber. As a consequence, action potentials reached the distal end of a unit as late as 100 ms after initiation at an endplate zone. Thus, contractile activity is not synchronized along the length of single sartorius fibers. We postulate that lateral transmission of force from fiber to endomysium and a wide distribution of motor unit endplates along the muscle are critical for the efficient transmission of force from sarcomere to tendon and for the prevention of muscle injury caused by overextension of inactive regions of muscle fibers.

  10. Mandibular Motor Control during the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of…

  11. Immunoglobulins from Animal Models of Motor Neuron Disease and from Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Passively Transfer Physiological Abnormalities to the Neuromuscular Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Stanley H.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Garcia, Jesus; Stefani, Enrico

    1991-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human disease of upper and lower motoneurons of unknown etiology. In support of the potential role of autoimmunity in ALS, two immune-mediated animal models of motoneuron disease have been developed that resemble ALS with respect to the loss of motoneurons, the presence of IgG within motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction, and with respect to altered physiology of the motor nerve terminal. To provide direct evidence for the primary role of humoral immunity, passive transfer with immunoglobulins from the two animal models and human ALS was carried out. Mice injected with serum or immunoglobulins from the animal disease models and human ALS but not controls demonstrated IgG in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. The mice also demonstrated an increase in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency, with normal amplitude and time course and normal resting membrane potential, indicating an increased resting quantal release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. The ability to transfer motoneuron dysfunction with serum immunoglobulins provides evidence for autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both the animal models and human ALS.

  12. Divergent Modulation of Clinical Measures of Volitional and Reflexive Motor Behaviors following Serotonergic Medications in Human Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in profound impairments in volitional strength and reflex excitability, which contribute to loss of function. Human and animal models suggest that disruption of endogenous monoaminergic input, particularly serotonin (5-HT), from supraspinal centers contributes to this impaired motor function following SCI. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 5-HT medications on motor function in individuals with chronic (>1 year) SCI. Clinical measures of strength, spasticity/spasms, and walking ability were assessed in 12 individuals with chronic incomplete SCI following acute administration of either 8 mg cyproheptadine, a 5-HT antagonist, or 10 mg escitalopram, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), in a double-blinded, randomized, crossover fashion. Results indicated that 5-HT medications modulated both volitional and reflexive behaviors with little change in walking performance; 5-HT antagonist medications depressed clinical measures of strength and spasticity/spasms, whereas SSRIs augmented both strength and spasticity/spasms. These changes are consistent with the dysregulation of 5-HT sensitive spinal neurons following SCI. This understanding may augment clinicians' awareness of the motor consequences of 5-HT medications. PMID:22994901

  13. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. PMID:25897510

  14. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  15. A Splicing Mutation in the Novel Mitochondrial Protein DNAJC11 Causes Motor Neuron Pathology Associated with Cristae Disorganization, and Lymphoid Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ioakeimidis, Fotis; Ott, Christine; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Violitzi, Foteini; Rinotas, Vagelis; Makrinou, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Elias; Fasseas, Costas; Kollias, George; Douni, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial structure and function is emerging as a major contributor to neuromuscular disease, highlighting the need for the complete elucidation of the underlying molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Following a forward genetics approach with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mediated random mutagenesis, we identified a novel mouse model of autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by a splice-site hypomorphic mutation in a novel gene of unknown function, DnaJC11. Recent findings have demonstrated that DNAJC11 protein co-immunoprecipitates with proteins of the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex involved in the formation of mitochondrial cristae and cristae junctions. Homozygous mutant mice developed locomotion defects, muscle weakness, spasticity, limb tremor, leucopenia, thymic and splenic hypoplasia, general wasting and early lethality. Neuropathological analysis showed severe vacuolation of the motor neurons in the spinal cord, originating from dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum and notably from mitochondria that had lost their proper inner membrane organization. The causal role of the identified mutation in DnaJC11 was verified in rescue experiments by overexpressing the human ortholog. The full length 63 kDa isoform of human DNAJC11 was shown to localize in the periphery of the mitochondrial outer membrane whereas putative additional isoforms displayed differential submitochondrial localization. Moreover, we showed that DNAJC11 is assembled in a high molecular weight complex, similarly to mitofilin and that downregulation of mitofilin or SAM50 affected the levels of DNAJC11 in HeLa cells. Our findings provide the first mouse mutant for a putative MICOS protein and establish a link between DNAJC11 and neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25111180

  16. Recent Developments in Soviet Research on the Verbal Control of Voluntary Motor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Larry

    The study of verbal behavior has a long history in the Soviet Union, and some of the studies, especially those related to verbal conditioning and learning, have had considerable impact on Western research, particularly in the United States. The view set forth in this paper is that "voluntary behavior" is only that behavior which is verbally…

  17. The sensory-motor specificity of taxonomic and thematic conceptual relations: a behavioral and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cédric; Segebarth, Christoph; Bonthoux, Françoise; Baciu, Monica

    2009-02-01

    Previous behavioral data suggest that the salience of taxonomic (e.g., hammer-saw) and thematic (e.g., hammer-nail) conceptual relations depends on object categories. Furthermore, taxonomic and thematic relations would be differentially grounded in the sensory-motor system. Using a picture matching task, we asked adult participants to identify taxonomic and thematic relations for non-manipulable and manipulable natural and artifact targets (e.g., animals, fruit, tools and vehicles, respectively) inside and outside a 3 T MR scanner. Behavioral data indicated that taxonomic relations are identified faster in natural objects while thematic relations are processed faster in artifacts, particularly manipulable ones (e.g., tools). Neuroimaging findings revealed that taxonomic processing specifically activates the bilateral visual areas (cuneus, BA 18), particularly for non-manipulable natural objects (e.g., animals). On the contrary, thematic processing specifically recruited a bilateral temporo-parietal network including the inferior parietal lobules (IPL, BA 40) and middle temporal gyri (MTG, BA 39/21/22). Left IPL and MTG activation was stronger for manipulable than for non-manipulable artifacts (e.g., tools vs. vehicles) during thematic processing. Right IPL and MTG activation was greater for both artifacts compared to natural objects during thematic processing (manipulable and non-manipulable ones, e.g., tools and vehicles). While taxonomic relations would selectively rely on perceptual similarity processing, thematic relations would specifically activate visuo-motor regions involved in action and space processing. In line with embodied views of concepts, our findings show that taxonomic and thematic conceptual relations are based on different sensory-motor processes. It suggests that they may have different roles in concept formation and processing depending on object categories. PMID:18977304

  18. Differences in the transmission of sensory input into motor output between introverts and extraverts: Behavioral and psychophysiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jutta; Rammsayer, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate extraversion-related individual differences in the speed of transmission of sensory input into motor output. In a sample of 16 introverted and 16 extraverted female volunteers, event-related potentials, lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs), and electromyogram (EMG) were recorded as participants performed a visual choice reaction time task. As additional behavioral indicators of performance, measures of reaction time (RT) and response dynamics were obtained. Although extraversion-related differences were found neither for behavioral measures nor for the N1 and P3 components of the evoked potential, introverts showed a reliably shorter latency in stimulus-locked LRP than extraverts. This latter finding supports the notion of faster stimulus analysis in introverts compared to extraverts. Furthermore, there was no indication of extraversion-related individual differences in speed of response organization and response execution as indicated by response-locked LRP and EMG latencies, respectively. However, a significantly higher EMG amplitude observed with introverts pointed to a less accurately adjusted motor output system of introverts compared to extraverts. PMID:15522767

  19. Prediction of propellant behavior in spinning flow of a space motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gany, A.; Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y. M.

    1992-01-01

    A model for 2-phase flow dynamics in a spinning spherical rocket motor, developed for the Ofeq satellite program, is based on the sectional approach to solution of the flow equations. An experimental model was built, to enable the motion of the aluminum/aluminum-oxide particles resulting from combustion within a solid-fuel motor to be simulated by injected paraffin droplets. The injected droplets included under-5 micrometer droplets which move with the gas stream and larger droplets, averaging 20 micrometer diameter, which simulate the motion of aluminum particles. The test chamber comprised a pair of cylindrical pyrex tubes with a sharp contraction in diameter, rotated at various speeds by a frequency-controllable motor. An optical system, based on a 5 W argon ion laser with a beam splitter and frequency shifter, mounted on a movable table, facilitated sectional measurements of the three velocity components and determination of size-velocity relationships. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of rotation on axial velocity is negligible, while its effect on tangential velocity approximates to solid-body rotation.

  20. Abnormal cerebellar development and axonal decussation due to mutations in AHI1 in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Russell J; Eyaid, Wafaa; Collura, Randall V; Tully, Laura D; Hill, R Sean; Al-Nouri, Doha; Al-Rumayyan, Ahmed; Topcu, Meral; Gascon, Generoso; Bodell, Adria; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ruvolo, Maryellen; Walsh, Christopher A

    2004-09-01

    Joubert syndrome is a congenital brain malformation of the cerebellar vermis and brainstem with abnormalities of axonal decussation (crossing in the brain) affecting the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles. Individuals with Joubert syndrome have motor and behavioral abnormalities, including an inability to walk due to severe clumsiness and 'mirror' movements, and cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Here we identified a locus associated with Joubert syndrome, JBTS3, on chromosome 6q23.2-q23.3 and found three deleterious mutations in AHI1, the first gene to be associated with Joubert syndrome. AHI1 is most highly expressed in brain, particularly in neurons that give rise to the crossing axons of the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles. Comparative genetic analysis of AHI1 indicates that it has undergone positive evolutionary selection along the human lineage. Therefore, changes in AHI1 may have been important in the evolution of human-specific motor behaviors.

  1. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Chronic exposure to environmentally-relevant concentrations of fluoxetine (Prozac) decreases survival, increases abnormal behaviors, and delays predator escape responses in guppies.

    PubMed

    Pelli, Marco; Connaughton, Victoria P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the impact of fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug and common pollutant in aquatic environments, on growth, survival, and behavior in juvenile guppies and on predator escape responses in adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata). In juveniles, the effects of acute (4d) and chronic (35d) exposure on growth and survival were examined, and behavioral changes were noted throughout the chronic experiment. In adults, escape responses to a mock predator during chronic (28d) fluoxetine exposure were videotaped to determine the overall speed of response in treated vs. control fish. The effects of fish gender and the presence of a group/school on escape responses were also determined. Our results show that acute exposure to nominal concentrations of 0.03 and 0.5μg/L, levels within the environment, did not adversely impact juvenile guppy survival. However, chronic exposure significantly reduced weight, length, and belly width/girth measurements compared to controls. Chronic exposure also resulted in abnormal swimming behavior and reduced survival in juveniles. In adults, fluoxetine exposure significantly delayed predator escape responses in both males and females. Escape responses were also reduced when adults were tested either individually or in a group, with significantly more delayed responses seen in individually tested fish. Taken together, these findings suggest that fluoxetine can impact guppy populations, during both juvenile and adult stages, with chronic exposure resulting in decreased survival and growth and altered behavioral responses. PMID:26126230

  3. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  4. Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging–guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease (ADAlzheimer disease), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound–treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of ADAlzheimer disease. The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal

  5. Differential responses of Aplysia siphon motor neurons and interneurons to tail and mantle stimuli: implications for behavioral response specificity.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Clark, G A

    1996-12-01

    1. Tail shock and mantle shock elicit different forms of siphon responses in Aplysia (flaring and backward bending vs. constriction and forward bending, respectively). Moreover, training with these two unconditioned stimuli (USs) in US-alone or classical conditioning paradigms differentially modifies the direction of the response to a siphon tap subsequently presented. As a first step toward addressing neural mechanisms underlying this response specificity, we systematically mapped the central siphon withdrawal circuit to determine which motor neurons and interneurons are differentially engaged by, and potentially modified by, tail and mantle USs. We utilized semi-intact preparations consisting of the intact mantle organs (including the gill and siphon), the tail, and the abdominal and circumesophageal ganglia. USs were delivered either cutaneously through silver wires implanted in the tail and mantle or via suction electrodes to the tail and branchial nerves. 2. We found that one class of central siphon motor neurons, the LFSB cells, was preferentially activated by tail USs, whereas other siphon motor neurons, the LBs cells and RDs cells, were preferentially activated by mantle USs. These motor neurons thus appear to be the final common path for the differential siphon movements to these USs. In addition, because activation of these cells can elicit neuromuscular facilitation and thereby enhance siphon movements, this differential activation may contribute to behavioral response specificity by imposing a specific response bias. 3. L29 interneurons, which both mediate and modulate the siphon withdrawal response, responded preferentially and exhibited synaptic facilitation selectively in response to tail shock USs. In contrast, L34 and the interneuron II network did not show differential activation. Facilitation at L29-LFSB connections following training with tail shock may contribute to tail-directed siphon responses to siphon tap and may thus be an additional

  6. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral…

  7. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment on non-motor sequelae in the hemiparkinsonian rat

    PubMed Central

    Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L.; Dupre, Kristin B.; Ostock, Corinne Y.; Button, Thomas; Deak, Terrence; Bishop, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent non-motor symptoms that worsen quality of life for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. While dopamine (DA) cell loss is a commonly proposed mechanism, the reported efficacy of DA replacement therapy with L-DOPA on affective symptoms is inconsistent. In order to delineate the effects of DA denervation and chronic L-DOPA treatment on affective behaviors, male Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral 6-OHDA or sham lesions and were treated daily with L-DOPA (12 mg/kg + benserazide, 15 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 0.1% ascorbic acid) for 28 days before commencing investigations into anxiety (locomotor chambers, social interaction) and depression-like behaviors (forced swim test) during the OFF phase of L-DOPA. One h after final treatments, rats were killed and striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala were analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography for monoamine levels. In locomotor chambers and social interaction, DA lesions exerted mild anxiogenic effects. Surprisingly, chronic L-DOPA treatment did not improve these effects. While DA lesion reduced climbing behaviors on day 2 of exposure to the forced swim test, chronic L-DOPA treatment did not reverse these effects. Neurochemically, L-DOPA treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats reduced NE levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Collectively, the present data suggest that chronic L-DOPA therapy in severely DA-lesioned rats does not improve non-motor symptoms and may impair non-dopaminergic processes, indicating that long-term L-DOPA therapy does not exert necessary cause neuroplastic changes for improving affect. PMID:20838211

  8. Splitting of the cerebellar vermis in juvenile rats--effects on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Staden, Mareike; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin; Hermann, Elvis J

    2013-08-01

    Radical resection of malignant midline tumors of the posterior fossa in childhood followed by adjuvant therapies like chemotherapy or radiotherapy often leads to longterm survival and even healing of such patients. Therefore, quality of life becomes particular important. Postoperative neurological deficits, such as cerebellar mutism and ataxia have been attributed to splitting of the cerebellar vermis to remove these tumors. Here, we tested the effect of vermian splitting in juvenile rats on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity. Juvenile male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 23 days, underwent vermian splitting under general anesthesia after medial suboccipital craniotomy (lesioned group, n=16). In sham-lesioned rats, only craniotomy was performed and the dura was opened with release of cerebrospinal fluid (n=16). Naïve rats served as controls (n=14). All groups were tested on day 0 (before surgery), and on days 1-4 and 7 after surgery for locomotor activity, motor coordination, social behavior, and ultrasound vocalization during social interaction. Finally, splitting of the vermis was histologically verified. Social interaction was reduced for two days after surgery in lesioned rats compared to sham-lesioned rats and controls. Vocalization was decreased for one day compared to controls. Locomotor activity was disturbed for several days after surgery in both lesioned and sham-lesioned rats as compared to controls. Deficient social behavior and vocalization after surgery are related to vermian splitting in juvenile rats. These results indicate that similar to the human context vermian splitting can reduce communicative drive in the early postsurgical phase. PMID:23685319

  9. Antinociception induced by motor cortex stimulation: somatotopy of behavioral response and profile of neuronal activation.

    PubMed

    França, Nubia R M; Toniolo, Elaine F; Franciosi, Adriano C; Alves, Adilson S; de Andrade, Daniel C; Fonoff, Erich T; Britto, Luiz R; Dale, Camila S

    2013-08-01

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is used as a therapy for patients with refractory neuropathic pain. Experimental evidence suggests that the motor cortex (MC) is involved in the modulation of normal nociceptive response, but the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified yet. In previous studies, we demonstrated that MCS increases the nociceptive threshold of naive conscious rats by inhibiting thalamic sensory neurons and disinhibiting the neurons in periaqueductal gray (PAG), with the involvement of the opioid system. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible somatotopy of the motor cortex on MCS-induced antinociception and the pattern of neuronal activation evaluated by Fos and Egr-1 immunolabel in an attempt to better understand the relation between MC and analgesia. Rats received epidural electrode implants placed over the MC, in three distinct areas (forelimb, hindlimb or tail), according to a functional mapping established in previous studies. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated under 15-min electrical stimulating sessions. MCS induced selective antinociception in the limb related to the stimulated cortex, with no changes in other evaluated areas. MCS decreased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord for all evaluated groups and increased Fos-IR in the PAG, although no changes were observed in the PAG for the tail group. Egr-1 results were similar to those obtained for Fos. Data shown herein demonstrate that MCS elicits a substantial and selective antinociceptive effect, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of descendent inhibitory pain pathway.

  10. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  11. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  12. Fast and Slow Oscillations in Human Primary Motor Cortex Predict Oncoming Behaviorally Relevant Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Maryam; Reimer, Jacob; Penn, Richard; Ojakangas, Catherine L.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Beta oscillations (12-30Hz) in local field potentials are prevalent in the motor system, yet their functional role within the context of planning a movement is still debated. In this study, a human participant implanted with a multi-electrode array in the hand area of primary motor cortex (MI) was instructed to plan a movement using either the second or fourth of five sequentially presented instruction cues. The beta amplitude increased from the start of the trial until the informative (second or fourth) cue, and was diminished afterwards. Moreover, the beta amplitude peaked just prior to each instruction cue and the delta frequency (0.5-1.5Hz) entrained to the interval between the cues - but only until the informative cue. This result suggests that the beta amplitude and delta phase in MI reflect the subject’s engagement with the rhythmically-presented cues and work together to enhance sensitivity to predictable and task-relevant visual cues. PMID:20188651

  13. Cervical spinal demyelination with ethidium bromide impairs respiratory (phrenic) activity and forelimb motor behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Nichols, N L; Punzo, A M; Duncan, I D; Mitchell, G S; Johnson, R A

    2013-01-15

    Although respiratory complications are a major cause of morbidity/mortality in many neural injuries or diseases, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby deficient myelin impairs breathing, or how patients compensate for such changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory and forelimb motor functions are impaired in a rat model of focal dorsolateral spinal demyelination (ethidium bromide, EB). Ventilation, phrenic nerve activity and horizontal ladder walking were performed 7-14 days post-C2 injection of EB or vehicle (SHAM). EB caused dorsolateral demyelination at C2-C3 followed by significant spontaneous remyelination at 14 days post-EB. Although ventilation did not differ between groups, ipsilateral integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude was significantly reduced versus SHAM during chemoreceptor activation at 7 days post-EB but recovered by 14 days. The ratio of ipsi- to contralateral phrenic nerve amplitude correlated with cross-sectional lesion area. This ratio was significantly reduced 7 days post-EB versus SHAM during baseline conditions, and versus SHAM and 14-day groups during chemoreceptor activation. Limb function ipsilateral to EB was impaired 7 days post-EB and partially recovered by 14 days post-EB. EB provides a reversible model of focal, spinal demyelination, and may be a useful model to study mechanisms of functional impairment and recovery via motor plasticity, or the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions to reduce severity or duration of disease. PMID:23159317

  14. A Large-Scale Behavioral Screen to Identify Neurons Controlling Motor Programs in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Thomas F.; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin H.; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is increasingly used for understanding the neural basis of behavior through genetically targeted manipulation of specific neurons. The primary approach in this regard has relied on the suppression of neuronal activity. Here, we report the results of a novel approach to find and characterize neural circuits by expressing neuronal activators to stimulate subsets of neurons to induce behavior. Classical electrophysiological studies demonstrated that stimulation of command neurons could activate neural circuits to trigger fixed action patterns. Our method was designed to find such command neurons for diverse behaviors by screening flies in which random subsets of brain cells were activated. We took advantage of the large collection of Gal4 lines from the NP project and crossed 835 Gal4 strains with relatively limited Gal4 expression in the brain to flies carrying a UAS transgene encoding TRPM8, a cold-sensitive ion channel. Low temperatures opened the TRPM8 channel in Gal4-expressing cells, leading to their excitation, and in many cases induced overt behavioral changes in adult flies. Paralysis was reproducibly observed in the progeny of crosses with 84 lines, whereas more specific behaviors were induced with 24 other lines. Stimulation performed using the heat-activated channel, TrpA1, resulted in clearer and more robust behaviors, including flight, feeding, and egg-laying. Through follow-up studies starting from this screen, we expect to find key components of the neural circuits underlying specific behaviors, thus providing a new avenue for their functional analysis. PMID:23934998

  15. Psychiatric disorder-related abnormal behavior and habenulointerpeduncular pathway defects in Wnt1-cre and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Mori, Hisamichi; Nishikawa, Chisa; Tsuruta, Momoko; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is a unique structure in vertebrates. Wnt1-cre and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic (dTg) mice have been used in a variety of studies concerning neural crest cell lineages in which the Cre/loxP or GAL4/UAS system was applied. Here, we show psychiatric disorder-related behavioral abnormalities and histologic alterations in a neural crest-derived brain region in dTg mice. The dTg mice exhibited increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impaired short-term spatial memory and nesting behavior. The choline acetyltransferase- and vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive habenulointerpeduncular fiber tracts that project from the medial habenular nucleus of the epithalamus to the interpeduncular nucleus of the midbrain tegmentum appeared irregular in the dTg mice. Both the medial habenula nucleus and the interpeduncular nucleus were confirmed to be derived from the neural crest. The findings of this study suggest that neural crest-derived cells have pathogenic roles in the development of psychiatric disorders and that the dTg mouse could be a useful animal model for studying the pathophysiology of mental illness such as autism and schizophrenia. Scientists that use the dTg mice as a cre-transgenic deleter line should be cautious in its possible toxicity, especially if behavioral analyses are to be performed.

  16. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  17. Differential involvement of excitatory and inhibitory neurons of cat motor cortex in coincident spike activity related to behavioral context.

    PubMed

    Putrino, David; Brown, Emery N; Mastaglia, Frank L; Ghosh, Soumya

    2010-06-01

    To assess temporal associations in spike activity between pairs of neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) related to different behaviors, we compared the incidence of coincident spiking activity of task-related (TR) and non-task-related (NTR) neurons during a skilled motor task and sitting quietly in adult cats (Felis domestica). Chronically implanted microwires were used to record spike activity of MI neurons in four animals (two male and two female) trained to perform a skilled reaching task or sit quietly. Neurons were identified as TR if spike activity was modulated during the task (and NTR if not). Based on spike characteristics, they were also classified as either regular-spiking (RS, putatively excitatory) or fast-spiking (FS, putatively inhibitory) neurons. Temporal associations in the activities of simultaneously recorded neurons were evaluated using shuffle-corrected cross-correlograms. Pairs of NTR and TR neurons showed associations in their firing patterns over wide areas of MI (representing forelimb and hindlimb movements) during quiet sitting, more commonly involving RS neurons. During skilled task performance, however, significantly coincident firing was seen almost exclusively between TR neurons in a smaller part of MI (representing forelimb movements), involving mainly FS neurons. The findings of this study show evidence for widespread interactions in MI when the animal sits quietly, which changes to a more specific and restricted pattern of interactions during task performance. Different populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons appear to be synchronized during skilled movement and quiet sitting.

  18. The effects of load-sensitive behavior on the operability margins of motor-operated gate valves

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Russell, M.J.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of motor-operated gate valves at various loads has produced a phenomenon we call load-sensitive behavior. This phenomenon has a significant effect on the accuracy of the methods used (and proposed) in the nuclear industry for determining that these valves can perform their design basis function. A valve subjected to tests with low flow and pressure loadings may achieve a stem thrust (at seating) analytically determined to be adequate for design basis flows and pressures, but this is no guarantee that the valve will achieve the same stem thrust when actually subjected to those design basis loads. This is because the friction at the interface between the stem and the stem nut is higher in tests with higher flow and pressure loadings, and this loss to friction is outside the control of the motor-operator's torque switch. This paper identifies a tentative method for determining, a stable, useful value for the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction, one that can possibly be extrapolated and used in calculations to accurately estimate the design basis thrust requirements of these valves.

  19. The effects of load-sensitive behavior on the operability margins of motor-operated gate valves

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Russell, M.J.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Testing of motor-operated gate valves at various loads has produced a phenomenon we call load-sensitive behavior. This phenomenon has a significant effect on the accuracy of the methods used (and proposed) in the nuclear industry for determining that these valves can perform their design basis function. A valve subjected to tests with low flow and pressure loadings may achieve a stem thrust (at seating) analytically determined to be adequate for design basis flows and pressures, but this is no guarantee that the valve will achieve the same stem thrust when actually subjected to those design basis loads. This is because the friction at the interface between the stem and the stem nut is higher in tests with higher flow and pressure loadings, and this loss to friction is outside the control of the motor-operator`s torque switch. This paper identifies a tentative method for determining, a stable, useful value for the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction, one that can possibly be extrapolated and used in calculations to accurately estimate the design basis thrust requirements of these valves.

  20. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  1. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  2. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  3. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  4. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  5. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

  6. Gonadal and Adrenal Abnormalities in Drug Users: Cause or Consequence of Drug Use Behavior and Poor Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Wisniewski, Amy B; Dobs, Adrian S

    2006-01-01

    Opiates and cocaine both have effects on adrenal and gonadal function. Opiates suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, whereas cocaine leads to HPA activation. Opiates also cause gonadal dysfunction in both men and women. During withdrawal from opiates and cocaine, the HPA axis is activated which may reinforce relapse behavior. This review describes these hormonal effects and explores the potential consequences, including the effects on mood cognition and cardiovascular risk. Modification of the drug-induced hormonal dysfunction may represent a treatment strategy for drug rehabilitation.

  7. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine C.; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L.; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs. PMID:27111894

  8. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elaine C; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs.

  9. Walking in School-Aged Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm Is Related to Age But Not to Cognition, Motor Behavior, Injuries, or Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive functions; parents reported on their child’s motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning. Gait variability (an index of gait regularity) decreased with increasing age in both single- and dual-task walking. Dual-task gait decrements were stronger when children walked in the motor compared to the cognitive dual-task condition and decreased with increasing age in both dual-task conditions. Gait alterations from single- to dual-task conditions were not related to children’s cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning. PMID:27014158

  10. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)<160 or 90≤average diastolic BP (AvDBP)<100] and 12.64% (8.64–16.64) had stage-II (AvSBP≥160 or AvDBP≥160) hypertension. Based on FPG and HbA1c, 10.41% (6.74–14.08) were diabetic and 27.88% (22.49–33.27) were pre-diabetic. Overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.61% (11.25–19.98). Among pre-diagnosed cases, 46.43% (26.74–66.12) had uncontrolled AGM. With one year increase in age [Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.05(1.03–1.07)], retired subjects [OR = 9.14(1.72–48.66)], overweight[OR = 2.78(1.37–5.64)], ex-drinkers [OR = 4

  11. Motor coordination deficits in mice lacking RGS9.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Hoang, Chau V; Potts, Bryan; Gold, Stephen J; Powell, Craig M

    2008-01-23

    RGS9-2 is a striatum-enriched protein that negatively modulates dopamine and opioid receptor signaling. We examined the role of RGS9-2 in modulating complex behavior. Genetic deletion of RGS9-2 does not lead to global impairments, but results in selective abnormalities in certain behavioral domains. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice have decreased motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod and deficits in working memory as measured in the delayed-match-to-place version of the water maze. In contrast, RGS9 KO mice exhibit normal locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, cue and contextual fear conditioning, startle threshold, and pre-pulse inhibition. These studies are the first to describe a role for RGS9-2 in motor coordination and working memory and implicate RGS9-2 as a potential therapeutic target for motor and cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Neuronavigation Increases the Physiologic and Behavioral Effects of Low-Frequency rTMS of Primary Motor Cortex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Edwards, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can exert local and inter-hemispheric neuromodulatory effects on cortical excitability. These physiologic effects can translate into changes in motor behavior, and may offer valuable therapeutic interventions in recovery from stroke. Neuronavigated TMS can maximize accurate and consistent targeting of a given cortical region, but is a lot more involved that conventional TMS. We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS. Ten healthy subjects underwent two experimental sessions during which they received 1600 pulses of either navigated or non-navigated 1 Hz rTMS at 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT) intensity over the motor cortical representation for left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We compared the effects of navigated and non-navigated rTMS on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) by paired-pulse TMS, and performance in various behavioral tasks (index finger tapping, simple reaction time and grip strength tasks). Following navigated rTMS, the amplitude of MEPs elicited from the contralateral (unstimulated) motor cortex was significantly increased, and was associated with an increase in ICF and a trend to decrease in ICI. In contrast, non-navigated rTMS elicited nonsignificant changes, most prominently ipsilateral to rTMS. Behaviorally, navigated rTMS significantly improved reaction time RT and pinch force with the hand ipsilateral to stimulation. Non-navigated rTMS lead to similar behavioral trends, although the effects did not reach significance. In summary, navigated rTMS leads to more robust modulation of the contralateral (unstimulated) hemisphere resulting in physiologic and behavioral effects. Our findings highlight the spatial specificity of inter-hemispheric TMS effects, illustrate the superiority of navigated rTMS for certain

  13. Does listening to action-related sentences modulate the activity of the motor system? Replication of a combined TMS and behavioral study

    PubMed Central

    Gianelli, Claudia; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of action-related language processing have been debated for long time. A precursor in this field was the study by Buccino et al. (2005) combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and behavioral measures (reaction times, RTs) to study the effect of listening to hand- and foot-related sentences. In the TMS experiment, the authors showed a decrease of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from hand muscles when processing hand-related verbs as compared to foot-related verbs. Similarly, MEPs recorded from leg muscles decreased when participants processed foot-related as compared to hand-related verbs. In the behavioral experiment, using the same stimuli and a semantic decision task the authors found slower RTs when the participants used the body effector (hand or foot) involved in the actual execution of the action expressed by the presented verb to give their motor responses. These findings were interpreted as an interference effect due to a simultaneous involvement of the motor system in both a language and a motor task. Our replication aimed to enlarge the sample size and replicate the findings with higher statistical power. The TMS experiment showed a significant modulation of hand MEPs, but in the sense of a motor facilitation when processing hand-related verbs. On the contrary, the behavioral experiment did not show significant results. The results are discussed within the general debate on the time-course of the modulation of motor cortex during implicit and explicit language processing and in relation to the studies on action observation/understanding. PMID:25601845

  14. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life.

  15. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life. PMID:27071011

  16. Neural Basis of Stimulus-Angle-Dependent Motor Control of Wind-Elicited Walking Behavior in the Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent ‘escape behavior’ from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control

  17. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their Drag-and-Drop (DnD) performance using their finger/thumb poke ability with a mouse scroll wheel through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP). A multiple probe design across participants was used in this study…

  18. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  19. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  20. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  1. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  2. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus

  3. Combination of neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent phencyclidine treatments is required to induce behavioral abnormalities with overexpression of GLAST in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Ando, Yu; Mori, Kentaro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative incidences of multiple risk factors are related to pathology of psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to examine combinative effects of a neonatal immune challenge with adolescent abused substance treatment on the psychological behaviors and molecular expressions in the adult. C57BL/6J mice were neonatally treated, with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C: 5mg/kg) during postnatal days (PD) 2-6, then with phencyclidine (PCP: 10mg/kg) during adolescence (PD35-41). Locomotor activity was analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to PCP on PD35 and PD41. Emotional and cognitive tests were carried out on PD42-48. Neonatal PolyI:C treatment markedly enhanced sensitivity to PCP- and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in the adolescent. Mice treated with both neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent PCP (PolyI:C/PCP) showed social deficit and object recognition memory impairment. The expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. Infusion of glutamate transporter inhibitor (DL-TBOA: 1 nmol/bilaterally) into the PFC reversed the object recognition impairment in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. These results indicate that the combined treatment of neonatal PolyI:C with adolescent PCP leads to behavioral abnormalities, which were associated with increase of GLAST expression in the adult PFC.

  4. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abaid, Nicole; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  5. Enamel Insulated Copper Wire in Electric Motors: Sliding Behavior and Possible Damage Mechanisms During Die Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiri, Albion

    This study investigates the sliding friction and the forming behaviour of enamel insulated copper wire during the die-forming process. It also aims to determine potential damage mechanisms to the wire during bending process for electric motor coils. In this investigation a wire-bending machine was designed and built in order to simulate the wire forming process in a laboratory scale. Bending angle of the wire and the bending radii were used to control the strain on the wire surface. The effect of speed on COF was investigated for different speeds of of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20mm/s. A positive correlation was observed between the COF and the testing speed. Additionally, the effect of strain on COF was studied for 2% and 23% to determine its influence on the COF. A general trend was observed of decreased COF with increased strain in wires. Finally, the ability of the enamel coating to resist external damage and wire strain was investigated by tensile testing of pre-scratched magnet wire. The results showed that wire enamel can withstand significant surface damage prior to breach and failure. The insulating polymer coating failed under the scratch tests at 20N load using a Rockwell indenter and at 5N load using a 90° conical steel indenter. Additional tests, such as tensile testing, scratch testing and reciprocating friction testing, were used to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of the enamel insulated copper wire.

  6. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  7. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  8. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV−/−) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/−) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV−/− and PV+/− mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus

  9. Motor overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with decreased extent of neural activation in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, Andrew; Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; MacNeil, Lindsey; Barber, Anita D; Muschelli, John; Caffo, Brian; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-30

    Motor overflow is a developmental phenomenon that typically disappears by late childhood. Abnormal persistence of motor overflow is often present in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a finger-sequencing task to examine whether excessive motor overflow in children with ADHD is associated with decreased extent of motor circuit activation. Thirty-four right-handed children (18 typically developing controls, 16 ADHD) completed fMRI while performing a finger-sequencing task. Motor overflow was evaluated during a finger-sequencing task and a motor examination (the PANESS) performed outside the scanner. Diagnostic differences in behavioral measures of overflow and extent of activation in the contralateral and ipsilateral motor network ROIs were examined, along with correlations between overflow and extent of activation. Children with ADHD demonstrated greater overflow and lesser extent of activation in left primary motor cortex (BA4) and bilateral premotor cortex (BA6) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during right-hand finger-sequencing compared to controls. Decreased extent of primary motor and premotor activation correlated with increased hand-related overflow movements in children with ADHD but not controls. These findings suggest that overflow movements in children with ADHD may reflect decreased recruitment of neural circuitry involved in active inhibition of homologous motor circuitry unnecessary to task execution.

  10. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  11. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granek, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  12. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. PMID:27424779

  13. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  14. Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-04-01

    Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11 weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity.

  15. A Low Concentration of Ethanol Impairs Learning but Not Motor and Sensory Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Alfredo; Cady, Amanda M.; Najjar, Kristina; Hatch, Michael M.; Shah, Ruchita R.; Bhat, Amar; Hariri, Omar; Haroun, Kareem B.; Young, Melvin C.; Fife, Kathryn; Hooten, Jeff; Tran, Tuan; Goan, Daniel; Desai, Foram; Husain, Farhan; Godinez, Ryan M.; Sun, Jeffrey C.; Corpuz, Jonathan; Moran, Jacxelyn; Zhong, Allen C.; Chen, William Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system for the genetic analysis of ethanol-associated behaviors. However, past studies have focused on the response of the adult fly to large, and often sedating, doses of ethanol. The pharmacological effects of low and moderate quantities of ethanol have remained understudied. In this study, we tested the acute effects of low doses of ethanol (∼7 mM internal concentration) on Drosophila larvae. While ethanol did not affect locomotion or the response to an odorant, we observed that ethanol impaired associative olfactory learning when the heat shock unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity was low but not when the heat shock US intensity was high. We determined that the reduction in learning at low US intensity was not a result of ethanol anesthesia since ethanol-treated larvae responded to the heat shock in the same manner as untreated animals. Instead, low doses of ethanol likely impair the neuronal plasticity that underlies olfactory associative learning. This impairment in learning was reversible indicating that exposure to low doses of ethanol does not leave any long lasting behavioral or physiological effects. PMID:22624024

  16. Exercise Effects on Motor and Affective Behavior and Catecholamine Neurochemistry in the MPTP-Lesioned Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Lori M.; Vuckovic, Marta G.; Vertelkina, Nina; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Jakowec, Michael W.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2010-01-01

    This study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice to determine if exercise improves behavior and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) content. Male C57BL/6 mice received MPTP (4×20 mg/kg) or saline. They remained sedentary or exercised by treadmill or voluntary running wheel for 6 weeks (n=8/group). Saline-treated mice ran significantly faster on running wheels (22.8±1.0 m/min) than on treadmill (8.5±0.5 m/min), and MPTP lesion did not reduce voluntary exercise (19.3±1.5 m/min, p>0.05). There was a significant effect of both lesion and exercise on overall Rotarod performance (ORP): MPTP lesion reduced ORP, while treadmill exercise increased ORP vs sedentary mice (p<0.05). MPTP increased anxiety in the marble-burying test: sedentary lesioned mice buried more marbles (74.0±5.2%) than sedentary controls (34.8±11.8%, p<0.05). Conversely, exercise reduced anxiety on the elevated plus maze. Among saline-treated mice, those exposed to voluntary wheel-running showed an increased percent of open arm entries (49.8±3.5%, p<0.05) relative to relative to sedentary controls (36.2±4.0%, p<0.05). Neither MPTP nor exercise altered symptoms of depression measured by sucrose preference or tail suspension. MPTP significantly reduced DA in striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 42.1±3.0% of saline controls), and lowered 5HT in amygdala and striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 86.1±4.1% and 66.5±8.2% of saline controls, respectively); exercise had no effect. Thus, exercise improves behavior in a model of DA depletion, without changes in DA or 5HT. PMID:20472000

  17. Exercise effects on motor and affective behavior and catecholamine neurochemistry in the MPTP-lesioned mouse.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Lori M; Vuckovic, Marta G; Vertelkina, Nina; Petzinger, Giselle M; Jakowec, Michael W; Wood, Ruth I

    2010-12-01

    This study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice to determine if exercise improves behavior and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) content. Male C57BL/6 mice received MPTP (4 x 20mg/kg) or saline. They remained sedentary or exercised by treadmill or voluntary running wheel for 6 weeks (n=8/group). Saline-treated mice ran significantly faster on running wheels (22.8+/-1.0m/min) than on treadmill (8.5+/-0.5m/min), and MPTP lesion did not reduce voluntary exercise (19.3+/-1.5m/min, p>0.05). There was a significant effect of both lesion and exercise on overall Rotarod performance (ORP): MPTP lesion reduced ORP, while treadmill exercise increased ORP vs sedentary mice (p<0.05). MPTP increased anxiety in the marble-burying test: sedentary lesioned mice buried more marbles (74.0+/-5.2%) than sedentary controls (34.8+/-11.8%, p<0.05). Conversely, exercise reduced anxiety on the elevated plus maze. Among saline-treated mice, those exposed to voluntary wheel-running showed an increased percent of open arm entries (49.8+/-3.5%, p<0.05) relative to sedentary controls (36.2+/-4.0%, p<0.05). Neither MPTP nor exercise altered symptoms of depression measured by sucrose preference or tail suspension. MPTP significantly reduced DA in striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 42.1+/-3.0% of saline controls), and lowered 5HT in amygdala and striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 86.1+/-4.1% and 66.5+/-8.2% of saline controls, respectively); exercise had no effect. Thus, exercise improves behavior in a model of DA depletion, without changes in DA or 5HT.

  18. Body temperature, motor activity, and feeding behavior of mice treated with beta-chlornaltrexamine.

    PubMed

    Kozak, W; Conn, C A; Kluger, M J

    1995-08-01

    The effects of an irreversible long term opioid antagonism on circadian rhythms in body temperature (Tb), locomotor activity (Act) and feeding under normal conditions and following lipopolysaccharide administration (LPS; 2.5 mg/kg) have been investigated in unrestrained mice housed at their thermoneutral zone (30 degrees C). beta-chlornaltrexamine (beta-CNA; 5 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally decreased Tb on the day of injection, depressed Act, and reduced food and water intake for several days. The drug destroyed circadian rhythm in Tb for 4 consecutive days after administration due to prevention of the night time increases in temperature, whereas mean day time Tb of mice treated with beta-CNA remained similar to controls. Between days 5-8 the day-time Tb of beta-CNA-injected mice decreased, and the mice started displaying regular daily variations albeit with smaller amplitude and at lower level than controls. The depressive effect of beta-CNA on circadian variation in activity was more prolonged than its effect on Tb suggesting that these two variables are independently regulated. beta-CNA prevented the febrile response of the mice to LPS and enhanced the hypophagic effect of LPS. We conclude that normal circadian rhythms in Tb and Act, as well as certain symptoms of sickness behavior, have an opioid component.

  19. Curcumin Treatment Improves Motor Behavior in α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Kateri J; Osterberg, Valerie R; Meshul, Charles K; Soumyanath, Amala; Unni, Vivek K

    2015-01-01

    The curry spice curcumin plays a protective role in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, and can also directly modulate aggregation of α-synuclein protein in vitro, yet no studies have described the interaction of curcumin and α-synuclein in genetic synucleinopathy mouse models. Here we examined the effect of chronic and acute curcumin treatment in the Syn-GFP mouse line, which overexpresses wild-type human α-synuclein protein. We discovered that curcumin diet intervention significantly improved gait impairments and resulted in an increase in phosphorylated forms of α-synuclein at cortical presynaptic terminals. Acute curcumin treatment also caused an increase in phosphorylated α-synuclein in terminals, but had no direct effect on α-synuclein aggregation, as measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging and Proteinase-K digestion. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected ~5 ng/mL and ~12 ng/mL free curcumin in the plasma of chronic or acutely treated mice, with a glucuronidation rate of 94% and 97%, respectively. Despite the low plasma levels and extensive metabolism of curcumin, these results show that dietary curcumin intervention correlates with significant behavioral and molecular changes in a genetic synucleinopathy mouse model that mimics human disease. PMID:26035833

  20. Curcumin Treatment Improves Motor Behavior in α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Kateri J.; Osterberg, Valerie R.; Meshul, Charles K.; Soumyanath, Amala; Unni, Vivek K.

    2015-01-01

    The curry spice curcumin plays a protective role in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, and can also directly modulate aggregation of α-synuclein protein in vitro, yet no studies have described the interaction of curcumin and α-synuclein in genetic synucleinopathy mouse models. Here we examined the effect of chronic and acute curcumin treatment in the Syn-GFP mouse line, which overexpresses wild-type human α-synuclein protein. We discovered that curcumin diet intervention significantly improved gait impairments and resulted in an increase in phosphorylated forms of α-synuclein at cortical presynaptic terminals. Acute curcumin treatment also caused an increase in phosphorylated α-synuclein in terminals, but had no direct effect on α-synuclein aggregation, as measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging and Proteinase-K digestion. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected ~5 ng/mL and ~12 ng/mL free curcumin in the plasma of chronic or acutely treated mice, with a glucuronidation rate of 94% and 97%, respectively. Despite the low plasma levels and extensive metabolism of curcumin, these results show that dietary curcumin intervention correlates with significant behavioral and molecular changes in a genetic synucleinopathy mouse model that mimics human disease. PMID:26035833

  1. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE)

    PubMed Central

    Perruchoud, David; Murray, Micah M.; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic–functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE). Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration. PMID:24999327

  2. Changes in motor unit populations in motor neurone disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, S A; Brown, W F

    1979-01-01

    In motor neurone disease changes in the functional properties of motor units, including the surface voltage, latency, conduction velocity, and response to repetitive stimulation, were investigated. Progression was marked by motor unit loss, increase in the proportion of larger motor unit potentials, and inclusion of motor unit potentials larger than normal in the remaining motor unit population. Even late in the disease, motor unit potentials with a low surface voltage persisted. The relationship between motor unit potentials, surface voltage, and latency, present in control subjects, broke down in motor neurone disease, large motor unit potentials having abnormally long latencies and small motor unit potentials unexpectedly short latencies. Amplitude decrements were more frequent and severe in motor unit potentials at later stages in the disease, particularly in those units with lower surface voltages. In one surviving motor unit potential there was evidence suggestive of functional recovery. The observations point to complex changes in the functional properties of motor units in motor neurone disease. PMID:216781

  3. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively.

  4. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively. PMID:25839898

  5. Stochastic aspects of motor behavior and their dependence on auditory feedback in experienced cellists

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jessie; Woollacott, Marjorie; Pologe, Steve; Moore, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate movement accuracy of experienced cellists, the statistical properties of their note sequences during a reciprocal task, and the degree to which these movement characteristics depend on auditory feedback. Nine experienced cellists were asked to shift alternately between two notes using only their index finger to make contact with the string and fingerboard. Shifting sequences continued for two minutes at a rate of one note per second. The task was performed under two conditions: with auditory feedback (provided by the bow) or without auditory feedback (i.e., without the use of bow). When the bow was used, subjects had no difficulty in shifting between target notes with precision and stability. Some variability was present, but notes in these sequences were generally uncorrelated. The contact data and correlations in most bowed trials resembled those expected of a renewal process, a process in which successive values are statistically independent and identically distributed. Without the bow, subjects lost their ability to reach the same target positions accurately; contact locations tended to drift and had a random quality, indicating that without the bow subjects were uncertain of the target location in relation to the spatial location of their fingertips. Within these unbowed sequences, finger positions were highly correlated—within and between note sequences. In some trials without the bow, the statistical correlation patterns of the sequence were consistent with the expectations of a discrete Wiener process. Throughout our study, computer simulations of renewal and Wiener processes enabled us to determine the types of correlations to be expected from these theoretical models. The implications of the statistical results in terms of subject behavior are discussed. PMID:23914166

  6. Exendin-4 reverses biochemical and behavioral deficits in a pre-motor rodent model of Parkinson's disease with combined noradrenergic and serotonergic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, N; Harkavyi, A; Giordano, G; Lever, R; Whitton, J; Whitton, P S

    2012-10-01

    Research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has mainly focused on the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of nigro-striatal pathway; however, post-mortem studies have demonstrated that other brain regions such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe nuclei (RN) are significantly affected as well. Degeneration of these crucial neuronal cell bodies may be responsible for depressive behavior and cognitive decline present in the pre-motor stage of PD. We have thus set out to create a pre-motor rodent model of PD which mimics the early stages of the condition. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, and parachloroampetamine (pCA), a selective serotonergic neurotoxin, were utilized concomitantly with bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections into the striatum to produce a pre-motor rodent model of PD with partial deficits in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. Our model exhibited a depressive/anhedonic condition as assessed using sucrose preference testing and the forced swim test. Our model also demonstrated deficits in object memory. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by a decline in both tissue and extracellular levels of all three neurotransmitters in both the frontal cortex and striatum. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a decrease in TH+ cells in the LC and substantia nigra. Exendin-4 (EX-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, promoted recovery of both the biochemical and behavioral dysfunction exhibited by our model. EX-4 was able to preserve the functional integrity of the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. In conclusion, we have generated a novel animal model of PD that recapitulates certain pre-motor symptomology. These symptoms and causative physiology are ameliorated upon treatment with EX-4 and thus it could be used as a possible therapy for the non-motor symptoms prominent in the early stages of PD.

  7. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  8. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  9. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  10. Online and Offline Performance Gains Following Motor Imagery Practice: A Comprehensive Review of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Debarnot, Ursula; Daligault, Sébastien; Saruco, Elodie; Delpuech, Claude; Doyon, Julien; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) promotes motor learning. While MI has been shown to influence the early stages of the learning process, recent data revealed that sleep also contributes to the consolidation of the memory trace. How such “online” and “offline” processes take place and how they interact to impact the neural underpinnings of movements has received little attention. The aim of the present review is twofold: (i) providing an overview of recent applied and fundamental studies investigating the effects of MI practice (MIP) on motor learning; and (ii) detangling applied and fundamental findings in support of a sleep contribution to motor consolidation after MIP. We conclude with an integrative approach of online and offline learning resulting from intense MIP in healthy participants, and underline research avenues in the motor learning/clinical domains. PMID:27445755

  11. Online and Offline Performance Gains Following Motor Imagery Practice: A Comprehensive Review of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Debarnot, Ursula; Daligault, Sébastien; Saruco, Elodie; Delpuech, Claude; Doyon, Julien; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) promotes motor learning. While MI has been shown to influence the early stages of the learning process, recent data revealed that sleep also contributes to the consolidation of the memory trace. How such "online" and "offline" processes take place and how they interact to impact the neural underpinnings of movements has received little attention. The aim of the present review is twofold: (i) providing an overview of recent applied and fundamental studies investigating the effects of MI practice (MIP) on motor learning; and (ii) detangling applied and fundamental findings in support of a sleep contribution to motor consolidation after MIP. We conclude with an integrative approach of online and offline learning resulting from intense MIP in healthy participants, and underline research avenues in the motor learning/clinical domains. PMID:27445755

  12. A liquid phase based C. elegans behavioral analysis system identifies motor activity loss in a nematode Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maohua; Gorelenkova, Olga; Yang, Jiong; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2012-03-15

    Motor activity of Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used to study the mechanisms ranging from basic neuronal functions to human neurodegenerative diseases. It may also serve as a paradigm to screen for potential therapeutic reagents treating these diseases. Here, we developed an automated, 96-well plate and liquid phase based system that quantifies nematode motor activity in real time. Using this system, we identified an adult-onset, ageing-associated motor activity loss in a transgenic nematode line expressing human pathogenic G2019S mutant LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), the leading genetic cause of Parkinson's disease characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated motor deficient mainly in elder citizens. Thus, our system may be used as a platform to screen for potential therapeutic drugs treating Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to monitor motor activity of nematodes in liquid phase at similar scenario.

  13. Loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum disturbs iron pathways, potentiates behavioral abnormalities, and exacerbates harmaline-induced tremor in mice.

    PubMed

    Stroh, Matthew A; Winter, Michelle K; Swerdlow, Russell H; McCarson, Kenneth E; Zhu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated in many diseases, including a number of neurological conditions. Cytosolic NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues and is capable of reducing ferric iron in vitro. We previously reported that global gene ablation of NCB5OR resulted in early-onset diabetes and altered iron homeostasis in mice. To further investigate the specific effects of NCB5OR deficiency on neural tissue without contributions from known phenotypes, we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse that lacks NCB5OR only in the cerebellum and midbrain. Assessment of molecular markers in the cerebellum of CKO mice revealed changes in pathways associated with cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. (59)Fe pulse-feeding experiments revealed cerebellum-specific increased or decreased uptake of iron by 7 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Additionally, we characterized behavioral changes associated with loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain in the context of dietary iron deprivation-evoked generalized iron deficiency. Locomotor activity was reduced and complex motor task execution was altered in CKO mice treated with an iron deficient diet. A sucrose preference test revealed that the reward response was intact in CKO mice, but that iron deficient diet consumption altered sucrose preference in all mice. Detailed gait analysis revealed locomotor changes in CKO mice associated with dysfunctional proprioception and locomotor activation independent of dietary iron deficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain exacerbated harmaline-induced tremor activity. Our findings suggest an essential role for NCB5OR in maintaining both iron homeostasis and the proper functioning of various locomotor pathways in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain. PMID:27188291

  14. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-03-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

  15. Inflammatory response and oxidative stress in developing rat brain and its consequences on motor behavior following maternal administration of LPS and perinatal anoxia.

    PubMed

    Stigger, Felipe; Lovatel, Gisele; Marques, Marília; Bertoldi, Karine; Moysés, Felipe; Elsner, Viviane; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Achaval, Matilde; Marcuzzo, Simone

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of locomotion, posture and movement that can be caused by prenatal, perinatal or postnatal insults during brain development. An increased incidence of CP has been correlated to perinatal asphyxia and maternal infections during gestation. The effects of maternal exposure to low doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) associated or not with perinatal anoxia (PA) in oxidative and inflammatory parameters were examined in cerebral cortices of newborns pups. Concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, SOD, CAT and DCF were measured by the ELISA method. Other newborn rats were assessed for neonatal developmental milestones from day 1 to 21. Motor behavior was also tested at P29 using open-field and Rotarod. PA alone only increased IL-1 expression in cerebral cortex with no changes in oxidative measures. PA also induced a slight impact on development and motor performance. LPS alone was not able to delay motor development but resulted in changes in motor activity and coordination with increased levels of IL-1 and TNF-α expression associated with a high production of free radicals and elevated SOD activity. When LPS and PA were combined, changes on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were greater. In addition, greater motor development and coordination impairments were observed. Prenatal exposure of pups to LPS appeared to sensitize the developing brain to effects of a subsequent anoxia insult resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased free radical levels in the cerebral cortex. These outcomes suggest that oxidative and inflammatory parameters in the cerebral cortex are implicated in motor deficits following maternal infection and perinatal anoxia by acting in a synergistic manner during a critical period of development of the nervous system.

  16. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jérôme; Hampe, Christiane S.; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-García, José María; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned. PMID:25870548

  17. Sensory signals and neuronal groups involved in guiding the sea-ward motor behavior in turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, A. L.; Camarena, V.; Ochoa, G.; Urrutia, J.; Gutierrez, G.

    2007-05-01

    Turtle hatchlings orient display sea-ward oriented movements as soon as they emerge from the nest. Although most studies have emphasized the role of the visual information in this process, less attention has been paid to other sensory modalities. Here, we evaluated the nature of sensory cues used by turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi to orient their movements towards the ocean. We recorded the time they took to crawl from the nest to the beach front (120m long) in control conditions and in visually, olfactory and magnetically deprived circumstances. Visually-deprived hatchlings displayed a high degree of disorientation. Olfactory deprivation and magnetic field distortion impaired, but not abolished, sea-ward oriented movements. With regard to the neuronal mapping experiments, visual deprivation reduced dramatically c-fos expression in the whole brain. Hatchlings with their nares blocked revealed neurons with c-fos expression above control levels principally in the c and d areas, while those subjected to magnetic field distortion had a wide spread activation of neurons throughout the brain predominantly in the dorsal ventricular ridge The present results support that Chelonia agassizi hatchlings use predominantly visual cues to orient their movements towards the sea. Olfactory and magnetic cues may also be use but their influence on hatchlings oriented motor behavior is not as clear as it is for vision. This conclusion is supported by the fact that in the absence of olfactory and magnetic cues, the brain turns on the expression of c- fos in neuronal groups that, in the intact hatchling, are not normally involved in accomplishing the task.

  18. Gamma synchrony predicts neuron-neuron correlations and correlations with motor behavior in extrastriate visual area MT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-12-11

    Correlated variability of neuronal responses is an important factor in estimating sensory parameters from a population response. Large correlations among neurons reduce the effective size of a neural population and increase the variation of the estimates. They also allow the activity of one neuron to be informative about impending perceptual decisions or motor actions on single trials. In extrastriate visual area MT of the rhesus macaque, for example, some but not all neurons show nonzero "choice probabilities" for perceptual decisions or non-zero "MT-pursuit" correlations between the trial-by-trial variations in neural activity and smooth pursuit eye movements. To understand the functional implications of zero versus nonzero correlations between neural responses and impending perceptions or actions, we took advantage of prior observations that specific frequencies of local field potentials reflect the correlated activity of neurons. We found that the strength of the spike-field coherence of a neuron in the gamma-band frequency range is related to the size of its MT-pursuit correlations for eye direction, as well as to the size of the neuron-neuron correlations. Spike-field coherence predicts MT-pursuit correlations better for direction than for speed, perhaps because the topographic organization of direction preference in MT is more amenable to creating meaningful local field potentials. We suggest that the relationship between spiking and local-field potentials is stronger for neurons that have larger correlations with their neighbors; larger neuron-neuron correlations create stronger MT-pursuit correlations. Neurons that lack strong correlations with their neighbors also have weaker correlations with pursuit behavior, but still could drive pursuit strongly.

  19. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  20. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  1. Functional MRI evidence for fine motor praxis dysfunction in children with persistent speech disorders

    PubMed Central

    Redle, Erin; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas; Tsevat, Rebecca K.; Eikenberry, Sarah; Lewis, Barbara; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Tkach, Jean; Holland, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Children with persistent speech disorders (PSD) often present with overt or subtle motor deficits; the possibility that speech disorders and motor deficits could arise from a shared neurological base is currently unknown. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine the brain networks supporting fine motor praxis in children with PSD and without clinically identified fine motor deficits. Methods This case-control study included 12 children with PSD (mean age 7.42 years, 4 female) and 12 controls (mean age 7.44 years, 4 female). Children completed behavioral evaluations using standardized motor assessments and parent reported functional measures. During fMRI scanning, participants completed a cued finger tapping task contrasted passive listening. A general linear model approach identified brain regions associated with finger tapping in each group and regions that differed between groups. The relationship between regional fMRI activation and fine motor skill was assessed using a regression analysis. Results Children with PSD had significantly poorer results for rapid speech production and fine motor praxis skills, but did not differ on classroom functional skills. Functional MRI results showed that children with PSD had significantly more activation in the cerebellum during finger tapping. Positive correlations between performance on a fine motor praxis test and activation multiple cortical regions were noted for children with PSD but not for controls. Conclusions Over-activation in the cerebellum during a motor task may reflect a subtle abnormality in the non-speech motor neural circuitry in children with PSD. PMID:25481413

  2. A compensatory subpopulation of motor neurons in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Anneliese M; Sanes, Joshua R; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2005-09-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal paralytic disease that targets motor neurons, leading to motor neuron death and widespread denervation atrophy of muscle. Previous electrophysiological data have shown that some motor axon branches attempt to compensate for loss of innervation, resulting in enlarged axonal arbors. Recent histological assays have shown that during the course of the disease some axonal branches die back. We thus asked whether the two types of behavior, die-back and compensatory growth, occur in different branches of single neurons or, alternatively, whether entire motor units are of one type or the other. We used high-resolution in vivo imaging in the G93A SOD1 mouse model, bred to express transgenic yellow fluorescent protein in all or subsets of motor neurons. Time-lapse imaging showed that degenerative axon branches are easily distinguished from those undergoing compensatory reinnervation, showing fragmentation of terminal branches but sparing of the more proximal axon. Reconstruction of entire motor units showed that some were abnormally large. Surprisingly, these large motor units contained few if any degenerating synapses. Some small motor units, however, no longer possessed any neuromuscular contacts at all, giving the appearance of "winter trees." Thus, degenerative versus regenerative changes are largely confined to distinct populations of neurons within the same motor pool. Identification of factors that protect "compensatory" motor neurons from degenerative changes may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Pen-2 overexpression induces Aβ-42 production, memory defect, motor activity enhancement and feeding behavior dysfunction in NSE/Pen-2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nam, So Hee; Seo, Su Jin; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Jee Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hae Ryun; Hwang, In Sik; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Bae, Chang Jun; Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Hye Sung; Shim, Sun Bo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-12-01

    Pen-2 is a key regulator of the γ-secretase complex, which is involved in the production of the amyloid β (Aβ)-42 peptides, which ultimately lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD). While Pen-2 has been studied in vitro, Pen-2 function in vivo in the brains of transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human Pen-2 (hPen-2) protein has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether Pen-2 overexpression could regulate the AD-like phenotypes in Tg mice. NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice were produced by the microinjection of the NSE/hPen-2 gene into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. The expression of the hPen-2 gene under the control of the NSE promoter was successfully detected only in the brain and kidney tissue of NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice. Also, 12-month-old NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice displayed behavioral dysfunction in the water maze test, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction in food intake/water intake/motor activity monitoring system. In addition, tissue samples displayed dense staining with antibody to the Aβ-42 peptide. Furthermore, NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice exhibiting feeding behavior dysfunction were significantly more apt to display symptoms related to diabetes and obesity. These results suggest that Pen-2 overexpression in NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice may induce all the AD-like phenotypes, including behavioral deficits, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction, Aβ-42 peptide deposition and chronic disease induction.

  4. Preparing the periphery for a subsequent behavior: motor neuronal activity during biting generates little force but prepares a retractor muscle to generate larger forces during swallowing in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2015-03-25

    Some behaviors occur in obligatory sequence, such as reaching before grasping an object. Can the earlier behavior serve to prepare the musculature for the later behavior? If it does, what is the underlying neural mechanism of the preparation? To address this question, we examined two feeding behaviors in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, one of which must precede the second: biting and swallowing. Biting is an attempt to grasp food. When that attempt is successful, the animal immediately switches to swallowing to ingest food. The main muscle responsible for pulling food into the buccal cavity during swallowing is the I3 muscle, whose motor neurons B6, B9, and B3 have been previously identified. By performing recordings from these neurons in vivo in intact, behaving animals or in vitro in a suspended buccal mass preparation, we demonstrated that the frequencies and durations of these motor neurons increased from biting to swallowing. Using the physiological patterns of activation to drive these neurons intracellularly, we further demonstrated that activating them using biting-like frequencies and durations, either alone or in combination, generated little or no force in the I3 muscle. When biting-like patterns preceded swallowing-like patterns, however, the forces during the subsequent swallowing-like patterns were significantly enhanced. Sequences of swallowing-like patterns, either with these neurons alone or in combination, further enhanced forces in the I3 muscle. These results suggest a novel mechanism for enhancing force production in a muscle, and may be relevant to understanding motor control in vertebrates.

  5. Neurophysiology of spontaneous facial expressions: I. Motor control of the upper and lower face is behaviorally independent in adults.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliott D; Gupta, Smita S; Adnan, Asif M; Holden, Thomas L; Havlicek, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar

    2016-03-01

    Facial expressions are described traditionally as monolithic entities. However, humans have the capacity to produce facial blends, in which the upper and lower face simultaneously display different emotional expressions. This, in turn, has led to the Component Theory of facial expressions. Recent neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have demonstrated that there are separate cortical motor areas for controlling the upper and lower face that, presumably, also occur in humans. The lower face is represented on the posterior ventrolateral surface of the frontal lobes in the primary motor and premotor cortices and the upper face is represented on the medial surface of the posterior frontal lobes in the supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Our laboratory has been engaged in a series of studies exploring the perception and production of facial blends. Using high-speed videography, we began measuring the temporal aspects of facial expressions to develop a more complete understanding of the neurophysiology underlying facial expressions and facial blends. The goal of the research presented here was to determine if spontaneous facial expressions in adults are predominantly monolithic or exhibit independent motor control of the upper and lower face. We found that spontaneous facial expressions are very complex and that the motor control of the upper and lower face is overwhelmingly independent, thus robustly supporting the Component Theory of facial expressions. Seemingly monolithic expressions, be they full facial or facial blends, are most likely the result of a timing coincident rather than a synchronous coordination between the ventrolateral and medial cortical motor areas responsible for controlling the lower and upper face, respectively. In addition, we found evidence that the right and left face may also exhibit independent motor control, thus supporting the concept that spontaneous facial expressions are organized predominantly across the horizontal facial

  6. Abnormal Pressure Pain, Touch Sensitivity, Proprioception, and Manual Dexterity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Hatem, Samar M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often display an abnormal reactivity to tactile stimuli, altered pain perception, and lower motor skills than healthy children. Nevertheless, these motor and sensory deficits have been mostly assessed by using clinical observation and self-report questionnaires. The present study aims to explore somatosensory and motor function in children with ASD by using standardized and objective testing procedures. Methods. Tactile and pressure pain thresholds in hands and lips, stereognosis, proprioception, and fine motor performance of the upper limbs were assessed in high-functioning children with ASD (n = 27) and compared with typically developing peers (n = 30).  Results. Children with ASD showed increased pain sensitivity, increased touch sensitivity in C-tactile afferents innervated areas, and diminished fine motor performance and proprioception compared to healthy children. No group differences were observed for stereognosis. Conclusion. Increased pain sensitivity and increased touch sensitivity in areas classically related to affective touch (C-tactile afferents innervated areas) may explain typical avoiding behaviors associated with hypersensitivity. Both sensory and motor impairments should be assessed and treated in children with ASD. PMID:26881091

  7. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO SODIUM ARSENITE ON MOTOR AND FOOD-MOTIVATED BEHAVIORS FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD IN C57BL6/J MICE

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Vincent P.; Reeve, Elizabeth A.; Onos, Kristen; Assadollahzadeh, Mina; McKay, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water is associated with numerous cancers and dermal and vascular diseases. Arsenic is also a potent nervous system toxicant and epidemiological studies indicate that intellectual functions in children are compromised following early developmental exposure. This study was designed to examine the effects of arsenic on a broad range of age-specific behaviors including basic sensory-motor responses in neonates, locomotor activity and grip strength in juveniles, and operant measures of learning and attention in adults. Pregnant C57BL6/J mice consumed drinking water containing 0, 8, 25, or 80 ppm sodium arsenite from the fourth day of gestation until birth. Arsenic produced a range of behavioral impairments in male and female offspring at each of the test ages. The most striking effects of arsenic were on the development of gait and other motor responses including acoustic startle, righting reflexes, and forelimb grip. These results suggest that developmental arsenic exposure can produce other behavioral impairments in children in addition to cognitive impairment. PMID:22266078

  8. Identifying Motor, Emotional–Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Frank, Samuel; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Cheng, Wendy; Gorin, Brian; Duh, Mei Sheng; Samuelson, David; Tulsky, David; Gutierrez, Sandra; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Mueller, Allison; Shen, Vivienne; Sung, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor) of Huntington's disease (HD) from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument. Methods We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone-based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad). The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression); cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension); physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication); social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships); end-of-life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty-six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor) emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion Based on an integrated, mixed-methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient-, caregiver-, and provider-triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD-specific HRQOL instrument, the HD-PRO-TRIAD™. PMID:24757585

  9. Differences in the Transmission of Sensory Input into Motor Output between Introverts and Extraverts: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, J.; Rammsayer, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate extraversion-related individual differences in the speed of transmission of sensory input into motor output. In a sample of 16 introverted and 16 extraverted female volunteers, event-related potentials, lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs), and electromyogram (EMG) were recorded as participants…

  10. Further evidence for the role of the caudate nucleus in programming motor and nonmotor behavior in Java monkeys.

    PubMed

    Vrijmoed-de Vries, M C; Cools, A R

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the short-term effects of intracaudate microinjections of carbachol in temporarily isolated and restrained Java monkeys. The monkeys were found to display a series of motor disturbances including blepharoptosis, facial twitches, tongue protrusions, ear flattening, torticollis, and compulsive alternations of rapid flexions and extensions of the extremities. In general, carbachol was found to produce consistent effects as far as it concerns its ability to elicit motor disturbances. Three of the five tested monkeys had previously received another series of carbachol injections when they were freely moving and living in a stabilized social group. Accordingly, the present study enabled us to compare the effectiveness of threshold doses of carbachol in the same monkey in two distinct situations. We concluded first, that motor disturbances and disturbances in social communication were closely coupled in relation to the involvement of a particular cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus of Java monkeys. Second, the motor disturbances under study appeared to require a larger degree of dysfunctioning of this substrate than did subtle disturbances in the social communication of these monkeys. And, finally, stress inherent to restraint increased the susceptibility of the cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus. The clinical impact of our findings is discussed in view of differences between the premorbid and manifest phases of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  12. PDE10A inhibitors stimulate or suppress motor behavior dependent on the relative activation state of the direct and indirect striatal output pathways

    PubMed Central

    Megens, Anton A H P; Hendrickx, Herman M R; Mahieu, Michel M A; Wellens, Annemie L Y; de Boer, Peter; Vanhoof, Greet

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) regulates the activity of striatal, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which are divided into a behaviorally stimulating, Gs-coupled D1 receptor-expressing “direct” pathway and a behaviorally suppressant, Gi-coupled D2 receptor-expressing “indirect” pathway. Activating both pathways, PDE10A inhibitors (PDE10AIs) combine functional characteristics of D2 antagonists and D1 agonists. While the effects of PDE10AIs on spontaneous and stimulated behavior have been extensively reported, the present study investigates their effects on suppressed behavior under various conditions of reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission: blockade of D1 receptors with SCH-23390, blockade of D2 receptors with haloperidol, or depletion of dopamine with RO-4-1284 or reserpine. In rats, PDE10AIs displayed relatively low cataleptic activity per se. After blocking D1 receptors, however, they induced pronounced catalepsy at low doses close to those required for inhibition of apomorphine-induced behavior; slightly higher doses resulted in behavioral stimulant effects, counteracting the catalepsy. PDE10AIs also counteracted catalepsy and related behaviors induced by D2 receptor blockade or dopamine depletion; catalepsy was replaced by behavioral stimulant effects under the latter but not the former condition. Similar interactions were observed at the level of locomotion in mice. At doses close to those inhibiting d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, PDE10AIs reversed hypolocomotion induced by D1 receptor blockade or dopamine depletion but not hypolocomotion induced by D2 receptor blockade. It is concluded that PDE10AIs stimulate or inhibit motor behavior dependent on the relative activation state of the direct and indirect striatal output pathways. PMID:25505601

  13. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  14. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  15. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  16. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  17. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    PubMed

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies.

  18. The curse of motor expertise: Use-dependent focal dystonia as a manifestation of maladaptive changes in body representation.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) impairs not only motor dexterity, but also somatosensory perception involved in well-trained behavioral tasks. Occupations that carry a risk of developing FTSD include musician, writer, painter, surgeon, and golfer, which are characterized by repetitive and precise motor actions over a prolonged period. Behavioral studies have uncovered various undesirable effects of FTSD on sensorimotor functions, such as a loss of independent movement control, unintended muscular co-activation, awkward limb posture, and impairment of fine discrimination of tactile and proprioceptive sensations. Studies using neuroimaging and noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have related such sensorimotor malfunctions to maladaptive neuroplastic changes in the sensorimotor system, including the primary motor and somatosensory areas, premotor area, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. In this review, we summarize recent empirical findings regarding phenomenological and pathophysiological abnormalities associated with the development of FTSD. We particularly focused on maladaptive alterations of body representations underlying the degradation of fine motor control and somatosensory perception in FTSD patients.

  19. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for.

  20. Motor dysfunction within the schizophrenia-spectrum: A dimensional step towards an underappreciated domain.

    PubMed

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Wolf, Nadine D; Sambataro, Fabio; Wolf, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) were considered to be intricately linked to schizophrenia. Subsequently, however, GMA have been increasingly regarded as unspecific transdiagnostic phenomena or related to side effects of antipsychotic treatment. Despite possible medication confounds, within the schizophrenia spectrum GMA have been categorized into three broad categories, i.e. neurological soft signs, abnormal involuntary movements and catatonia. Schizophrenia patients show a substantial overlap across a broad range of distinct motor signs and symptoms suggesting a prominent involvement of the motor system in disease pathophysiology. There have been several attempts to increase reliability and validity in diagnosing schizophrenia based on behavior and neurobiology, yet relatively little attention has been paid to the motor domain in the past. Nevertheless, accumulating neuroscientific evidence suggests the possibility of a motor endophenotype in schizophrenia, and that GMA could represent a specific dimension within the schizophrenia-spectrum. Here, we review current neuroimaging research on GMA in schizophrenia with an emphasis on distinct and common mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Based on a dimensional approach we show that multimodal neuroimaging combined with fine-grained clinical examination can result in a comprehensive characterization of structural and functional brain changes that are presumed to underlie core GMA in schizophrenia. We discuss the possibility of a distinct motor domain, together with its implications for future research. Investigating GMA by means of multimodal neuroimaging can essentially contribute at identifying novel and biologically reliable phenotypes in psychiatry.

  1. Motor dysfunction within the schizophrenia-spectrum: A dimensional step towards an underappreciated domain.

    PubMed

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Wolf, Nadine D; Sambataro, Fabio; Wolf, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) were considered to be intricately linked to schizophrenia. Subsequently, however, GMA have been increasingly regarded as unspecific transdiagnostic phenomena or related to side effects of antipsychotic treatment. Despite possible medication confounds, within the schizophrenia spectrum GMA have been categorized into three broad categories, i.e. neurological soft signs, abnormal involuntary movements and catatonia. Schizophrenia patients show a substantial overlap across a broad range of distinct motor signs and symptoms suggesting a prominent involvement of the motor system in disease pathophysiology. There have been several attempts to increase reliability and validity in diagnosing schizophrenia based on behavior and neurobiology, yet relatively little attention has been paid to the motor domain in the past. Nevertheless, accumulating neuroscientific evidence suggests the possibility of a motor endophenotype in schizophrenia, and that GMA could represent a specific dimension within the schizophrenia-spectrum. Here, we review current neuroimaging research on GMA in schizophrenia with an emphasis on distinct and common mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Based on a dimensional approach we show that multimodal neuroimaging combined with fine-grained clinical examination can result in a comprehensive characterization of structural and functional brain changes that are presumed to underlie core GMA in schizophrenia. We discuss the possibility of a distinct motor domain, together with its implications for future research. Investigating GMA by means of multimodal neuroimaging can essentially contribute at identifying novel and biologically reliable phenotypes in psychiatry. PMID:26547881

  2. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  3. Accelerated and widespread neuronal loss occurs in motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mice expressing a neurofilament-disrupting transgene.

    PubMed

    Plummer, J; Peterson, A; Messer, A

    1995-12-01

    To examine the effects of multiple stressors on the onset and specificity of a neurodegenerative disease, we derived mnd/mnd mice expressing a neurofilament-H/lacZ transgene. The mnd mutation causes adult-onset motor dysfunction, and produces abnormal ubiquitous accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment, with retinal degeneration and late-onset motor neuron degeneration. The neurofilament H-beta-galactosidase fusion protein causes endogenous neurofilament subunits to precipitate in perikarya, but shows neither significant neuronal degeneration nor behavioral changes until advanced age. In mnd/mnd-transgenic animals, neurological symptoms, lipopigment accumulation, and motor neuron loss were substantially accelerated. Newly vulnerable populations of neurons also degenerated, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and dorsal roots. This study exemplifies a synergistic interaction between a neuron-specific and a ubiquitous defect, leading to significant neurological consequences. It further indicates that cytoskeletal abnormalities similar to those observed in late-onset human neurodegenerative disorders can interact with other cellular defects and contribute to pathogenesis.

  4. Influence of chronic dopamine transporter inhibition by RTI-336 on motor behavior, sleep, and hormone levels in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Sawyer, Eileen K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors have been developed as a promising treatment approach for cocaine dependence. However, the stimulant effects of DAT inhibitors have the potential to disrupt sleep patterns, and the influence of long-term treatment on dopamine neurochemistry is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the stimulant-related effects of chronic DAT inhibitor (RTI-336) treatment on motor activity and sleep-like measures in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 4) and (2) to determine the effect of drug treatment on prolactin and cortisol levels. Subjects were fitted with a collar-mounted activity monitor to evaluate their motor activity, with 4 days of baseline recording preceding 21 days of daily saline or RTI-336 (1 mg/kg/day; intramuscular) injections. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to and following chronic treatment to assess hormone levels. RTI-336 produced a significant increase in locomotor activity at the end of the daytime period compared to saline administration. During the 3-week treatment period, sleep efficiency was decreased and the fragmentation index and latency to sleep onset were significantly increased. Hormone levels were not changed throughout the study. Chronic treatment with RTI-336 has a mild but significant stimulant effect, as evidenced by the significant increase in activity during the evening period which may cause minor disruptions in sleep measures. PMID:22023668

  5. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  6. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  7. Blockage of vibrissae afferents: I. Motor effects.

    PubMed

    Prchal, A; Albarracín, A L; Décima, E E

    2004-02-01

    In the past, it has been proposed that the rat vibrissae play an important role in other hand, postural abnormalities, muscle tone decreases and hypomotility after sensory organ destructions were proposed as evidence supporting the "level setting" or "tonic" hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that afferent activity, besides its well know transductive functions, sets the excitability state of the central nervous system. We thought the vibrissal system to be a good model to dissect these two postulated roles because vibrissae trimming would annul the transductive function without affecting the integrity of nerve activity. Thus we compare the effects of trimming the whiskers with blocking the vibrissal afferent nerves on two types of motor behavior: activity in an open field and walking over a rope connecting two elevated platforms. We found that only vibrissal afferent blockage (both nerve section and local anaesthesia) produced severe failures in the motor performances studied. These effects could not be fully explained by the abolition of the vibrissae as a sensory modality because cutting the whiskers did not significantly affect the motor performance. These data are discussed in reference to a tonic or general excitatory function of sensory inputs upon the central nervous system. PMID:15143620

  8. Short-term erythrosine B-induced inhibition of the brain regional serotonergic activity suppresses motor activity (exploratory behavior) of young adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies showed that repeated ingestion of erythrosine B (artificial food color) developed behavioral hyperactivity, but nothing is known about its single administration effect as well as the neurochemical (s) involvement. The present study provides evidence that a single higher dosage (10, 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of erythrosine administration to young adult male rats reduced motor activity (MA) maximally at 2 h and brain regional (medulla-pons, hippocampus and hypothalamus) serotonergic activity (measuring steady-state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate and 5-HT receptor binding) under similar experimental condition. The degree of erythrosine-induced inhibition of both MA and brain regional serotonergic activity was dosage dependent. Lower dosage (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect either of the above. Erythrosine (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.)-induced MA suppression was also observed in the presence of specific MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or MAO-B inhibitor, deprenyl (5 mg/kg, i.p.); but their co-application (5 mg/kg, i.p., each) effectively prevented the erythrosine-induced motor suppression. Altogether these results suggest that a single higher dosage of erythrosine (10-200 mg/kg, p.o.) may reduce MA by reducing serotonergic activity with modulation of central dopaminergic activity depending on the brain regions.

  9. Neural basis for motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex of primates. III. Computational and behavioral analysis of the sites of learning.

    PubMed

    Lisberger, S G

    1994-08-01

    1. We have used a combination of eye movement recordings and computer modeling to study long-term adaptive modification (motor learning) in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). The eye movement recordings place constraints on possible sites for motor learning. The computer model abides by these constraints, as well as constraints provided by data in previous papers, to formalize a new hypothesis about the sites of motor learning. The model was designed to reproduce as much of the existing neural and behavioral data as possible. 2. Motor learning was induced in monkeys by fitting them with spectacles that caused the gain of the VOR (eye speed divided by head speed) to increase to values > 1.6 or to decrease to values < 0.4. We elicited pursuit by providing ramp motion of a small target at 30 degrees/s along the horizontal axis. Changes in the gain of the VOR caused only small and inconsistent changes in the eye acceleration in the first 100 ms after the onset of pursuit and had no effect on the eye velocity during tracking of steady target motion. Electrical stimulation in the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus with single pulses or trains of pulses caused smooth eye movement toward the side of stimulation after latencies of 9-11 ms. Neither the latency, the peak eye velocity, nor the initial eye acceleration varied as a consistent function of the gain of the VOR. 3. The computer model contained nodes that represented position-vestibular-pause cells (PVP-cells) and flocculus target neurons (FTNs) in the vestibular nucleus, and horizontal gaze-velocity Purkinje cells (HGVP-cells) in the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus. Node FTN represented only the "E-c FTNs," which show increased firing for eye motion away from the side of recording. The transfer functions in the model included dynamic elements (filters) as well as static elements (summing junctions, gain elements, and time delays). Except for the transfer functions that converted visual motion inputs

  10. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  11. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination.

  12. Disrupted ERK signaling during cortical development leads to abnormal progenitor proliferation, neuronal and network excitability and behavior, modeling human neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pucilowska, Joanna; Puzerey, Pavel A; Karlo, J Colleen; Galán, Roberto F; Landreth, Gary E

    2012-06-20

    Genetic disorders arising from copy number variations in the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases or mutations in their upstream regulators that result in neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes are associated with developmental abnormalities, cognitive deficits, and autism. We developed murine models of these disorders by deleting the ERKs at the beginning of neurogenesis and report disrupted cortical progenitor generation and proliferation, which leads to altered cytoarchitecture of the postnatal brain in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We show that these changes are due to ERK-dependent dysregulation of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1), resulting in cell cycle elongation, favoring neurogenic over self-renewing divisions. The precocious neurogenesis causes premature progenitor pool depletion, altering the number and distribution of pyramidal neurons. Importantly, loss of ERK2 alters the intrinsic excitability of cortical neurons and contributes to perturbations in global network activity. These changes are associated with elevated anxiety and impaired working and hippocampal-dependent memory in these mice. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the basis of cortical malformation which may provide a potential link to cognitive deficits in individuals with altered ERK activity.

  13. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus. PMID:26798620

  14. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  15. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  16. A simple mapping between cell swimming behavior and single-motor state in multi-flagellated E. coli<