Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal motor control

  1. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  2. Feedforward and feedback motor control abnormalities implicate cerebellar dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Matthew W; Mohanty, Suman; Greene, Rachel K; Cook, Edwin H; Vaillancourt, David E; Sweeney, John A

    2015-02-04

    Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and among the earliest manifestations of the disorder. They have been studied far less than the social-communication and cognitive deficits that define ASD, but a mechanistic understanding of sensorimotor abnormalities in ASD may provide key insights into the neural underpinnings of the disorder. In this human study, we examined rapid, precision grip force contractions to determine whether feedforward mechanisms supporting initial motor output before sensory feedback can be processed are disrupted in ASD. Sustained force contractions also were examined to determine whether reactive adjustments to ongoing motor behavior based on visual feedback are altered. Sustained force was studied across multiple force levels and visual gains to assess motor and visuomotor mechanisms, respectively. Primary force contractions of individuals with ASD showed greater peak rate of force increases and large transient overshoots. Individuals with ASD also showed increased sustained force variability that scaled with force level and was more severe when visual gain was highly amplified or highly degraded. When sustaining a constant force level, their reactive adjustments were more periodic than controls, and they showed increased reliance on slower feedback mechanisms. Feedforward and feedback mechanism alterations each were associated with more severe social-communication impairments in ASD. These findings implicate anterior cerebellar circuits involved in feedforward motor control and posterior cerebellar circuits involved in transforming visual feedback into precise motor adjustments in ASD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352015-11$15.00/0.

  3. Feedforward and Feedback Motor Control Abnormalities Implicate Cerebellar Dysfunctions in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Suman; Greene, Rachel K.; Cook, Edwin H.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Sweeney, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and among the earliest manifestations of the disorder. They have been studied far less than the social-communication and cognitive deficits that define ASD, but a mechanistic understanding of sensorimotor abnormalities in ASD may provide key insights into the neural underpinnings of the disorder. In this human study, we examined rapid, precision grip force contractions to determine whether feedforward mechanisms supporting initial motor output before sensory feedback can be processed are disrupted in ASD. Sustained force contractions also were examined to determine whether reactive adjustments to ongoing motor behavior based on visual feedback are altered. Sustained force was studied across multiple force levels and visual gains to assess motor and visuomotor mechanisms, respectively. Primary force contractions of individuals with ASD showed greater peak rate of force increases and large transient overshoots. Individuals with ASD also showed increased sustained force variability that scaled with force level and was more severe when visual gain was highly amplified or highly degraded. When sustaining a constant force level, their reactive adjustments were more periodic than controls, and they showed increased reliance on slower feedback mechanisms. Feedforward and feedback mechanism alterations each were associated with more severe social-communication impairments in ASD. These findings implicate anterior cerebellar circuits involved in feedforward motor control and posterior cerebellar circuits involved in transforming visual feedback into precise motor adjustments in ASD. PMID:25653359

  4. Sensorimotor integration and psychopathology: motor control abnormalities related to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Cunha, Marlo; Sanfim, Antonio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis F; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence is reviewed to examine relationships among sensorimotor and cognitive aspects in some important psychiatry disorders. This study reviews the theoretical models in the context of sensorimotor integration and the abnormalities reported in the most common psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder and squizophrenia. The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane data base and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: Alzheimer's disease, AD, autism spectrum disorder, and Squizophrenia in combination with sensorimotor integration. Fifty articles published in English and were selected conducted from 1989 up to 2010. We found that the sensorimotor integration process plays a relevant role in elementary mechanisms involved in occurrence of abnormalities in most common psychiatric disorders, participating in the acquisition of abilities that have as critical factor the coupling of different sensory data which will constitute the basis of elaboration of consciously goal-directed motor outputs. Whether these disorders are associated with an abnormal peripheral sensory input or defective central processing is still unclear, but some studies support a central mechanism. Sensorimotor integration seems to play a significant role in the disturbances of motor control, like deficits in the feedforward mechanism, typically seen in AD, autistic and squizophrenic patients.

  5. Selective motor control correlates with gait abnormality in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chruscikowski, Emily; Fry, Nicola R D; Noble, Jonathan J; Gough, Martin; Shortland, Adam P

    2017-02-01

    Children with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) commonly have limited selective motor control (SMC). This affects their ability to complete functional tasks. The impact of impaired SMC on walking has yet to be fully understood. Measures of SMC have been shown to correlate with specific characteristics of gait, however the impact of SMC on overall gait pattern has not been reported. This study explored SMC data collected as part of routine gait analysis in children with bilateral CP. As part of their clinical assessment, SMC was measured with the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremities (SCALE) in 194 patients with bilateral cerebral palsy attending for clinical gait analysis at a single centre. Their summed SCALE score was compared with overall gait impairment, as measured by Gait Profile Score (GPS). Score on SCALE showed a significant negative correlation with GPS (r s =-0.603, p<0.001). Cerebral injuries in CP result in damage to the motor tracts responsible for SMC. Our results indicate that this damage is also associated with changes in the development of walking pattern in children with CP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  7. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  8. Abnormal functional motor lateralization in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Mario; Fazio, Leonardo; De Salvia, Michela; Petito, Annamaria; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Bellomo, Antonello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2012-07-30

    Earlier neuroimaging studies of motor function in schizophrenia have demonstrated reduced functional lateralization in the motor network during motor tasks. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visually guided motor task in 18 clinically unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls to investigate if abnormal functional lateralization is related to genetic risk for this brain disorder. Whereas activity associated with motor task performance was mainly contralateral with only a marginal ipsilateral component in healthy participants, unaffected siblings had strong bilateral activity with significantly greater response in ipsilateral and contralateral premotor areas as well as in contralateral subcortical motor regions relative to controls. Reduced lateralization in siblings was also identified with a measure of laterality quotient. These findings suggest that abnormal functional lateralization of motor circuitry is related to genetic risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  10. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  11. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  13. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  14. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  15. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  16. Excessive motor overflow reveals abnormal inter-hemispheric connectivity in Friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Low, Sze-Cheen; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B; Ternes, Anne-Marie; Addamo, Patricia K; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to characterise force variability and motor overflow in 12 individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. Participants performed a finger-pressing task by exerting 30 and 70 % of their maximum finger force using the index finger of the right and left hand. Control of force production was measured as force variability, while any involuntary movements occurring on the finger of the other, passive hand, was measured as motor overflow. Significantly greater force variability in individuals with FRDA compared with controls is indicative of cortico-cerebellar disruption affecting motor control. Meanwhile, significantly greater motor overflow in this group provides the first evidence of possible abnormal inter-hemispheric activity that may be attributable to asymmetrical neuronal loss in the dentate nucleus. Overall, this study demonstrated a differential engagement in the underlying default processes of the motor system in FRDA.

  17. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  18. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  19. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  20. Aberrant Hyperconnectivity in the Motor System at Rest Is Linked to Motor Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Wiest, Roland; Viher, Petra V

    2017-09-01

    Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day. Regions of interest (ROI) were cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cerebellum. We computed ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity. Principal component analyses of motor behavioral data produced 4 factors (primary motor, catatonia and dyskinesia, coordination, and spontaneous motor activity). Motor factors were correlated with connectivity values. Schizophrenia was characterized by hyperconnectivity in 3 main areas: motor cortices to thalamus, motor cortices to cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex to the subthalamic nucleus. In patients, thalamocortical hyperconnectivity was linked to catatonia and dyskinesia, whereas aberrant connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate and caudate was linked to the primary motor factor. Likewise, connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum correlated with spontaneous motor activity. Therefore, altered functional connectivity suggests a specific intrinsic and tonic neural abnormality in the motor system in schizophrenia. Furthermore, altered neural activity at rest was linked to motor abnormalities on the behavioral level. Thus, aberrant resting state connectivity may indicate a system out of balance, which produces characteristic behavioral alterations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  2. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  3. The development of behavioral abnormalities in the motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mouse.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Valerie J; Scott Ganus, J; Messer, Anne

    2002-05-24

    The motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mouse, which has widespread abnormal accumulating lipoprotein and neuronal degeneration, has a mutation in CLN8, the gene for human progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR). EPMR is one of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of neurological disorders characterized by autofluorescent lipopigment accumulation, blindness, seizures, motor deterioration, and dementia. The human phenotype of EPMR suggests that, in addition to the motor symptoms previously categorized, various types of progressive behavioral abnormalities would be expected in mnd mice. We have therefore examined exploratory behavior, fear conditioning, and aggression in 2-3 month and 4-5 month old male mnd mice and age-matched C57BL/6 (B6) controls. The mnd mice displayed increased activity with decreased habituation in the activity monitor, poor contextual and cued memory, and heightened aggression relative to B6 controls. These behavioral deficits were most prominent at 4-5 months of age, which is prior to the onset of gross motor symptoms at 6 months. Our results provide a link from the mutation via pathology to a quantifiable multidimensional behavioral phenotype of this naturally occurring mouse model of NCL.

  4. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of motor and cognitive networks in early manifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R C; Sambataro, F; Vasic, N; Depping, M S; Thomann, P A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Süssmuth, S D; Orth, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of multiple neural networks during the brain's 'resting state' could facilitate biomarker development in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and may provide new insights into the relationship between neural dysfunction and clinical symptoms. To date, however, very few studies have examined the functional integrity of multiple resting state networks (RSNs) in manifest HD, and even less is known about whether concomitant brain atrophy affects neural activity in patients. Using MRI, we investigated brain structure and RSN function in patients with early HD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). For resting-state fMRI data a group-independent component analysis identified spatiotemporally distinct patterns of motor and prefrontal RSNs of interest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess regional brain atrophy, and 'biological parametric mapping' analyses to investigate the impact of atrophy on neural activity. Compared with controls, patients showed connectivity changes within distinct neural systems including lateral prefrontal, supplementary motor, thalamic, cingulate, temporal and parietal regions. In patients, supplementary motor area and cingulate cortex connectivity indices were associated with measures of motor function, whereas lateral prefrontal connectivity was associated with cognition. This study provides evidence for aberrant connectivity of RSNs associated with motor function and cognition in early manifest HD when controlling for brain atrophy. This suggests clinically relevant changes of RSN activity in the presence of HD-associated cortical and subcortical structural abnormalities.

  5. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  6. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. METHODS: After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. RESULTS: Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. CONCLUSION: After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity. PMID:25400453

  7. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  8. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  9. Esophageal motor abnormalities in eosinophilic esophagitis identified by high-resolution manometry.

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, Leticia; Santander, Cecilio; Lopez Martín, Mari Carmen; Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Chavarría-Herbozo, Carlos; Gisbert, Javier P; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities, as measured by conventional manometry (CM), are non-specific in the majority of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Moreover, the study of CM is limited by poor interobserver agreement. The aims of the present study were: (i) to assess the esophageal patterns in EoE by a topographic analysis of high-resolution manometry (HRM) data; and (ii) to establish a relationship between motility abnormalities and symptoms of EoE, such as dysphagia and bolus impaction. All adult patients with EoE diagnosed according to histological criteria, and controls with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dysphagia, were included. HRM was done in EoE patients and controls. For the analysis of data, the Chicago classification was followed. HRM was performed in 21 patients with EoE, as well as in 21 controls. Of the 21 patients with EoE, 10 (48%) showed pan-esophageal pressurization, six (28%) showed peristaltic dysfunction, and in five cases (24%), HRM was normal. There was no pan-esophageal pressurization in controls. Nine of 10 patients with pan-esophageal pressurization required endoscopic bolus removal (P < 0.05); none had obstructive endoscopy findings. The most frequent esophageal motor abnormality measured by HRM was a pan-esophageal pressurization. Bolus impaction in patients with EoE was associated with pan-esophageal pressurization. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Structural and functional abnormalities of the motor system in developmental stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Kate E.; Smith, Stephen M.; Davis, Steve; Howell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Summary Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional and diffusion imaging, we examined brain structure and function in the motor and language areas in a group of young people who stutter. During speech production, irrespective of fluency or auditory feedback, the people who stuttered showed overactivity relative to controls in the anterior insula, cerebellum and midbrain bilaterally and underactivity in the ventral premotor, Rolandic opercular and sensorimotor cortex bilaterally and Heschl’s gyrus on the left. These results are consistent with a recent meta-analysis of functional imaging studies in developmental stuttering. Two additional findings emerged from our study. First, we found overactivity in the midbrain, which was at the level of the substantia nigra and extended to the pedunculopontine nucleus, red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus. This overactivity is consistent with suggestions in previous studies of abnormal function of the basal ganglia or excessive dopamine in people who stutter. Second, we found underactivity of the cortical motor and premotor areas associated with articulation and speech production. Analysis of the diffusion data revealed that the integrity of the white matter underlying the underactive areas in ventral premotor cortex was reduced in people who stutter. The white matter tracts in this area via connections with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal cortex provide a substrate for the integration of articulatory planning and sensory feedback, and via connections with primary motor cortex, a substrate for execution of articulatory movements. Our data support the conclusion that stuttering is a disorder related

  11. Structural and functional abnormalities of the motor system in developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate E; Smith, Stephen M; Davis, Steve; Howell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional and diffusion imaging, we examined brain structure and function in the motor and language areas in a group of young people who stutter. During speech production, irrespective of fluency or auditory feedback, the people who stuttered showed overactivity relative to controls in the anterior insula, cerebellum and midbrain bilaterally and underactivity in the ventral premotor, Rolandic opercular and sensorimotor cortex bilaterally and Heschl's gyrus on the left. These results are consistent with a recent meta-analysis of functional imaging studies in developmental stuttering. Two additional findings emerged from our study. First, we found overactivity in the midbrain, which was at the level of the substantia nigra and extended to the pedunculopontine nucleus, red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus. This overactivity is consistent with suggestions in previous studies of abnormal function of the basal ganglia or excessive dopamine in people who stutter. Second, we found underactivity of the cortical motor and premotor areas associated with articulation and speech production. Analysis of the diffusion data revealed that the integrity of the white matter underlying the underactive areas in ventral premotor cortex was reduced in people who stutter. The white matter tracts in this area via connections with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal cortex provide a substrate for the integration of articulatory planning and sensory feedback, and via connections with primary motor cortex, a substrate for execution of articulatory movements. Our data support the conclusion that stuttering is a disorder related primarily

  12. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  13. Electromyographic studies of motor control in humans.

    PubMed

    Shahani, B T; Wierzbicka, M M

    1987-11-01

    Electromyography and electroneurography have proved to be useful in investigation and understanding of a variety of neurologic disorders. In most laboratories, however, these electrodiagnostic techniques have been used to help in the diagnosis of diseases that affect the peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions, or skeletal muscle fibers. Although major advances in electronic and computer technology have made it possible to study, quantitate, and document reflex activity in intact human subjects, most neurologists still rely on gross clinical observations and most electromyographers continue to use conventional techniques of EMG and nerve conduction studies to differentiate "myopathy" from "neuropathy." This article is a review of some of the electromyographic techniques that have been used in the authors' laboratory for the study of normal and abnormal motor control in man and the treatment of patients with disorders of motor control.

  14. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  15. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  16. Motor cortical oscillations are abnormally suppressed during repetitive movement in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Allen, David P; Simuni, Tanya; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2016-01-01

    Impaired repetitive movement in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with reduced amplitude, paradoxical hastening and hesitations or arrest at higher movement rates. This study examined the effects of movement rate and medication on movement-related cortical oscillations in persons with PD. Nine participants with PD were studied off and on medication and compared to nine control participants. Participants performed index finger movements cued by tones from 1 to 3 Hz. Movement-related oscillations were derived from electroencephalographic recordings over the region of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (S1/M1) during rest, listening, or synchronized movement. At rest, spectral power recorded over the region of the contralateral S1/M1 was increased in the alpha band and decreased in the beta band in participants with PD relative to controls. During movement, the level of alpha and beta band power relative to baseline was significantly reduced in the PD group, off and on medication, compared to controls. Reduced movement amplitude and hastening at movement rates near 2 Hz was associated with abnormally suppressed and persistent desynchronization of oscillations in alpha and beta bands. Motor cortical oscillations in the alpha and beta bands are abnormally suppressed in PD, particularly during higher rate movements. These findings contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying impaired repetitive movement in PD. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  18. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Amir; Zee, David S.

    2011-01-01

    An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural–functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: (1) the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief) vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements, and gaze holding, (2) the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained) vestibular responses, and (3) the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region) for saccades and pursuit initiation. PMID:21909334

  19. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  20. Abnormal functional connectivity and cortical integrity influence dominant hand motor disability in multiple sclerosis: a multimodal analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jidan; Nantes, Julia C; Holmes, Scott A; Gallant, Serge; Narayanan, Sridar; Koski, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Functional reorganization and structural damage occur in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) throughout the disease course. However, the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity (FC) reorganization in the sensorimotor network and motor disability in MS is not well understood. This study used resting-state fMRI, T1-weighted and T2-weighted, and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to investigate the relationship between abnormal FC in the sensorimotor network and upper limb motor disability in people with MS, as well as the impact of disease-related structural abnormalities within this network. Specifically, the differences in FC of the left hemisphere hand motor region between MS participants with preserved (n = 17) and impaired (n = 26) right hand function, compared with healthy controls (n = 20) was investigated. Differences in brain atrophy and MT ratio measured at the global and regional levels were also investigated between the three groups. Motor preserved MS participants had stronger FC in structurally intact visual information processing regions relative to motor impaired MS participants. Motor impaired MS participants showed weaker FC in the sensorimotor and somatosensory association cortices and more severe structural damage throughout the brain compared with the other groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that regional MTR predicted motor disability beyond the impact of global atrophy whereas regional grey matter volume did not. More importantly, as the first multimodal analysis combining resting-state fMRI, T1-weighted, T2-weighted and MTR images in MS, we demonstrate how a combination of structural and functional changes may contribute to motor impairment or preservation in MS. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4262-4275, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill with Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Lauren R.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were: (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (“postural”) knowledge, and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and basic motor skill to dyspraxia in autism. Thirty-seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 typically developing (TD) children, ages 8–13, completed: (a) an examination of basic motor skills, (b) a postural knowledge test assessing praxis discrimination, and (c) a praxis examination. Children with ASD showed worse basic motor skill and postural knowledge than controls. The ASD group continued to show significantly poorer praxis than controls after accounting for age, IQ, basic motor skill, and postural knowledge. Dyspraxia in autism appears to be associated with impaired formation of spatial representations, as well as transcoding and execution. Distributed abnormality across parietal, premotor, and motor circuitry, as well as anomalous connectivity may be implicated. PMID:19702410

  2. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared

  3. Autism spectrum disorder and early motor abnormalities: Connected or coincidental companions?

    PubMed

    Setoh, Peipei; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Research in the past decade has produced a growing body of evidence showing that motor abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are the rule rather than the exception. The paper by Chinello and colleagues furthers our understanding of the importance of studying motor functions in ASD by testing a non-clinical population of parents-infant triads. Chinello and colleagues' findings seem to suggest that subclinical motor impairments may exist in the typical population with inherited non-clinical ASD traits. Chinello and colleagues' discovery also urges us to ask why motor abnormalities exist in typically developing infants when their parents present some subclinical ASD traits. We believe that there are at least two possibilities. In the first possible scenario, motor impairments and ASD traits form a single cluster of symptoms unique to a subgroup of individuals with autism. A second possible scenario is that motor atypicalities are the first warning signs of vulnerability often associated with atypical development. In conclusion, Chinello et al.'s findings inform us that subclinical atypical phenotypes such as sociocommunicative anomalies may be related to subclinical motor performances in the next generation. This adds to our knowledge by shedding some light on the relation of vulnerability in one domain with vulnerability in another domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormally reduced primary motor cortex output is related to impaired hand function in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Pirog Revill, Kathleen; Haut, Marc W; Kowalski, Greg M; Wischnewski, Miles; Pifer, Marissa; Belagaje, Samir R; Nahab, Fadi; Cobia, Derin J; Hu, Xiaoping; Drake, Daniel; Hobbs, Gerald

    2018-06-20

    Stroke often involves primary motor cortex (M1) and its corticospinal projections (CST). As hand function is critically dependent on these structures, its recovery is often incomplete. The neuronal substrate supporting affected hand function is not well understood but likely involves reorganized M1 and CST of the lesioned hemisphere (M1 IL and CST IL ). We hypothesized that affected hand function in chronic stroke is related to structural and functional reorganization of M1 IL and CST IL . We tested 18 patients with chronic ischemic stroke involving M1 or CST. Their hand function was compared to 18 age matched healthy subjects. M1 IL thickness and CST IL fractional anisotropy (FA) were determined with MRI and compared to measures of the other hemisphere. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to M1 IL to determine its input output function (stimulus response curve, SRC). The plateau of the SRC (MEPmax), inflection point and slope parameters of the curve were extracted. Results were compared to measures in 12 age matched healthy controls. MEPmax of M1 IL was significantly smaller (p=0.02) in the patients, indicating reduced CST IL motor output, and was correlated with impaired hand function (p=0.02). M1 IL thickness (p<0.01) and CST IL -FA (p<0.01) were reduced but did not correlate with hand function. The results indicate that employed M1 IL or CST IL structural measures do not explain the extent of impairment in hand function once M1 and CST are sufficiently functional for TMS to evoke a motor potential. Instead, impairment of hand function is best explained by the abnormally low output from M1 IL .

  5. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organisation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Professional musicians are an excellent human model of long term effects of skilled motor training on the structure and function of the motor system. However, such effects are accompanied by an increased risk of developing motor abnormalities, in particular musician's dystonia. Previously we found that there was an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand area of motor cortex (sensorimotor organisation, SMO) in healthy musicians as tested with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. In musician's dystonia, this expansion was even larger, resulting in a complete lack of somatotopic organisation. We hypothesised that the disordered motor control in musician's dystonia is a consequence of the disordered SMO. In the present paper we test this idea by giving pianists with musician's dystonia 15 min experience of a modified proprioceptive training task. This restored SMO towards that seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, motor control of the affected task improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI piano, and the amount of behavioural improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor re-organisation. In healthy pianists and non-musicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest a link between the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks in highly skilled individuals. PMID:19923295

  6. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  7. Control Circuit For Two Stepping Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger; Rehmann, Kenneth; Backus, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Control circuit operates two independent stepping motors, one at a time. Provides following operating features: After selected motor stepped to chosen position, power turned off to reduce dissipation; Includes two up/down counters that remember at which one of eight steps each motor set. For selected motor, step indicated by illumination of one of eight light-emitting diodes (LED's) in ring; Selected motor advanced one step at time or repeatedly at rate controlled; Motor current - 30 mA at 90 degree positions, 60 mA at 45 degree positions - indicated by high or low intensity of LED that serves as motor-current monitor; Power-on reset feature provides trouble-free starts; To maintain synchronism between control circuit and motors, stepping of counters inhibited when motor power turned off.

  8. Weak Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbation during Articulation in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Abnormal Auditory-Motor Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tiede, Mark K.; Guenther, Frank H.; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking) functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS). Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants’ compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls’ and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms), but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05). Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands. PMID:22911857

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease-associated esophagitis induces endogenous cytokine production leading to motor abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Florian; Cheng, Ling; Harnett, Karen M; Chak, Amitabh; Cooper, Gregory S; Isenberg, Gerard; Ray, Monica; Katz, Jeffry A; Catanzaro, Andrew; O'Shea, Robert; Post, Anthony B; Wong, Richard; Sivak, Michael V; McCormick, Thomas; Phillips, Manijeh; West, Gail A; Willis, Joseph E; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition frequently associated with esophagitis and motor abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, may be implicated because they reduce esophageal muscle contractility, but these results derive from in vitro or animal models of esophagitis. This study used human esophageal cells and tissues to identify the cellular source of cytokines in human esophagitis investigate whether cytokines can be induced by gastric refluxate, and examine whether esophageal tissue- or cell-derived mediators affect muscle contractility. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with and without esophagitis, organ-cultured, and undernatants were assessed for cytokine content. The cytokine profile of esophageal epithelial, fibroblast, and muscle cells was analyzed, and esophageal mucosa and cell products were tested in an esophageal circular muscle contraction assay. The mucosa of esophagitis patients produced significantly greater amounts of IL-1beta and IL-6 compared with those of control patients. Cultured esophageal epithelial cells produced IL-6, as did fibroblasts and muscle cells. Epithelial cells exposed to buffered, but not denatured, gastric juice produced IL-6. Undernatants of mucosal biopsy cultures from esophagitis patients reduced esophageal muscle contraction, as did supernatants from esophageal epithelial cell cultures. The human esophagus produces cytokines capable of reducing contractility of esophageal muscle cells. Exposure to gastric juice is sufficient to stimulate esophageal epithelial cells to produce IL-6, a cytokine able to alter esophageal contractility. These results indicate that classic cytokines are important mediators of the motor disturbances associated with human esophageal inflammation.

  10. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rm.facciolo@unical.i; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatmentmore » sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.« less

  11. Decomposing mechanisms of abnormal saccade generation in schizophrenia patients: Contributions of volitional initiation, motor preparation, and fixation release.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Benedikt; Elsner, Björn; Möllers, David; Kathmann, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Clinical and theoretical models suggest deficient volitional initiation of action in schizophrenia patients. Recent research provided an experimental model of testing this assumption using saccade tasks. However, inconsistent findings necessitate a specification of conditions on which the deficit may occur. The present study sought to detect mechanisms that may contribute to poor performance. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy control participants performed visually guided and two types of volitional saccade tasks. All tasks varied as to whether the initial fixation stimulus disappeared (fixation stimulus offset) or continued during saccade initiation, and whether a direction cue allowed motor preparation of the specific saccade. Saccade latencies of the two groups were differentially affected by task type, fixation stimulus offset, and cueing, suggesting abnormal volitional saccade generation, fixation release, and motor preparation in schizophrenia. However, substantial performance deficits may only occur if all affected processes are required in a task. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-15

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ε-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.

  13. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients. PMID:22080833

  14. Motor control is decision-making.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Landy, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Motor behavior may be viewed as a problem of maximizing the utility of movement outcome in the face of sensory, motor and task uncertainty. Viewed in this way, and allowing for the availability of prior knowledge in the form of a probability distribution over possible states of the world, the choice of a movement plan and strategy for motor control becomes an application of statistical decision theory. This point of view has proven successful in recent years in accounting for movement under risk, inferring the loss function used in motor tasks, and explaining motor behavior in a wide variety of circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal intrinsic esophageal innervation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a likely cause of motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pederiva, Federica; Rodriguez, Jose I; Ruiz-Bravo, Elena; Martinez, Leopoldo; Tovar, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have dilated esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux. Sparse intrinsic esophageal innervation has been described in rats with CDH, but this issue has not been investigated in patients with CDH. The present study tests the hypothesis that innervatory anomalies could account for motor dysfunction in human CDH. The esophagi of CDH (n = 6) and control babies dead of other causes (n = 6) were included in paraffin, transversally sectioned, and immunostained with antineurofilament and anti-S-100 antibodies. The proportion of the section surface occupied by neural structures, the ganglionar surface, and the number of neurons per ganglion were measured in 2 to 5 low-power fields from the proximal and distal esophagus with the assistance of image analysis software. Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparing the results using a threshold of significance of P < .05. The percentage of neural/muscle surface was similar in the upper esophagus in both groups, but it was significantly decreased in the lower esophagus of patients with CDH in comparison with controls. There was a relative scarcity of neural tissue in the intermuscular plexus of the lower esophagus. On the other hand, the ganglionar surface and the number of neurons per ganglion were identical in both groups. These results were similar with both immunostainings. Intrinsic innervation of the lower esophagus in CDH is abnormal in terms of decreased density of neural structures in the intermuscular plexus. These neural crest-derived anomalies could explain in part the esophageal dysfunction in survivors of CDH.

  16. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  17. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  18. Motor Control Research Requires Nonlinear Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the original article "The Cinderella of psychology: The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior," by D. A. Rosenbaum. Rosenbaum draws attention to the study of motor control and evaluates seven possible explanations for why the topic has been relatively neglected. The point of this comment is that…

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rollin G.; Kortegaard, Bert L.; Jones, David F.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  20. Zebrafish embryos exposed to alcohol undergo abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Sylvain, Nicole J; Brewster, Daniel L; Ali, Declan W

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero have significantly delayed gross and fine motor skills, as well as deficiencies in reflex development. The reasons that underlie the motor deficits caused by ethanol (EtOH) exposure remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure (1.5%, 2% and 2.5% EtOH) on motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) larval zebrafish. EtOH treated fish exhibited morphological deformities and fewer bouts of swimming in response to touch, compared with untreated fish. Immunolabelling with anti-acetylated tubulin indicated that fish exposed to 2.5% EtOH had significantly higher rates of motor neuron axon defects. Immunolabelling of primary and secondary motor neurons, using znp-1 and zn-8, revealed that fish exposed to 2% and 2.5% EtOH exhibited significantly higher rates of primary and secondary motor neuron axon defects compared to controls. Examination of red and white muscle fibers revealed that fish exposed to EtOH had significantly smaller fibers compared with controls. These findings indicate that motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology is affected by early alcohol exposure in zebrafish embryos, and that this may be related to deficits in locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuzzy control of small servo motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maor, Ron; Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    To explore the benefits of fuzzy logic and understand the differences between the classical control methods and fuzzy control methods, the Togai InfraLogic applications engineering staff developed and implemented a motor control system for small servo motors. The motor assembly for testing the fuzzy and conventional controllers consist of servo motor RA13M and an encoder with a range of 4096 counts. An interface card was designed and fabricated to interface the motor assembly and encoder to an IBM PC. The fuzzy logic based motor controller was developed using the TILShell and Fuzzy C Development System on an IBM PC. A Proportional-Derivative (PD) type conventional controller was also developed and implemented in the IBM PC to compare the performance with the fuzzy controller. Test cases were defined to include step inputs of 90 and 180 degrees rotation, sine and square wave profiles in 5 to 20 hertz frequency range, as well as ramp inputs. In this paper we describe our approach to develop a fuzzy as well as PH controller, provide details of hardware set-up and test cases, and discuss the performance results. In comparison, the fuzzy logic based controller handles the non-linearities of the motor assembly very well and provides excellent control over a broad range of parameters. Fuzzy technology, as indicated by our results, possesses inherent adaptive features.

  2. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system.

    PubMed

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global motion perception is related to motor function in 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; McKinlay, Christopher J. D.; Harding, Jane E.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed. After adjustment for verbal IQ or both visual acuity and stereoacuity, MCT was modestly, but significantly, associated with all components of motor function with the exception of gross motor scores. In a separate analysis, stereoacuity, but not visual acuity, was significantly associated with both gross and fine motor scores. These results indicate that the development of motion perception and stereoacuity are associated with motor function in pre-school children. PMID:28435122

  4. Global motion perception is related to motor function in 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Harding, Jane E; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed. After adjustment for verbal IQ or both visual acuity and stereoacuity, MCT was modestly, but significantly, associated with all components of motor function with the exception of fine motor scores. In a separate analysis, stereoacuity, but not visual acuity, was significantly associated with both gross and fine motor scores. These results indicate that the development of motion perception and stereoacuity are associated with motor function in pre-school children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  6. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    PubMed

    Bárez-López, Soledad; Bosch-García, Daniel; Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  7. The spectrum of motor function abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ang, D; Blondeau, K; Sifrim, D; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has traditionally been regarded as the most severe end of the spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease and is of great clinical importance in view of the association with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies have documented high levels of esophageal acid exposure in Barrett's esophagus. Various pathogenetic mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include abnormalities in esophageal peristalsis, defective lower esophageal sphincter pressures, gastric dysmotility and bile reflux. Whilst these factors provide evidence for an acquired cause of Barrett's esophagus, an underlying genetic predisposition cannot be ruled out. Although the past decade has brought about many new discoveries in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus, it has also added further controversy to this complex disorder. A detailed analysis of the gastrointestinal motor abnormalities occurring in Barrett's esophagus follows, with a review of the currently available literature and an update on this condition that continues to be of interest to the gastroenterologist.

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pump, elevator, steering gear, or auxiliary that is vital to the vessel's propulsion system, except a... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor... operation is not hazardous. If automatic restart is hazardous, the motor controller must have low-voltage...

  9. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pump, elevator, steering gear, or auxiliary that is vital to the vessel's propulsion system, except a... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor... operation is not hazardous. If automatic restart is hazardous, the motor controller must have low-voltage...

  10. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pump, elevator, steering gear, or auxiliary that is vital to the vessel's propulsion system, except a... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor... operation is not hazardous. If automatic restart is hazardous, the motor controller must have low-voltage...

  11. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pump, elevator, steering gear, or auxiliary that is vital to the vessel's propulsion system, except a... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor... operation is not hazardous. If automatic restart is hazardous, the motor controller must have low-voltage...

  12. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pump, elevator, steering gear, or auxiliary that is vital to the vessel's propulsion system, except a... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor... operation is not hazardous. If automatic restart is hazardous, the motor controller must have low-voltage...

  13. Abnormal motor patterns in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis: a cause for dystonic movements?

    PubMed

    Latash, M L; Gutman, S R

    1994-01-01

    Until now, the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) of motor control has assumed nonintersecting force-length characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex for individual muscles. Limited data from animal experiments suggest, however, that such intersections may occur. We have assumed the possibility of intersection of the characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex and performed a computer simulation of movement trajectories and electromyographic patterns. The simulation has demonstrated, in particular, that a transient change in the slope of the characteristic of an agonist muscle may lead to temporary movement reversals, hesitations, oscillations, and multiple electromyographic bursts that are typical of movements of patients with dystonia. The movement patterns of three patients with idiopathic dystonia during attempts at fast single-joint movements (in the elbow, wrist, and ankle) were recorded and compared with the results of the computer simulation. This approach considers that motor disorders in dystonia result from faulty control patterns that may not correlate with any morphological or neurophysiological changes. It provides a basis for the high variability of dystonic movements. The uniqueness of abnormal motor patterns in dystonia, that precludes statistical analysis across patients, may result from subtle differences in the patterns of intersecting characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex. The applicability of our analysis to disordered multijoint movement patterns is discussed.

  14. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  15. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  16. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  17. Computational motor control: feedback and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Guigon, Emmanuel; Baraduc, Pierre; Desmurget, Michel

    2008-02-01

    Speed/accuracy trade-off is a ubiquitous phenomenon in motor behaviour, which has been ascribed to the presence of signal-dependent noise (SDN) in motor commands. Although this explanation can provide a quantitative account of many aspects of motor variability, including Fitts' law, the fact that this law is frequently violated, e.g. during the acquisition of new motor skills, remains unexplained. Here, we describe a principled approach to the influence of noise on motor behaviour, in which motor variability results from the interplay between sensory and motor execution noises in an optimal feedback-controlled system. In this framework, we first show that Fitts' law arises due to signal-dependent motor noise (SDN(m)) when sensory (proprioceptive) noise is low, e.g. under visual feedback. Then we show that the terminal variability of non-visually guided movement can be explained by the presence of signal-dependent proprioceptive noise. Finally, we show that movement accuracy can be controlled by opposite changes in signal-dependent sensory (SDN(s)) and SDN(m), a phenomenon that could be ascribed to muscular co-contraction. As the model also explains kinematics, kinetics, muscular and neural characteristics of reaching movements, it provides a unified framework to address motor variability.

  18. DC motor speed control using fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, N. L.; Zakaria, K. A.; Nazar, N. S. Moh; Syaripuddin, M.; Mokhtar, A. S. N.; Thanakodi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The automatic control has played a vital role in the advance of engineering and science. Nowadays in industries, the control of direct current (DC) motor is a common practice thus the implementation of DC motor controller speed is important. The main purpose of motor speed control is to keep the rotation of the motor at the present speed and to drive a system at the demand speed. The main purpose of this project is to control speed of DC Series Wound Motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The expectation of this project is the Fuzzy Logic Controller will get the best performance compared to dc motor without controller in terms of settling time (Ts), rise time (Tr), peak time (Tp) and percent overshoot (%OS).

  19. Abnormal cortical synaptic plasticity in primary motor area in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Bologna, Matteo; Ottaviani, Donatella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Colosimo, Carlo; Williams, David R; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    No study has yet investigated whether cortical plasticity in primary motor area (M1) is abnormal in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We studied M1 plasticity in 15 PSP patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. We used intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) to investigate long-term potentiation (LTP) and continuous TBS (cTBS) to investigate long-term depression (LTD)-like cortical plasticity in M1. Ten patients underwent iTBS again 1 year later. We also investigated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in M1 with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, tested H reflex from upper limb flexor muscles before and after iTBS, and measured motor evoked potential (MEP) input-output (I/O) curves before and after iTBS. iTBS elicited a significantly larger MEP facilitation after iTBS in patients than in healthy subjects. Whereas in healthy subjects, cTBS inhibited MEP, in patients it significantly facilitated MEPs. In patients, SICI was reduced, whereas ICF was normal. H reflex size remained unchanged after iTBS. Patients had steeper MEP I/O slopes than healthy subjects at baseline and became even more steeper after iTBS only in patients. The iTBS-induced abnormal MEP facilitation in PSP persisted at 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, patients with PSP have abnormal M1 LTP/LTD-like plasticity. The enhanced LTP-like cortical synaptic plasticity parallels disease progression.

  20. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  1. Vinpocetine attenuates MPTP-induced motor deficit and biochemical abnormalities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Deshmukh, R

    2015-02-12

    Up-regulation in phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) expression and decreased levels of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) have been reported in patients and experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in cognitive and motor deficit states. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of vinpocetine, a PDE1 inhibitor in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced experimental PD-like symptoms in rats. To produce stable motor deficit, MPTP was repeatedly administered intranigrally (bilaterally) at an interval of 1 week (days 1, 7 and 14). Following development of stable motor deficit, which was observed after the third infusion of MPTP (day 14) in rats, the animals were treated with vinpocetine (5-, 10- and 20-mg/kg, i.p.) from days 15 to 28. Movement abnormalities were assessed by a battery of behavioral tests. Moreover, levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite and reduced glutathione were measured in striatal brain homogenate to confirm the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in PD. Repeated intranigral administration of MPTP produced stable motor deficits, reduced the cyclic nucleotides and dopamine levels and caused elevation in oxidative-nitrosative stress markers. Chronic administration of vinpocetine (for 14 days) significantly and dose dependently attenuated movement disabilities and oxidative-nitrosative stress in MPTP-treated rats. Moreover, vinpocetine treatment enhances cyclic nucleotide levels and restores the dopamine level in MPTP-treated rats. The observed results of the present study are indicative of the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in PD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Archetypes of Motor Control Research.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    This reply to the Commentaries is focused on two archetypes of motor control research, one based on physics and physiology and the other based on control theory and ideas of neural computations. The former approach, represented by the equilibrium-point hypothesis, strives to discover the physical laws and salient physiological variables that make purposeful coordinated movements possible. The latter approach, represented by the ideas of internal models and optimal control, tries to apply methods of control developed for man-made inanimate systems to the human body. Specific issues related to control with subthreshold membrane depolarization, motor redundancy, and the idea of synergies are briefly discussed.

  3. Abnormal Motor Phenotype at Adult Stages in Mice Lacking Type 2 Deiodinase

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. Aim This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Results Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. Conclusions The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders. PMID:25083788

  4. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  5. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  6. Method and apparatus for large motor control

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Chris R [Santa Fe, NM; Nelson, Ronald O [White Rock, NM

    2003-08-12

    Apparatus and method for providing digital signal processing method for controlling the speed and phase of a motor involves inputting a reference signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of a time based signal; modifying the reference signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the reference signal; inputting a feedback signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of the operation of said motor; modifying the feedback signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the feedback signal; analyzing the modified reference signal and the modified feedback signal to determine the frequency of the modified reference signal and of the modified feedback signal and said relative phase between said modified reference signal and said modified feedback signal; and outputting control signals to the motor for adjusting said speed and phase of the motor based on the frequency determination and determination of the relative phase.

  7. The neural optimal control hierarchy for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, T.; Eliasmith, C.

    2011-10-01

    Our empirical, neuroscientific understanding of biological motor systems has been rapidly growing in recent years. However, this understanding has not been systematically mapped to a quantitative characterization of motor control based in control theory. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by describing the neural optimal control hierarchy (NOCH), which can serve as a foundation for biologically plausible models of neural motor control. The NOCH has been constructed by taking recent control theoretic models of motor control, analyzing the required processes, generating neurally plausible equivalent calculations and mapping them on to the neural structures that have been empirically identified to form the anatomical basis of motor control. We demonstrate the utility of the NOCH by constructing a simple model based on the identified principles and testing it in two ways. First, we perturb specific anatomical elements of the model and compare the resulting motor behavior with clinical data in which the corresponding area of the brain has been damaged. We show that damaging the assigned functions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum can cause the movement deficiencies seen in patients with Huntington's disease and cerebellar lesions. Second, we demonstrate that single spiking neuron data from our model's motor cortical areas explain major features of single-cell responses recorded from the same primate areas. We suggest that together these results show how NOCH-based models can be used to unify a broad range of data relevant to biological motor control in a quantitative, control theoretic framework.

  8. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations. Methods Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed individually (for four weeks) and treated subchronically with ketamine, and naive animals without any manipulations. Adult animals were implanted with E-Mitter transponders intraabdominally to record body temperature and locomotor activity continuously. The circadian rhythm of these parameters and the acute effects of changes in light conditions were analyzed under undisturbed circumstances, and the effects of different interventions (handling, bed changing or intraperitoneal vehicle injection) were also determined. Results Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared to the inactive phase in both groups. Furthermore, the new substrain showed increased short- and long-term variabilities with lower degree of asymmetry suggesting autonomic dysregulation. Conclusions In summary, the new substrain with schizophrenia-related phenomena showed disturbed motor activity and thermoregulation suggesting that these objectively determined parameters can be biomarkers in translational research. PMID:26629908

  9. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

  10. High-temperature brushless DC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Cieslewski, Crzegorz; Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Eckert, Michael Nathan

    2017-05-16

    A motor control system for deployment in high temperature environments includes a controller; a first half-bridge circuit that includes a first high-side switching element and a first low-side switching element; a second half-bridge circuit that includes a second high-side switching element and a second low-side switching element; and a third half-bridge circuit that includes a third high-side switching element and a third; low-side switching element. The motor controller is arranged to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme to switch the first half-bridge circuit, second half-bridge circuit, and third half-bridge circuit to power a motor.

  11. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  12. Detail of motor control cabinet and field breakers. Control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of motor control cabinet and field breakers. Control cabinet and breaker panel built by Cutler-Hammer - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. 18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view to the northeast. Note the circuit breaker switch on cart in left corner of photograph. This switch is part of the motor control center which has been temporarily removed from the slot marked with a tag that is visible at lower left end of control center. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  14. Nature of motor control: perspectives and issues.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michael T; Fonseca, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical?

  15. Nature of Motor Control: Perspectives and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Fonseca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical? PMID:19227497

  16. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  17. Field oriented control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Zinger, Don S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Induction motors have always been known for their simple rugged construction, but until lately were not suitable for variable speed or servo drives due to the inherent complexity of the controls. With the advent of field oriented control (FOC), however, the induction motor has become an attractive option for these types of drive systems. An FOC system which utilizes the pulse population modulation method to synthesize the motor drive frequencies is examined. This system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio and enables the user to have independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor. A second generation of the control boards were developed and tested with the next point of focus being the minimization of the size and complexity of these controls. Many options were considered with the best approach being the use of a digital signal processor (DSP) due to its inherent ability to quickly evaluate control algorithms. The present test results of the system and the status of the optimization process using a DSP are discussed.

  18. Control System for Bearingless Motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  19. Control system for bearingless motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  20. Evaluation of Motor Control Using Haptic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruki, Atsuo; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Masafumi; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    When the kinesthesia and the touch act at the same time, such perception is called haptic perception. This sense has the key role in motor information on the force and position control. The haptic perception is important in the field where the evaluation of the motor control is needed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the motor control, perception of heaviness and distance in normal and fatigue conditions using psychophysical experiment. We used a haptic device in order to generate precise force and distance, but the precedent of the evaluation system with the haptic device has been few. Therefore, it is another purpose to examine whether the haptic device is useful as evaluation system for the motor control. The psychophysical quantity of force and distance was measured by two kinds of experiments. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. The stimulation was presented by haptic device [PHANTOM Omni: SensAble Company]. The subjects compared between standard and test stimulation, and answered it had felt which stimulation was strong. In the result of the psychophysical quantity of force, just noticeable difference (JND) had a significant difference, and point of subjective equality (PSE) was not different between normal and muscle fatigue. On the other hand, in the result of the psychophysical quantity of distance, JND and PSE were not difference between normal and muscle fatigue. These results show that control of force was influenced, but control of distance was not influenced in muscle fatigue. Moreover, these results suggested that the haptic device is useful as the evaluation system for the motor control.

  1. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  2. Motor control: the importance of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Scott L

    2006-04-18

    An octopus brings food grasped by a tentacle to its mouth by bending the tentacle around a joint formed by stiffened distal and proximal tentacle muscles, and thus may use motor control strategies analogous to those in animals with articulated limbs.

  3. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor control theories and their applications.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Levin, Mindy F; Scholz, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypo-theses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation.

  5. Motor control in a Drosophila taste circuit

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael D.; Scott, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Tastes elicit innate behaviors critical for directing animals to ingest nutritious substances and reject toxic compounds, but the neural basis of these behaviors is not understood. Here, we use a neural silencing screen to identify neurons required for a simple Drosophila taste behavior, and characterize a neural population that controls a specific subprogram of this behavior. By silencing and activating subsets of the defined cell population, we identify the neurons involved in the taste behavior as a pair of motor neurons located in the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). The motor neurons are activated by sugar stimulation of gustatory neurons and inhibited by bitter compounds; however, experiments utilizing split-GFP detect no direct connections between the motor neurons and primary sensory neurons, indicating that further study will be necessary to elucidate the circuitry bridging these populations. Combined, these results provide a general strategy and a valuable starting point for future taste circuit analysis. PMID:19217375

  6. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  7. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    DOEpatents

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  9. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ɛ-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ɛ-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Yang, Guang; Li, JinDong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally-inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ε-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ε-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally-inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ε-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ε-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits. PMID:22040906

  11. Field-Oriented Control Of Induction Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Zinger, Don S.

    1993-01-01

    Field-oriented control system provides for feedback control of torque or speed or both. Developed for use with commercial three-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V, 5-hp motor. Systems include resonant power supply operating at 20 kHz. Pulse-population-modulation subsystem selects individual pulses of 20-kHz single-phase waveform as needed to synthesize three waveforms of appropriate lower frequency applied to three phase windings of motor. Electric actuation systems using technology currently being built to peak powers of 70 kW. Amplitude of voltage of effective machine-frequency waveform determined by momentary frequency of pulses, while machine frequency determined by rate of repetition of overall temporal pattern of pulses. System enables independent control of both voltage and frequency.

  12. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  13. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kyle H.; Holmes, Caroline M.; Vellema, Michiel; Pack, Andrea R.; Elemans, Coen P. H.; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials (“spikes”) encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence that the nervous system uses millisecond-scale variations in the timing of spikes within multispike patterns to control a vertebrate behavior—namely, respiration in the Bengalese finch, a songbird. These findings suggest that a fundamental assumption of current theories of motor coding requires revision. PMID:28100491

  14. Substantiation of Structure of Adaptive Control Systems for Motor Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the development of new electronic control systems, in particular motor units, for small-sized agricultural equipment. Based on the analysis of traffic control systems, the main course of development of the conceptual designs of motor units has been defined. The systems aimed to control the course motion of the motor unit in automatic mode using the adaptive systems have been developed. The article presents structural models of the conceptual motor units based on electrically controlled systems by the operation of drive motors and adaptive systems that make the motor units completely automated.

  15. MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and share features with multifocal motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Howe, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction MRI of peripheral nerve and muscle in patients with ALS may be performed to investigate alternative diagnoses including multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). MRI findings of peripheral nerve and muscle are not well described in these conditions, making interpretation of results difficult. Methods We examined systematically the peripheral nerve and muscle MRI findings in patients with ALS (n=60) and MMN (n=8). Results In patients with ALS and MMN, abnormal MRIs were common (85% and 75%, respectively) but did not correlate with disease severity. Peripheral nerve MRI abnormalities were similar in frequency (ALS: 58% vs. MMN: 63%) with most changes being of mild-to-moderate severity. Muscle MRI changes were more common in ALS (57% vs. 33%), and no muscle atrophy was seen in patients with MMN. Discussion MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle in ALS and MMN are common and share some features. PMID:25736373

  16. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  17. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with abnormal interhemispheric transfer of a newly acquired motor skill.

    PubMed

    Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Beaumont, Vincent; de Beaumont, Louis; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Théoret, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Recent data suggest that the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene can alter cortical plasticity within the motor cortex of carriers, which exhibits abnormally low rates of cortical reorganization after repetitive motor tasks. To verify whether long-term retention of a motor skill is also modulated by the presence of the polymorphism, 20 participants (10 Val66Val, 10 Val66Met) were tested twice at a 1-wk interval. During each visit, excitability of the motor cortex was measured by transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) before and after performance of a procedural motor learning task (serial reaction time task) designed to study sequence-specific learning of the right hand and sequence-specific transfer from the right to the left hand. Behavioral results showed a motor learning effect that persisted for at least a week and task-related increases in corticospinal excitability identical for both sessions and without distinction for genetic group. Sequence-specific transfer of the motor skill from the right hand to the left hand was greater in session 2 than in session 1 only in the Val66Met genetic group. Further analysis revealed that the sequence-specific transfer occurred equally at both sessions in the Val66Val genotype group. In the Val66Met genotype group, sequence-specific transfer did not occur at session 1 but did at session 2. These data suggest a limited impact of Val66Met polymorphism on the learning and retention of a complex motor skill and its associated changes in corticospinal excitability over time, and a possible modulation of the interhemispheric transfer of procedural learning. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Interaction between preprandial and postprandial rectal sensory and motor abnormalities in IBS.

    PubMed

    Törnblom, Hans; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Tack, Jan; Simrén, Magnus

    2014-09-01

    Rectal sensory and motor interactions in patients with IBS have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting and postprandial rectal sensorimotor characteristics and their interactions in IBS compared with healthy controls. We included 274 patients with IBS and 34 controls. All subjects underwent a rectal barostat study before and 60 min after a standardised liquid meal (800 kcal; 60% fat). Sensory thresholds, intensity of sensations, viscerosomatic referral and compliance were measured. During 15 min before the first distension sequence and until 50 min after meal intake, rectal balloon volumes were registered in 5 min intervals at operating pressure to quantify rectal tone. Mixed models were used to analyse the rectal tone response over time. Rectal sensory thresholds and compliance were decreased and viscerosomatic referral areas increased in patients with IBS compared with controls. Meal intake increased rectal sensitivity, compliance and referral areas in patients and controls and the same proportions of patients were hypersensitive to distension before and after meal intake. There was a higher basal rectal tone in IBS and a significantly different rectal tone response after meal intake in patients with IBS compared with controls and, interestingly, also in IBS with rectal hypersensitivity (defined in the preprandial state), compared with normosensitive patients. Meal intake affects rectal sensorimotor function in IBS and health. Importantly, the rectal tone responses to a high-caloric meal are different between patients with IBS and controls, as well as between hypersensitive and normosensitive patients with IBS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Trade Electricity. Motors & Controls--Level 3. Standardized Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of seven modules on motors and controls, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The seven modules cover the following subjects: energy conservation wiring, direct current (DC) motor repair and rewinding, DC motor controls, alternating current (AC)…

  20. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye–head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  1. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  2. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  3. Electrically Controlled Valve With Small Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Mohtar, Rafic; Nelson, Richard O.

    1992-01-01

    Design of electrically controlled valve exploits force-multiplying principle to overcome large back-pressure force resisting initial opening. Design makes possible to open valve by use of relatively small motor adequate for rest of valve motion, but otherwise not large enough to open valve. In simple linear lifting, small horizontal forces applied to pair of taut cables to lift large weight through short distance. In rotary lifting, similar effect achieved by rotating, about an axis, disk to which initially axial cables attached.

  4. Mild cognitive impairment affects motor control and skill learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiaofeng; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

    2016-02-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional phase between normal cognitive aging and dementia. As the world population is aging rapidly, more MCI patients will be identified, posing significant problems to society. Normal aging is associated with cognitive and motor decline, and MCI brings additional impairments. Compared to healthy older adults, MCI patients show poorer motor control in a variety of tasks. Efficient motor control and skill learning are essential for occupational and leisure purposes; degradation of motor behaviors in MCI patients often adversely affects their health and quality of life. In this article, we first define MCI and describe its pathology and neural correlates. After this, we review cognitive changes and motor control and skill learning in normal aging. This section is followed by a discussion of MCI-related degradation of motor behaviors. Finally, we propose that multicomponent interventions targeting both cognitive and motor domains can improve MCI patients' motor functions. Future research directions are also raised.

  5. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  6. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  7. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  8. Permanent magnet DC motor control by using arduino and motor drive module BTS7960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syukriyadin, S.; Syahrizal, S.; Mansur, G.; Ramadhan, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study proposes a control system for permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor. PMDC drive control system has two critical parameters: control and monitoring. Control system includes rotation speed control and direction of rotation of motor using motor drive module BTS7960. The PWM signal has a fixed frequency of waves with varying duty cycles (between 0% and 100%), so the motor rotation can be regulated gradually using a potentiometer already programmed on the Arduino Uno board. The motor rotation direction setting uses the H-bridge circuit method using a 3-way switch to set the direction of forward-reverse rotation of the motor. The monitoring system includes measurements of rotational speed, current, and voltage. Motor rotation speed can be adjusted from the armature voltage settings through the duty cycle PWM setting so that the motor speed can be increased or decreased by the desired duty cycle. From the unload PMDC motor test results it has also been shown that the torque of the motor is relatively constant when there is a change in speed from low rpm to high rpm or vice versa.

  9. Cerebellar ataxia: abnormal control of interaction torques across multiple joints.

    PubMed

    Bastian, A J; Martin, T A; Keating, J G; Thach, W T

    1996-07-01

    1. We studied seven subjects with cerebellar lesions and seven control subjects as they made reaching movements in the sagittal plane to a target directly in front of them. Reaches were made under three different conditions: 1) "slow-accurate," 2) "fast-accurate," and 3) "fast as possible." All subjects were videotaped moving in a sagittal plane with markers on the index finger, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. Marker positions were digitized and then used to calculate joint angles. For each of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, inverse dynamics equations based on a three-segment limb model were used to estimate the net torque (sum of components) and each of the component torques. The component torques consisted of the torque due to gravity, the dynamic interaction torques induced passively by the movement of the adjacent joint, and the torque produced by the muscles and passive tissue elements (sometimes called "residual" torque). 2. A kinematic analysis of the movement trajectory and the change in joint angles showed that the reaches of subjects with cerebellar lesions were abnormal compared with reaches of control subjects. In both the slow-accurate and fast-accurate conditions the cerebellar subjects made abnormally curved wrist paths; the curvature was greater in the slow-accurate condition. During the slow-accurate condition, cerebellar subjects showed target undershoot and tended to move one joint at a time (decomposition). During the fast-accurate reaches, the cerebellar subjects showed target overshoot. Additionally, in the fast-accurate condition, cerebellar subjects moved the joints at abnormal rates relative to one another, but the movements were less decomposed. Only three subjects were tested in the fast as possible condition; this condition was analyzed only to determine maximal reaching speeds of subjects with cerebellar lesions. Cerebellar subjects moved more slowly than controls in all three conditions. 3. A kinetic analysis of torques generated at

  10. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  11. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  12. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  13. Identification of age-dependent motor and neuropsychological behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Gleitz, Hélène F. E.; O’Leary, Claire; Holley, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this. Therapeutic efficacy and subsequent validation can be assessed using a variety of outcome measures that are translatable to clinical practice, such as behavioural measures. We sought to consolidate current knowledge of the cognitive, skeletal and motor abnormalities present in the MPS II mouse model by performing time course behavioural examinations of working memory, anxiety, activity levels, sociability and coordination and balance, up to 8 months of age. Cognitive decline associated with alterations in spatial working memory is detectable at 8 months of age in MPS II mice using spontaneous alternation, together with an altered response to novel environments and anxiolytic behaviour in the open-field. Coordination and balance on the accelerating rotarod were also significantly worse at 8 months, and may be associated with skeletal changes seen in MPS II mice. We demonstrate that the progressive nature of MPS II disease is also seen in the mouse model, and that cognitive and motor differences are detectable at 8 months of age using spontaneous alternation, the accelerating rotarod and the open-field tests. This study establishes neurological, motor and skeletal measures for use in pre-clinical studies to develop therapeutic approaches in MPS II. PMID:28207863

  14. Stepping-Motion Motor-Control Subsystem For Testing Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).

  15. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies in Motor Behavior: 75 Years of Research in Motor Development, Learning, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Beverly D.; Reeve, T. Gilmour

    2005-01-01

    Research focused on human motor development, learning, and control has been a prominent feature in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) since it was first published in 1930. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the papers in the RQES that demonstrate the journal's contributions to the study of motor development,…

  17. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    PubMed Central

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  18. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Learning to control our movements is accompanied by neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e., the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: (1) Firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, (2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and (3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning.

  19. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATIN CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. This energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft re...

  20. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  1. 26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 IN THE BOP SHOP'S MOTOR CONTROL CENTER No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Microcomputer control of an electronically commutated dc motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawi, M. A.; Coleman, J. S.; Mehdi, I. S.; Sommer, D. L.

    A microcomputer control system for an electronically commutated dc motor (ECM) has been designed, built and tested. A 3-hp, 270-volt, samarium-cobalt brushless dc motor is controlled by an Intel 8086-based microcomputer. The main functions of the microcomputer are to control the speed of the motor, to provide forward or reverse rotation, to brake, and to protect the motor and its power electronic switching circuits from overcurrents. The necessary interface circuits were designed and built, and the system components have been integrated and tested. It is shown that the proposed ECM system with the microcomputer control operate the motor reliably over a wide range of speeds. The purpose of this effort is to develop the motorcontroller for driving electromechanical actuators for flight control and other aircraft applications.

  3. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  4. ARDOLORES: an Arduino based motors control system for DOLORES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel; Ventura, H.; San Juan, J.; Di Fabrizio, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I2C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.

  5. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) mediates anticipatory motor control.

    PubMed

    Krause, Vanessa; Weber, Juliane; Pollok, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Flexible and precisely timed motor control is based on functional interaction within a cortico-subcortical network. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is supposed to be crucial for anticipatory motor control by sensorimotor feedback matching. Intention of the present study was to disentangle the specific relevance of the left PPC for anticipatory motor control using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) since a causal link remains to be established. Anodal vs. cathodal tDCS was applied for 10 min over the left PPC in 16 right-handed subjects in separate sessions. Left primary motor cortex (M1) tDCS served as control condition and was applied in additional 15 subjects. Prior to and immediately after tDCS, subjects performed three tasks demanding temporal motor precision with respect to an auditory stimulus: sensorimotor synchronization as measure of anticipatory motor control, interval reproduction and simple reaction. Left PPC tDCS affected right hand synchronization but not simple reaction times. Motor anticipation was deteriorated by anodal tDCS, while cathodal tDCS yielded the reverse effect. The variability of interval reproduction was increased by anodal left M1 tDCS, whereas it was reduced by cathodal tDCS. No significant effects on simple reaction times were found. The present data support the hypothesis that left PPC is causally involved in right hand anticipatory motor control exceeding pure motor implementation as processed by M1 and possibly indicating subjective timing. Since M1 tDCS particularly affects motor implementation, the observed PPC effects are not likely to be explained by alterations of motor-cortical excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organization.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C

    2009-11-18

    Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.

  7. A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.

  8. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  9. Control Systems Lab Using a LEGO Mindstorms NXT Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost LEGO Mindstorms NXT motor system for teaching classical and modern control theories in standard third-year undergraduate courses. The LEGO motor system can be used in conjunction with MATLAB, Simulink, and several necessary toolboxes to demonstrate: 1) a modeling technique; 2) proportional-integral-differential…

  10. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  11. A novel robust speed controller scheme for PMBLDC motor.

    PubMed

    Thirusakthimurugan, P; Dananjayan, P

    2007-10-01

    The design of speed and position controllers for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDC) drive remains as an open problem in the field of motor drives. A precise speed control of PMBLDC motor is complex due to nonlinear coupling between winding currents and rotor speed. In addition, the nonlinearity present in the developed torque due to magnetic saturation of the rotor further complicates this issue. This paper presents a novel control scheme to the conventional PMBLDC motor drive, which aims at improving the robustness by complete decoupling of the design besides minimizing the mutual influence among the speed and current control loops. The interesting feature of this robust control scheme is its suitability for both static and dynamic aspects. The effectiveness of the proposed robust speed control scheme is verified through simulations.

  12. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  13. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  14. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions

    PubMed Central

    Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The “firing rate spectrum” presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units—both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response. PMID:21975447

  15. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time. PMID:19823595

  16. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time.

  17. Subcortical electrostimulation to identify network subserving motor control.

    PubMed

    Schucht, Philippe; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Raabe, Andreas; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-11-01

    Recent anatomical-functional studies have transformed our understanding of cerebral motor control away from a hierarchical structure and toward parallel and interconnected specialized circuits. Subcortical electrical stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to identify white matter tracts involved in motor control. For the first time, this study reports the findings on motor modulatory responses evoked by subcortical stimulation and investigates the cortico-subcortical connectivity of cerebral motor control. Twenty-one selected patients were operated while awake for frontal, insular, and parietal diffuse low-grade gliomas. Subcortical electrostimulation mapping was used to search for interference with voluntary movements. The corresponding stimulation sites were localized on brain schemas using the anterior and posterior commissures method. Subcortical negative motor responses were evoked in 20/21 patients, whereas acceleration of voluntary movements and positive motor responses were observed in three and five patients, respectively. The majority of the stimulation sites were detected rostral of the corticospinal tract near the vertical anterior-commissural line, and additional sites were seen in the frontal and parietal white matter. The diverse interferences with motor function resulting in inhibition and acceleration imply a modulatory influence of the detected fiber network. The subcortical stimulation sites were distributed veil-like, anterior to the primary motor fibers, suggesting descending pathways originating from premotor areas known for negative motor response characteristics. Further stimulation sites in the parietal white matter as well as in the anterior arm of the internal capsule indicate a large-scale fronto-parietal motor control network. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Jorge M; Dall'asén, Analía G; Goller, Franz

    2010-12-15

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback.

  19. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000

  20. Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend Tank Along East Side of Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  1. The roles of the olivocerebellar pathway in motor learning and motor control. A consensus paper

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Eric J.; Apps, Richard; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Cerminara, Nadia L.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Heck, Detlef H.; Jaeger, Dieter; Jörntell, Henrik; Kawato, Mitsuo; Otis, Thomas S.; Ozyildirim, Ozgecan; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Reeves, Alexander M.B.; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Sugihara, Izumi; Xiao, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    For many decades the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives. In contrast, here we take the perspective that the olivocerebellar system can contribute to both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum, and might also play a role in development. We then consider the potential problems and benefits of its having multiple functions. Moreover, we discuss how its distinctive characteristics (e.g., low firing rates, synchronization, variable complex spike waveform) make it more or less suitable for one or the other of these functions, and why its having a dual role makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. We did not attempt to reach a consensus on the specific role(s) the olivocerebellar system plays in different types of movements, as that will ultimately be determined experimentally; however, collectively, the various contributions highlight the flexibility of the olivocerebellar system, and thereby suggest it has the potential to act in both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum. PMID:27193702

  2. Evaluation of esophageal function in patients with esophageal motor abnormalities using multichannel intraluminal impedance esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yu Kyung; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Myung; Oh, Jung Hwan; Paik, Chang Nyol; Lee, Joon Wook; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Chung, In-Sik

    2006-10-21

    To evaluate the functional aspect of esophageal motility in healthy subjects and in patients who were referred for esophageal function testing using multichannel intraluminal impedance-esophageal manometry (MII-EM), and to assess the clinical utility of MII-EM. From September 2003 to January 2004, we performed the MII-EM on healthy volunteers and all the patients who were referred for esophageal function testing. Each patient received 10 liquid and 10 viscous swallows. We analyzed the results, the impedance and the manometric findings. Some of the subjects had additional ambulatory 24-h pH study performed to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Among 89 studied subjects, the MII-EM findings showed normal esophageal motility in 50 (56.17%), ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) in 17 (19.10%), nutcracker esophagus in 7 (7.86%), achalasia in 4 (4.49%), and scleroderma esophagus in 11 (12.35%) cases. The completeness and the speed of bolus transit were in the order of nutcracker esophagus, normal manometry and IEM. Some of the swallows showing normal manometry and IEM had incomplete transit. In the achalasia and scleroderma esophagus, almost all the swallows had incomplete transit. The body amplitudes were higher for the swallows with complete transit than for the swallows with incomplete transit. There was not a significant difference in the manometric and impedance findings between the subjects with and without GERD. MII-EM is a useful tool in assessing the esophageal function in the patients having esophageal motility abnormality. The primary factors influencing the bolus transit are the amplitude of the esophageal body and normal peristalsis.

  3. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  4. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  5. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  6. Orderly recruitment of motor units under optical control in vivo.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Michael E; Thompson, Kimberly R; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L

    2010-10-01

    A drawback of electrical stimulation for muscle control is that large, fatigable motor units are preferentially recruited before smaller motor units by the lowest-intensity electrical cuff stimulation. This phenomenon limits therapeutic applications because it is precisely the opposite of the normal physiological (orderly) recruitment pattern; therefore, a mechanism to achieve orderly recruitment has been a long-sought goal in physiology, medicine and engineering. Here we demonstrate a technology for reliable orderly recruitment in vivo. We find that under optical control with microbial opsins, recruitment of motor units proceeds in the physiological recruitment sequence, as indicated by multiple independent measures of motor unit recruitment including conduction latency, contraction and relaxation times, stimulation threshold and fatigue. As a result, we observed enhanced performance and reduced fatigue in vivo. These findings point to an unanticipated new modality of neural control with broad implications for nervous system and neuromuscular physiology, disease research and therapeutic innovation.

  7. Gestalt principles in the control of motor action.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T; Jagacinski, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to initiation of any part of the movement. Additional reaction time results related to initiation of longer responses are consistent with processing in terms of a sequence of indivisible motor gestalts. Some actions (e.g., many involving coordination of the hands) can be carried out effectively only if represented as a unitary gestalt. Second, a perceptual gestalt is independent of specific sensory receptors, as evidenced by perceptual constancy. In a similar manner a motor gestalt can be represented independently of specific muscular effectors, thereby allowing motor constancy. Third, just as a perceptual pattern (e.g., a Necker cube) is exclusively structured into only 1 of its possible configurations at any moment in time, processing prior to action is limited to 1 motor gestalt. Fourth, grouping in apparent motion leads to stream segregation in visual and auditory perception; this segregation is present in motor action and is dependent on the temporal rate. We discuss congruence of gestalt phenomena across perception and motor action (a) in relation to a unitary perceptual-motor code, (b) with respect to differences in the role of awareness, and (c) in conjunction with separate neural pathways for conscious perception and motor control. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  8. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles...

  9. Design and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yongqiu

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of power electronics, microelectronics, new motor control theory and rare earth permanent magnet materials, permanent magnet synchronous motors have been rapidly applied. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have the advantages of small size, low loss and high efficiency. Today, energy conservation and environmental protection are increasingly valued. It is very necessary to study them. Permanent magnet synchronous motor control system has a wide range of application prospects in the fields of electric vehicles, ships and other transportation. Using the simulation function of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a modular design structure was used to simulate the whole system model of speed loop adjustment, current PI modulation, SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Module) wave generation and double closed loop. The results show that this control method has good robustness, and this method can improve the design efficiency and shorten the system design time. In this article, the analysis of the control principle of modern permanent magnet synchronous motor and the various processes of MATLAB simulation application will be analyzed in detail. The basic theory, basic method and application technology of the permanent magnet synchronous motor control system are systematically introduced.

  10. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    DOEpatents

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  11. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  12. Remote control of molecular motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2013-03-01

    Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in vivo and provide sophisticated components for directed nanoscale transport in vitro. We previously constructed myosin motors that respond to a change in [Ca++] by reversing their direction of motion along the polarized actin filament. To expand the potential applications of controllable molecular motors, we have now developed myosins that shift gears in response to blue light illumination. Light is a versatile control signal that can be readily modulated in time and space, and is generally orthogonal to cellular signaling. Using structure-guided protein engineering, we have incorporated LOV photoreceptor domains into the lever arms of chimeric myosins, resulting in motors that robustly speed up, slow down, or switch directions upon illumination. These genetically encoded motors should be directly deployable inside living cells. Our successful designs include constructs based on two different myosin classes, and we show that optical velocity control can be implemented in motors that move at microns/sec speeds, enabling practical biological and bioengineering applications.

  13. Redundant speed control for brushless Hall effect motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A speed control system for a brushless Hall effect device equipped direct current (D.C.) motor is described. Separate windings of the motor are powered by separate speed responsive power sources. A change in speed, upward or downward, because of the failure of a component of one of the power sources results in a corrective signal being generated in the other power source to supply an appropriate power level and polarity to one winding to cause the motor to be corrected in speed.

  14. Dynamic Characteristics of Human Motor Performance in Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    h drynontrol system . Several lines of inves ___ igaion avebee use inaddiionto nputoutut sudis wth hmansubets LI.- 7 Th (nulreycmriigifrainfosusl...TAB Untjc. ao un c ’ n TTci St rLi b DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN MOTOR PERFORMANCE IN CONTROL SYSTEMS %iOSRTR. 8-0 76 0 Ar3) -O75 -8’O’f FINAL...whereby motor patterns are represented in the nervous system . Findings include a detailing of linear and non-linear features of motor activity in

  15. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  16. Motor Synchronization in Patients With Schizophrenia: Preserved Time Representation With Abnormalities in Predictive Timing.

    PubMed

    Wilquin, Hélène; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Dione, Mariama; Giersch, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Basic temporal dysfunctions have been described in patients with schizophrenia, which may impact their ability to connect and synchronize with the outer world. The present study was conducted with the aim to distinguish between interval timing and synchronization difficulties and more generally the spatial-temporal organization disturbances for voluntary actions. A new sensorimotor synchronization task was developed to test these abilities. Method: Twenty-four chronic schizophrenia patients matched with 27 controls performed a spatial-tapping task in which finger taps were to be produced in synchrony with a regular metronome to six visual targets presented around a virtual circle on a tactile screen. Isochronous (time intervals of 500 ms) and non-isochronous auditory sequences (alternated time intervals of 300/600 ms) were presented. The capacity to produce time intervals accurately versus the ability to synchronize own actions (tap) with external events (tone) were measured. Results: Patients with schizophrenia were able to produce the tapping patterns of both isochronous and non-isochronous auditory sequences as accurately as controls producing inter-response intervals close to the expected interval of 500 and 900 ms, respectively. However, the synchronization performances revealed significantly more positive asynchrony means (but similar variances) in the patient group than in the control group for both types of auditory sequences. Conclusion: The patterns of results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are able to perceive and produce both simple and complex sequences of time intervals but are impaired in the ability to synchronize their actions with external events. These findings suggest a specific deficit in predictive timing, which may be at the core of early symptoms previously described in schizophrenia.

  17. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  18. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-07

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage.

  19. Echoes on the motor network: how internal motor control structures afford sensory experience.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jed D; Lum, Jarrad A G; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    Often, during daily experiences, hearing peers' actions can activate motor regions of the CNS. This activation is termed auditory-motor resonance (AMR) and is thought to represent an internal simulation of one's motor memories. Currently, AMR is demonstrated at the neuronal level in the Macaque and songbird, in conjunction with evidence on a systems level in humans. Here, we review evidence of AMR development from a motor control perspective. In the context of internal modelling, we consider data that demonstrates sensory-guided motor learning and action maintenance, particularly the notion of sensory comparison seen during songbird vocalisation. We suggest that these comparisons generate accurate sensory-to-motor inverse mappings. Furthermore, given reports of mapping decay after songbird learning, we highlight the proposal that the maintenance of these sensorimotor maps potentially explains why frontoparietal regions are activated upon hearing known sounds (i.e., AMR). In addition, we also recommend that activation of these types of internal models outside of action execution may provide an ecological advantage when encountering known stimuli in ambiguous conditions.

  20. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  1. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  2. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  3. Laryngeal Motor Cortex and Control of Speech in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex and rapid motor behaviors and involves a precise coordination of over 100 laryngeal, orofacial and respiratory muscles. Yet, we lack a complete understanding of laryngeal motor cortical control during production of speech and other voluntary laryngeal behaviors. In recent years, a number of studies have confirmed the laryngeal motor cortical representation in humans and provided some information about its interactions with other cortical and subcortical regions that are principally involved in vocal motor control of speech production. In this review, we discuss the organization of the peripheral and central laryngeal control based on neuroimaging and electrical stimulation studies in humans and neuroanatomical tracing studies in non-human primates. We hypothesize that the location of the laryngeal motor cortex in the primary motor cortex and its direct connections with the brainstem laryngeal motoneurons in humans, as oppose to its location in the premotor cortex with only indirect connections to the laryngeal motoneurons in non-human primates, may represent one of the major evolutionary developments in humans towards the ability to speak and vocalize voluntarily. PMID:21362688

  4. Limb versus speech motor control: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Britta; Fuchs, Susanne; Perrier, Pascal; Schöner, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative conceptual review of speech and limb motor control. Speech is essentially cognitive in nature and constrained by the rules of language, while limb movement is often oriented to physical objects. We discuss the issue of intrinsic vs. extrinsic variables underlying the representations of motor goals as well as whether motor goals specify terminal postures or entire trajectories. Timing and coordination is recognized as an area of strong interchange between the two domains. Although coordination among different motor acts within a sequence and coarticulation are central to speech motor control, they have received only limited attention in manipulatory movements. The biomechanics of speech production is characterized by the presence of soft tissue, a variable number of degrees of freedom, and the challenges of high rates of production, while limb movements deal more typically with inertial constraints from manipulated objects. This comparative review thus leads us to identify many strands of thinking that are shared across the two domains, but also points us to issues on which approaches in the two domains differ. We conclude that conceptual interchange between the fields of limb and speech motor control has been useful in the past and promises continued benefit.

  5. Dynamical Motor Control Learned with Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Conventional models of motor control exploit the spatial representation of the controlled system to generate control commands. Typically, the control command is gained with the feedback state of a specific instant in time, which behaves like an optimal regulator or spatial filter to the feedback state. Yet, recent neuroscience studies found that the motor network may constitute an autonomous dynamical system and the temporal patterns of the control command can be contained in the dynamics of the motor network, that is, the dynamical system hypothesis (DSH). Inspired by these findings, here we propose a computational model that incorporates this neural mechanism, in which the control command could be unfolded from a dynamical controller whose initial state is specified with the task parameters. The model is trained in a trial-and-error manner in the framework of deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG). The experimental results show that the dynamical controller successfully learns the control policy for arm reaching movements, while the analysis of the internal activities of the dynamical controller provides the computational evidence to the DSH of the neural coding in motor cortices. PMID:29666634

  6. Dynamical Motor Control Learned with Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haibo; Sun, Yaoru; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Conventional models of motor control exploit the spatial representation of the controlled system to generate control commands. Typically, the control command is gained with the feedback state of a specific instant in time, which behaves like an optimal regulator or spatial filter to the feedback state. Yet, recent neuroscience studies found that the motor network may constitute an autonomous dynamical system and the temporal patterns of the control command can be contained in the dynamics of the motor network, that is, the dynamical system hypothesis (DSH). Inspired by these findings, here we propose a computational model that incorporates this neural mechanism, in which the control command could be unfolded from a dynamical controller whose initial state is specified with the task parameters. The model is trained in a trial-and-error manner in the framework of deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG). The experimental results show that the dynamical controller successfully learns the control policy for arm reaching movements, while the analysis of the internal activities of the dynamical controller provides the computational evidence to the DSH of the neural coding in motor cortices.

  7. Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Normal or Minor Motor Function Abnormalities Detected by High-resolution Esophageal Manometry.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Karthik; Friesen, Laurel; Issaka, Rachel; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) expands recognition of minor esophageal motor abnormalities, but the clinical significance of these is unclear. We aimed to determine the outcomes of minor esophageal motor abnormalities. We reviewed HRM tracings from patients who underwent esophageal manometry at Northwestern Memorial Hospital from July 2004 through October 2005 by using the Chicago classification (version 2.0). We identified 301 patients with normal findings or minor manometric abnormalities (weak peristalsis, hypertensive peristalsis, frequent failed peristalsis, or rapid contractions with normal latency). Ninety-eight patients participated in a phone survey in which they were asked questions from the impact dysphagia questionnaire (mean follow-up period, 6 years 5 months). Of 301 patients assessed, 166 had normal findings from HRM, 82 had weak peristalsis, 34 had hypertensive peristalsis, 17 had frequent failed peristalsis, and 2 had rapid contractions with normal latency. The primary indications for HRM of dysphagia (44%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (63%) were unrelated to manometric findings. There were no endoscopic or videofluoroscopic differences between patients with minor manometric abnormalities. Of 98 patients with follow-up, findings from HRM were normal in 63, weak peristalsis was observed in 23, hypertensive peristalsis was observed in 10, and frequent failed peristalsis was observed in 2. No patients underwent surgical myotomy, pneumatic dilation, or botulinum toxin injection. Use of proton pump inhibitors and rates of fundoplication were similar, regardless of manometric findings. Sixteen patients (16%) had significant dysphagia at follow-up; hypertensive peristalsis was the most likely to be symptomatic. Patients with normal and minor esophageal motor abnormalities report minimal symptoms and have few medical interventions related to esophageal dysfunction during long-term follow-up. Therefore, identification of normal and minor motor

  8. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The performance of these evolved controllers is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller.

  9. Motor control differs for increasing and releasing force

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kwon, MinHyuk; Solis, Danielle; Lodha, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Control of the motor output depends on our ability to precisely increase and release force. However, the influence of aging on force increase and release remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether force control differs while increasing and releasing force in young and older adults. Sixteen young adults (22.5 ± 4 yr, 8 females) and 16 older adults (75.7 ± 6.4 yr, 8 females) increased and released force at a constant rate (10% maximum voluntary contraction force/s) during an ankle dorsiflexion isometric task. We recorded the force output and multiple motor unit activity from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) mean discharge rate and variability of discharge rate of multiple motor units; and 3) power spectrum of the multiple motor units from 0–4, 4–10, 10–35, and 35–60 Hz. Participants exhibited greater force variability while releasing force, independent of age (P < 0.001). Increased force variability during force release was associated with decreased modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz (R2 = 0.38). Modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz was further correlated to the change in mean discharge rate of multiple motor units (r = 0.66) and modulation from 0 to 4 Hz (r = −0.64). In conclusion, these findings suggest that force control is altered while releasing due to an altered modulation of the motor units. PMID:26961104

  10. AC motor controller with 180 degree conductive switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oximberg, Carol A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An ac motor controller is operated by a modified time-switching scheme where the switches of the inverter are on for electrical-phase-and-rotation intervals of 180.degree. as opposed to the conventional 120.degree.. The motor is provided with three-phase drive windings, a power inverter for power supplied from a dc power source consisting of six switches, and a motor controller which controls the current controlled switches in voltage-fed mode. During full power, each switch is gated continuously for three successive intervals of 60.degree. and modulated for only one of said intervals. Thus, during each 60.degree. interval, the two switches with like signs are on continuously and the switch with the opposite sign is modulated.

  11. Implementation of a new fuzzy vector control of induction motor.

    PubMed

    Rafa, Souad; Larabi, Abdelkader; Barazane, Linda; Manceur, Malik; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to control an induction motor using type-1 fuzzy logic. The induction motor has a nonlinear model, uncertain and strongly coupled. The vector control technique, which is based on the inverse model of the induction motors, solves the coupling problem. Unfortunately, in practice this is not checked because of model uncertainties. Indeed, the presence of the uncertainties led us to use human expertise such as the fuzzy logic techniques. In order to maintain the decoupling and to overcome the problem of the sensitivity to the parametric variations, the field-oriented control is replaced by a new block control. The simulation results show that the both control schemes provide in their basic configuration, comparable performances regarding the decoupling. However, the fuzzy vector control provides the insensitivity to the parametric variations compared to the classical one. The fuzzy vector control scheme is successfully implemented in real-time using a digital signal processor board dSPACE 1104. The efficiency of this technique is verified as well as experimentally at different dynamic operating conditions such as sudden loads change, parameter variations, speed changes, etc. The fuzzy vector control is found to be a best control for application in an induction motor. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  13. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory-Motor Networks Involved in Speech Production and Motor Control: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A.; Howard, Matthew A.; Greenlee, Jeremy D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. PMID:25623499

  15. Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: A review.

    PubMed

    Palmis, Sarah; Danna, Jeremy; Velay, Jean-Luc; Longcamp, Marieke

    This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood. The acquisition of a new skill is characterized by the involvement of a network more restricted in space and where neural specificity is increased in key regions. The cerebellum and the left dorsal premotor cortex are of fundamental importance in motor learning, and could be at the core of the acquisition of handwriting.

  16. A unifying motor control framework for task-specific dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, John C.; Edwards, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by the development of a painless loss of dexterity specific to a particular motor skill. This disorder is prevalent among writers, musicians, dancers and athletes. No current treatment is predictably effective and the disorder generally ends the careers of affected individuals. There are a number of limitations with traditional dystonic disease models for task-specific dystonia. We therefore review emerging evidence that the disorder has its origins within normal compensatory mechanisms of a healthy motor system in which the representation and reproduction of motor skill is disrupted. We describe how risk factors for task-specific dystonia can be stratified and translated into mechanisms of dysfunctional motor control. The proposed model aims to define new directions for experimental research and stimulate therapeutic advances for this highly disabling disorder. PMID:29104291

  17. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells1, and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2,3. Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells, and yield optimized device components for complex tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly3. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions4,5 and other signals6. Here we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies7–11 and guided by a structural model12 for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our general strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should enable spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size13, and branchpoint turning14. PMID:22343382

  18. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-04-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  19. Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for unit 3. Control cabinet and breaker panel built by Cutler-Hammer - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies.

    PubMed

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In Part I of this series, it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury affects joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). Individuals with hemiparesis and 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity was concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may use relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways.

  1. Redundant information encoding in primary motor cortex during natural and prosthetic motor control.

    PubMed

    So, Kelvin; Ganguly, Karunesh; Jimenez, Jessica; Gastpar, Michael C; Carmena, Jose M

    2012-06-01

    Redundant encoding of information facilitates reliable distributed information processing. To explore this hypothesis in the motor system, we applied concepts from information theory to quantify the redundancy of movement-related information encoded in the macaque primary motor cortex (M1) during natural and neuroprosthetic control. Two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a delay center-out reaching task controlling a computer cursor under natural arm movement (manual control, 'MC'), and using a brain-machine interface (BMI) via volitional control of neural ensemble activity (brain control, 'BC'). During MC, we found neurons in contralateral M1 to contain higher and more redundant information about target direction than ipsilateral M1 neurons, consistent with the laterality of movement control. During BC, we found that the M1 neurons directly incorporated into the BMI ('direct' neurons) contained the highest and most redundant target information compared to neurons that were not incorporated into the BMI ('indirect' neurons). This effect was even more significant when comparing to M1 neurons of the opposite hemisphere. Interestingly, when we retrained the BMI to use ipsilateral M1 activity, we found that these neurons were more redundant and contained higher information than contralateral M1 neurons, even though ensembles from this hemisphere were previously less redundant during natural arm movement. These results indicate that ensembles most associated to movement contain highest redundancy and information encoding, which suggests a role for redundancy in proficient natural and prosthetic motor control.

  2. Esophageal Motor Abnormalities in Patients With Scleroderma: Heterogeneity, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael D; Umar, Sarah B; Griffing, W Leroy; DiBaise, John K; Lacy, Brian E; Vela, Marcelo F

    2017-02-01

    Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is associated with esophageal aperistalsis and hypotensive esophagogastric junction pressure, although there could be a gradation in esophageal motor dysfunction. We characterized esophageal motor function by high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) and assessed associations between SSc severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and HRM findings in patients. We performed a prospective study of 200 patients with SSc and 102 patients without SSc (controls) who underwent HRM at Mayo Clinic Arizona from May 2006 through January 2015. We used data on integrated relaxation pressure, distal contractile integral, and distal latency to classify esophageal motility disorders according to the Chicago Classification v 3.0. A subset of subjects (n = 122) completed SSc-specific gastrointestinal symptom and HRQOL questionnaires. HRM findings, symptoms, and HRQOL data were compared among diffuse SSc, limited SSc, and control subjects. Categorical variables were compared by using the χ 2 or Fisher exact test; continuous variables were compared by using Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between severity of esophageal dysmotility and baseline clinical factors. Among patients with SSc, 83 had diffuse SSc (42%), and 117 had limited SSc (58%). Absent contractility was more frequent in patients with SSc than in controls (56% vs 13%; P < .001). HRM findings varied among the patients; absent contractility (56%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by normal motility (26%) and ineffective esophageal motility (10%). Classic scleroderma esophagus (esophagogastric junction pressure with absent contractility) was only observed in 33% of patients (34% with diffuse SSc vs 32% limited SSc) (P = .880). Severe esophageal dysmotility was associated with disease duration, interstitial lung disease, and higher gastrointestinal symptom scores (P < .001). HRQOL was decreased in patients

  3. Two-motor direct drive control for elevation axis of telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T.; Tan, Y.; Ren, G.

    2014-07-01

    Two-motor application has become a very attractive filed in important field which high performance is permitted to achieve of position, speed, and acceleration. In the elevation axis of telescope control system, two-motor direct drive is proposed to enhance the high performance of tracking control system. Although there are several dominant strengths such as low size of motors and high torsional structural dynamics, the synchronization control of two motors is a very difficult and important. In this paper, a multi-loop control technique base master-slave current control is used to synchronize two motors, including current control loop, speed control loop and position control loop. First, the direct drive function of two motors is modeled. Compared of single motor direct control system, the resonance frequency of two motor control systems is same; while the anti-resonance frequency of two motors control system is 1.414 times than those of sing motor system. Because of rigid coupling for direct drive, the speed of two motor of the system is same, and the synchronization of torque for motors is critical. The current master-slave control technique is effective to synchronize the torque, which the current loop of the master motors is tracked the other slave motor. The speed feedback into the input of current loop of the master motors. The experiments test the performance of the two motors drive system. The random tracking error is 0.0119" for the line trajectory of 0.01°/s.

  4. Automatic motor activation in the executive control of action

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Boy, Frédéric; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2012-01-01

    Although executive control and automatic behavior have often been considered separate and distinct processes, there is strong emerging and convergent evidence that they may in fact be intricately interlinked. In this review, we draw together evidence showing that visual stimuli cause automatic and unconscious motor activation, and how this in turn has implications for executive control. We discuss object affordances, alien limb syndrome, the visual grasp reflex, subliminal priming, and subliminal triggering of attentional orienting. Consideration of these findings suggests automatic motor activation might form an intrinsic part of all behavior, rather than being categorically different from voluntary actions. PMID:22536177

  5. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  6. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  7. Chaotic operation and chaos control of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Zhao, Fujie; Shen, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-08-01

    The travelling wave ultrasonic motor, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, has complex chaotic phenomenon with some certain choices of system parameters and external inputs, and its chaotic characteristics have not been studied until now. In this paper, the preliminary study of the chaos phenomenon in ultrasonic motor driving system has been done. The experiment of speed closed-loop control is designed to obtain several groups of time sampling data sequence of the amplitude of driving voltage, and phase-space reconstruction is used to analyze the chaos characteristics of these time sequences. The largest Lyapunov index is calculated and the result is positive, which shows that the travelling wave ultrasonic motor has chaotic characteristics in a certain working condition Then, the nonlinear characteristics of travelling wave ultrasonic motor are analyzed which includes Lyapunov exponent map, the bifurcation diagram and the locus of voltage relative to speed based on the nonlinear chaos model of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. After that, two kinds of adaptive delay feedback controllers are designed in this paper to control and suppress chaos in USM speed control system. Simulation results show that the method can control unstable periodic orbits, suppress chaos in USM control system. Proportion-delayed feedback controller was designed following and arithmetic of fuzzy logic was used to adaptively adjust the delay time online. Simulation results show that this method could fast and effectively change the chaos movement into periodic or fixed-point movement and make the system enter into stable state from chaos state. Finally the chaos behavior was controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor control and the management of musculoskeletal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Paulette M; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2006-08-01

    This paper aims to develop understanding of three important motor control issues--feedforward mechanisms, cortical plasticity and task-specificity and assess the implications for musculoskeletal practice. A model of control for the reach-to-grasp movement illustrates how the central nervous system integrates sensorimotor processes to control complex movements. Feedforward mechanisms, an essential element of motor control, are altered in neurologically intact patients with chronic neck pain and low back pain. In healthy subjects, cortical mapping studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation have demonstrated that neural pathways adapt according to what and how much is practised. Neuroplasticity has also been demonstrated in a number of musculoskeletal conditions, where cortical maps are altered compared to normal. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies indicate that environmental and task constraints such as the goal of the task and an object's shape and size, are determinants of the motor schema for reaching and other movements. Consideration of motor control issues as well as signs and symptoms, may facilitate management of musculoskeletal conditions and improve outcome. Practice of entire everyday tasks at an early stage and systematic variation of the task is recommended. Training should be directed with the aim of re-educating feedforward mechanisms where necessary and the amount of practice should be sufficient to cause changes in cortical activity.

  9. Brain mechanisms controlling decision making and motor planning.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Murthy, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Accumulator models of decision making provide a unified framework to understand decision making and motor planning. In these models, the evolution of a decision is reflected in the accumulation of sensory information into a motor plan that reaches a threshold, leading to choice behavior. While these models provide an elegant framework to understand performance and reaction times, their ability to explain complex behaviors such as decision making and motor control of sequential movements in dynamic environments is unclear. To examine and probe the limits of online modification of decision making and motor planning, an oculomotor "redirect" task was used. Here, subjects were expected to change their eye movement plan when a new saccade target appeared. Based on task performance, saccade reaction time distributions, computational models of behavior, and intracortical microstimulation of monkey frontal eye fields, we show how accumulator models can be tested and extended to study dynamic aspects of decision making and motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vibration influence on control of single motor unit activity.

    PubMed

    Malouin, F; Simard, T

    1978-03-01

    Effects of vibratory stimulation and maximal isometric contraction on a fine motor control task were evaluated in 17 human subjects. Electromyographic audiovisual feedback cues derived from two fine-wire bipolar electrodes, inserted to a depth of 12 and 6 mm respectively, were used to train the subjects to isolate a motor unit in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. A specially designed compressed air driven vibrator providing vibratory stimulation with an amplitude of 2 mm and a frequency range of 120-160 cycles per second was applied to the muscle tendon. A significant decrease was found in the subjects; ability to isolate the pretest motor unit during and after continuous and interrupted periods of vibration and following a maximal isometric contraction of the extensor carpi radials brevis muscle. Individual variations in the subjects' responses to the forms of application of the vibratory stimulus, electrode preference and feedback specificity were observed. Results suggest that marked spatial recruitment of motor units, brought into action by the vibration stimulus or by the maximal isometric contraction, interfered with inhibitory mechanisms necessary to achieve isolation and control of a single motor unit. A therapeutic application of vibration, based on the marked spatial recruitment observed during and after vibration, is proposed for muscle reeducation.

  11. Commercial motor vehicle speed control devices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    This report reviews the problem of heavy vehicle speeding (in particular, speeding at greater than 65 mph) : and speeding-related crash involvements. The report describes and assesses devices available to control : truck speed, and addresses the ques...

  12. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  13. Speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors using ring coupling control and adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors' motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced pid vs model predictive control applied to bldc motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaya, M. S.; Muhammad, Auwal; Aliyu Abdulkadir, Rabiu; Salim, S. N. S.; Madugu, I. S.; Tijjani, Aminu; Aminu Yusuf, Lukman; Dauda Umar, Ibrahim; Khairi, M. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motor is a multivariable and highly complex nonlinear system. Variation of internal parameter values with environment or reference signal increases the difficulty in controlling the BLDC effectively. Advanced control strategies (like model predictive control) often have to be integrated to satisfy the control desires. Enhancing or proper tuning of a conventional algorithm results in achieving the desired performance. This paper presents a performance comparison of Enhanced PID and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applied to brushless direct current motor. The simulation results demonstrated that the PSO-PID is slightly better than the PID and MPC in tracking the trajectory of the reference signal. The proposed scheme could be useful algorithms for the system.

  15. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Paul D.; Hebert, Jacqueline S.; Sensinger, Jon W.; Shell, Courtney E.; Schofield, Jonathon S.; Thumser, Zachary C.; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T.; Dawson, Michael R.; Blustein, Dan H.; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D.; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D.; Carey, Jason P.; Orzell, Beth M.

    2018-01-01

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement’s progress. This largely non-conscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. Here we report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. PMID:29540617

  16. Motor power factor controller with a reduced voltage starter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power factor type motor controller is disclosed in which the conventional power factor constant voltage command signal is replaced during a starting interval with a graduated control voltage. This continuation-impart of a pending patent application (Serial No. 199, 765: Three Phase Factor Controller) provides a means for modifying the operation of the system for a motor start-up interval of 5 to 30 second. Using a ramp generators, an initial ramp-like signal replaces a constant power factor signal supplied by a potentiometer. The ramp-like signal is applied to a 15 terminal where it is summed with an operating power factor signal from phase detectors in order to obtain a control signal for ultimately controlling SCR devices. The SCR devices are turned on at an advancing rate with time responsive to the combination signal described rather than simply a function of a ramp-like signal alone.

  17. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  18. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF OTIS PASSENGER ELEVATOR ADDED IN 1921, BASEMENT. The original equipment, shown here, operated on direct current from the Massachusetts Avenue trolley line, abandoned in 1961. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Mean deviation coupling synchronous control for multiple motors via second-order adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2016-05-01

    A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control and Diagnostic Model of Brushless Dc Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Ivan V.; Nikitin, Yury R.; Abramov, Andrei I.; Sosnovich, Ella V.; Božek, Pavol

    2014-09-01

    A simulation model of brushless DC motor (BLDC) control and diagnostics is considered. The model has been developed using a freeware complex "Modeling in technical devices". Faults and diagnostic parameters of BLDC are analyzed. A logicallinguistic diagnostic model of BLDC has been developed on basis of fuzzy logic. The calculated rules determine dependence of technical condition on diagnostic parameters, their trends and utilized lifetime of BLDC. Experimental results of BLDC technical condition diagnostics are discussed. It is shown that in the course of BLDC degradation the motor condition change depends on diagnostic parameter values

  2. Fuzzy – PI controller to control the velocity parameter of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathy, R.; Balaji, V.

    2018-04-01

    The major application of Induction motor includes the usage of the same in industries because of its high robustness, reliability, low cost, highefficiency and good self-starting capability. Even though it has the above mentioned advantages, it also have some limitations: (1) the standard motor is not a true constant-speed machine, itsfull-load slip varies less than 1 % (in high-horsepower motors).And (2) it is not inherently capable of providing variable-speedoperation. In order to solve the above mentioned problem smart motor controls and variable speed controllers are used. Motor applications involve non linearity features, which can be controlled by Fuzzy logic controller as it is capable of handling those features with high efficiency and it act similar to human operator. This paper presents individuality of the plant modelling. The fuzzy logic controller (FLC)trusts on a set of linguistic if-then rules, a rule-based Mamdani for closed loop Induction Motor model. Themotor model is designed and membership functions are chosenaccording to the parameters of the motor model. Simulation results contains non linearity in induction motor model. A conventional PI controller iscompared practically to fuzzy logic controller using Simulink.

  3. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  4. Controlled clockwise and anticlockwise rotational switching of a molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Perera, U G E; Ample, F; Kersell, H; Zhang, Y; Vives, G; Echeverria, J; Grisolia, M; Rapenne, G; Joachim, C; Hla, S-W

    2013-01-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines. However, the parallels between the two systems are often only superficial, because most molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, rotary molecular motors powered by light and chemical energy have been developed. In electrically driven motors, tunnelling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope have been used to drive the rotation of a simple rotor in a single direction and to move a four-wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a stand-alone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction by selective inelastic electron tunnelling through different subunits of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotor for controlled rotations, and a ruthenium atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation arises from sawtooth-like rotational potentials, which are solely determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site.

  5. Myoelectric hand prosthesis force control through servo motor current feedback.

    PubMed

    Sono, Tálita Saemi Payossim; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the prehension force closed-loop control design of a mechanical finger commanded by electromyographic signal (EMG) from a patient's arm. The control scheme was implemented and tested in a mechanical finger prototype with three degrees of freedom and one actuator, driven by arm muscles EMG of normal volunteers. Real-time indirect estimation of prehension force was assessed by measuring the DC servo motor actuator current. A model of the plant comprising finger, motor, and grasped object was proposed. Model parameters were identified experimentally and a classical feedback phase-lead compensator was designed. The controlled mechanical finger was able to provide a more accurate prehension force modulation of a compliant object when compared to open-loop control.

  6. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, James N.

    1983-01-01

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  8. Lateralized Motor Control Processes Determine Asymmetry of Interlimb Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sainburg, Robert L.; Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Yadav, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of motor performance depends on recruitment of motor control processes that are specialized to the hemisphere contralateral to the arm that is initially trained. Right-handed participants performed a single-joint task, in which reaches were targeted to 4 different distances. While the speed and accuracy was similar for both hands, the underlying control mechanisms used to vary movement speed with distance were systematically different between the arms: The amplitude of the initial acceleration profiles scaled greater with movement speed for the right-dominant arm, while the duration of the initial acceleration profile scaled greater with movement speed for the left-non-dominant arm. These two processes were previously shown to be differentially disrupted by left and right hemisphere damage, respectively. We now hypothesize that task practice with the right arm might reinforce left-hemisphere mechanisms that vary acceleration amplitude with distance, while practice with the left arm might reinforce right-hemisphere mechanisms that vary acceleration duration with distance. We thus predict that following right arm practice, the left arm should show increased contributions of acceleration amplitude to peak velocities, and following left arm practice, the right arm should show increased contributions of acceleration duration to peak velocities. Our findings support these predictions, indicating that asymmetry in interlimb transfer of motor performance, at least in the task used here, depends on recruitment of lateralized motor control processes. PMID:27491479

  9. Microgravity induced changes in the control of motor units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, C.; Roy, S.

    The goal of this project is to understand the effects of microgravity on the control of muscles. It is motivated by the notion that in order to adequately address microgravity-induced deterioration in the force generating capacity of muscles, one needs to understand the changes in the control aspects in addition to histochemical and morphological changes. The investigations into muscle control need to include the regulation of the firing activity of motor units that make up a muscle and the coordination of different muscles responsible for the control of a joint. In order to understand the effects of microgravity on these two aspects of muscle control, we will test astronauts before and after spaceflight. The investigations of the control of motor units will involve intramuscular EMG techniques developed in our laboratory. We will use a quadrifilar electrode to detect simultaneously three differential channels of EMG activity. These data will be decomposed accurately using a sophisticated set of algorithms constructed with artificial intelligence knowledge- based techniques. Particular attention will be paid to the firing rate and recruitment behavior of motor units and we will study the degree of cross-correlation of the firing rates. This approach will enable us to study the firing behavior of several (approx. 10) concurrently active motor units. This analysis will enable us to detect modifications in the control of motor units. We will perform these investigations in a hand muscle, which continues being used in prehensile tasks in space, and a leg muscle whose antigravity role is not needed in space. The comparison of the effects of weightlessness on these muscles will determine if continued use of muscles in space deters the possible deleterious effects of microgravity on the control of motor units, in addition to slowing down atrophy. We are particularly interested in comparing the results of this study to similar data already obtained from elderly subjects

  10. Referent control and motor equivalence of reaching from standing

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yosuke; Feldman, Anatol G.

    2016-01-01

    Motor actions may result from central changes in the referent body configuration, defined as the body posture at which muscles begin to be activated or deactivated. The actual body configuration deviates from the referent configuration, particularly because of body inertia and environmental forces. Within these constraints, the system tends to minimize the difference between these configurations. For pointing movement, this strategy can be expressed as the tendency to minimize the difference between the referent trajectory (RT) and actual trajectory (QT) of the effector (hand). This process may underlie motor equivalent behavior that maintains the pointing trajectory regardless of the number of body segments involved. We tested the hypothesis that the minimization process is used to produce pointing in standing subjects. With eyes closed, 10 subjects reached from a standing position to a remembered target located beyond arm length. In randomly chosen trials, hip flexion was unexpectedly prevented, forcing subjects to take a step during pointing to prevent falling. The task was repeated when subjects were instructed to intentionally take a step during pointing. In most cases, reaching accuracy and trajectory curvature were preserved due to adaptive condition-specific changes in interjoint coordination. Results suggest that referent control and the minimization process associated with it may underlie motor equivalence in pointing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Motor actions may result from minimization of the deflection of the actual body configuration from the centrally specified referent body configuration, in the limits of neuromuscular and environmental constraints. The minimization process may maintain reaching trajectory and accuracy regardless of the number of body segments involved (motor equivalence), as confirmed in this study of reaching from standing in young healthy individuals. Results suggest that the referent control process may underlie motor equivalence in

  11. Redundancy, Self-Motion, and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Martin, V.; Scholz, J. P.; Schöner, G.

    2011-01-01

    Outside the laboratory, human movement typically involves redundant effector systems. How the nervous system selects among the task-equivalent solutions may provide insights into how movement is controlled. We propose a process model of movement generation that accounts for the kinematics of goal-directed pointing movements performed with a redundant arm. The key element is a neuronal dynamics that generates a virtual joint trajectory. This dynamics receives input from a neuronal timer that paces end-effector motion along its path. Within this dynamics, virtual joint velocity vectors that move the end effector are dynamically decoupled from velocity vectors that do not. Moreover, the sensed real joint configuration is coupled back into this neuronal dynamics, updating the virtual trajectory so that it yields to task-equivalent deviations from the dynamic movement plan. Experimental data from participants who perform in the same task setting as the model are compared in detail to the model predictions. We discover that joint velocities contain a substantial amount of self-motion that does not move the end effector. This is caused by the low impedance of muscle joint systems and by coupling among muscle joint systems due to multiarticulatory muscles. Back-coupling amplifies the induced control errors. We establish a link between the amount of self-motion and how curved the end-effector path is. We show that models in which an inverse dynamics cancels interaction torques predict too little self-motion and too straight end-effector paths. PMID:19718817

  12. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, Joseph C.; Landman, Ronald G.; Patil, Prabhakar B.; Reitz, Graydon A.

    1990-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission.

  13. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, J.C.; Landman, R.G.; Patil, P.B.; Reitz, G.A.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission. 7 figs.

  14. Induction motor speed control using varied duty cycle terminal voltage via PI controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azwin, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the PI speed controller for the three-phase induction motor using PWM technique. The PWM generated signal is utilized for voltage source inverter with an optimal duty cycle on a simplified induction motor model. A control algorithm for generating PWM control signal is developed. Obtained results shows that the steady state error and overshoot of the developed system is in the limit under different speed and load condition. The robustness of the control performance would be potential for induction motor performance improvement.

  15. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  16. Motor Control and Regulation for a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on the motor control algorithms used to regulate the flywheel system at the NASA Glenn Research Center. First a discussion of the inner loop torque control technique will be given. It is based on the principle of field orientation and is implemented without a position or speed sensor (sensorless control). Then the outer loop charge and discharge algorithm will be presented. This algorithm controls the acceleration of the flywheel during charging and the deceleration while discharging. The algorithm also allows the flywheel system to regulate the DC bus voltage during the discharge cycle.

  17. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DETERMINING MOTOR INERTIA OF A STRESS-CONTROLLED RHEOMETER.

    PubMed

    Klemuk, Sarah A; Titze, Ingo R

    2009-01-01

    Viscoelastic measurements made with a stress-controlled rheometer are affected by system inertia. Of all contributors to system inertia, motor inertia is the largest. Its value is usually determined empirically and precision is rarely if ever specified. Inertia uncertainty has negligible effects on rheologic measurements below the coupled motor/plate/sample resonant frequency. But above the resonant frequency, G' values of soft viscoelastic materials such as dispersions, gels, biomaterials, and non-Newtonian polymers, err quadratically due to inertia uncertainty. In the present investigation, valid rheologic measurements were achieved near and above the coupled resonant frequency for a non-Newtonian reference material. At these elevated frequencies, accuracy in motor inertia is critical. Here we compare two methods for determining motor-inertia accurately. For the first (commercially-used) phase method, frequency responses of standard fluids were measured. Phase between G' and G" was analyzed at 5-70 Hz for motor inertia values of 50-150% of the manufacturer's nominal value. For a newly-devised two-plate method (10 mm and 60 mm parallel plates), dynamic measurements of a non-Newtonian standard were collected. Using a linear equation of motion with inertia, viscosity, and elasticity coefficients, G' expressions for both plates were equated and motor inertia was determined to be accurate (by comparison to the phase method) with a precision of ± 3%. The newly developed two-plate method had advantages of expressly eliminating dependence on gap, was explicitly derived from basic principles, quantified the error, and required fewer experiments than the commercially used phase method.

  19. Abnormal turning behaviour, GABAergic inhibition and the degeneration of astrocytes in ovine Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Bourke, C A

    2006-01-01

    To observe the clinical signs of sheep affected by Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease, to ascertain their response to striatal dopamine reducing drugs, and to examine their brains and spinal cords for microscopic changes. Twenty-eight sheep displaying well developed clinical signs of the disorder were observed. Twenty-two of these and 22 normal sheep were then randomly allocated to three groups and treated with diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine. The time that it took an animal to return to a standing position following drug administration was recorded. The brain and complete spinal cord were removed from each of the other six affected sheep and fixed in formalin. Brains were sectioned throughout at 5 mm intervals and spinal cords at 10 mm intervals. All tissues were paraffin embedded and examined by light microscopy. A few samples were examined by electron microscopy. Clinical signs included postural asymmetry with a right:left body-side dominance within the group of 50:50, unequal flaccid paresis in the pelvic limbs, extensor muscle atrophy and adduction of the weaker pelvic limb, and concurrent abduction of the stronger. Forward motion followed either a fixed left or right hand curved trajectory, the sheep no longer being able to choose which. Twelve animals intermittently displayed rotational behaviour that involved loss of postural balance without locomotor activation. The administration of diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine caused limb paresis and sedation, with affected sheep being slower than normal sheep by factors of 8, 3 and 2 respectively, to return to a standing position. There were scattered areas of mild Wallerian degeneration throughout the spinal cord, and in both the brain and the cord there were small numbers of degenerate astrocytes containing novel cytoplasmic pigment granules. Affected sheep had a dysfunction in the control of directional change and this provides a new insight into the normal mechanism for 'turning' in quadrupeds

  20. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  1. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  2. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurys, Marek Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network - converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

  3. Variable-frequency inverter controls torque, speed, and braking in ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Dc to ac inverter provides optimum frequency and voltage to ac induction motor, in response to different motor-load and speed requirements. Inverter varies slip frequency of motor in proportion to required torque. Inverter protects motor from high current surges, controls negative slip to apply braking, and returns energy stored in momentum of load to dc power source.

  4. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kiisa; Biewener, Andrew A; Aerts, Peter; Ahn, Anna N; Chiel, Hillel J; Daley, Monica A; Daniel, Thomas L; Full, Robert J; Hale, Melina E; Hedrick, Tyson L; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nichols, T Richard; Quinn, Roger D; Satterlie, Richard A; Szymik, Brett

    2007-07-01

    Neuromechanics seeks to understand how muscles, sense organs, motor pattern generators, and brain interact to produce coordinated movement, not only in complex terrain but also when confronted with unexpected perturbations. Applications of neuromechanics include ameliorating human health problems (including prosthesis design and restoration of movement following brain or spinal cord injury), as well as the design, actuation and control of mobile robots. In animals, coordinated movement emerges from the interplay among descending output from the central nervous system, sensory input from body and environment, muscle dynamics, and the emergent dynamics of the whole animal. The inevitable coupling between neural information processing and the emergent mechanical behavior of animals is a central theme of neuromechanics. Fundamentally, motor control involves a series of transformations of information, from brain and spinal cord to muscles to body, and back to brain. The control problem revolves around the specific transfer functions that describe each transformation. The transfer functions depend on the rules of organization and operation that determine the dynamic behavior of each subsystem (i.e., central processing, force generation, emergent dynamics, and sensory processing). In this review, we (1) consider the contributions of muscles, (2) sensory processing, and (3) central networks to motor control, (4) provide examples to illustrate the interplay among brain, muscles, sense organs and the environment in the control of movement, and (5) describe advances in both robotics and neuromechanics that have emerged from application of biological principles in robotic design. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that (1) intrinsic properties of muscle contribute to dynamic stability and control of movement, particularly immediately after perturbations; (2) proprioceptive feedback reinforces these intrinsic self-stabilizing properties of muscle; (3) control systems

  5. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  6. Genetically identified spinal interneurons integrating tactile afferents for motor control

    PubMed Central

    Panek, Izabela; Farah, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Our movements are shaped by our perception of the world as communicated by our senses. Perception of sensory information has been largely attributed to cortical activity. However, a prior level of sensory processing occurs in the spinal cord. Indeed, sensory inputs directly project to many spinal circuits, some of which communicate with motor circuits within the spinal cord. Therefore, the processing of sensory information for the purpose of ensuring proper movements is distributed between spinal and supraspinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying the integration of sensory information for motor control at the level of the spinal cord have yet to be fully described. Recent research has led to the characterization of spinal neuron populations that share common molecular identities. Identification of molecular markers that define specific populations of spinal neurons is a prerequisite to the application of genetic techniques devised to both delineate the function of these spinal neurons and their connectivity. This strategy has been used in the study of spinal neurons that receive tactile inputs from sensory neurons innervating the skin. As a result, the circuits that include these spinal neurons have been revealed to play important roles in specific aspects of motor function. We describe these genetically identified spinal neurons that integrate tactile information and the contribution of these studies to our understanding of how tactile information shapes motor output. Furthermore, we describe future opportunities that these circuits present for shedding light on the neural mechanisms of tactile processing. PMID:26445867

  7. Basal Ganglia Contributions to Motor Control: A Vigorous Tutor

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Robert S.; Desmurget, Michel

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OF RECENT ADVANCES The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically-disturbed. A weakness of that approach is that the resulting behavioral impairments reflect degraded function of the BG per se mixed together with secondary dysfunctions of BG-recipient brain areas. To overcome that limitation, several studies have focused on the main skeletomotor output region of the BG, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Using single-cell recording and inactivation protocols these studies provide consistent support for two hypotheses: the BG modulates movement performance (“vigor”) according to motivational factors (i.e., context-specific cost/reward functions) and the BG contributes to motor learning. Results from these studies also add to the problems that confront theories positing that the BG selects movement, inhibits unwanted motor responses, corrects errors online, or stores and produces well-learned motor skills. PMID:20850966

  8. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    PubMed

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  10. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  11. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-06-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Motor Control Training for the Shoulder with Smart Garments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; De Baets, Liesbet; Timmermans, Annick; Chen, Wei; Giacolini, Luca; Matheve, Thomas; Markopoulos, Panos

    2017-07-22

    Wearable technologies for posture monitoring and posture correction are emerging as a way to support and enhance physical therapy treatment, e.g., for motor control training in neurological disorders or for treating musculoskeletal disorders, such as shoulder, neck, or lower back pain. Among the various technological options for posture monitoring, wearable systems offer potential advantages regarding mobility, use in different contexts and sustained tracking in daily life. We describe the design of a smart garment named Zishi to monitor compensatory movements and evaluate its applicability for shoulder motor control training in a clinical setting. Five physiotherapists and eight patients with musculoskeletal shoulder pain participated in the study. The attitudes of patients and therapists towards the system were measured using standardized survey instruments. The results indicate that patients and their therapists consider Zishi a credible aid for rehabilitation and patients expect it will help towards their recovery. The system was perceived as highly usable and patients were motivated to train with the system. Future research efforts on the improvement of the customization of feedback location and modality, and on the evaluation of Zishi as support for motor learning in shoulder patients, should be made.

  13. Pain and motor control: From the laboratory to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Paul W

    2011-04-01

    Movement is changed in pain and is the target of clinical interventions. Yet the understanding of the physiological basis for movement adaptation in pain remains limited. Contemporary theories are relatively simplistic and fall short of providing an explanation for the variety of permutations of changes in movement control identified in clinical and experimental contexts. The link between current theories and rehabilitation is weak at best. New theories are required that both account for the breadth of changes in motor control in pain and provide direction for development and refinement of clinical interventions. This paper describes an expanded theory of the motor adaptation to pain to address these two issues. The new theory, based on clinical and experimental data argues that: activity is redistributed within and between muscles rather than stereotypical inhibition or excitation of muscles; modifies the mechanical behaviour in a variable manner with the objective to "protect" the tissues from further pain or injury, or threatened pain or injury; involves changes at multiple levels of the motor system that may be complementary, additive or competitive; and has short-term benefit, but with potential long-term consequences due to factors such as increased load, decreased movement, and decreased variability. This expanded theory provides guidance for rehabilitation directed at alleviating a mechanical contribution to the recurrence and persistence of pain that must be balanced with other aspects of a multifaceted intervention that includes management of psychosocial aspects of the pain experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. PMID:22464657

  15. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  16. DNA-assisted swarm control in a biomolecular motor system.

    PubMed

    Keya, Jakia Jannat; Suzuki, Ryuhei; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Hess, Henry; Kuzuya, Akinori; Kakugo, Akira

    2018-01-31

    In nature, swarming behavior has evolved repeatedly among motile organisms because it confers a variety of beneficial emergent properties. These include improved information gathering, protection from predators, and resource utilization. Some organisms, e.g., locusts, switch between solitary and swarm behavior in response to external stimuli. Aspects of swarming behavior have been demonstrated for motile supramolecular systems composed of biomolecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments, where cross-linkers induce large scale organization. The capabilities of such supramolecular systems may be further extended if the swarming behavior can be programmed and controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the swarming of DNA-functionalized microtubules (MTs) propelled by surface-adhered kinesin motors can be programmed and reversibly regulated by DNA signals. Emergent swarm behavior, such as translational and circular motion, can be selected by tuning the MT stiffness. Photoresponsive DNA containing azobenzene groups enables switching between solitary and swarm behavior in response to stimulation with visible or ultraviolet light.

  17. Modelling and control system of multi motor conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the mathematical model of electromechanical system: conveyor – multimotor electric drive with a frequency converter, with the implementation in Simulink/MatLab, which allows one to perform studies of conveyor operation modes, taking into account the specifics of the mechanism with different electric drives control algorithms. The authors designed the mathematical models of the conveyor and its control system that provides increased uniformity of load distribution between drive motors and restriction of dynamic loads on the belt (over-regulation until 15%).

  18. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  19. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  20. Semaphorin 6A knockout mice display abnormalities across ethologically-based topographies of exploration and in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Kerstin; Runker, Annette E; O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Mitchell, Kevin J; Waddington, John L; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2017-02-22

    Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants. Disruption to the axonal guidance and cell migration processes regulated by Sema6A is associated with topographically specific disruption to fundamental aspects of behaviour, namely the ethogram of initial exploration and subsequent habituation to the environment, and motor learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and robust control of an experimental servo motor.

    PubMed

    Adam, E J; Guestrin, E D

    2002-04-01

    In this work, the design of a robust controller for an experimental laboratory-scale position control system based on a dc motor drive as well as the corresponding identification and robust stability analysis are presented. In order to carry out the robust design procedure, first, a classic closed-loop identification technique is applied and then, the parametrization by internal model control is used. The model uncertainty is evaluated under both parametric and global representation. For the latter case, an interesting discussion about the conservativeness of this description is presented by means of a comparison between the uncertainty disk and the critical perturbation radius approaches. Finally, conclusions about the performance of the experimental system with the robust controller are discussed using comparative graphics of the controlled variable and the Nyquist stability margin as a robustness measurement.

  2. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Sensinger, Jon W; Shell, Courtney E; Schofield, Jonathon S; Thumser, Zachary C; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T; Dawson, Michael R; Blustein, Dan H; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D; Carey, Jason P; Orzell, Beth M

    2018-03-14

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  5. Non-dopaminergic treatments for motor control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Susan H

    2013-09-01

    The pathological processes underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) involve more than dopamine cell loss within the midbrain. These non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters include noradrenergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems within cortical, brainstem and basal ganglia regions. Several non-dopaminergic treatments are now in clinical use to treat motor symptoms of PD, or are being evaluated as potential therapies. Agents for symptomatic monotherapy and as adjunct to dopaminergic therapies for motor symptoms include adenosine A2A antagonists and the mixed monoamine-B inhibitor (MAO-BI) and glutamate release agent safinamide. The largest area of potential use for non-dopaminergic drugs is as add-on therapy for motor fluctuations. Thus adenosine A2A antagonists, safinamide, and the antiepileptic agent zonisamide can extend the duration of action of levodopa. To reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia, drugs that target overactive glutamatergic neurotransmission can be used, and include the non-selective N-methyl D-aspartate antagonist amantadine. More recently, selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR₅) antagonists are being evaluated in phase II randomized controlled trials. Serotonergic agents acting as 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, such as the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, may also reduce dyskinesia. 5-HT1A agonists theoretically can reduce dyskinesia, but in practice, may also worsen PD motor symptoms, and so clinical applicability has not yet been shown. Noradrenergic α2A antagonism using fipamezole can potentially reduce dyskinesia. Several non-dopaminergic agents have also been investigated to reduce non-levodopa-responsive motor symptoms such as gait and tremor. Thus the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil showed mild benefit in gait, while the predominantly noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate had conflicting results in advanced PD subjects. Tremor in PD may respond to muscarinic M4 cholinergic antagonists (anticholinergics), but

  6. Influence of automatic word reading on motor control.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Gangitano, M

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the possible influence of automatic word reading on processes of visuo-motor transformation. Six subjects were required to reach and grasp a rod on whose visible face the word 'long' or 'short' was printed. Word reading was not explicitly required. In order to induce subjects to visually analyse the object trial by trial, object position and size were randomly varied during the experimental session. The kinematics of the reaching component was affected by word presentation. Peak acceleration, peak velocity, and peak deceleration of arm were higher for the word 'long' with respect to the word 'short'. That is, during the initial movement phase subjects automatically associated the meaning of the word with the distance to be covered and activated a motor program for a farther and/or nearer object position. During the final movement phase, subjects modified the braking forces (deceleration) in order to correct the initial error. No effect of the words on the grasp component was observed. These results suggest a possible influence of cognitive functions on motor control and seem to contrast with the notion that the analyses executed in the ventral and dorsal cortical visual streams are different and independent.

  7. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  8. Inhibitory motoneurons in arthropod motor control: organisation, function, evolution.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Miniaturisation of somatic cells in animals is limited, for reasons ranging from the accommodation of organelles to surface-to-volume ratio. Consequently, muscle and nerve cells vary in diameters by about two orders of magnitude, in animals covering 12 orders of magnitude in body mass. Small animals thus have to control their behaviour with few muscle fibres and neurons. Hexapod leg muscles, for instance, may consist of a single to a few 100 fibres, and they are controlled by one to, rarely, 19 motoneurons. A typical mammal has thousands of fibres per muscle supplied by hundreds of motoneurons for comparable behavioural performances. Arthopods--crustaceans, hexapods, spiders, and their kin--are on average much smaller than vertebrates, and they possess inhibitory motoneurons for a motor control strategy that allows a broad performance spectrum despite necessarily small cell numbers. This arthropod motor control strategy is reviewed from functional and evolutionary perspectives and its components are described with a focus on inhibitory motoneurons. Inhibitory motoneurons are particularly interesting for a number of reasons: evolutionary and phylogenetic comparison of functional specialisations, evolutionary and developmental origin and diversification, and muscle fibre recruitment strategies.

  9. Case control study of dry eye and related ocular surface abnormalities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bekibele, C O; Baiyeroju, A M; Ajaiyeoba, A; Akang, E E U; Ajayi, B G K

    2010-02-01

    Tear instability is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort and irritation. Many patients with dry eyes remain untreated due to improper diagnoses. To identify symptoms and surface abnormalities associated with dry eyes. One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 78 subjects attending the Eye Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan were screened for dry eyes/tear instability using rose Bengal stain (graded 0-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's 1 tests, tear meniscus height and a standardised symptoms questionnaire. Grades 4-9 rose Bengal staining were considered as positive dry eye and were compared with grades 0-3 staining eyes as negative controls. Mean tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and TBUT were lower among cases than their corresponding control eyes. The difference between the mean Schirmer's test values of cases and their controls were statistically significant (P = 0.00 for right eyes and P = 0.002 for left eyes). Rose Bengal grades were inversely correlated with the mean Schirmer's values (Pearson correlation -0.429, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.335, P = 0.03 for left eyes) and TBUT (Pearson correlation -0.316, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.212, P = 0.06 for left eyes). About 95.8% of the cases were symptomatic, as opposed to 70.4% of the controls (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and 95.8% of dry right eyes compared to 61.1% of their controls had ocular surface abnormalities (P = 0.001), while 89.5% of dry left eyes compared to 62.7% of controls had surface abnormalities (P = 0.07). A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms, surface abnormalities and functional evidence of tear instability. Such patients should be treated empirically or screened for dry eyes.

  10. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor cortical activity changes during neuroprosthetic-controlled object interaction.

    PubMed

    Downey, John E; Brane, Lucas; Gaunt, Robert A; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Boninger, Michael L; Collinger, Jennifer L

    2017-12-05

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia. After identifying a population-wide increase in neural firing rates that corresponded with the hand being near an object, we developed an online scaling feature in the BCI system that operated without knowledge of the task. Online scaling increased the ability of two subjects to control the robotic arm when reaching to grasp and transport objects. This work suggests that neural representations of the environment, in this case the presence of an object, are strongly and consistently represented in motor cortex but can be accounted for to improve BCI performance.

  12. Proactive Motor Control Reduces Monetary Risk Taking in Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Less supervision by the executive system after disruption of the right prefrontal cortex leads to increased risk taking in gambling because superficially attractive—but risky—choices are not suppressed. Similarly, people might gamble more in multitask situations than in single-task situations because concurrent executive processes usually interfere with each other. In the study reported here, we used a novel monetary decision-making paradigm to investigate whether multitasking could reduce rather than increase risk taking in gambling. We found that performing a task that induced cautious motor responding reduced gambling in a multitask situation (Experiment 1). We then found that a short period of inhibitory training lessened risk taking in gambling at least 2 hr later (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings indicate that proactive motor control strongly affects monetary risk taking in gambling. The link between control systems at different cognitive levels might be exploited to develop new methods for rehabilitation of addiction and impulse-control disorders. PMID:22692336

  13. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed loop controller based on sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo

    2018-03-01

    Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.

  14. Combining afferent stimulation and mirror therapy for rehabilitating motor function, motor control, ambulation, and daily functions after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Huang, Pai-chuan; Chen, Yu-ting; Wu, Ching-yi; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-02-01

    Mirror therapy (MT) and mesh glove (MG) afferent stimulation may be effective in reducing motor impairment after stroke. A hybrid intervention of MT combined with MG (MT + MG) may broaden aspects of treatment benefits. To demonstrate the comparative effects of MG + MT, MT, and a control treatment (CT) on the outcomes of motor impairments, manual dexterity, ambulation function, motor control, and daily function. Forty-three chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment were randomly assigned to receive MT + MG, MT, or CT for 1.5 hours/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and muscle tone measured by Myoton-3 for motor impairment and the Box and Block Test (BBT) and 10-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT) for motor function. Secondary outcomes included kinematic parameters for motor control and the Motor Activity Log and ABILHAND Questionnaire for daily function. FMA total scores were significantly higher and synergistic shoulder abduction during reach was less in the MT + MG and MT groups compared with the CT group. Performance on the BBT and the 10 MWT (velocity and stride length in self-paced task and velocity in as-quickly-as-possible task) were improved after MT + MG compared with MT. MT + MG improved manual dexterity and ambulation. MT + MG and MT reduced motor impairment and synergistic shoulder abduction more than CT. Future studies may integrate functional task practice into treatments to enhance functional outcomes in patients with various levels of motor severity. The long-term effects of MG + MT remain to be evaluated.

  15. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  16. Abnormal Corpus Callosum Connectivity, Socio-Communicative Deficits, and Motor Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…

  17. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo G.; Trevisan, Marcos A.; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  18. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J.; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control. PMID:22666004

  19. A neuro-inspired spike-based PID motor controller for multi-motor robots with low cost FPGAs.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  20. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  1. Mirror therapy enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sütbeyaz, Serap; Yavuzer, Gunes; Sezer, Nebahat; Koseoglu, B Füsun

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of mirror therapy, using motor imagery training, on lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning of patients with subacute stroke. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, 4-week trial, with follow-up at 6 months. Rehabilitation education and research hospital. A total of 40 inpatients with stroke (mean age, 63.5 y), all within 12 months poststroke and without volitional ankle dorsiflexion. Thirty minutes per day of the mirror therapy program, consisting of nonparetic ankle dorsiflexion movements or sham therapy, in addition to a conventional stroke rehabilitation program, 5 days a week, 2 to 5 hours a day, for 4 weeks. The Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, spasticity assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), walking ability (Functional Ambulation Categories [FAC]), and motor functioning (motor items of the FIM instrument). The mean change score and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the Brunnstrom stages (mean, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1; vs mean, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2; P=.002), as well as the FIM motor score (mean, 21.4; 95% CI, 18.2-24.7; vs mean, 12.5; 95% CI, 9.6-14.8; P=.001) showed significantly more improvement at follow-up in the mirror group compared with the control group. Neither MAS (mean, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.2; vs mean, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7; P=.102) nor FAC (mean, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1; vs mean, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9; P=.610) showed a significant difference between the groups. Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in subacute stroke patients.

  2. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-06-20

    Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9 degrees (95% CI; 12.2-15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9 degrees (95% CI; 16.1-19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9 degrees (95% CI; 23.7-28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor to current pain, but more

  3. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor

  4. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  5. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  6. Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroenisch, Volker Ewald

    Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.

  7. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. 80.24 Section 80.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) [Reserved] (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped...

  8. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  9. Flux-Based Deadbeat Control of Induction-Motor Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Lorenz, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and prior methods of deadbeat direct torque control involve the use of pulse-width modulation (PWM) of applied voltages. The prior methods are based on the use of stator flux and stator current as state variables, leading to mathematical solutions of control equations in forms that do not lend themselves to clear visualization of solution spaces. In contrast, the use of rotor and stator fluxes as the state variables in the present improved method lends itself to graphical representations that aid in understanding possible solutions under various operating conditions. In addition, the present improved method incorporates the superposition of high-frequency carrier signals for use in a motor-self-sensing technique for estimating the rotor shaft angle at any speed (including low or even zero speed) without need for additional shaft-angle-measuring sensors.

  10. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Global models: Robot sensing, control, and sensory-motor skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics research has begun to address the modeling and implementation of a wide variety of unstructured tasks. Examples include automated navigation, platform servicing, custom fabrication and repair, deployment and recovery, and science exploration. Such tasks are poorly described at onset; the workspace layout is partially unfamiliar, and the task control sequence is only qualitatively characterized. The robot must model the workspace, plan detailed physical actions from qualitative goals, and adapt its instantaneous control regimes to unpredicted events. Developing robust representations and computational approaches for these sensing, planning, and control functions is a major challenge. The underlying domain constraints are very general, and seem to offer little guidance for well-bounded approximation of object shape and motion, manipulation postures and trajectories, and the like. This generalized modeling problem is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of sensing. It is also discussed that unstructured tasks often have, in fact, a high degree of underlying physical symmetry, and such implicit knowledge should be drawn on to model task performance strategies in a methodological fashion. A group-theoretic decomposition of the workspace organization, task goals, and their admissible interactions are proposed. This group-mechanical approach to task representation helps to clarify the functional interplay of perception and control, in essence, describing what perception is specifically for, versus how it is generically modeled. One also gains insight how perception might logically evolve in response to needs of more complex motor skills. It is discussed why, of the many solutions that are often mathematically admissible to a given sensory motor-coordination problem, one may be preferred over others.

  12. Abnormal Cortical Plasticity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Case–Control Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Erickson, Craig A.; Horn, Paul S.; Shaffer, Rebecca C.; Wink, Logan K.; Laue, Cameron S.; Wu, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This case–control study investigated the use of a low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to measure motor cortex (M1) plasticity in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). We hypothesized that impairments in long-term potentiation-like properties represent a neurophysiological biomarker of abnormal cortical function in ASD. Methods: We studied youth with ASD aged 11–18 years and matched controls (TDC). Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) was delivered to the dominant M1 at an intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold. Suprathreshold single-pulse TMS was performed to compare amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials (MEP) measured from surface electromyography electrodes on a target muscle before (20 pulses) and after (10 pulses/time point) iTBS at predefined timepoints (up to 30 minutes) to measure any potentiation effects. A linear mixed model was used to examine group differences in MEP amplitudes over time following iTBS. Results: Nine youth with ASD (mean age 15.6; 7 males; 6 right-hand dominant) and 9 TDC (mean age 14.5; 5 males; 9 right-hand dominant) participated. All subjects tolerated the procedure well. Both groups had a mean increase in excitability after iTBS for 30 minutes; however, the time course of excitability changes differed (F9,144 = 2.05; p = 0.038). Post-hoc testing identified a significant decrease in amplitude of the ASD group at 20 minutes following iTBS compared with the TDC after correcting for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate early evidence for a potential physiological biomarker of cortical plasticity in youth with ASD using a rapid low-intensity rTMS protocol with a discriminate measure at 20 minutes following stimulation. The procedure was well tolerated by all 18 participants. Future work will include modification of the protocol to improve the ability to distinguish subtypes of

  13. Abnormal Cortical Plasticity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Case-Control Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest V; Gilbert, Donald L; Erickson, Craig A; Horn, Paul S; Shaffer, Rebecca C; Wink, Logan K; Laue, Cameron S; Wu, Steve W

    2016-09-01

    This case-control study investigated the use of a low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to measure motor cortex (M1) plasticity in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). We hypothesized that impairments in long-term potentiation-like properties represent a neurophysiological biomarker of abnormal cortical function in ASD. We studied youth with ASD aged 11-18 years and matched controls (TDC). Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) was delivered to the dominant M1 at an intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold. Suprathreshold single-pulse TMS was performed to compare amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials (MEP) measured from surface electromyography electrodes on a target muscle before (20 pulses) and after (10 pulses/time point) iTBS at predefined timepoints (up to 30 minutes) to measure any potentiation effects. A linear mixed model was used to examine group differences in MEP amplitudes over time following iTBS. Nine youth with ASD (mean age 15.6; 7 males; 6 right-hand dominant) and 9 TDC (mean age 14.5; 5 males; 9 right-hand dominant) participated. All subjects tolerated the procedure well. Both groups had a mean increase in excitability after iTBS for 30 minutes; however, the time course of excitability changes differed (F9,144 = 2.05; p = 0.038). Post-hoc testing identified a significant decrease in amplitude of the ASD group at 20 minutes following iTBS compared with the TDC after correcting for multiple comparisons. In this study, we demonstrate early evidence for a potential physiological biomarker of cortical plasticity in youth with ASD using a rapid low-intensity rTMS protocol with a discriminate measure at 20 minutes following stimulation. The procedure was well tolerated by all 18 participants. Future work will include modification of the protocol to improve the ability to distinguish subtypes of ASD based on behavioral and cognitive testing.

  14. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Nishida, Yuuya

    2012-01-01

    Summary In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P<0.05). A similar mechanism of velocity control has been known in head movements of the owl and in human saccades. By analogy, this suggests that the frog planned its escape velocity in advance of executing the turn, to make the duration of the escape behavior relatively constant. For escape turns less than 60°, the positive correlation was very strong (r2 = 0.7097, P<0.05). Thus, the frog controlled the angular velocity of small escape turns very accurately and completed the behavior within a constant time. On the other hand, for escape turns greater than 60°, the same correlation was not significant (r2 = 0.065, P>0.05). Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05). This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05). Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning. PMID:23213389

  15. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOEpatents

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  16. Robust control of integrated motor-transmission powertrain system over controller area network for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Dongpu; Fang, Zongde

    2015-06-01

    Integrated motor-transmission (IMT) powertrain system with directly coupled motor and gearbox is a good choice for electric commercial vehicles (e.g., pure electric buses) due to its potential in motor size reduction and energy efficiency improvement. However, the controller design for powertrain oscillation damping becomes challenging due to the elimination of damping components. On the other hand, as controller area network (CAN) is commonly adopted in modern vehicle system, the network-induced time-varying delays that caused by bandwidth limitation will further lead to powertrain vibration or even destabilize the powertrain control system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust energy-to-peak controller is proposed for the IMT powertrain system to address the oscillation damping problem and also attenuate the external disturbance. The control law adopted here is based on a multivariable PI control, which ensures the applicability and performance of the proposed controller in engineering practice. With the linearized delay uncertainties characterized by polytopic inclusions, a delay-free closed-loop augmented system is established for the IMT powertrain system under discrete-time framework. The proposed controller design problem is then converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem where the feedback control gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by comparing its performance against that of a conventional PI controller.

  17. Evidence of motor-control difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, explored through a hierarchical motor-systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Macoun, Sarah J; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may reflect a disorder of neural systems that regulate motor control. The current study investigates motor dysfunction in children with ADHD using a hierarchical motor-systems perspective where frontal-striatal/"medial" brain systems are viewed as regulating parietal/"lateral" brain systems in a top down manner, to inhibit automatic environmentally driven responses in favor of goal-directed behavior. It was hypothesized that due to frontal-striatal hypoactivation, children with ADHD would have difficulty with higher order motor control tasks felt to be dependent on these systems, yet have preserved general motor function. A total of 63 children-ADHD and matched controls-completed experimental motor tasks that required maintenance of internal motor representations and the ability to inhibit visually driven responses. Children also completed a measure of motor inhibition, and a portion of the sample completed general motor function tasks. On motor tasks that required them to maintain internal motor representations and to inhibit automatic motor responses, children with ADHD had significantly greater difficulty than controls, yet on measures of general motor dexterity, their performance was comparable. Children with ADHD displayed significantly greater intraindividual (subject) variability than controls. Intraindividual variability (IIV) contributed to variations in performance across the motor tasks, but did not account for all of the variance on all tasks. These findings suggest that children with ADHD may be more controlled by external stimuli than by internally represented information, possibly due to dysfunction of the medial motor system. However, it is likely that children with ADHD also display general motor-execution problems (as evidenced by IIV findings), suggesting that atypicalities may extend to both medial and lateral motor systems. Findings are interpreted within the context of contemporary theories

  18. Interaction of attentional and motor control processes in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T L; Donnenwirth, E E

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between attentional capacity, motor control processes, and strategic adaptations to changing task demands was investigated in handwriting, a continuous (rather than discrete) skilled performance. Twenty-four subjects completed 12 two-minute handwriting samples under instructions stressing speeded handwriting, normal handwriting, or highly legible handwriting. For half of the writing samples, a concurrent auditory monitoring task was imposed. Subjects copied either familiar (English) or unfamiliar (Latin) passages. Writing speed, legibility ratings, errors in writing and in the secondary auditory task, and a derived measure of the average number of characters held in short-term memory during each sample ("planning unit size") were the dependent variables. The results indicated that the ability to adapt to instructions stressing speed or legibility was substantially constrained by the concurrent listening task and by text familiarity. Interactions between instructions, task concurrence, and text familiarity in the legibility ratings, combined with further analyses of planning unit size, indicated that information throughput from temporary storage mechanisms to motor processes mediated the loss of flexibility effect. Overall, the results suggest that strategic adaptations of a skilled performance to changing task circumstances are sensitive to concurrent attentional demands and that departures from "normal" or "modal" performance require attention.

  19. Research and simulation of the decoupling transformation in AC motor vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Zhongjie; Liu, Ken; Zhang, Yongping; Yao, Tuozhong

    2018-04-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a nonlinear, strong coupling, multivariable complex object, and transformation decoupling can solve the coupling problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor. This paper gives a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) mathematical model, introduces the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control coordinate transformation in the process of modal matrix inductance matrix transform through the matrix related knowledge of different coordinates of diagonalization, which makes the coupling between the independent, realize the control of motor current and excitation the torque current coupling separation, and derived the coordinate transformation matrix, the thought to solve the coupling problem of AC motor. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, through the establishment and combination between the PMSM ontology, coordinate conversion module, built the simulation model of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control, introduces the model of each part, and analyzed the simulation results.

  20. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combinatorial Motor Training Results in Functional Reorganization of Remaining Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Hannah L.; Jones, Theresa A.; Kozlowski, Dorothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical reorganization subsequent to post-stroke motor rehabilitative training (RT) has been extensively examined in animal models and humans. However, similar studies focused on the effects of motor training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. We previously reported that after a moderate/severe TBI in adult male rats, functional improvements in forelimb use were accomplished only with a combination of skilled forelimb reach training and aerobic exercise, with or without nonimpaired forelimb constraint. Thus, the current study was designed to examine the relationship between functional motor cortical map reorganization after experimental TBI and the behavioral improvements resulting from this combinatorial rehabilitative regime. Adult male rats were trained to proficiency on a skilled reaching task, received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb area of the caudal motor cortex (CMC). Three days post-CCI, animals began RT (n = 13) or no rehabilitative training (NoRT) control procedures (n = 13). The RT group participated in daily skilled reach training, voluntary aerobic exercise, and nonimpaired forelimb constraint. This RT regimen significantly improved impaired forelimb reaching success and normalized reaching strategies, consistent with previous findings. RT also enlarged the area of motor cortical wrist representation, derived by intracortical microstimulation, compared to NoRT. These findings indicate that sufficient RT can greatly improve motor function and improve the functional integrity of remaining motor cortex after a moderate/severe CCI. When compared with findings from stroke models, these findings also suggest that more intense RT may be needed to improve motor function and remodel the injured cortex after TBI. PMID:26421759

  2. Combinatorial Motor Training Results in Functional Reorganization of Remaining Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.

    PubMed

    Combs, Hannah L; Jones, Theresa A; Kozlowski, Dorothy A; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-04-15

    Cortical reorganization subsequent to post-stroke motor rehabilitative training (RT) has been extensively examined in animal models and humans. However, similar studies focused on the effects of motor training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. We previously reported that after a moderate/severe TBI in adult male rats, functional improvements in forelimb use were accomplished only with a combination of skilled forelimb reach training and aerobic exercise, with or without nonimpaired forelimb constraint. Thus, the current study was designed to examine the relationship between functional motor cortical map reorganization after experimental TBI and the behavioral improvements resulting from this combinatorial rehabilitative regime. Adult male rats were trained to proficiency on a skilled reaching task, received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb area of the caudal motor cortex (CMC). Three days post-CCI, animals began RT (n = 13) or no rehabilitative training (NoRT) control procedures (n = 13). The RT group participated in daily skilled reach training, voluntary aerobic exercise, and nonimpaired forelimb constraint. This RT regimen significantly improved impaired forelimb reaching success and normalized reaching strategies, consistent with previous findings. RT also enlarged the area of motor cortical wrist representation, derived by intracortical microstimulation, compared to NoRT. These findings indicate that sufficient RT can greatly improve motor function and improve the functional integrity of remaining motor cortex after a moderate/severe CCI. When compared with findings from stroke models, these findings also suggest that more intense RT may be needed to improve motor function and remodel the injured cortex after TBI.

  3. Early white matter abnormalities, progressive brain pathology and motor deficits in a novel knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Peng, Qi; Hou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Mali; Wang, Xin; Langseth, Abraham J.; Tao, Michael; Barker, Peter B.; Mori, Susumu; Bergles, Dwight E.; Ross, Christopher A.; Detloff, Peter J.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Duan, Wenzhen

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities have been reported in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) subjects before overt striatal neuronal loss, but whether the white matter changes represent a necessary step towards further pathology and the underlying mechanism of these changes remains unknown. Here, we characterized a novel knock-in mouse model that expresses mouse HD gene homolog (Hdh) with extended CAG repeat- HdhQ250, which was derived from the selective breeding of HdhQ150 mice. HdhQ250 mice manifest an accelerated and robust phenotype compared with its parent line. HdhQ250 mice exhibit progressive motor deficits, reduction in striatal and cortical volume, accumulation of mutant huntingtin aggregation, decreased levels of DARPP32 and BDNF and altered striatal metabolites. The abnormalities detected in this mouse model are reminiscent of several aspects of human HD. In addition, disturbed myelination was evident in postnatal Day 14 HdhQ250 mouse brain, including reduced levels of myelin regulatory factor and myelin basic protein, and decreased numbers of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum. Thinner myelin sheaths, indicated by increased G-ratio of myelin, were also detected in the corpus callosum of adult HdhQ250 mice. Moreover, proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is altered by mutant huntingtin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that this model is suitable for understanding comprehensive pathogenesis of HD in white matter and gray matter as well as developing therapeutics for HD. PMID:25609071

  4. Abnormal small-world architecture of top–down control networks in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tijiang; Wang, Jinhui; Yang, Yanchun; Wu, Qizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Long; Yue, Qiang; Tang, Hehan; Yan, Chaogan; Lui, Su; Huang, Xiaoqi; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Zang, Yufeng; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts, ideas or images and repetitive ritualistic behaviours. Although focal structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, changes in the functional relations among them remain poorly understood. This study examined OCD–related alterations in functional connectivity patterns in the brain’s top–down control network. Methods We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the correlation patterns of intrinsic or spontaneous blood oxygen level–dependent signal fluctuations in 18 patients with OCD and 16 healthy controls. The brain control networks were first constructed by thresholding temporal correlation matrices of 39 brain regions associated with top–down control and then analyzed using graph theory-based approaches. Results Compared with healthy controls, the patients with OCD showed decreased functional connectivity in the posterior temporal regions and increased connectivity in various control regions such as the cingulate, precuneus, thalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, the brain’s control networks in the healthy controls showed small-world architecture (high clustering coefficients and short path lengths), suggesting an optimal balance between modularized and distributed information processing. In contrast, the patients with OCD showed significantly higher local clustering, implying abnormal functional organization in the control network. Further analysis revealed that the changes in network properties occurred in regions of increased functional connectivity strength in patients with OCD. Limitations The patient group in the present study was heterogeneous in terms of symptom clusters, and most of the patients with OCD were medicated. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that the organizational patterns of

  5. γδT cells but not αβT cells contribute to sepsis-induced white matter injury and motor abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Li, Tao; Vontell, Regina; Jabin, Darakhshan; Hua, Sha; Zhou, Kai; Nazmi, Arshed; Albertsson, Anna-Maj; Sobotka, Kristina; Ek, Joakim; Thornton, Claire; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina; Leavenworth, Jianmei W; Zhu, Changlian; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2017-12-20

    Infection and sepsis are associated with brain white matter injury in preterm infants and the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. In the present study, we used a neonatal mouse sepsis-induced white matter injury model to determine the contribution of different T cell subsets (αβT cells and γδT cells) to white matter injury and consequent behavioral changes. C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), T cell receptor (TCR) δ-deficient (Tcrd -/- , lacking γδT cells), and TCRα-deficient (Tcra -/- , lacking αβT cells) mice were administered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at postnatal day (PND) 2. Brain myelination was examined at PNDs 12, 26, and 60. Motor function and anxiety-like behavior were evaluated at PND 26 or 30 using DigiGait analysis and an elevated plus maze. White matter development was normal in Tcrd -/- and Tcrα -/- compared to WT mice. LPS exposure induced reductions in white matter tissue volume in WT and Tcrα -/- mice, but not in the Tcrd -/- mice, compared with the saline-treated groups. Neither LPS administration nor the T cell deficiency affected anxiety behavior in these mice as determined with the elevated plus maze. DigiGait analysis revealed motor function deficiency after LPS-induced sepsis in both WT and Tcrα -/- mice, but no such effect was observed in Tcrd -/- mice. Our results suggest that γδT cells but not αβT cells contribute to sepsis-induced white matter injury and subsequent motor function abnormalities in early life. Modulating the activity of γδT cells in the early stages of preterm white matter injury might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of perinatal brain injury.

  6. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  7. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Motor prediction in Brain-Computer Interfaces for controlling mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Gan, John Q

    2008-01-01

    EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) can be regarded as a new channel for motor control except that it does not involve muscles. Normal neuromuscular motor control has two fundamental components: (1) to control the body, and (2) to predict the consequences of the control command, which is called motor prediction. In this study, after training with a specially designed BCI paradigm based on motor imagery, two subjects learnt to predict the time course of some features of the EEG signals. It is shown that, with this newly-obtained motor prediction skill, subjects can use motor imagery of feet to directly control a mobile robot to avoid obstacles and reach a small target in a time-critical scenario.

  9. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Gazzoni, Marco; Buskila, Dan; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group) and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG) were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG) involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited) contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness), and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF) were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG). Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p < 0.01) in the FM group. There were no between-group differences in the results obtained from the electrically elicited contractions. Conclusion The apparent paradox of fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure

  10. Photochemically Activated Motors: From Electrokinetic to Diffusion Motion Control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Sepulveda, Borja; Esplandiu, Maria J

    2017-12-27

    Self-propelled micro/nanomotors that can transform chemical energy from the surrounding environment into mechanical motion are cutting edge nanotechnologies with potential applications in biomedicine and environmental remediation. These applications require full understanding of the propulsion mechanisms to improve the performance and controllability of the motors. In this work, we demonstrate that there are two competing chemomechanical mechanisms at semiconductor/metal (Si/Pt) micromotors in a pump configuration under visible light exposure. The first propulsion mechanism is driven by an electro-osmotic process stemmed from a photoactivation reaction mediated by H 2 O 2 , which takes place in two separated redox reactions at the Si and Pt interfaces. One reaction involves the oxidation of H 2 O 2 at the silicon side, and the other the H 2 O 2 reduction at the metal side. The second mechanism is not light responsive and is triggered by the redox decomposition of H 2 O 2 exclusively at the Pt surface. We show that it is possible to enhance/suppress one mechanism over the other by tuning the surface roughness of the micromotor metal. More specifically, the actuation mechanism can be switched from light-controlled electrokinetics to light-insensitive diffusio-osmosis by only increasing the metal surface roughness. The different actuation mechanisms yield strikingly different fluid flow velocities, electric fields, and light sensitivities. Consequently, these findings are very relevant and can have a remarkable impact on the design and optimization of photoactivated catalytic devices and, in general, on bimetallic or insulating-metallic motors.

  11. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  12. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  13. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

  14. The Neural Mechanism Exploration of Adaptive Motor Control: Dynamical Economic Cell Allocation in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yangyang; Fan, Jing; Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Xi; He, Jiping

    2017-05-01

    Adaptive flexibility is of significance for the smooth and efficient movements in goal attainment. However, the underlying work mechanism of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control still remains unclear. How does the cerebral cortex organize and coordinate the activity of a large population of cells in the implementation of various motor strategies? To explore this issue, single-unit activities from the M1 region and kinematic data were recorded simultaneously in monkeys performing 3D reach-to-grasp tasks with different perturbations. Varying motor control strategies were employed and achieved in different perturbed tasks, via the dynamic allocation of cells to modulate specific movement parameters. An economic principle was proposed for the first time to describe a basic rule for cell allocation in the primary motor cortex. This principle, defined as the Dynamic Economic Cell Allocation Mechanism (DECAM), guarantees benefit maximization in cell allocation under limited neuronal resources, and avoids committing resources to uneconomic investments for unreliable factors with no or little revenue. That is to say, the cells recruited are always preferentially allocated to those factors with reliable return; otherwise, the cells are dispatched to respond to other factors about task. The findings of this study might partially reveal the working mechanisms underlying the role of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control, wherein is also of significance for the design of future intelligent brain-machine interfaces and rehabilitation device.

  15. Differential reliance of chimpanzees and humans on automatic and deliberate control of motor actions.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Humans are often unaware of how they control their limb motor movements. People pay attention to their own motor movements only when their usual motor routines encounter errors. Yet little is known about the extent to which voluntary actions rely on automatic control and when automatic control shifts to deliberate control in nonhuman primates. In this study, we demonstrate that chimpanzees and humans showed similar limb motor adjustment in response to feedback error during reaching actions, whereas attentional allocation inferred from gaze behavior differed. We found that humans shifted attention to their own motor kinematics as errors were induced in motor trajectory feedback regardless of whether the errors actually disrupted their reaching their action goals. In contrast, chimpanzees shifted attention to motor execution only when errors actually interfered with their achieving a planned action goal. These results indicate that the species differed in their criteria for shifting from automatic to deliberate control of motor actions. It is widely accepted that sophisticated motor repertoires have evolved in humans. Our results suggest that the deliberate monitoring of one's own motor kinematics may have evolved in the human lineage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  17. An Efficient Fuzzy Controller Design for Parallel Connected Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha, S.; Subramani, C.

    2018-04-01

    Generally, an induction motors are highly non-linear and has a complex time varying dynamics. This makes the speed control of an induction motor a challenging issue in the industries. But, due to the recent trends in the power electronic devices and intelligent controllers, the speed control of the induction motor is achieved by including non-linear characteristics also. Conventionally a single inverter is used to run one induction motor in industries. In the traction applications, two or more inductions motors are operated in parallel to reduce the size and cost of induction motors. In this application, the parallel connected induction motors can be driven by a single inverter unit. The stability problems may introduce in the parallel operation under low speed operating conditions. Hence, the speed deviations should be reduce with help of suitable controllers. The speed control of the parallel connected system is performed by PID controller and fuzzy logic controller. In this paper the speed response of the induction motor for the rating of IHP, 1440 rpm, and 50Hz with these controller are compared in time domain specifications. The stability analysis of the system also performed under low speed using matlab platform. The hardware model is developed for speed control using fuzzy logic controller which exhibited superior performances over the other controller.

  18. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  19. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  20. Losses in chopper-controlled DC series motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Motors for electric vehicle (EV) applications must have different features than dc motors designed for industrial applications. The EV motor application is characterized by the following requirements: (1) the need for highest possible efficiency from light load to overload, for maximum EV range, (2) large short time overload capability (The ratio of peak to average power varies from 5/1 in heavy city traffic to 3/1 in suburban driving situations) and (3) operation from power supply voltage levels of 84 to 144 volts (probably 120 volts maximum). A test facility utilizing a dc generator as a substitute for a battery pack was designed and utilized. Criteria for the design of such a facility are presented. Two motors, differing in design detail, commercially available for EV use were tested. Losses measured are discussed, as are waves forms and their harmonic content, the measurements of resistance and inductance, EV motor/chopper application criteria, and motor design considerations.

  1. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  2. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  3. Resource allocation in neural networks for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, J.; Cummins, J.; Gunnoe, J.; Tollefson, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Ohira, T.

    2006-03-01

    Multiplicative noise plays an important part of a non-predictive control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. However, intentionally-directed movements are also used in stick balancing, particularly by beginners. The interplay between intentional and non-predictive control mechanisms for stick balancing was assessed using two dual task paradigms: the subject was asked to either move one of their legs rhythmically or to imagine moving their leg while balancing a stick (55.4 cm, 35 g) at their fingertip. Performance was measured by determining the stick survival function, i.e. the fraction of trials (total >=25) for which the stick remained balanced at time t as a function of t. Performance was increased by concurrent rhythmic leg movements (50% survival time shifted from 8-9s to 15s in a typical subject). Imagined movements resulted in a similar improvement (50% survival time of 20s for the above subject) suggesting that this enhancement is not simply related to mechanical vibrations of the fingertip induced by leg movement. These observations emphasize the importance of the development of mathematical models for neural control of skilled motor movements that take into resource allocation of limited resources, such as intention.

  4. California motor vehicle pollution control: emission control system warranty regulations waiver of federal preemption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-10-23

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has decided that the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) regulations on emission control system warranties for motor vehicles and engines sold in the state fall within the scope of previous waivers of federal preemption under the Clean Air Act; that they are neither standards nor enforcement procedures; and that they need not receive a separate waiver of federal preemption for their enforcement. Adopted on 12/14/78, the CARB regulations apply to all California certified 1973 and subsequent model year motorcycles, light-, medium-, and heavy-duty motor vehicles and engines. The decision, which followed a 5/17/79 public hearingmore » in San Francisco, Calif., will affect not only California motor vehicle manufacturers and industries but also those outside the state which sell the subject vehicles in California, thus, making it one of nationwide scope and effect.« less

  5. Abnormal cardiac autonomic control in sickle cell disease following transient hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sangkatumvong, Suvimol; Khoo, Michael C K; Coates, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in autonomic control in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have been reported by multiple researchers. However their potential causal association with sickle cell crisis remains unknown. We employed hypoxia, a known trigger to sickle cell crisis, to perturb the autonomic systems of the subjects. Cardiac autonomic control was non-invasively assessed by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxia stimulus. Time varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The results demonstrate that cardiovascular autonomic response to hypoxia is substantially more sensitive in SCA than in normal controls. We also developed a model to compensate for the confounding effects of respiration on the HRV spectral indices by using the corresponding respiration signal to compensate for the respiratory correlated part of the HRV. This technique improved the resolution with which the effect of hypoxia on changes in HRV could be measured.

  6. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  7. Incremental Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Sensorless Stroke Control of A Halbach-type Linear Oscillatory Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    The halbach-type linear oscillatory motor (HT-LOM) is multi-variable, highly coupled, nonlinear and uncertain, and difficult to get a satisfied result by conventional PID control. An incremental adaptive fuzzy controller (IAFC) for stroke tracking was presented, which combined the merits of PID control, the fuzzy inference mechanism and the adaptive algorithm. The integral-operation is added to the conventional fuzzy control algorithm. The fuzzy scale factor can be online tuned according to the load force and stroke command. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme can achieve satisfied stroke tracking performance and is robust with respect to parameter variations and external disturbance.

  8. The Intersection between Ocular and Manual Motor Control: Eye–Hand Coordination in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hosseini, Maryam; Wong, Eric A.; Mackey, Wayne E.; Fung, James K.; Ahdoot, Edmond; Rucker, Janet C.; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S.; Hudson, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Acute and chronic disease processes that lead to cerebral injury can often be clinically challenging diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. Neurodegenerative processes are one such elusive diagnostic group, given their often diffuse and indolent nature, creating difficulties in pinpointing specific structural abnormalities that relate to functional limitations. A number of studies in recent years have focused on eye–hand coordination (EHC) in the setting of acquired brain injury (ABI), highlighting the important set of interconnected functions of the eye and hand and their relevance in neurological conditions. These experiments, which have concentrated on focal lesion-based models, have significantly improved our understanding of neurophysiology and underscored the sensitivity of biomarkers in acute and chronic neurological disease processes, especially when such biomarkers are combined synergistically. To better understand EHC and its connection with ABI, there is a need to clarify its definition and to delineate its neuroanatomical and computational underpinnings. Successful EHC relies on the complex feedback- and prediction-mediated relationship between the visual, ocular motor, and manual motor systems and takes advantage of finely orchestrated synergies between these systems in both the spatial and temporal domains. Interactions of this type are representative of functional sensorimotor control, and their disruption constitutes one of the most frequent deficits secondary to brain injury. The present review describes the visually mediated planning and control of eye movements, hand movements, and their coordination, with a particular focus on deficits that occur following neurovascular, neurotraumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions. Following this review, we also discuss potential future research directions, highlighting objective EHC as a sensitive biomarker complement within acute and chronic neurological disease processes. PMID:28620341

  9. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  10. Can you hear me. Noise control regulations for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.E.

    1976-06-01

    Companies should take action to ensure that their trucks and construction equipment conform to noise regulations established by the Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the 1972 Noise Control Act. Noise control regulations are applicable to all motor carriers with a gross vehicle weight rating of over 10,000 lb, regardless of the date of vehicle manufacture. The standards basically provide for five inspection steps to determine the compliance or non-compliance of a vehicle. Noise measurement tests must be carried out in a specific manner. The EPA has also issued regulations establishing noise emission standards for new medium and heavy trucksmore » over 10,000 lb gross vehicle weight rating and designed for street and highway use. The EPA is also looking into noise emissions from construction equipment; the first of these regulations sets a ceiling on noise emissions for new portable air compressors. In addition to the exterior noise-level limits prescribed by the EPA, the in-cab noise levels are federally regulated from the view-point of occupational noise-exposure criteria. Companies should train personnel in the physical properties of sound and the use of sound-measuring devices to ensure that new and existing equipment complies with the regulations.« less

  11. A novel command signal for motor neuroprosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Moss, Christa W; Kilgore, Kevin L; Peckham, P Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprostheses can restore functions such as hand grasp or standing to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) using electrical stimulation to elicit movements in paralyzed muscles. Implanted neuroprostheses currently use electromyographic (EMG) activity from muscles above the lesion that remain under volitional control as a command input. Systems in development use a networked approach and will allow for restoration of multiple functions but will require additional command signals to control the system, especially in individuals with high-level tetraplegia. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using muscles innervated below the injury level as command sources for a neuroprosthesis. Recent anatomical and physiological studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across the lesion, even in those diagnosed with a clinically complete SCI; hence, EMG activity may be present in muscles with no sign of movement. Twelve participants with motor complete SCI were enrolled and EMG was recorded with surface electrodes from 8 muscles below the knee in each leg. Significant activity was evident in 89% of the 192 muscles studied during attempted movements of the foot and lower limb. At least 2 muscles from each participant were identified as potential command signals for a neuroprosthesis based on 2-state, threshold classification. Results suggest that voluntary activity is present and recordable in below lesion muscles even after clinically complete SCI.

  12. Abnormal Neurocirculatory Control During Exercise in Humans with Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeanie; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neurocirculatory control during exercise is one important mechanism leading to exercise intolerance in patients with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will provide an overview of mechanisms underlying abnormal neurocirculatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies have shown that ESRD and CKD patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during both isometric and rhythmic exercise. Subsequent studies examining the role of the exercise pressor reflex in the augmented pressor response revealed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was not augmented during exercise in these patients, and metaboreflex-mediated increases in MSNA were blunted, while mechanoreflex-mediated increases were preserved under basal conditions. However, normalizing the augmented BP response during exercise via infusion of nitroprusside (NTP), and thereby equalizing baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA, an important modulator of the final hemodynamic response to exercise, revealed that CKD patients had an exaggerated increase in MSNA during isometric and rhythmic exercise. In addition, mechanoreflex-mediated control was augmented, and metaboreceptor blunting was no longer apparent in CKD patients with baroreflex normalization. Factors leading to mechanoreceptor sensitization, and other mechanisms underlying the exaggerated exercise pressor response, such as impaired functional sympatholysis, should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25458430

  13. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  14. Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.

  15. Ephrin-B3 is the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract axons from recrossing, allowing for unilateral motor control.

    PubMed

    Kullander, K; Croll, S D; Zimmer, M; Pan, L; McClain, J; Hughes, V; Zabski, S; DeChiara, T M; Klein, R; Yancopoulos, G D; Gale, N W

    2001-04-01

    Growing axons follow highly stereotypical pathways, guided by a variety of attractive and repulsive cues, before establishing specific connections with distant targets. A particularly well-known example that illustrates the complexity of axonal migration pathways involves the axonal projections of motor neurons located in the motor cortex. These projections take a complex route during which they first cross the midline, then form the corticospinal tract, and ultimately connect with motor neurons in the contralateral side of the spinal cord. These obligatory contralateral connections account for why one side of the brain controls movement on the opposing side of the body. The netrins and slits provide well-known midline signals that regulate axonal crossings at the midline. Herein we report that a member of the ephrin family, ephrin-B3, also plays a key role at the midline to regulate axonal crossing. In particular, we show that ephrin-B3 acts as the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing when they enter the spinal gray matter. We report that in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice, corticospinal tract projections freely recross in the spinal gray matter, such that the motor cortex on one side of the brain now provides bilateral input to the spinal cord. This neuroanatomical abnormality in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice correlates with loss of unilateral motor control, yielding mice that simultaneously move their right and left limbs and thus have a peculiar hopping gait quite unlike the alternate step gait displayed by normal mice. The corticospinal and walking defects in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice resemble those recently reported for mice lacking the EphA4 receptor, which binds ephrin-B3 as well as other ephrins, suggesting that the binding of EphA4-bearing axonal processes to ephrin-B3 at the midline provides the repulsive signal that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing the midline in the developing spinal cord.

  16. PI controller design for indirect vector controlled induction motor: A decoupling approach.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jitendra Kr; Ghosh, Sandip; Maity, Somnath; Dworak, Pawel

    2017-09-01

    Decoupling of the stator currents is important for smoother torque response of indirect vector controlled induction motors. Typically, feedforward decoupling is used to take care of current coupling that requires exact knowledge of motor parameters, additional circuitry and signal processing. In this paper, a method is proposed to design the regulating proportional-integral gains that minimize coupling without any requirement of the additional decoupler. The variation of the coupling terms for change in load torque is considered as the performance measure. An iterative linear matrix inequality based H ∞ control design approach is used to obtain the controller gains. A comparison between the feedforward and the proposed decoupling schemes is presented through simulation and experimental results. The results show that the proposed scheme is simple yet effective even without additional block or burden on signal processing. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Mai T.; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C.; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M.; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. PMID:21995941

  18. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Dang, Mai T; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-15

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  20. Development of speech motor control: lip movement variability.

    PubMed

    Schötz, Susanne; Frid, Johan; Löfqvist, Anders

    2013-06-01

    This study examined variability of lip movements across repetitions of the same utterance as a function of age in Swedish speakers. The specific purpose was to extend earlier findings by examining variability in both phase and amplitude. Subjects were 50 typically developed native Swedish children and adults (28 females, 22 males, aged 5 to 31 yr). Lip movements were recorded during 15 to 20 repetitions of a short Swedish phrase using three-dimensional articulography. After correction for head movements, the kinematic records were expressed in a maxilla-based coordinate system. Movement onset and offset of the utterance were identified using kinematic landmarks. The Euclidean distance between receivers on the upper and lower lips was calculated and subjected to functional data analysis to assess both phase and amplitude variability. Results show a decrease in both indices as a function of age, with a greater reduction of amplitude variability. There was no difference between males and females for either index. The two indices were moderately correlated with each other, suggesting that they capture different aspects of speech production. Utterance duration also decreased with age, but variability was unrelated to duration. The standard deviation of utterance duration also decreased with age. The present results thus suggest that age related changes in speech motor control continue up until 30 years of age.

  1. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David, E-mail: dreguera@ub.edu

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential andmore » the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.« less

  2. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors.

    PubMed

    Esplandiu, Maria J; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  3. Osseoperception: An Implant Mediated Sensory Motor Control- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Karani, Jyoti T.; Khanna, Anshul; Badwaik, Praveen; Pai, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Osseointegration of dental implants has been researched extensively, covering various aspects such as bone apposition, biomechanics and microbiology etc however, physiologic integration of implants and the associated prosthesis in the body has received very little attention. This integration is due to the development of a special sensory ability, which is able to restore peripheral sensory feedback mechanism. The underlying mechanism of this so-called ‘osseoperception’ phenomenon remains a matter of debate. The following article reveals the histological, neurophysiologic and psychophysical aspects of osseoperception. A comprehensive research to provide scientific evidence of osseoperception was carried out using various online resources such as Pubmed, Google scholar etc to retrieve studies published between 1985 to 2014 using the following keywords: “osseoperception”, “mechanoreceptors”, “tactile sensibility”. Published data suggests that a peripheral feedback pathway can be restored with osseointegrated implants. This implant-mediated sensory-motor control may have important clinical implications in the normal functioning of the implant supported prosthesis. PMID:26501033

  4. 27. Pump Room interiorDrainage pump motor control center with main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Pump Room interior-Drainage pump motor control center with main valve control panel at right. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  6. Pulse Width Modulator Controller Design for a Brushless DC Motor Position Servo.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    C. POWER CONDITIONER SIMULATION Accurate modeling of power conditioning and commutation in brushless dc motors requires explicit definition of the...Study of a Brushless DC Motor Power Conditioner for a Cruise Missile Fin Control Actuator, Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Ca...DESIGN FOR A BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR POSITION SERVO by Vincent S. Rossitto June 1987 Thesis Advisor: Alex Gerba, Jr. Approved for public release

  7. Relationship between writing skills and visual-motor control in low-vision students.

    PubMed

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Aki, Esra

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between handwriting skills and visual motor control among students with low vision and to compare this with the performance of their normal sighted peers. 42 students with low vision and 26 normal sighted peers participated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test-Short Form (BOTMP-SF), Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test's writing subtest, and a legibility assessment were administered. Significant differences were found between groups for students' writing speed, legibility, and visual motor control. Visual motor control was correlated both writing speed and legibility. Students with low vision had poorer handwriting performance, with lower legibility and slower writing speed. Writing performance time was related to visual motor control in students with low vision.

  8. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments.

  9. Neuron-specific knockdown of Drosophila PDHB induces reduction of lifespan, deficient locomotive ability, abnormal morphology of motor neuron terminals and photoreceptor axon targeting.

    PubMed

    Dung, Vuu My; Suong, Dang Ngoc Anh; Okamaoto, Yuji; Hiramatsu, Yu; Thao, Dang Thi Phuong; Yoshida, Hideki; Takashima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2018-05-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency (PDCD) is a common primary cause of defects in mitochondrial function and also can lead to peripheral neuropathy. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PDHB) is a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, which is a well-known component of PDC. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CG11876 (dPDHB) gene is a homolog of human PDHB. In this study, we established a Drosophila model with neuron-specific knockdown of dPDHB to investigate its role in neuropathy pathogenesis. Knockdown of dPDHB in pan-neurons induced locomotor defects in both larval and adult stages, which were consistent with abnormal morphology of the motor neuron terminals at neuromuscular junctions and mitochondrial fragmentation in brains. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of dPDHB also shortened the lifespan of adult flies. In addition, flies with knockdown of dPDHB manifested a rough eye phenotype and aberrant photoreceptor axon targeting. These results with the Drosophila model suggest the involvement of PDHB in peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-Frequency Oscillations and Control of the Motor Output

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2017-01-01

    A less precise force output impairs our ability to perform movements, learn new motor tasks, and use tools. Here we show that low-frequency oscillations in force are detrimental to force precision. We summarize the recent evidence that low-frequency oscillations in force output represent oscillations of the spinal motor neuron pool from the voluntary drive, and can be modulated by shifting power to higher frequencies. Further, force oscillations below 0.5 Hz impair force precision with increased voluntary drive, aging, and neurological disease. We argue that the low-frequency oscillations are (1) embedded in the descending drive as shown by the activation of multiple spinal motor neurons, (2) are altered with force intensity and brain pathology, and (3) can be modulated by visual feedback and motor training to enhance force precision. Thus, low-frequency oscillations in force provide insight into how the human brain regulates force precision. PMID:28261107

  11. Adaptation of feedforward movement control is abnormal in patients with cervical dystonia and tremor.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Ravaschio, Andrea; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bonassi, Gaia; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Pelosin, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    It is under debate whether the cerebellum plays a role in dystonia pathophysiology and in the expression of clinical phenotypes. We investigated a typical cerebellar function (anticipatory movement control) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) with and without tremor. Twenty patients with CD, with and without tremor, and 17 healthy controls were required to catch balls of different load: 15 trials with a light ball, 25 trials with a heavy ball (adaptation) and 15 trials with a light ball (post-adaptation). Arm movements were recorded using a motion capture system. We evaluated: (i) the anticipatory adjustment (just before the impact); (ii) the extent and rate of the adaptation (at the impact) and (iii) the aftereffect in the post-adaptation phase. The anticipatory adjustment was reduced during adaptation in CD patients with tremor respect to CD patients without tremor and controls. The extent and rate of adaptation and the aftereffect in the post-adaptation phase were smaller in CD with tremor than in controls and CD without tremor. Patients with cervical dystonia and tremor display an abnormal predictive movement control. Our findings point to a possible role of cerebellum in the expression of a clinical phenotype in dystonia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between UTI and urinary tract abnormalities: a case-control study in Erbil City/Iraq.

    PubMed

    AlKhateeb, N E; Al Azzawi, S; Al Tawil, N G

    2014-12-01

    To determine the proportion of ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary system between two groups of children: affected with urinary tract infection (UTI) and unaffected (control). Further, to determine the most common microorganisms causing UTI in those children with urinary tract abnormalities. A case-control study was carried out in Erbil, Iraq between September and December 2012. Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 64 children affected with UTI and on 64 unaffected with UTI (control) in order to detect differences, in the presence of abnormalities, in the urinary tract between the two groups. A majority (59.4%) of children affected with UTI had ultrasound abnormalities, compared with 26.6% of the control group (P<0.001). Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism in both groups, although the difference was not statistically significant. More than one half (75%) of patients with UTI were female, compared with 25% who were male (P<0.001). More than one half of the children in the present study who presented with UTI were found to have ultrasound abnormalities. E. coli was the most common causative pathogen for children with or without ultrasound abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system based on SVPWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo

    2017-04-01

    The control system is designed to realize TMS320F28335 based on the permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system, and put it to quoting all electric of injection molding machine. The system of the control method used SVPWM, through the sampling motor current and rotating transformer position information, realize speed, current double closed loop control. Through the TMS320F28335 hardware floating-point processing core, realize the application for permanent magnet synchronous motor in the floating point arithmetic, to replace the past fixed-point algorithm, and improve the efficiency of the code.

  14. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors. PMID:27594776

  15. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  16. Cognitive control dysfunction and abnormal frontal cortex activation in stimulant drug users and their biological siblings.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Jones, P S; Bullmore, E T; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2013-05-14

    Cognitive and neural abnormalities are known to accompany chronic drug abuse, with impairments in cognition and changes in cortical structure seen in stimulant-dependent individuals. However, premorbid differences have also been observed in the brains and behavior of individuals at risk for substance abuse, before they develop dependence. Endophenotype research has emerged as a useful method for assessing preclinical traits that may be risk factors for pathology by studying patient populations and their undiagnosed first-degree relatives. This study used the color-word Stroop task to assess executive functioning in stimulant-dependent individuals, their unaffected biological siblings and unrelated healthy control volunteers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Both the stimulant-dependent and sibling participants demonstrated impairments in cognitive control and processing speed on the task, registering significantly longer response latencies. However, the two groups generated very different neural responses, with the sibling participants exhibiting a significant decrease in activation in the inferior frontal gyrus compared with both stimulant-dependent individuals and control participants. Both target groups also demonstrated a decrease in hemispheric laterality throughout the task, exhibiting a disproportionate increase in right hemispheric activation, which was associated with their behavioral inefficiencies. These findings not only suggest a possible risk factor for stimulant abuse of poor inhibitory control and cortical inefficiency but they also demonstrate possible adaptations in the brains of stimulant users.

  17. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  18. The relationship between executive function and fine motor control in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus.

  20. Spectral Variability in the Aged Brain during Fine Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Fanny; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Timmermann, Jan E.; Zimerman, Maximo; Nolte, Guido; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aging is paralleled by a decline of fine motor skills accompanied by structural and functional alterations of the underlying brain network. Here, we aim to investigate age-related changes in the spectral distribution of neuronal oscillations during fine skilled motor function. We employ the concept of spectral entropy in order to describe the flatness and peaked-ness of a frequency spectrum to quantify changes in the spectral distribution of the oscillatory motor response in the aged brain. Electroencephalogram was recorded in elderly (n = 32) and young (n = 34) participants who performed either a cued finger movement or a pinch or a whole hand grip task with their dominant right hand. Whereas young participant showed distinct, well-defined movement-related power decreases in the alpha and upper beta band, elderly participants exhibited a flat broadband, frequency-unspecific power desynchronization. This broadband response was reflected by an increase of spectral entropy over sensorimotor and frontal areas in the aged brain. Neuronal activation patterns differed between motor tasks in the young brain, while the aged brain showed a similar activation pattern in all tasks. Moreover, we found a wider recruitment of the cortical motor network in the aged brain. The present study adds to the understanding of age-related changes of neural coding during skilled motor behavior, revealing a less predictable signal with great variability across frequencies in a wide cortical motor network in the aged brain. The increase in entropy in the aged brain could be a reflection of random noise-like activity or could represent a compensatory mechanism that serves a functional role. PMID:28066231

  1. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  2. Self-Controlled Practice Enhances Motor Learning in Introverts and Extroverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda, Jr.; Tani, Go

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Method: Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys…

  3. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  4. Effects of Dispositional Mindfulness on the Self-Controlled Learning of a Novel Motor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ying Hwa; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Current literature suggests that mindful learning is beneficial to learning but its links with motor learning is seldom examined. In the present study, we examine the effects of learners' mindfulness disposition on the self-controlled learning of a novel motor task. Thirty-two participants undertook five practice sessions, in addition to a pre-,…

  5. Motor Signs Distinguish Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome from Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansiewicz, Eva M.; Goldberg, Melissa C.; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Landa, Rebecca; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2006-01-01

    While many studies of motor control in autism have focused on specific motor signs, there has been a lack of research examining the complete range of subtle neuromotor signs. This study compared performance on a neurologic examination standardized for children (PANESS, Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs, Denckla ["1974 Developmental…

  6. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  7. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  8. Architecture of Vagal Motor Units Controlling Striated Muscle of Esophagus: Peripheral Elements Patterning Peristalsis?

    PubMed Central

    Powley, Terry L.; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Hudson, Cherie N.; Martin, Felecia N.; McAdams, Jennifer L.; Mason, Jacqueline K.; Phillips, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n = 78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are “hardwired,” in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. PMID:24044976

  9. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis?

    PubMed

    Powley, Terry L; Mittal, Ravinder K; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; McAdams, Jennifer L; Mason, Jacqueline K; Phillips, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n=78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are "hardwired," in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. © 2013.

  10. L-Dopa Modulates Functional Connectivity in Striatal Cognitive and Motor Networks: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clare; de Zubicaray, Greig; Di Martino, Adriana; Copland, David A.; Reiss, Philip T.; Klein, Donald F.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; McMahon, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) analyses of resting-state fMRI data allow for the mapping of large-scale functional networks, and provide a novel means of examining the impact of dopaminergic challenge. Here, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we examined the effect of L-dopa, a dopamine precursor, on striatal resting-state FC in 19 healthy young adults. We examined the FC of 6 striatal regions-of-interest previously shown to elicit networks known to be associated with motivational, cognitive and motor subdivisions of the caudate and putamen (Di Martino et al., Cerebral Cortex, 2008). In addition to replicating the previously demonstrated patterns of striatal FC, we observed robust effects of L-dopa. Specifically, L-dopa increased FC in motor pathways connecting the putamen ROIs with the cerebellum and brainstem. While L-dopa also increased FC between the inferior ventral striatum and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, it disrupted ventral striatal and dorsal caudate FC with the default mode network. These alterations in FC are consistent with studies that have demonstrated dopaminergic modulation of cognitive and motor striatal networks in healthy participants. Recent studies have demonstrated altered resting state FC in several conditions believed to be characterized by abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our findings suggest that the application of similar experimental pharmacological manipulations in such populations may further our understanding of the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in those conditions. PMID:19494158

  11. Development of magneto-rheologial fluid (MRF) based clutch for output torque control of AC motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. Hung; Do, H. M. Hieu; Nguyen, V. Quoc; Nguyen, N. Diep; Le, D. Thang

    2018-03-01

    In industry, the AC motor is widely used because of low price, power availability, low cost maintenance. The main disadvantages of AC motors compared to DC motors are difficulty in speed and torque control, requiring expensive controllers with complex control algorithms. This is the basic limitations in the widespread adoption of AC motor systems for industrial automation. One feasible solution for AC motor control is using MRF (magneto-rheological fluid) based clutches (shortly called MR clutches) Although there have been many studies on MR clutches, most of these clutches used traditional configuration with coils wound on the middle cylindrical part and a compotator is used to supply power to the coils. Therefore, this type of MR clutches possesses many disadvantages such as high friction and unstable applied current due to commutator, complex structure which causes difficulty in manufacture, assembly, and maintenance. In addition, the bottleneck problem of magnetic field is also a challenging issue. In this research, we will develop a new type of MR clutches that overcomes the abovementioned disadvantages of traditional MR clutches and more suitable for application in controlling of AC motor. Besides, in this study, speed and torque control system for AC motors using developed MR clutches is designed and experimental validated.

  12. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Hassa, Thomas; Sebastian, Alexandra; Liepert, Joachim; Weiller, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roger; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-)supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  13. Oculomotor Cognitive Control Abnormalities in Australian Rules Football Players with a History of Concussion.

    PubMed

    Clough, Meaghan; Mutimer, Steven; Wright, David K; Tsang, Adrian; Costello, Daniel M; Gardner, Andrew J; Stanwell, Peter; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Sun, Mujun; Brady, Rhys D; McDonald, Stuart J; Webster, Kyria M; Johnstone, Maddison R; Semple, Bridgette D; Agoston, Denes V; White, Owen B; Frayne, Richard; Fielding, Joanne; O'Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R

    2018-03-01

    This study used oculomotor, cognitive, and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures to assess for neurological abnormalities in current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules footballers (i.e., Australia's most participated collision sport) with a history of sports-related concussion (SRC). Participants were 15 male amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC greater than 6 months previously, and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched athlete control subjects that had no history of neurotrauma or participation in collision sports. Participants completed a clinical interview, neuropsychological measures, and oculomotor measures of cognitive control. MRI investigation involved structural imaging, as well as diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI sequences. Despite no group differences on conventional neuropsychological tests and multi-modal MRI measures, Australian rules football players with a history of SRC performed significantly worse on an oculomotor switch task: a measure of cognitive control that interleaves the response of looking towards a target (i.e., a prosaccade) with the response of looking away from a target (i.e., an antisaccade). Specifically, Australian footballers performed significantly shorter latency prosaccades and found changing from an antisaccade trial to a prosaccade trial (switch cost) significantly more difficult than control subjects. Poorer switch cost was related to poorer performance on a number of neuropsychological measures of inhibitory control. Further, when comparing performance on the cognitively more demanding switch task with performance on simpler, antisaccade/prosaccades tasks which require a single response, Australian footballers demonstrated a susceptibility to increased cognitive load, compared to the control group who were unaffected. These initial results suggest that current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC may have persisting

  14. Flexible operation strategy for environment control system in abnormal supply power condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liping, Pang; Guoxiang, Li; Hongquan, Qu; Yufeng, Fang

    2017-04-01

    This paper establishes an optimization method that can be applied to the flexible operation of the environment control system in an abnormal supply power condition. A proposed conception of lifespan is used to evaluate the depletion time of the non-regenerative substance. The optimization objective function is to maximize the lifespans. The optimization variables are the allocated powers of subsystems. The improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm is adopted to obtain the pareto optimization frontier with the constraints of the cabin environmental parameters and the adjustable operating parameters of the subsystems. Based on the same importance of objective functions, the preferred power allocation of subsystems can be optimized. Then the corresponding running parameters of subsystems can be determined to ensure the maximum lifespans. A long-duration space station with three astronauts is used to show the implementation of the proposed optimization method. Three different CO2 partial pressure levels are taken into consideration in this study. The optimization results show that the proposed optimization method can obtain the preferred power allocation for the subsystems when the supply power is at a less-than-nominal value. The method can be applied to the autonomous control for the emergency response of the environment control system.

  15. Abnormal fear circuitry in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A controlled magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Andrea E; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Spencer, Thomas J; Bogucki, Olivia E; Pope, Amanda L; Plasencia, Natalie; Hughes, Brittany; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-04-30

    We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of conditioned response. Compared to healthy controls, ADHD subjects had significantly greater insular cortex activation during early extinction, lesser dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during late extinction, lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during late extinction learning and extinction recall, and greater hippocampal activation during extinction recall. Hippocampal and vmPFC deficits were similar to those documented in PTSD subjects compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. Non-traumatized, medication naive adults with ADHD had abnormalities in fear circuits during extinction learning and extinction recall, and some findings were consistent with those previously documented in subjects with PTSD compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. These findings could explain the significant association between ADHD and PTSD as well as impaired emotion regulation in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  17. Improving Motor Control in Walking: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Older Adults with Subclinical Walking Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Brach, Jennifer S.; Lowry, Kristin; Perera, Subashan; Hornyak, Victoria; Wert, David; Studenski, Stephanie A.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective was to test the proposed mechanism of action of a task-specific motor learning intervention by examining its effect on measures of the motor control of gait. Design Single blinded randomized clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory. Participants Forty older adults 65 years of age and older, with gait speed >1.0 m/s and impaired motor skill (Figure of 8 walk time > 8 secs). Interventions The two interventions included a task-oriented motor learning and a standard exercise program. Both interventions lasted 12 weeks, with twice weekly one hour physical therapist supervised sessions. Main Outcome Measures Two measure of the motor control of gait, gait variability and smoothness of walking, were assessed pre and post intervention by assessors masked to treatment arm. Results Of 40 randomized subjects; 38 completed the trial (mean age 77.1±6.0 years). Motor control group improved more than standard group in double support time variability (0.13 vs. 0.05 m/s; adjusted difference, AD=0.006, p=0.03). Smoothness of walking in the anterior/posterior direction improved more in motor control than standard for all conditions (usual: AD=0.53, p=0.05; narrow: AD=0.56, p=0.01; dual task: AD=0.57, p=0.04). Conclusions Among older adults with subclinical walking difficulty, there is initial evidence that task-oriented motor learning exercise results in gains in the motor control of walking, while standard exercise does not. Task-oriented motor learning exercise is a promising intervention for improving timing and coordination deficits related to mobility difficulties in older adults, and needs to be evaluated in a definitive larger trial. PMID:25448244

  18. Low-Level Human Equivalent Gestational Lead Exposure Produces Sex-Specific Motor and Coordination Abnormalities and Late-Onset Obesity in Year-Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leasure, J. Leigh; Giddabasappa, Anand; Chaney, Shawntay; Johnson, Jerry E.; Pothakos, Konstantinos; Lau, Yuen Sum; Fox, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Low-level developmental lead exposure is linked to cognitive and neurological disorders in children. However, the long-term effects of gestational lead exposure (GLE) have received little attention. Objectives Our goals were to establish a murine model of human equivalent GLE and to determine dose–response effects on body weight, motor functions, and dopamine neurochemistry in year-old offspring. Methods We exposed female C57BL/6 mice to water containing 0, 27 (low), 55 (moderate), or 109 ppm (high) of lead from 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout gestation, and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Maternal and litter measures, blood lead concentrations ([BPb]), and body weights were obtained throughout the experiment. Locomotor behavior in the absence and presence of amphetamine, running wheel activity, rotarod test, and dopamine utilization were examined in year-old mice. Results Peak [BPb] were < 1, ≤ 10, 24–27, and 33–42 μg/dL in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE groups at PN0–10, respectively. Year-old male but not female GLE mice exhibited late-onset obesity. Similarly, we observed male-specific decreased spontaneous motor activity, increased amphetamine-induced motor activity, and decreased rotarod performance in year-old GLE mice. Levels of dopamine and its major metabolite were altered in year-old male mice, although only forebrain utilization increased. GLE-induced alterations were consistently larger in low-dose GLE mice. Conclusions Our novel results show that GLE produced permanent male-specific deficits. The nonmonotonic dose-dependent responses showed that low-level GLE produced the most adverse effects. These data reinforce the idea that lifetime measures of dose–response toxicant exposure should be a component of the neurotoxic risk assessment process. PMID:18335103

  19. Low-level human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces sex-specific motor and coordination abnormalities and late-onset obesity in year-old mice.

    PubMed

    Leasure, J Leigh; Giddabasappa, Anand; Chaney, Shawntay; Johnson, Jerry E; Pothakos, Konstantinos; Lau, Yuen Sum; Fox, Donald A

    2008-03-01

    Low-level developmental lead exposure is linked to cognitive and neurological disorders in children. However, the long-term effects of gestational lead exposure (GLE) have received little attention. Our goals were to establish a murine model of human equivalent GLE and to determine dose-response effects on body weight, motor functions, and dopamine neurochemistry in year-old offspring. We exposed female C57BL/6 mice to water containing 0, 27 (low), 55 (moderate), or 109 ppm (high) of lead from 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout gestation, and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Maternal and litter measures, blood lead concentrations ([BPb]), and body weights were obtained throughout the experiment. Locomotor behavior in the absence and presence of amphetamine, running wheel activity, rotarod test, and dopamine utilization were examined in year-old mice. Peak [BPb] were < 1, < or = 10, 24-27, and 33-42 microg/dL in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE groups at PN0-10, respectively. Year-old male but not female GLE mice exhibited late-onset obesity. Similarly, we observed male-specific decreased spontaneous motor activity, increased amphetamine-induced motor activity, and decreased rotarod performance in year-old GLE mice. Levels of dopamine and its major metabolite were altered in year-old male mice, although only forebrain utilization increased. GLE-induced alterations were consistently larger in low-dose GLE mice. Our novel results show that GLE produced permanent male-specific deficits. The nonmonotonic dose-dependent responses showed that low-level GLE produced the most adverse effects. These data reinforce the idea that lifetime measures of dose-response toxicant exposure should be a component of the neurotoxic risk assessment process.

  20. Ventrolateral Motor Thalamus Abnormal Connectivity in Essential Tremor Before and After Thalamotomy: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Najdenovska, Elena; Régis, Jean; Witjas, Tatiana; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jérôme; Faouzi, Mohamed; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventrolateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy and compared against healthy controls (HCs). In total, 17 consecutive patients with ET and 10 HCs were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using the ventrolateral ventral (VLV) thalamic nucleus as the region of interest, extracted with automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal correlations of VLV at whole brain level were evaluated by comparing drug-naïve patients with ET with HCs, and longitudinally, 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy. 1 year thalamotomy MR signature was always located inside VLV and did not correlate with any of FC measures (P > 0.05). This suggested presence of longitudinal changes in VLV FC independently of the MR signature volume. Pretherapeutic ET displayed altered VLV FC with left primary sensory-motor cortex, pedunculopontine nucleus, dorsal anterior cingulate, left visual association, and left superior parietal areas. Pretherapeutic negative FC with primary somatosensory cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus correlated with poorer baseline tremor scores (Spearman = 0.04 and 0.01). Longitudinal study displayed changes within right dorsal attention (frontal eye-fields and posterior parietal) and salience (anterior insula) networks, as well as areas involved in hand movement planning or language production. Our results demonstrated that patients with ET and HCs differ in their left VLV FC to primary somatosensory and supplementary motor, visual association, or brainstem areas (pedunculopontine nucleus). Longitudinal changes display reorganization of dorsal attention and salience networks after thalamotomy. Beside attentional gateway, they are also known for their major role in facilitating a rapid access to the motor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  1. Structural Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: A Cross-sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Rianne A; de Kanter, Janneke L M; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Verhaar, Jan A N; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Krestin, Gabriel P; Oei, Edwin H G; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint might play a role in the pathogenesis of patellofemoral pain (PFP), a common knee problem among young and physically active individuals. No previous study has investigated if PFP is associated with structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To investigate the presence of structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint on high-resolution MRI in patients with PFP compared with healthy control subjects. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with PFP and healthy control subjects between 14 and 40 years of age underwent high-resolution 3-T MRI. All images were scored using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Osteoarthritis Knee Score with the addition of specific patellofemoral features. Associations between PFP and the presence of structural abnormalities were analyzed using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and sports participation. A total of 64 patients and 70 control subjects were included in the study. Mean ± SD age was 23.2 ± 6.4 years, mean BMI ± SD was 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2), and 56.7% were female. Full-thickness cartilage loss was not present. Minor patellar cartilage defects, patellar bone marrow lesions, and high signal intensity of the Hoffa fat pad were frequently seen in both patients (23%, 53%, and 58%, respectively) and control subjects (21%, 51%, and 51%, respectively). After adjustment for age, BMI, sex, and sports participation, none of the structural abnormalities were statistically significantly associated with PFP. Structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint have been hypothesized as a factor in the pathogenesis of PFP, but the study findings suggest that structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint on MRI are not associated with PFP. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Tusset, Angelo M., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Janzen, Frederic C., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque betweenmore » the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.« less

  3. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  4. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  5. Approximate Optimal Control as a Model for Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Rosenstein, Michael T.; Barto, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Current models of psychological development rely heavily on connectionist models that use supervised learning. These models adapt network weights when the network output does not match the target outputs computed by some agent. The authors present a model of motor learning in which the child uses exploration to discover appropriate ways of…

  6. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    PubMed

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  8. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  9. An adaptive nonlinear internal-model control for the speed control of homopolar salient-pole BLDC motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CheshmehBeigi, Hassan Moradi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel speed control method for Homopolar Brushless DC (HBLDC) motor based on the adaptive nonlinear internal-model control (ANIMC) is presented. Rotor position information is obtained online by the Hall-Effect sensors placed on the motor's shaft, and is used to calculate the accurate model and accurate inverse model of the HBLDC motor. The online inverse model of the motor is used in the controller structure. To suppress the reference ? error, the negative feedback of difference between the motor speed and its model output ? is applied in the proposed controller. An appropriate signal is the output of the controller, which drives the power switches to converge the motor speed to the constant desired speed. Simulations and experiments are carried out on a ? three-phase HBLDC motor. The proposed drive system operates well in the speed response and has good robustness with respect to the disturbances. To validate the theoretical analysis, several experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  10. Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-12-15

    The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Suspension force control of bearingless permanent magnet slice motor based on flux linkage identification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suming; Zhu, Huangqiu

    2015-07-01

    The control accuracy and dynamic performance of suspension force are confined in the traditional bearingless permanent magnet slice motor (BPMSM) control strategies because the suspension force control is indirectly achieved by adopting a closed loop of displacement only. Besides, the phase information in suspension force control relies on accurate measurement of rotor position, making the control system more complex. In this paper, a new suspension force control strategy with displacement and radial suspension force double closed loops is proposed, the flux linkage of motor windings is identified based on voltage-current model and the flexibility of motor control can be improved greatly. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed suspension force control strategy is effective to realize the stable operation of the BPMSM. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO and application in BLDC motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sen; Wang, Guanglong

    2017-06-01

    A fuzzy PID control algorithm is studied based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) to perform Brushless DC (BLDC) motor control which has high accuracy, good anti-jamming capability and steady state accuracy compared with traditional PID control. The mathematical and simulation model is established for BLDC motor by simulink software, and the speed loop of the fuzzy PID controller is designed. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO has higher stability, high control precision and faster dynamic response speed.

  13. Position versus force control: using the 2-DOF robotic ankle trainer to assess ankle's motor control.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Amir B; Nabian, Mohsen; Hartman, Amber; Corsino, Johnathan; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Holden, Maureen K

    2014-01-01

    An estimated of 2,000,000 acute ankle sprains occur annually in the United States. Furthermore, ankle disabilities are caused by neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and stroke. The virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer (vi-RABT) was introduced as a cost-effective platform-based rehabilitation robot to improve overall ankle/balance strength, mobility and control. The system is equipped with 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF) controlled actuation along with complete means of angle and torque measurement mechanisms. Vi-RABT was used to assess ankle strength, flexibility and motor control in healthy human subjects, while playing interactive virtual reality games on the screen. The results suggest that in the task with 2-DOF, subjects have better control over ankle's position vs. force.

  14. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  15. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  16. Improving Motor Activity Assessment in Depression: Which Sensor Placement, Analytic Strategy and Diurnal Time Frame Are Most Powerful in Distinguishing Patients from Controls and Monitoring Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    Deuschle, Michael; Gilles, Maria; Hill, Holger; Limberger, Matthias F.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in motor activity represent a central feature in major depressive disorder. However, measurement issues are poorly understood, limiting the use of objective measurement of motor activity for diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Methods To improve measurement issues, especially sensor placement, analytic strategies and diurnal effects, we assessed motor activity in depressed patients at the beginning (MD; n=27) and after anti-depressive treatment (MD-post; n=18) as well as in healthy controls (HC; n=16) using wrist- and chest-worn accelerometers. We performed multiple analyses regarding sensor placements, extracted features, diurnal variation, motion patterns and posture to clarify which parameters are most powerful in distinguishing patients from controls and monitoring treatment effects. Results Whereas most feature-placement combinations revealed significant differences between groups, acceleration (wrist) distinguished MD from HC (d=1.39) best. Frequency (vertical axis chest) additionally differentiated groups in a logistic regression model (R2=0.54). Accordingly, both amplitude (d=1.16) and frequency (d=1.04) showed alterations, indicating reduced and decelerated motor activity. Differences between MD and HC in gestures (d=0.97) and walking (d=1.53) were found by data analysis from the wrist sensor. Comparison of motor activity at the beginning and after MD-treatment largely confirms our findings. Limitations Sample size was small, but sufficient for the given effect sizes. Comparison of depressed in-patients with non-hospitalized controls might have limited motor activity differences between groups. Conclusions Measurement of wrist-acceleration can be recommended as a basic technique to capture motor activity in depressed patients as it records whole body movement and gestures. Detailed analyses showed differences in amplitude and frequency denoting that depressed patients walked less and slower. PMID:25885258

  17. Improving motor activity assessment in depression: which sensor placement, analytic strategy and diurnal time frame are most powerful in distinguishing patients from controls and monitoring treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Markus; Lutz, Alexander; Deuschle, Michael; Gilles, Maria; Hill, Holger; Limberger, Matthias F; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in motor activity represent a central feature in major depressive disorder. However, measurement issues are poorly understood, limiting the use of objective measurement of motor activity for diagnostics and treatment monitoring. To improve measurement issues, especially sensor placement, analytic strategies and diurnal effects, we assessed motor activity in depressed patients at the beginning (MD; n=27) and after anti-depressive treatment (MD-post; n=18) as well as in healthy controls (HC; n=16) using wrist- and chest-worn accelerometers. We performed multiple analyses regarding sensor placements, extracted features, diurnal variation, motion patterns and posture to clarify which parameters are most powerful in distinguishing patients from controls and monitoring treatment effects. Whereas most feature-placement combinations revealed significant differences between groups, acceleration (wrist) distinguished MD from HC (d=1.39) best. Frequency (vertical axis chest) additionally differentiated groups in a logistic regression model (R2=0.54). Accordingly, both amplitude (d=1.16) and frequency (d=1.04) showed alterations, indicating reduced and decelerated motor activity. Differences between MD and HC in gestures (d=0.97) and walking (d=1.53) were found by data analysis from the wrist sensor. Comparison of motor activity at the beginning and after MD-treatment largely confirms our findings. Sample size was small, but sufficient for the given effect sizes. Comparison of depressed in-patients with non-hospitalized controls might have limited motor activity differences between groups. Measurement of wrist-acceleration can be recommended as a basic technique to capture motor activity in depressed patients as it records whole body movement and gestures. Detailed analyses showed differences in amplitude and frequency denoting that depressed patients walked less and slower.

  18. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  19. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  20. Cognitive Control Reflects Context Monitoring, Not Motoric Stopping, in Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chatham, Christopher H.; Claus, Eric D.; Kim, Albert; Curran, Tim; Banich, Marie T.; Munakata, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The inhibition of unwanted behaviors is considered an effortful and controlled ability. However, inhibition also requires the detection of contexts indicating that old behaviors may be inappropriate – in other words, inhibition requires the ability to monitor context in the service of goals, which we refer to as context-monitoring. Using behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological and computational approaches, we tested whether motoric stopping per se is the cognitively-controlled process supporting response inhibition, or whether context-monitoring may fill this role. Our results demonstrate that inhibition does not require control mechanisms beyond those involved in context-monitoring, and that such control mechanisms are the same regardless of stopping demands. These results challenge dominant accounts of inhibitory control, which posit that motoric stopping is the cognitively-controlled process of response inhibition, and clarify emerging debates on the frontal substrates of response inhibition by replacing the centrality of controlled mechanisms for motoric stopping with context-monitoring. PMID:22384038

  1. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  2. Predictive motor control of sensory dynamics in Auditory Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Morillon, Benjamin; Hackett, Troy A.; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations present potential physiological substrates for brain operations that require temporal prediction. We review this idea in the context of auditory perception. Using speech as an exemplar, we illustrate how hierarchically organized oscillations can be used to parse and encode complex input streams. We then consider the motor system as a major source of rhythms (temporal priors) in auditory processing, that act in concert with attention to sharpen sensory representations and link them across areas. We discuss the anatomo-functional pathways that could mediate this audio-motor interaction, and notably the potential role of the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we reposition temporal predictions in the context of internal models, discussing how they interact with feature-based or spatial predictions. We argue that complementary predictions interact synergistically according to the organizational principles of each sensory system, forming multidimensional filters crucial to perception. PMID:25594376

  3. Pulsewidth Modulated Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    sped acca - racy of the motoc is defined as tne difference Letweer the maximum and mir.imum motor speed divided by the commai. =e/ s~eed. TABLE I Motor...TO = .OOC C L N I5 THE SYvSTEM ELECTRICAL TIME CONSTANT lN = INCIC/RES F6 (1.c/FREcj D C/100. lIME =Ph 71ME2 l .CiFJREQ PMs C C EO IS THE BACK EtMF C...iu-8.2 J WR ITE (b , -0 I rI M 50 FGRM AT 11 ) t’I1N: 0,Fl 0 3,v ItM : a F10..3) WRITE (6t CC) IAV,IRMS 100 f -.FM tT 1 Xj IAV = ’ ,F 8.4,, v I11RMS F6

  4. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; Pelzer, Ben J; Otten, Barto J; Siemensma, Elbrich P C; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Festen, Dederieke A M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-10-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of physical training on motor development in infants with PWS. Twenty-two infants were followed for two years during a randomized controlled trial. The treatment and control groups began GH after baseline or following a control period, respectively. Both groups followed a child-specific physical training program. Motor performance was measured every three months. Multi-level regression analysis revealed that motor development differed significantly between infants (p<.001), and this could be partially explained by baseline motor developmental level (p<.01). GH treatment enhanced the effects of child-specific physical training on both motor developmental rate and motor developmental potential. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced when GH treatment was initiated at a younger age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital phase-locked loop speed control for a brushless dc motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Speed control of d.c. motors by phase-locked loops (PLL) is becoming increasingly popular. Primary interest has been in employing PLL for constant speed control. This thesis investigates the theory and techniques of digital PLL to speed control of a brushless d.c. motor with a variable speed of operation. Addition of logic controlled count enable/disable to a synchronous up/down counter, used as a phase-frequency detector, is shown to improve the performance of previously proposed PLL control schemes.

  6. Closed-loop motor control using high-speed fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Reginald (Inventor); Rodriquiz, Dagobert (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop control system for controlling the operation of one or more servo motors or other controllable devices is described. The system employs a fiber optics link immune to electromagnetic interference, for transmission of control signals from a controller or controllers at a remote station to the power electronics located in proximity to the motors or other devices at the local station. At the remote station the electrical control signals are time-multiplexed, converted to a formatted serial bit stream, and converted to light signals for transmission over a single fiber of the fiber optics link. At the local station, the received optical signals are reconstructed as electrical control signals for the controlled motors or other devices. At the local station, an encoder sensor linked to the driven device generates encoded feedback signals which provide information as to a condition of the controlled device. The encoded signals are placed in a formatted serial bit stream, multiplexed, and transmitted as optical signals over a second fiber of the fiber optic link which closes the control loop of the closed-loop motor controller. The encoded optical signals received at the remote station are demultiplexed, reconstructed and coupled to the controller(s) as electrical feedback signals.

  7. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...This action would establish more stringent vehicle emissions standards and reduce the sulfur content of gasoline beginning in 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health. The proposed gasoline sulfur standard would make emission control systems more effective for both existing and new vehicles, and would enable more stringent vehicle emissions standards. The proposed vehicle standards would reduce both tailpipe and evaporative emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. This would result in significant reductions in pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter, and air toxics across the country and help state and local agencies in their efforts to attain and maintain health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Motor vehicles are an important source of exposure to air pollution both regionally and near roads. These proposed vehicle standards are intended to harmonize with California's Low Emission Vehicle program, thus creating a federal vehicle emissions program that would allow automakers to sell the same vehicles in all 50 states. The proposed vehicle standards would be implemented over the same timeframe as the greenhouse gas/fuel efficiency standards for light-duty vehicles, as part of a comprehensive approach toward regulating emissions from motor vehicles.

  8. Motor control and learning with lower-limb myoelectric control in amputees.

    PubMed

    Alcaide-Aguirre, Ramses E; Morgenroth, David C; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Advances in robotic technology have recently enabled the development of powered lower-limb prosthetic limbs. A major hurdle in developing commercially successful powered prostheses is the control interface. Myoelectric signals are one way for prosthetic users to provide feedforward volitional control of prosthesis mechanics. The goal of this study was to assess motor learning in people with lower-limb amputation using proportional myoelectric control from residual-limb muscles. We examined individuals with transtibial amputation and nondisabled controls performing tracking tasks of a virtual object. We assessed how quickly the individuals with amputation improved their performance and whether years since amputation correlated with performance. At the beginning of training, subjects with amputation performed much worse than control subjects. By the end of a short training period, tracking error did not significantly differ between subjects with amputation and nondisabled subjects. Initial but not final performance correlated significantly with time since amputation. This study demonstrates that although subjects with amputation may initially have poor volitional control of their residual lower-limb muscles, training can substantially improve their volitional control. These findings are encouraging for the future use of proportional myoelectric control of powered lower-limb prostheses.

  9. Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

  10. Spoken language and arm gestures are controlled by the same motor control system.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2008-06-01

    Arm movements can influence language comprehension much as semantics can influence arm movement planning. Arm movement itself can be used as a linguistic signal. We reviewed neurophysiological and behavioural evidence that manual gestures and vocal language share the same control system. Studies of primate premotor cortex and, in particular, of the so-called "mirror system", including humans, suggest the existence of a dual hand/mouth motor command system involved in ingestion activities. This may be the platform on which a combined manual and vocal communication system was constructed. In humans, speech is typically accompanied by manual gesture, speech production itself is influenced by executing or observing transitive hand actions, and manual actions play an important role in the development of speech, from the babbling stage onwards. Behavioural data also show reciprocal influence between word and symbolic gestures. Neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) data suggest that the system governing both speech and gesture is located in Broca's area. In general, the presented data support the hypothesis that the hand motor-control system is involved in higher order cognition.

  11. Set-membership fault detection under noisy environment with application to the detection of abnormal aircraft control surface positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houda Thabet, Rihab; Combastel, Christophe; Raïssi, Tarek; Zolghadri, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops a set membership detection methodology which is applied to the detection of abnormal positions of aircraft control surfaces. Robust and early detection of such abnormal positions is an important issue for early system reconfiguration and overall optimisation of aircraft design. In order to improve fault sensitivity while ensuring a high level of robustness, the method combines a data-driven characterisation of noise and a model-driven approach based on interval prediction. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation results obtained based on data recorded in several flight scenarios of a highly representative aircraft benchmark.

  12. Evaluation of induction motor performance using an electronic power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of reducing the losses in an induction motor by electronically controlling the time interval between the zero crossing of the applied voltage and the zero crossing of the armature current was evaluated. The effect on power losses and power factor of reducing the applied sinusoidal voltages below the rated value was investigated experimentally. The reduction in power losses was measured using an electronic controller designed and built at MSFC. Modifications to the MSFC controller are described as well as a manually controlled electronic device which does not require that the motor be wye connected and the neutral available. Possible energy savings are examined.

  13. Data-Driven Based Asynchronous Motor Control for Printing Servo Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Min; Guo, Qingyun

    Modern digital printing equipment aims to the environmental-friendly industry with high dynamic performances and control precision and low vibration and abrasion. High performance motion control system of printing servo systems was required. Control system of asynchronous motor based on data acquisition was proposed. Iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm was studied. PID control was widely used in the motion control. However, it was sensitive to the disturbances and model parameters variation. The ILC applied the history error data and present control signals to approximate the control signal directly in order to fully track the expect trajectory without the system models and structures. The motor control algorithm based on the ILC and PID was constructed and simulation results were given. The results show that data-driven control method is effective dealing with bounded disturbances for the motion control of printing servo systems.

  14. Extracting motor synergies from random movements for low-dimensional task-space control of musculoskeletal robots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kin Chung Denny; Dalla Libera, Fabio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-10-08

    In the field of human motor control, the motor synergy hypothesis explains how humans simplify body control dimensionality by coordinating groups of muscles, called motor synergies, instead of controlling muscles independently. In most applications of motor synergies to low-dimensional control in robotics, motor synergies are extracted from given optimal control signals. In this paper, we address the problems of how to extract motor synergies without optimal data given, and how to apply motor synergies to achieve low-dimensional task-space tracking control of a human-like robotic arm actuated by redundant muscles, without prior knowledge of the robot. We propose to extract motor synergies from a subset of randomly generated reaching-like movement data. The essence is to first approximate the corresponding optimal control signals, using estimations of the robot's forward dynamics, and to extract the motor synergies subsequently. In order to avoid modeling difficulties, a learning-based control approach is adopted such that control is accomplished via estimations of the robot's inverse dynamics. We present a kernel-based regression formulation to estimate the forward and the inverse dynamics, and a sliding controller in order to cope with estimation error. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed method enables extraction of motor synergies for low-dimensional task-space control.

  15. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Lumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Rodriguez de La Cruz, Carlos; Giop, Romain; Tomasella, Marco; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter's bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players.

  18. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Methods. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Results. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Conclusions. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus. PMID:26030103

  19. Design of control system for optical fiber drawing machine driven by double motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue Chen; Bo, Yu Ming; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Micro channel Plate (MCP) is a kind of large-area array electron multiplier with high two-dimensional spatial resolution, used as high-performance night vision intensifier. The high precision control of the fiber is the key technology of the micro channel plate manufacturing process, and it was achieved by the control of optical fiber drawing machine driven by dual-motor in this paper. First of all, utilizing STM32 chip, the servo motor drive and control circuit was designed to realize the dual motor synchronization. Secondly, neural network PID control algorithm was designed for controlling the fiber diameter fabricated in high precision; Finally, the hexagonal fiber was manufactured by this system and it shows that multifilament diameter accuracy of the fiber is +/- 1.5μm.

  20. Self-controlled practice enhances motor learning in introverts and extroverts.

    PubMed

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda; Tani, Go

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys in a specific spatial and temporal pattern. The experiment consisted of practice, retention, and transfer phases. The participants were distributed into 4 groups, formed by the combination of personality trait (extraversion/introversion) and type of feedback frequency (self-controlled/yoked). The results showed superior learning for the groups that practiced in a self-controlled schedule, in relation to groups who practiced in an externally controlled schedule, F(1, 52) = 4.13, p < .05, eta2 = .07, regardless of personality trait. We conclude that self-controlled practice enhances motor learning in introverts and extroverts.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  2. Motor/generator and electronic control considerations for energy storage flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A spacecraft electric power supply system is described. Requirements of the system are to accelerate a momentum wheel to a fixed maximum speed when solar energy is available and to maintain a constant voltage on the spacecraft bus under varying loads when solar energy is not available. Candidate motor types, pulse width modulated current control systems, and efficiency considerations are discussed. In addition, the Lunar Roving Vehicle motors are described along with their respective efficiencies.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of Outpatient versus inpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Clark, T Justin; Middleton, Lee J; Cooper, Natalie Am; Diwakar, Lavanya; Denny, Elaine; Smith, Paul; Gennard, Laura; Stobert, Lynda; Roberts, Tracy E; Cheed, Versha; Bingham, Tracey; Jowett, Sue; Brettell, Elizabeth; Connor, Mary; Jones, Sian E; Daniels, Jane P

    2015-07-01

    Uterine polyps cause abnormal bleeding in women and conventional practice is to remove them in hospital under general anaesthetic. Advances in technology make it possible to perform polypectomy in an outpatient setting, yet evidence of effectiveness is limited. To test the hypothesis that in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) associated with benign uterine polyp(s), outpatient polyp treatment achieved as good, or no more than 25% worse, alleviation of bleeding symptoms at 6 months compared with standard inpatient treatment. The hypothesis that response to uterine polyp treatment differed according to the pattern of AUB, menopausal status and longer-term follow-up was tested. The cost-effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy was examined. A multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, incorporating a cost-effectiveness analysis and supplemented by a parallel patient preference study. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics and inpatient gynaecology departments within UK NHS hospitals. Women with AUB - defined as heavy menstrual bleeding (formerly known as menorrhagia) (HMB), intermenstrual bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding - and hysteroscopically diagnosed uterine polyps. We randomly assigned 507 women, using a minimisation algorithm, to outpatient polypectomy compared with conventional inpatient polypectomy as a day case in hospital under general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was successful treatment at 6 months, determined by the woman's assessment of her bleeding. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, procedure feasibility, acceptability and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. At 6 months, 73% (166/228) of women who underwent outpatient polypectomy were successfully treated compared with 80% (168/211) following inpatient polypectomy [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.02]. The lower end of the CIs showed

  4. Reflex control of discharge in motor fibres to the larynx

    PubMed Central

    Głogowska, Maria; Stransky, A.; Widdicombe, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    1. Action potentials have been recorded from single laryngeal motor fibres, with expiratory or inspiratory phases, in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone and breathing through a tracheal cannula. 2. Pneumothorax increased the discharge of both inspiratory and expiratory units, the inspiratory response being greatly reduced by bilateral vagotomy below the origin of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. 3. Addition of a `viscous' resistance to breathing, or asphyxial rebreathing through an added dead space, increased the activity of inspiratory units and decreased that of expiratory units. 4. Induction of pulmonary oedema decreased the discharge of inspiratory units and increased that of expiratory units. After vagotomy the response of inspiratory units was reversed. 5. Intravenous injections of potassium cyanide increased the activity of both types of unit. 6. Chemical irritation of the laryngeal mucosa decreased the discharge of inspiratory units and increased that of expiratory units, whether the vagi were intact or cut. 7. It is concluded that expiratory unit discharge can be correlated with expiratory laryngeal resistance, but that inspiratory unit discharge does not correlate so well with inspiratory laryngeal resistance. 8. The relationship between laryngeal motor-fibre activity and the contractions of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles of breathing is discussed. PMID:4415512

  5. Motor Imagery for Severely Motor-Impaired Patients: Evidence for Brain-Computer Interfacing as Superior Control Solution

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Johannes; Holz, Elisa; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kübler, Andrea; Tangermann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) strive to decode brain signals into control commands for severely handicapped people with no means of muscular control. These potential users of noninvasive BCIs display a large range of physical and mental conditions. Prior studies have shown the general applicability of BCI with patients, with the conflict of either using many training sessions or studying only moderately restricted patients. We present a BCI system designed to establish external control for severely motor-impaired patients within a very short time. Within only six experimental sessions, three out of four patients were able to gain significant control over the BCI, which was based on motor imagery or attempted execution. For the most affected patient, we found evidence that the BCI could outperform the best assistive technology (AT) of the patient in terms of control accuracy, reaction time and information transfer rate. We credit this success to the applied user-centered design approach and to a highly flexible technical setup. State-of-the art machine learning methods allowed the exploitation and combination of multiple relevant features contained in the EEG, which rapidly enabled the patients to gain substantial BCI control. Thus, we could show the feasibility of a flexible and tailorable BCI application in severely disabled users. This can be considered a significant success for two reasons: Firstly, the results were obtained within a short period of time, matching the tight clinical requirements. Secondly, the participating patients showed, compared to most other studies, very severe communication deficits. They were dependent on everyday use of AT and two patients were in a locked-in state. For the most affected patient a reliable communication was rarely possible with existing AT. PMID:25162231

  6. Motor imagery for severely motor-impaired patients: evidence for brain-computer interfacing as superior control solution.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Johannes; Holz, Elisa; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Kübler, Andrea; Tangermann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) strive to decode brain signals into control commands for severely handicapped people with no means of muscular control. These potential users of noninvasive BCIs display a large range of physical and mental conditions. Prior studies have shown the general applicability of BCI with patients, with the conflict of either using many training sessions or studying only moderately restricted patients. We present a BCI system designed to establish external control for severely motor-impaired patients within a very short time. Within only six experimental sessions, three out of four patients were able to gain significant control over the BCI, which was based on motor imagery or attempted execution. For the most affected patient, we found evidence that the BCI could outperform the best assistive technology (AT) of the patient in terms of control accuracy, reaction time and information transfer rate. We credit this success to the applied user-centered design approach and to a highly flexible technical setup. State-of-the art machine learning methods allowed the exploitation and combination of multiple relevant features contained in the EEG, which rapidly enabled the patients to gain substantial BCI control. Thus, we could show the feasibility of a flexible and tailorable BCI application in severely disabled users. This can be considered a significant success for two reasons: Firstly, the results were obtained within a short period of time, matching the tight clinical requirements. Secondly, the participating patients showed, compared to most other studies, very severe communication deficits. They were dependent on everyday use of AT and two patients were in a locked-in state. For the most affected patient a reliable communication was rarely possible with existing AT.

  7. Evaluating the influence of motor control on selective attention through a stochastic model: the paradigm of motor control dysfunction in cerebellar patient.

    PubMed

    Veneri, Giacomo; Federico, Antonio; Rufa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up) and endogenous mechanisms (top down). These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA) with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the "optimal motor system" and the "optimal stimulus encoders."

  8. Synchronization controller design of two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Shang, Jing; Nian, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints is studied. First of all, the mathematical model of the system is established according to the engineering practices, in which the dynamic model of motor and the nonlinear coupling effect between two motors are considered. In order to keep the two motors synchronization, a synchronization controller based on load observer is designed via cross-coupling idea and interval matrix. Moreover, speed, position and current signals of two motor all are taken as self-feedback signal as well as cross-feedback signal in the proposed controller, which is conducive to improving the dynamical performance and the synchronization performance of the system. The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results show that the proposed control method has a better control performance, especially synchronization performance, than that of the conventional PI controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Striatum and Subthalamic Nucleus as Independent and Collaborative Structures in Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Alia; Jog, Rachna; Jog, Mandar S.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are two separate input structures into the basal ganglia (BG). Accordingly, research to date has primarily focused on the distinct roles of these structures in motor control and cognition, often through investigation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Both structures are divided into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic subdivisions based on cortical connectivity. The more recent discovery of the STN as an input structure into the BG drives comparison of these two structures and their respective roles in cognition and motor control. This review compares the role of the striatum and STN in motor response inhibition and execution, competing motor programs, feedback based learning, and response planning. Through comparison, it is found that the striatum and STN have highly independent roles in motor control but also collaborate in order to execute desired actions. There is also the possibility that inhibition or activation of one of these structures indirectly contributes to the function of other connected anatomical structures. Both structures contribute to selective motor response inhibition, which forms the basis of many tasks, but the STN additionally contributes to global inhibition through the hyperdirect pathway. Research is warranted on the functional connectivity of the network for inhibition involving the rIFG, preSMA, striatum, and STN. PMID:26973474

  10. Motor-Skill Learning in an Insect Inspired Neuro-Computational Control System

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Eleonora; Arena, Paolo; Strauss, Roland; Patané, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved. The adopted control scheme enables the structure to efficiently cope with goal-oriented behavioral motor tasks. Here, a six-legged structure, showing a steady-state exponentially stable locomotion pattern, is exposed to the need of learning new motor skills: moving through the environment, the structure is able to modulate motor commands and implements an obstacle climbing procedure. Experimental results on a simulated hexapod robot are reported; they are obtained in a dynamic simulation environment and the robot mimicks the structures of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:28337138

  11. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  12. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  13. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  14. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  15. Universal Parameter Measurement and Sensorless Vector Control of Induction and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shu; Ara, Takahiro

    Recently, induction motors (IMs) and permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have been used in various industrial drive systems. The features of the hardware device used for controlling the adjustable-speed drive in these motors are almost identical. Despite this, different techniques are generally used for parameter measurement and speed-sensorless control of these motors. If the same technique can be used for parameter measurement and sensorless control, a highly versatile adjustable-speed-drive system can be realized. In this paper, the authors describe a new universal sensorless control technique for both IMs and PMSMs (including salient pole and nonsalient pole machines). A mathematical model applicable for IMs and PMSMs is discussed. Using this model, the authors derive the proposed universal sensorless vector control algorithm on the basis of estimation of the stator flux linkage vector. All the electrical motor parameters are determined by a unified test procedure. The proposed method is implemented on three test machines. The actual driving test results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  16. Driver electronics design and control for a total artificial heart linear motor.

    PubMed

    Unthan, Kristin; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Pelletier, Benedikt; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2018-01-27

    For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces. Based on calculations for minimal power losses Lorentz force was distributed to the actor's four coils. The distribution was determined as ratio of effective magnetic flux through each coil, which was captured by a force test rig. Static and dynamic measurements under physiological conditions analyzed interaction of control and hardware and all efficiencies were over 89%. In conclusion, the designed electronics, optimized control strategy and applied current distribution create the required motor force and perform optimal under physiological conditions. The developed driver electronics and control offer optimized size and efficiency for any implantable or portable device with multiple independent motor coils. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Sensorless Load Torque Estimation and Passivity Based Control of Buck Converter Fed DC Motor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Ganesh; Thilagar, S. Hosimin

    2015-01-01

    Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper. PMID:25893208

  18. Extended Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor Through Dual Mode Inverter Control

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2000-06-23

    The trapezoidal back electromotive force (emf) brushless direct current (dc) motor (BDCM) with surface-mounted magnets has high-power density and efficiency especially when rare-earth magnet materials are used. Traction applications, such as electric vehicles, could benefit significantly from the use of such motors. Unfortunately, a practical means for driving the motor over a constant power speed ratio (CPSR) of 5:1 or more has not yet been developed. A key feature of these motors is that they have low internal inductance. The phase advance method is effective in controlling the motor power over such a speed range, but the current at highmore » speed may be several times greater than that required at the base speed. The increase in current during high-speed operation is due to the low motor inductance and the action of the bypass diodes of the inverter. The use of such a control would require increased current rating of the inverter semiconductors and additional cooling for the inverter, where the conduction losses increase proportionally with current, and especially for the motor, where the losses increase with the square of the current. The high current problems of phase advance can be mitigated by adding series inductance; however, this reduces power density, requires significant increase in supply voltage, and leaves the CPSR performance of the system highly sensitive to variations in the available voltage. A new inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance BDCMs over the CPSR that would be required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC). It is shown that the BDCM has an infinite CPSR when it is driven by the DMIC.« less

  19. Contralesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke reflect hemisphere-specific control mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Saandeep; Mutha, Pratik K.; Przybyla, Andrzej; Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Good, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed a model of motor lateralization, in which the left and right hemispheres are specialized for different aspects of motor control: the left hemisphere for predicting and accounting for limb dynamics and the right hemisphere for stabilizing limb position through impedance control mechanisms. Our previous studies, demonstrating different motor deficits in the ipsilesional arm of stroke patients with left or right hemisphere damage, provided a critical test of our model. However, motor deficits after stroke are most prominent on the contralesional side. Post-stroke rehabilitation has also, naturally, focused on improving contralesional arm impairment and function. Understanding whether contralesional motor deficits differ depending on the hemisphere of damage is, therefore, of vital importance for assessing the impact of brain damage on function and also for designing rehabilitation interventions specific to laterality of damage. We, therefore, asked whether motor deficits in the contralesional arm of unilateral stroke patients reflect hemisphere-dependent control mechanisms. Because our model of lateralization predicts that contralesional deficits will differ depending on the hemisphere of damage, this study also served as an essential assessment of our model. Stroke patients with mild to moderate hemiparesis in either the left or right arm because of contralateral stroke and healthy control subjects performed targeted multi-joint reaching movements in different directions. As predicted, our results indicated a double dissociation; although left hemisphere damage was associated with greater errors in trajectory curvature and movement direction, errors in movement extent were greatest after right hemisphere damage. Thus, our results provide the first demonstration of hemisphere specific motor control deficits in the contralesional arm of stroke patients. Our results also suggest that it is critical to consider the differential deficits induced by right

  20. Prefrontal control of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Li; Xu, Yan; Wu, Guang-yan; Yao, Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhi-ru; Hu, Zhi-an; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral studies have demonstrated that both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and cerebellum play critical roles in trace eyeblink conditioning. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which the two brain regions interact. By use of electrical stimulation of the caudal mPFC as a conditioned stimulus, we show evidence that persistent outputs from the mPFC to cerebellum are necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and expression of a trace conditioned response (CR)-like response. Specifically, the persistent outputs of caudal mPFC are relayed to the cerebellum via the rostral part of lateral pontine nuclei. Moreover, interfering with persistent activity by blockade of the muscarinic Ach receptor in the caudal mPFC impairs the expression of learned trace CRs. These results suggest an important way for the caudal mPFC to interact with the cerebellum during associative motor learning.

  1. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498), who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689). We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002). This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002) and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004) were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term. PMID:20630096

  2. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: an observational case control study in primary care.

    PubMed

    van Ochten, John M; Mos, Marinka C E; van Putte-Katier, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2014-09-01

    Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Observational case control study on primary care patients in general practice. Patients were selected who had visited their GP with an ankle sprain 6-12 months before the study; all received a standardised questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and radiography and MRI of the ankle. Patients with and without persistent complaints were compared regarding structural abnormalities found on radiography and MRI; analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Of the 206 included patients, 98 had persistent complaints and 108 did not. No significant differences were found in structural abnormalities between patients with and without persistent complaints. In both groups, however, many structural abnormalities were found on radiography in the talocrural joint (47.2% osteophytes and 45.1% osteoarthritis) and the talonavicular joint (36.5% sclerosis). On MRI, a high prevalence was found of bone oedema (33.8%) and osteophytes (39.5) in the talocrural joint; osteophytes (54.4%), sclerosis (47.2%), and osteoarthritis (55.4%, Kellgren and Lawrence grade >1) in the talonavicular joint, as well as ligament damage (16.4%) in the anterior talofibular ligament. The prevalence of structural abnormalities is high on radiography and MRI in patients presenting in general practice with a previous ankle sprain. There is no difference in structural abnormalities, however, between patients with and without persistent complaints. Using imaging only will not lead to diagnosis of the explicit reason for the persistent complaint. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  3. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: an observational case control study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    van Ochten, John M; Mos, Marinka CE; van Putte-Katier, Nienke; Oei, Edwin HG; Bindels, Patrick JE; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita MA; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. Aim To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Design and setting Observational case control study on primary care patients in general practice. Method Patients were selected who had visited their GP with an ankle sprain 6–12 months before the study; all received a standardised questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and radiography and MRI of the ankle. Patients with and without persistent complaints were compared regarding structural abnormalities found on radiography and MRI; analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Results Of the 206 included patients, 98 had persistent complaints and 108 did not. No significant differences were found in structural abnormalities between patients with and without persistent complaints. In both groups, however, many structural abnormalities were found on radiography in the talocrural joint (47.2% osteophytes and 45.1% osteoarthritis) and the talonavicular joint (36.5% sclerosis). On MRI, a high prevalence was found of bone oedema (33.8%) and osteophytes (39.5) in the talocrural joint; osteophytes (54.4%), sclerosis (47.2%), and osteoarthritis (55.4%, Kellgren and Lawrence grade >1) in the talonavicular joint, as well as ligament damage (16.4%) in the anterior talofibular ligament. Conclusion The prevalence of structural abnormalities is high on radiography and MRI in patients presenting in general practice with a previous ankle sprain. There is no difference in structural abnormalities, however, between patients with and without persistent complaints. Using imaging only will not lead to diagnosis of the explicit reason for the persistent complaint. PMID:25179068

  4. Drive control and position measurement of RailCab vehicles driven by linear motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottharst, Andreas; Henke, Christian; Schneider, Tobias; Böcker, Joachim; Grotstollen, Horst

    2006-11-01

    The novel railway system RailCab makes use of autonomous vehicles which are driven by an AC linear motor. Depending on the track-side motor part, long-stator or short-stator operations are possible. The paper deals with the operation of the doubly-fed induction motor which is used for motion control and for transferring the energy required onboard the vehicle. This type of linear motor synchronization of the traveling fields generated by the stationary primary and moving secondary windings is an important and demanding task because the instantaneous positions of the vehicle or the primary traveling wave must be determined with high accuracy. The paper shows how this task is solved at the moment and what improvements are under development.

  5. Advances in graphonomics: studies on fine motor control, its development and disorders.

    PubMed

    Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Teulings, Hans-Leo

    2006-10-01

    During the past 20 years graphonomic research has become a major contributor to the understanding of human movement science. Graphonomic research investigates the relationship between the planning and generation of fine motor tasks, in particular, handwriting and drawing. Scientists in this field are at the forefront of using new paradigms to investigate human movement. The 16 articles in this special issue of Human Movement Science show that the field of graphonomics makes an important contribution to the understanding of fine motor control, motor development, and movement disorders. Topics discussed include writer's cramp, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug-induced parkinsonism, dopamine depletion, dysgraphia, motor development, developmental coordination disorder, caffeine, alertness, arousal, sleep deprivation, visual feedback transformation and suppression, eye-hand coordination, pen grip, pen pressure, movement fluency, bimanual interference, dominant versus non-dominant hand, tracing, freehand drawing, spiral drawing, reading, typewriting, and automatic segmentation.

  6. Sensorless position estimation and control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors using a saturation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem Jebai, Al; Malrait, François; Martin, Philippe; Rouchon, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors at low velocity remains a challenging task. A now well-established method consists of injecting a high-frequency signal and using the rotor saliency, both geometric and magnetic-saturation induced. This paper proposes a clear and original analysis based on second-order averaging of how to recover the position information from signal injection; this analysis blends well with a general model of magnetic saturation. It also proposes a simple parametric model of the saturated motor, based on an energy function which simply encompasses saturation and cross-saturation effects. Experimental results on a surface-mounted motor and an interior magnet motor illustrate the relevance of the approach.

  7. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p motor learning for restoring mobility.

  8. Dynamic neural networks based on-line identification and control of high performance motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed; Kotaru, Raj

    1995-01-01

    In the automated and high-tech industries of the future, there wil be a need for high performance motor drives both in the low-power range and in the high-power range. To meet very straight demands of tracking and regulation in the two quadrants of operation, advanced control technologies are of a considerable interest and need to be developed. In response a dynamics learning control architecture is developed with simultaneous on-line identification and control. the feature of the proposed approach, to efficiently combine the dual task of system identification (learning) and adaptive control of nonlinear motor drives into a single operation is presented. This approach, therefore, not only adapts to uncertainties of the dynamic parameters of the motor drives but also learns about their inherent nonlinearities. In fact, most of the neural networks based adaptive control approaches in use have an identification phase entirely separate from the control phase. Because these approaches separate the identification and control modes, it is not possible to cope with dynamic changes in a controlled process. Extensive simulation studies have been conducted and good performance was observed. The robustness characteristics of neuro-controllers to perform efficiently in a noisy environment is also demonstrated. With this initial success, the principal investigator believes that the proposed approach with the suggested neural structure can be used successfully for the control of high performance motor drives. Two identification and control topologies based on the model reference adaptive control technique are used in this present analysis. No prior knowledge of load dynamics is assumed in either topology while the second topology also assumes no knowledge of the motor parameters.

  9. Optimal control strategy design based on dynamic programming for a dual-motor coupling-propulsion system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch.

  10. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    PubMed

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  11. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  12. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  13. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  14. Self-Controlled Amount of Practice Benefits Learning of a Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phillip G.; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Barros, Joao A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-control over factors involving task-related information (e.g., feedback) can enhance motor learning. It is unknown if these benefits extend to manipulations that do not directly affect such information. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-control over the amount of practice would also facilitate learning. Participants learned…

  15. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Luebke, Charles John [Sussex, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA; Zhang, Pinjia [Atlanta, GA; Becker, Scott K [Oak Creek, WI

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  16. Cognitive Resources Necessary for Motor Control in Older Adults Are Reduced by Walking and Coordination Training

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63–79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task. In both experimental groups, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during imagery of forward walking decreased from pre- to post-test (Effect size: −1.55 and −1.16 for coordination and walking training, respectively; Cohen’s d). Regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between initial motor status and activation change in the right DLPFC (R2 = 0.243, F(3,39) = 4.18, p = 0.012). Participants with lowest motor status at pretest profited most from the interventions. Data suggest that physical training in older adults is effective to free up cognitive resources otherwise needed for the control of locomotion. Training benefits may become particularly apparent in so-called dual-task situations where subjects must perform motor and cognitive tasks concurrently. PMID:28443006

  17. The Position Control of the Surface Motor with the Poles Distribution of Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watada, Masaya; Katsuyama, Norikazu; Ebihara, Daiki

    Recently, as for the machine tools or industrial robots, high performance, accuracy, etc. are demanded. Generally, when drive of many degrees of freedom is required in the machine tools or industrial robots, it has realized by using two or more motors. For example, two-dimensional positioning stages such as the X-Y plotter or the X-Y stage are enabling the two-dimensional drive by using each one motor in the direction of x, y. In order to use plural motors, these, however, have problems that equipment becomes large and complicate control system. From such problems, the Surface Motor (SFM) that can drive two directions by only one motor is researched. Authors have proposed SFM that considered wide range movement and the application to a curved surface. In this paper, the characteristics of the micro step drive by the open loop control are showed. Introduction of closed loop control for highly accurate positioning, moreover, is examined. The drive characteristics by each control are compared.

  18. Modeling and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on neural network control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bingyang; Chi, Shangjie; Fang, Man; Li, Mengchao

    2017-03-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor is used widely in industry, the performance requirements wouldn't be met by adopting traditional PID control in some of the occasions with high requirements. In this paper, a hybrid control strategy - nonlinear neural network PID and traditional PID parallel control are adopted. The high stability and reliability of traditional PID was combined with the strong adaptive ability and robustness of neural network. The permanent magnet synchronous motor will get better control performance when switch different working modes according to different controlled object conditions. As the results showed, the speed response adopting the composite control strategy in this paper was faster than the single control strategy. And in the case of sudden disturbance, the recovery time adopting the composite control strategy designed in this paper was shorter, the recovery ability and the robustness were stronger.

  19. A self-paced motor imagery based brain-computer interface for robotic wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Chun Sing Louis; Gan, John Q; Hu, Huosheng

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a simple self-paced motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a robotic wheelchair. An innovative control protocol is proposed to enable a 2-class self-paced BCI for wheelchair control, in which the user makes path planning and fully controls the wheelchair except for the automatic obstacle avoidance based on a laser range finder when necessary. In order for the users to train their motor imagery control online safely and easily, simulated robot navigation in a specially designed environment was developed. This allowed the users to practice motor imagery control with the core self-paced BCI system in a simulated scenario before controlling the wheelchair. The self-paced BCI can then be applied to control a real robotic wheelchair using a protocol similar to that controlling the simulated robot. Our emphasis is on allowing more potential users to use the BCI controlled wheelchair with minimal training; a simple 2-class self paced system is adequate with the novel control protocol, resulting in a better transition from offline training to online control. Experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the online practice under the simulated scenario, and the effectiveness of the proposed self-paced BCI for robotic wheelchair control.

  20. Spurious-Mode Control of Same-Phase Drive-Type Ultrasonic Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Manabu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    2002-05-01

    A same-phase drive-type ultrasonic motor requires a single power source for its operation. In particular, self-oscillation driving is useful for driving a small ultrasonic motor. This type of ultrasonic motor has a spurious mode close to the operation frequency on its stator vibrator. The spurious vibration mode affects the oscillation frequency of a self-oscillation drive circuit. Hence the spurious vibration mode should be restrained or moved away from the neighborhood of the operation frequency. In this paper, we report that an inductor connected at an electrical control terminal provided on standby electrodes for the reverse rotation operation controls only the spurious vibration mode. The effect of an inductor connected at the control terminal was clarified by the simulation of an equivalent circuit and some experiments.

  1. Structural model of control system for hydraulic stepper motor complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, A. D.; Dedov, D. L.; Kolodin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the problem of developing a structural model of the control system for a hydraulic stepper drive complex. A comparative analysis of stepper drives and assessment of the applicability of HSM for solving problems, requiring accurate displacement in space with subsequent positioning of the object, are carried out. The presented structural model of the automated control system of the multi-spindle complex of hydraulic stepper drives reflects the main components of the system, as well as the process of its control based on the control signals transfer to the solenoid valves by the controller. The models and methods described in the article can be used to formalize the control process in technical systems based on the application hydraulic stepper drives and allow switching from mechanical control to automated control.

  2. Training Attentional Control Improves Cognitive and Motor Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Vine, Sam; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2016-10-01

    Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task-specific measures of attentional control and performance. In Experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect, improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis. The principal aim of Experiment 3 was to expand on these findings by assessing objective gaze measures of inhibitory control during the performance of a tennis task. Training improved inhibitory control and performance when pressure was elevated, confirming the mechanisms by which cognitive anxiety impacts performance. These results suggest that attentional control training can improve inhibition and reduce taskspecific distractibility with promise of transfer to more efficient sporting performance in competitive contexts.

  3. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D; Hochberg, Leigh R; Donoghue, John P; Black, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. PMID:19015583

  4. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  5. Severe motor and vocal tics controlled with Sativex®.

    PubMed

    Trainor, David; Evans, Lois; Bird, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    A single case report on cannabinoid treatment for treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS). Our subject received 10.8 mg Tetrahydocannabinol and 10 mg cannabidiol daily, in the form of two oro-mucosal sprays of 'Sativex ® ', twice daily. Assessment was pre-treatment and at week one, two, and four during treatment. He completed the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale as a subjective measure, and was videoed at each stage. The videos were objectively rated by two assessors, blind to the stage of treatment, using the Original Rush Videotape Rating Scale. Both subjective and objective measures demonstrated marked improvement in the frequency and severity of motor and vocal tics post-treatment. There was good interrater reliability of results. Our results support previous research suggesting that cannabinoids are a safe and effective treatment for TS and should be considered in treatment-resistant cases. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were <8 years old. Because the expected natural evolution could be predicted for a specific group of children with CP, the efficacy of a treatment could be determined by comparing the GMFM-66 score evolution measured before and after treatment with the expected natural evolution for the same period. A new index, the Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer simulation of a cruise missile using brushless dc motor fin control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1985-03-01

    This thesis describes a computer simulation developed in order to provide a method of establishing the potential of brushless dc motors for applications to tactical cruise missile control surface positioning. In particular, an altitude hold controller has been developed that provides an operational load test condition for the evaluation of the electromechanical actuator. A proportional integral control scheme in conjunction with tachometer feedback provides the position control for the missile tailfin surfaces. The fin control system is further imbedded in a cruise missile model to allow altitude control of the missile. The load on the fin is developed from the dynamic fluid environment that the missile will be operating in and is proportional to such factors as fin size and air density. The program written in CSMP language is suitable for parametric studies including motor and torque load characteristics, and missile and control system parameters.

  9. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  10. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven; Slicker, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  11. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  12. fMRI reveals two distinct cerebral networks subserving speech motor control.

    PubMed

    Riecker, A; Mathiak, K; Wildgruber, D; Erb, M; Hertrich, I; Grodd, W; Ackermann, H

    2005-02-22

    There are few data on the cerebral organization of motor aspects of speech production and the pathomechanisms of dysarthric deficits subsequent to brain lesions and diseases. The authors used fMRI to further examine the neural basis of speech motor control. In eight healthy volunteers, fMRI was performed during syllable repetitions synchronized to click trains (2 to 6 Hz; vs a passive listening task). Bilateral hemodynamic responses emerged at the level of the mesiofrontal and sensorimotor cortex, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, and cerebellum (two distinct activation spots at either side). In contrast, dorsolateral premotor cortex and anterior insula showed left-sided activation. Calculation of rate/response functions revealed a negative linear relationship between repetition frequency and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change within the striatum, whereas both cerebellar hemispheres exhibited a step-wise increase of activation at approximately 3 Hz. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of the BOLD effect found the various cortical and subcortical brain regions engaged in speech motor control to be organized into two separate networks (medial and dorsolateral premotor cortex, anterior insula, and superior cerebellum vs sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and inferior cerebellum). These data provide evidence for two levels of speech motor control bound, most presumably, to motor preparation and execution processes. They also help to explain clinical observations such as an unimpaired or even accelerated speaking rate in Parkinson disease and slowed speech tempo, which does not fall below a rate of 3 Hz, in cerebellar disorders.

  13. Placental disease and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms in trisomy 21 pregnancy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Corry, Edward; Mone, Fionnuala; Segurado, Ricardo; Downey, Paul; McParland, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Mooney, Eoghan E

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were firstly to determine the proportion of placental pathology in fetuses affected by trisomy 21 (T21) using current pathological descriptive terminology and secondly to examine if a correlation existed between the finding of an abnormal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) waveform, the presence of T21 and defined placental pathological categories. This case-control study assessed singleton fetuses with karyotypically confirmed trisomy 21 where placental histopathology had been conducted from 2003 to 2015 inclusive, within a university tertiary obstetric centre. This was compared with unselected normal singleton control pregnancies matched within a week of gestation at delivery. Data included birthweight centiles and placental histopathology. Comparisons of Doppler findings across placental pathological categories were performed using statistical analysis. 104 cases were analysed; 52 cases of trisomy 21 and 52 controls. Fetal vascular malperfusion (48.1% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.001) and maturation defects (39.2% vs. 15.7%, p = 0.023) were more common in trisomy 21 placentas. Compared with controls, trisomy 21 fetuses were more likely to have shorter umbilical cords (p = 0.001) and had more UAD abnormalities. Amongst T21 pregnancies, umbilical artery Doppler abnormalities are associated with the presence of maternal vascular malperfusion. Fetal vascular malperfusion and maturation defects are more common in trisomy 21 placentas. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms are more common in T21 and are associated with maternal vascular malperfusion. Placental disease may explain the increased rate of intrauterine death in T21. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons revived interest in motor theories of perception, fostering a number of new studies as well as controversies. In particular, the degree of motor specificity with which others' actions are simulated is highly debated. Human corticospinal excitability studies support the conjecture that a mirror mechanism encodes object-directed goals or low-level kinematic features of others' reaching and grasping actions. These interpretations lead to different experimental predictions and implications for the functional role of the simulation of others' actions. We propose that the representational granularity of the mirror mechanism cannot be any different from that of the motor system during action execution. Hence, drawing from motor control models, we propose that the building blocks of the mirror mechanism are the relatively few motor synergies explaining the variety of hand functions. The recognition of these synergies, from action observation, can be potentially very robust to visual noise and thus demonstrate a clear advantage of using motor knowledge for classifying others' action.

  15. Adaptive vibration control using synchronous demodulation with machine tool controller motor commutation

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, David James [Livermore, CA

    2008-05-13

    A control system and method for actively reducing vibration in a spindle housing caused by unbalance forces on a rotating spindle, by measuring the force-induced spindle-housing motion, determining control signals based on synchronous demodulation, and provide compensation for the measured displacement to cancel or otherwise reduce or attenuate the vibration. In particular, the synchronous demodulation technique is performed to recover a measured spindle housing displacement signal related only to the rotation of a machine tool spindle, and consequently rejects measured displacement not related to spindle motion or synchronous to a cycle of revolution. Furthermore, the controller actuates at least one voice-coil (VC) motor, to cancel the original force-induced motion, and adapts the magnitude of voice coil signal until this measured displacement signal is brought to a null. In order to adjust the signal to a null, it must have the correct phase relative to the spindle angle. The feedback phase signal is used to adjust a common (to both outputs) commutation offset register (offset relative to spindle encoder angle) to force the feedback phase signal output to a null. Once both of these feedback signals are null, the system is compensating properly for the spindle-induced motion.

  16. A continually online-trained neural network controller for brushless DC motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Rubaai, A.; Kotaru, R.; Kankam, M.D.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a high-performance controller with simultaneous online identification and control is designed for brushless dc motor drives. The dynamics of the motor/load are modeled online, and controlled using two different neural network based identification and control schemes, as the system is in operation. In the first scheme, an attempt is made to control the rotor angular speed, utilizing a single three-hidden-layer network. The second scheme attempts to control the stator currents, using a predetermined control law as a function of the estimated states. This schemes incorporates three multilayered feedforward neural networks that are online trained, using the Levenburg-Marquadtmore » training algorithm. The control of the direct and quadrature components of the stator current successfully tracked a wide variety of trajectories after relatively short online training periods. The control strategy adapts to the uncertainties of the motor/load dynamics and, in addition, learns their inherent nonlinearities. Simulation results illustrated that a neurocontroller used in conjunction with adaptive control schemes can result in a flexible control device which may be utilized in a wide range of environments.« less

  17. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    PubMed

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (<2cm). HFI possesses uniform inertial and force transmission properties across the workspace, and has low friction (.05-.30N). HFI's RF noise levels, in addition, are within a 3 Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.

  18. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  19. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Ejskjaer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes, and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed. PMID:16718808

  20. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-09-01

    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  1. Brain-controlled telepresence robot by motor-disabled people.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; del R Millán, José

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve similar performances to a group of four healthy users who were familiar with the environment. In particular, the experimental results reported in this paper demonstrate the benefits of shared control for brain-controlled telepresence robots. It allows all subjects (including novel BMI subjects as our users with disabilities) to complete a complex task in similar time and with similar number of commands to those required by manual control.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system.

  3. Demonstrative fractional order - PID controller based DC motor drive on digital platform.

    PubMed

    Khubalkar, Swapnil W; Junghare, Anjali S; Aware, Mohan V; Chopade, Amit S; Das, Shantanu

    2017-09-21

    In industrial drives applications, fractional order controllers can exhibit phenomenal impact due to realization through digital implementation. Digital fractional order controllers have created wide scope as it possess the inherent advantages like robustness against the plant parameter variation. This paper provides brief design procedure of fractional order proportional-integral-derivative (FO-PID) controller through the indirect approach of approximation using constant phase technique. The new modified dynamic particle swarm optimization (IdPSO) technique is proposed to find controller parameters. The FO-PID controller is implemented using floating point digital signal processor. The building blocks are designed and assembled with all peripheral components for the 1.5kW industrial DC motor drive. The robust operation for parametric variation is ascertained by testing the controller with two separately excited DC motors with the same rating but different parameters. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor Control of Human Spinal Cord Disconnected from the Brain and Under External Movement.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2016-01-01

    Motor control after spinal cord injury is strongly depending on residual ascending and descending pathways across the lesion. The individually altered neurophysiology is in general based on still intact sublesional control loops with afferent sensory inputs linked via interneuron networks to efferent motor outputs. Partial or total loss of translesional control inputs reduces and alters the ability to perform voluntary movements and results in motor incomplete (residual voluntary control of movement functions) or motor complete (no residual voluntary control) spinal cord injury classification. Of particular importance are intact functionally silent neural structures with residual brain influence but reduced state of excitability that inhibits execution of voluntary movements. The condition is described by the term discomplete spinal cord injury. There are strong evidences that artificial afferent input, e.g., by epidural or noninvasive electrical stimulation of the lumbar posterior roots, can elevate the state of excitability and thus re-enable or augment voluntary movement functions. This modality can serve as a powerful assessment technique for monitoring details of the residual function profile after spinal cord injury, as a therapeutic tool for support of restoration of movement programs and as a neuroprosthesis component augmenting and restoring movement functions, per se or in synergy with classical neuromuscular or muscular electrical stimulation.

  5. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Jae T.; Bray, Steven R.; Lee, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medi