Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal mri findings

  1. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo.

  2. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  3. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  4. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  5. Brain MRI abnormalities and spectrum of neurological and clinical findings in three patients with proximal 16p11.2 microduplication.

    PubMed

    Filges, Isabel; Sparagana, Steven; Sargent, Michael; Selby, Kathryn; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; Lueder, Gregg T; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Shimony, Joshua S; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-08-01

    The phenotype of recurrent ∼600 kb microdeletion and microduplication on proximal 16p11.2 is characterized by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental impairments including developmental delay and intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism and psychiatric disorders which are all subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. A variety of brain MRI abnormalities were reported in patients with 16p11.2 rearrangements, but no systematic correlation has been studied among patients with similar brain anomalies, their neurodevelopmental and clinical phenotypes. We present three patients with the proximal 16p11.2 microduplication exhibiting significant developmental delay, anxiety disorder and other variable clinical features. Our patients have abnormal brain MRI findings of cerebral T2 hyperintense foci (3/3) and ventriculomegaly (2/3). The neuroradiological or neurological findings in two cases prompted an extensive diagnostic work-up. One patient has exhibited neurological regression and progressive vision impairment and was diagnosed with juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis. We compare the clinical course and phenotype of these patients in regard to the clinical significance of the cerebral lesions and the need for MRI surveillance. We conclude that in all three patients the lesions were not progressive, did not show any sign of malignant transformation and could not be correlated to specific clinical features. We discuss potential etiologic mechanisms that may include overexpression of genes within the duplicated region involved in control of cell proliferation and complex molecular mechanisms such as the MAPK/ERK pathway. Systematic studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our observation and to establish the prevalence and clinical significance of these neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with 16p11.2 duplications. PMID:24891046

  6. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Oliveira, M I; Fernandes, T; Madureira, A J

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8 cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum.

  7. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin,E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Universities Press, New York), who first described ‘dementia praecox’ and the ‘ schizophrenias’, were convinced that schizophrenia would ultimately be linked to an organic brain disorder. Alzheimer (1897: Alzheimer, A., 1897. Beitrage zur pathologischen anatomie der hirnrinde und zur anatomischen grundlage einiger psychosen. Monatsschrift fur Psychiarie und Neurologie. 2, 82–120) was the first to investigate the neuropathology of schizophrenia, though he went on to study more tractable brain diseases. The results of subsequent neuropathological studies were disappointing because of conflicting findings. Research interest thus waned and did not flourish again until 1976, following the pivotal computer assisted tomography (CT) finding of lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia by Johnstone and colleagues. Since that time significant progress has been made in brain imaging, particularly with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), beginning with the first MRI study of schizophrenia by Smith and coworkers in 1984 (Smith, R.C., Calderon, M., Ravichandran, G.K., et al. (1984). Nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 12, 137–147). MR in vivo imaging of the brain now confirms brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The 193 peer reviewed MRI studies reported in the current review span the period from 1988 to August, 2000. This 12 year period has witnessed a burgeoning of MRI studies and has led to more definitive findings of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia than any other time period in the history of schizophrenia research. Such progress in defining the

  8. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, François; Meuli, Reto

    2015-12-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. PMID:26255159

  9. Patterns of Structural MRI Abnormalities in Deficit and Nondeficit Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Galderisi, Silvana; Quarantelli, Mario; Volpe, Umberto; Mucci, Armida; Cassano, Giovanni Battista; Invernizzi, Giordano; Rossi, Alessandro; Vita, Antonio; Pini, Stefano; Cassano, Paolo; Daneluzzo, Enrico; De Peri, Luca; Stratta, Paolo; Brunetti, Arturo; Maj, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generally been found in association with ventricular enlargement and prefrontal abnormalities. These relationships, however, have not been observed consistently, most probably because negative symptoms are heterogeneous and result from different pathophysiological mechanisms. The concept of deficit schizophrenia (DS) was introduced by Carpenter et al to identify a clinically homogeneous subgroup of patients characterized by the presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms. Findings of brain structural abnormalities reported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies focusing on DS have been mixed. The present study included 34 patients with DS, 32 with nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS), and 31 healthy comparison subjects, providing the largest set of MRI findings in DS published so far. The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome was used to categorize patients as DS or NDS patients. The 2 patient groups were matched on age and gender and did not differ on clinical variables, except for higher scores on the negative dimension and more impaired interpersonal relationships in DS than in NDS subjects. Lateral ventricles were larger in NDS than in control subjects but were not enlarged in patients with DS. The cingulate gyri volume was smaller in NDS but not in DS patients as compared with healthy subjects. Both groups had smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes than healthy subjects, but DS patients had significantly less right temporal lobe volume as compared with NDS patients. These findings do not support the hypothesis that DS is the extreme end of a severity continuum within schizophrenia. PMID:17728266

  10. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  11. MRI findings in cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Kavita K; Arafat, Abou-Sharbin Maher; Ichaporia, Nasli Rustom; Jain, M M

    2003-01-01

    A 55 year old male presented 2 years after a jejuno-iliectomy with weakness of all limbs, paraesthesiae, and difficulty in walking. Clinical examination revealed loss of posterior column sensations. Investigations were suggestive of a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate. MRI showed a band of hyperintensity on T2 image, in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord.

  12. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia. PMID:25109378

  13. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia.

  14. Abnormal findings on knee magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic NBA players.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.

  15. MRI Abnormalities Are Common In Little League Player’s Elbows

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Andrew T.; Roocroft, Joanna Helena; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Kruk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Youth baseball is extremely popular, but it has been associated with elbow pain and pathology. The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and post-season Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) changes in Little League baseball players and correlate these findings with the players’ throwing history and physical exams. Methods: A prospective study of Little League players age 10 -13 years was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical exam and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and arm pain. At the end of the season, the players underwent repeat physical exam and MRI of their throwing arm. MRIs were read by two blinded radiologists. During the season, player statistics including innings played and pitch counts were recorded. Physical exam findings and players statistics were compared between subjects with and without MRI changes utilizing chi-square and ANOVA techniques. Results: Twenty-six players were enrolled. On pre-season MRI, nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings; edema of the medial epicondyle (ME) apophysis (7), fragmentation of ME (2), and edema of the sublime tubercle (3). The two factors associated with a positive MRI were year round play (47% vs 11%, p<0.01) and working with a private coach (71% vs 21%, p=0.02). A history of pain was also associated with year round play and a private coach (p<0.05). Loss of internal rotation was associated with an abnormal MRI (p = 0.04). Post-season, 25 players returned for follow-up. Ten players (40%) had an abnormal MRI of which 8 (32%) had new/worsening findings. There was a significant difference in distal humeral physeal width measured pre- to post-season (1.54 mm vs 2.31 mm p<0.001). There was a significant decrease in internal rotation measured pre- to post-season of the shoulder in all patients regardless of MRI findings (62° vs 43°, p=0.001). Pitch counts, player position

  16. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas. PMID:18522643

  17. Ethical and Practical Considerations in the Management of Incidental Findings in Pediatric MRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Anderson, Britt; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Kan, Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ethical and practical management issues resulting from the detection of incidental abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research studies in healthy pediatric volunteers. Method: A retrospective examination of the findings from 60 clinical reports of research MRI scans from a cohort of healthy…

  18. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations. PMID:23604286

  19. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations.

  20. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  1. Quantitative MRI and DTI Abnormalities During the Acute Period Following CCI in the Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B.; Schwerin, Susan C.; Radomski, Kryslaine L.; Irfanoglu, Mustafa O.; Juliano, Sharon L.; Pierpaoli, Carlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During the acute time period following traumatic brain injury (TBI), noninvasive brain imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide important information about the clinical and pathological features of the injury and may help predict long-term outcomes. In addition to standard imaging approaches, several quantitative MRI techniques including relaxometry and diffusion MRI have been identified as promising reporters of cellular alterations after TBI and may provide greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying brain abnormalities especially in mild TBI. However, for these imaging tools to be useful, it is crucial to define their relationship with the neurophysiological response to brain injury. Recently, a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been developed in the ferret which has many advantages compared with rodent models (e.g., gyrencephalic cortex and high white matter volume). The objective of this study was to evaluate quantitative MRI metrics in the ferret CCI model, including T2 values and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, during the acute time period. Longitudinal quantitative comparisons of in vivo MRI and DTI metrics were evaluated to identify abnormalities and characterize their spatial patterns in the ferret brain. Ex vivo MRI and DTI maps were then compared with histological staining for glial and neuronal abnormalities. The main findings of this article describe T2, diffusivity, and anisotropy markers of tissue change during the acute time period following mild TBI, and ex vivo analyses suggest that MRI and DTI markers are sensitive to subtle cellular alterations in this model. This was confirmed by comparison with immunohistochemistry, also showing altered markers in regions of MRI and DTI change. PMID:27294688

  2. MRI Findings of Talocalcaneal Coalition: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tarsal coalition is abnormal fusion of two or more tarsal bones and is a common cause of foot pain. There are osseous, cartilaginous and fibrous subtypes. Calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal coalitions are more frequent. Radiography is the primary diagnostic tool, however CT and MRI are precious examinations for differential diagnosis of osseous /non-osseous coalitions separations. Furthermore, cross-sectional imaging methods indicate the extension and secondary degenerative joint changes. Case reports: The detection of bone marrow of edema in the articulation area is valuable for diagnosis Hereby, we present two cases, 24 years old female and 35 years old male, with the diagnosis of talocalcaneal coaliation. We also discuss MRI and radiographic findings. PMID:26483601

  3. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will... section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard to pneumoconiosis will...

  4. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children.

  5. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children. PMID:25895913

  6. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, M E; Maheshwari, S; Shabshin, N

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the MR findings of Hallux Valgus (HV) and Hallux Rigidus (HR). Twenty-four patients (11 with HV, 4 with HR, and 9 with both HV and HR) were studied at 1.5 Tesla MRI. Two separate observers evaluated the first ray blindly for the following signs: sesamoid position, sesamoid proliferation, hypertrophy of the median eminence, presence of a lateral facet, presence of an adventitial bursa, shape of the first metatarsal head, relative length of the first metatarsal, joint space loss, osteophytes (dorsalor lateral), marrow edema, geodes, subchondral sclerosis, intra-articular ossicle, and pes planus. The most common findings observed in HV were a hypertrophic medial eminence (95%), sesamoid proliferation (90%) and adventitial bursitis (70%). The most common findings observed in HR were osteophytes (77% and 69%), geodes, and marrow edema. We conclude that traditional routine radiograph signs of HV and HR may be applied to MR images.

  7. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  8. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL. A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed. In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1–2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient. The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC. PMID:27124066

  9. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Justin Y; Jeong, Suh Young; Van Gelderen, Peter; Deng, Han-Xiang; Quezado, Martha M; Danielian, Laura E; Butman, John A; Chen, Lingye; Bayat, Elham; Russell, James; Siddique, Teepu; Duyn, Jeff H; Rouault, Tracey A; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2)(*)-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  10. Kernohan's notch phenomenon in chronic subdural hematoma: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyung-Sub; Lee, Jung-Kil; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Jung, Shin; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han; Kang, Sam-Suk

    2007-10-01

    We report two cases of Kernohan's notch phenomenon secondary to chronic subdural hematoma detected by MRI. In the first case, the patient was drowsy with an oculomotor palsy and a hemiparesis ipsilateral to the chronic subdural hematoma. MRI in the post-operative period showed no abnormal signal or deformity of the crus cerebri. The neurological signs immediately resolved after trephination. In the second case, the patient was admitted with progressive decrease in their level of consciousness and ipsilateral hemiparesis with the chronic subdural hematoma. MRI on admission revealed an abnormal signal in the contralateral crus cerebri against the chronic subdural hematoma. After surgery, the mental state gradually recovered to normal with some degree of residual hemiparesis. In patients with chronic subdural hematoma, a compressive deformity of the crus cerebri, without abnormal signal on MRI, may predict a better neurological recovery in patients with Kernohan's notch phenomenon.

  11. Autonomic correlations with MRI are abnormal in the brainstem vasomotor centre in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barnden, Leighton R.; Kwiatek, Richard; Crouch, Benjamin; Burnet, Richard; Del Fante, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic changes are often associated with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but their pathogenetic role is unclear and brain imaging investigations are lacking. The vasomotor centre and, through it, nuclei in the midbrain and hypothalamus play a key role in autonomic nervous system regulation of steady state blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In this exploratory cross-sectional study, BP and HR, as indicators of autonomic function, were correlated with volumetric and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (T1w and T2w) brain MRI in 25 CFS subjects and 25 normal controls (NC). Steady state BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) and HR in two postures were extracted from 24 h blood pressure monitoring. We performed (1) MRI versus autonomic score interaction-with-group regressions to detect locations where regression slopes differed in the CFS and NC groups (collectively indicating abnormality in CFS), and (2) MRI regressions in the CFS and NC groups alone to detect additional locations with abnormal correlations in CFS. Significant CFS regressions were repeated controlling for anxiety and depression (A&D). Abnormal regressions were detected in nuclei of the brainstem vasomotor centre, midbrain reticular formation and hypothalamus, but also in limbic nuclei involved in stress responses and in prefrontal white matter. Group comparisons of CFS and NC did not find MRI differences in these locations. We propose therefore that these regulatory nuclei are functioning correctly, but that two-way communication between them is impaired in CFS and this affects signalling to/from peripheral effectors/sensors, culminating in inverted or magnified correlations. This single explanation for the diverse abnormal correlations detected here consolidates the conclusion for a brainstem/midbrain nerve conduction deficit inferred earlier (Barnden et al., 2015). Strong correlations were also detected in isolated NC regressions. PMID:27114901

  12. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MRI findings in Little Leaguer's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Song, James C; Lazarus, Martin L; Song, Alexandra Pae

    2006-02-01

    Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress injury of the proximal humeral physis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent baseball player with shoulder pain, especially if the player is pitching regularly in a competitive environment. While roentgenographs may or may not be helpful, depending on the duration and severity of the injury, we report the MRI appearance of a case of little leaguer's shoulder. We found MRI helpful in diagnosing injury to the growth plate that was radiographically occult; furthermore, we were able to document the patient's progress with a follow-up MRI examination, which showed improvement with treatment.

  14. MRI Findings of Otic and Sinus Barotrauma in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhai, Zhao-Hua; Li, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and examine the discrepancies of otic and sinus abnormalities on MRI between barotrauma and acute otitis media with effusion. Materials and Methods Eighty patients with CO-poisoning diagnosed with otic and sinus barotrauma after HBO therapy were recruited. Brain MRI was performed to predict delayed encephalopathy. Over the same period, 88 patients with acute otitis media with effusion on MRI served as control. The abnormalities of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses on MRI were noted and were compared between groups. Nine patients with barotrauma were followed up by MRI. Results In the barotrauma group, 92.5% of patients had bilateral middle ear abnormalities on MRI, and 60% of patients had both middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in both ears. Both rates were higher than those in the control group (p = 0.000). In the two groups, most abnormalities on MRI were observed in the mastoid cavity. The rate of sinus abnormalities of barotrauma was 66.3%, which was higher than the 50% in the control group (p = 0.033). In the nine patients with barotrauma followed up by MRI, the otic barotrauma and sinus abnormalities had worsened in 2 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Conclusion MRI is able to depict the abnormalities of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with CO-poisoning during HBO therapy and to differentiate these from acute otitis media with effusion. PMID:23776523

  15. Abnormal Gastroscopy Findings Were Related to Lower Meridian Energy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Miauh; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chen, Ping-Ho; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2011-01-01

    According to the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), energy runs through 12 meridians longitudinally up and down the body. The study objectives were to compare the meridian energy between subjects with and without abnormal gastroscopy findings. We applied a cross-sectional and correlational research design. The study included 1,223 participants who had their health examinations at a university hospital in Taipei from 1st August 2005 through 31st August 2007. Meridian energy was examined using a meridian energy analysis device. The gastroscopy was operated by certified gastroenterologists. Participants with abnormal stomach and esophageal findings using gastroscopy had significantly lower mean meridian energy. There were no significant differences in meridian energy between participants with and without abnormal duodenum findings. When all of the meridians were examined individually, participants with abnormal findings in esophagus and stomach had significantly lower meridian energy in each of the meridians. The results of this study demonstrated that structural abnormality in the gastric area was related to lower meridian energy. Whether enhancing meridian energy could improve gastric and esophageal health merits further studies. PMID:21052557

  16. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer... to the miner by MSHA in accordance with section 203 of the act (see 30 CFR part 90)....

  17. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer... to the miner by MSHA in accordance with section 203 of the act (see 30 CFR part 90)....

  18. [Clinical and MRI Findings in Patients with Congenital Anosmia].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takao; Kato, Tomohisa; Ono, Mayu; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of 16 patients with congenital anosmia were examined retrospectively. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) was used to assess the morphological changes in the olfactory bulbs and olfactory sulci according to the method of P. Rombaux (2009). Congenital anosmia was divided into two forms: syndromic forms in association with a syndrome, and isolated forms without evidence of other defects. Only three patients (19%) in our series had syndromic forms of congenital anosmia, such as the Kallmann syndrome. Most cases (13 patients, 81%) had isolated congenital anosmia. Psychophysical testing of the olfactory function included T&T olfactometry and the intravenous Alinamin test, which are widely used in Japan. In T&T olfactometry, detection and recognition thresholds for the five odorants are used to assign a diagnostic category representing the level of olfactory function. Most cases (14 patients, 88%) showed off-scale results on T&T olfactometry, and the Alinamin test resulted in no response in all 11 patients who underwent the test. Abnormal MRI findings of the olfactory bulbs and sulci were detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%). Olfactory bulbs were bilaterally absent in nine patients (56%), and two patients (13%) had unilateral olfactory bulbs. Four patients (25%) had bilateral hypoplastic olfactory bulbs, and only one patient had normal olfactory bulbs (6%). The olfactory sulcus was unilaterally absent in one patient (6%), and nine patients (56%) had bilaterally hypoplastic olfactory sulci. Two patients (13%) had a unilateral normal olfactory sulcus and hypoplastic olfactory sulcus. Three patients (19%) had normal olfactory sulci. Quantitative analysis showed that the volume of olfactory bulbs varied from 0 mm3 to 63.5 mm3, with a mean volume of 10.20 ± 18 mm3, and the mean depth of the olfactory sulcus varied from 0 mm to 12.22 mm, with a mean length of 4.85 ± 4.1 mm. Currently, there is no effective treatment for congenital anosmia. However

  19. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  20. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  1. Extra-mammary findings on breast MRI: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Karp, Norna L; Price, Elissa R; Wisner, Dorota J; Chang, C Belinda; Hylton, Nola M; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in breast coil performance have made detection of extra-mammary findings increasingly common. Some of these findings have important clinical implications. The radiologist should be aware of the spectrum of extra-mammary pathologies found on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and be able to distinguish clinically significant findings from those that are inconsequential. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate various common and uncommon extra-mammary findings encountered while interpreting breast MRI and to detail appropriate management recommendations.

  2. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  3. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen: CT and MRI findings

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to etucidate the CT and MRI findings of inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen. The CT and MRI findings of three patients with inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were reviewed and compared with the pathologic findings. On the early phase of CT, the masses were hypodense to the normal spleen, and on the delayed phase, they demonstrated delayed enhancement. On T1-weighted MR images, the masses were isointense to the normal spleen, and on T2-weighted images, the masses had heterogeneous low signal intensities. After administration of Gd-DTPA, the masses showed delayed enhancement. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were characterized by low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and delayed enhancement after contrast material administration on CT and MRI. The fibrous stroma may contribute to these unusual findings. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Schneider, Robert; Bansal, Manjula; Mintz, Douglas N; Lane, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations.

  5. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia.

  6. Hypernatraemic dehydration in a neonate: brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Musapasaoglu, H; Agildere, A Muhtesem; Teksam, M; Tarcan, A; Gurakan, B

    2008-02-01

    Severe hypernatremic dehydration can cause serious neurological complications in neonates. The most significant problems include brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhage, sinus thrombosis, haemorrhagic infarcts and permanent brain damage. The symptoms of many of these complications are similar. With respect to brain MRI findings in hypernatremic neonates, this is a report that describes linear lesions that represent intracranial haemorrhage at the grey-white matter junction. These MRI findings may be helpful for diagnosing hypernatremic dehydration, and for ruling out differential diagnoses for complications of this disorder.

  7. Normal and abnormal US findings at the mastectomy site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of a mastectomy site is more effective with ultrasonography (US) than with either mammography or chest computed tomography because abnormalities are usually small and close to the skin surface. US does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and has a multiplanar scanning capability. The technique is readily available and inexpensive, and it allows real-time monitoring of needle tip placement during biopsy of a lesion. Normal US anatomy of the chest wall after mastectomy usually consists of four layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, pectoral muscles, and rib and intercostal muscle. The axilla is changed in appearance after lymph node dissection, but it remains the same in patients who have undergone simple mastectomy. US can accurately depict benign and malignant conditions in the mastectomy site, including fluid collection, fibrosis, local recurrent tumor, and metastatic lymphadenopathy, and can enable accurate diagnosis based on findings at fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  8. Incidental findings on MRI of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Makdissi, J; Pawar, R R; Radon, M; Holmes, S B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of incidental findings in MRI of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods: MRI reports of 730 patients were assessed. The reports were analysed by one consultant and one clinical lecturer in dental and maxillofacial radiology. The prevalence of intracranial and extracranial incidental findings was recorded and categorized. Results: There were 53 (7.3%) incidental findings, of which 11 (1.5%) were intracranial and 42 (5.7%) were extracranial (divided into paranasal sinuses, mastoid air cells, muscle hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy and salivary glands). A total number of eight intracranial findings needed further dedicated imaging and/or specialist clinical opinion. Only one tumour (a meningioma) was found and required surgical intervention. Conclusions: Incidental findings on TMJ MRI are rare but not unheard of. The clinical relevance of incidental findings can be significant, and it is therefore important to ensure that the full data set of images is inspected, including any scout slices. A close working relationship between the areas of dental and maxillofacial radiology and neuroradiology is essential in expediting a second opinion relating to intracranial findings. All incidental findings should be communicated to referring clinicians in a timely manner, based on their urgency and clinical significance. PMID:24005059

  9. Day of Injury CT and Late MRI Findings: Cognitive Outcome in a Pediatric Sample with Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jantz, Paul B; Farrer, Thomas J.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or cmTBI is based on the presence of visibly identifiable brain pathology on the day-of-injury computed tomography (CT) scan. In a pediatric sample the relation of DOI CT to late MRI findings and neuropsychological outcome was examined. Methods MRI (> 12 months) was obtained in pediatric cmTBI patients and a sample of orthopedically injured (OI) children. Those children with positive imaging findings (MRI+) were quantitatively compared to those without (MRI-) or with the OI sample. Groups were also compared in neurocognitive outcome from WASI subtests and the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index (PSI), along with the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and a parent-rated behavioral functioning measure (ABAS-II). Results Despite the MRI+ group having significantly more DOI CT findings than the MRI-group, no quantitative differences were found. WASI Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning scores were significantly lower, but not PSI, TEA-Ch or ABAS-II scores. MRI+ and MRI-groups did not differ on these measures. Conclusions Heterogeneity in the occurrence of MRI-identified focal pathology was not associated with uniform changes in quantitative analyses of brain structure in cmTBI. Increased number of DOI CT abnormalities was associated with lowered neuropsychological performance. PMID:26186038

  10. Clinical, CSF, and MRI findings in Devic's neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed Central

    O'Riordan, J I; Gallagher, H L; Thompson, A J; Howard, R S; Kingsley, D P; Thompson, E J; McDonald, W I; Miller, D H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since Devic's original description of neuromyelitis optica in 1894 there has been much debate regarding its aetiology. A specific cause has been identified in a minority of cases but in most the question has arisen whether or not Devic's neuromyelitis optica is a variant of multiple sclerosis. This study was undertaken to help clarify this issue. METHODS: Neuromyelitis optica was defined as (1) a severe transverse myelitis; (2) an acute unilateral or bilateral optic neuropathy; (3) no clinical involvement beyond the spinal cord or optic nerves, and (4) a monophasic or multiphasic illness. The clinical and autoantibody status was documented. Patients underwent CSF examination and MRI of brain and spinal cord. RESULTS: Twelve patients, with a mean age of presentation of 35.1 years, were seen. Eleven were women; vision was reduced to counting fingers or worse in 10 patients and seven became confined to a wheelchair. Examination of CSF showed local synthesis of oligoclonal bands in only two patients and a neutrophil pleocytosis in two. A possible aetiology was identified in five: a specific connective tissue disorder (two), pulmonary tuberculosis (one), and possible acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (two). Six had non-specific increases in various autoantibodies. Eleven patients underwent MRI of the brain and spinal cord. In 10 there were diffuse abnormalities involving cervical and thoracic cords with extensive swelling in the acute phase. Brain MRI was normal in five; in five there were multiple deep white matter lesions, and one patient had minor age related changes. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that Devic's neuromyelitis optica is a distinctive disorder with some clinical, CSF, and MRI features different from those found in classic multiple sclerosis. In most cases a specific aetiology is not identified, but an immunological mechanism of tissue damage seems likely. Images PMID:8774400

  11. Muscle MRI reveals distinct abnormalities in genetically proven non-dystrophic myotonias☆

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Matthews, Emma; Raja Rayan, Dipa L.; Fischmann, Arne; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Reilly, Mary M.; Thornton, John S.; Hanna, Michael G.; Yousry, Tarek A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the presence, frequency and pattern of MRI abnormalities in non-dystrophic myotonia patients. We reviewed T1-weighted and STIR (short-tau-inversion-recovery) 3T MRI sequences of lower limb muscles at thigh and calf level in 21 patients with genetically confirmed non-dystrophic myotonia: 11 with CLCN1 mutations and 10 with SCN4A mutations, and 19 healthy volunteers. The MRI examinations of all patients showed hyperintensity within muscles on either T1-weighted or STIR images. Mild extensive or marked T1-weighted changes were noted in 10/21 patients and no volunteers. Muscles in the thigh were equally likely to be affected but in the calf there was sparing of tibialis posterior. Oedema was common in calf musculature especially in the medial gastrocnemius with STIR hyperintensity observed in 18/21 patients. In 10/11 CLCN1 patients this included a previously unreported “central stripe”, also present in 3/10 SCN4A patients but no volunteers. Degree of fatty infiltration correlated with age (rho = 0.46, p < 0.05). Muscle MRI is frequently abnormal in non-dystrophic myotonia providing evidence of fatty infiltration and/or oedema. The pattern is distinct from other myotonic disorders; in particular the “central stripe” has not been reported in other conditions. Correlations with clinical parameters suggest a potential role for MRI as a biomarker. PMID:23810313

  12. Muscle MRI reveals distinct abnormalities in genetically proven non-dystrophic myotonias.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Jasper M; Matthews, Emma; Raja Rayan, Dipa L; Fischmann, Arne; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Reilly, Mary M; Thornton, John S; Hanna, Michael G; Yousry, Tarek A

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the presence, frequency and pattern of MRI abnormalities in non-dystrophic myotonia patients. We reviewed T1-weighted and STIR (short-tau-inversion-recovery) 3T MRI sequences of lower limb muscles at thigh and calf level in 21 patients with genetically confirmed non-dystrophic myotonia: 11 with CLCN1 mutations and 10 with SCN4A mutations, and 19 healthy volunteers. The MRI examinations of all patients showed hyperintensity within muscles on either T1-weighted or STIR images. Mild extensive or marked T1-weighted changes were noted in 10/21 patients and no volunteers. Muscles in the thigh were equally likely to be affected but in the calf there was sparing of tibialis posterior. Oedema was common in calf musculature especially in the medial gastrocnemius with STIR hyperintensity observed in 18/21 patients. In 10/11 CLCN1 patients this included a previously unreported "central stripe", also present in 3/10 SCN4A patients but no volunteers. Degree of fatty infiltration correlated with age (rho=0.46, p<0.05). Muscle MRI is frequently abnormal in non-dystrophic myotonia providing evidence of fatty infiltration and/or oedema. The pattern is distinct from other myotonic disorders; in particular the "central stripe" has not been reported in other conditions. Correlations with clinical parameters suggest a potential role for MRI as a biomarker.

  13. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  14. Posterior cortical dementia with alexia: neurobehavioural, MRI, and PET findings.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, L; Selchen, D H; Black, S E; Kaplan, R; Garnett, E S; Nahmias, C

    1991-01-01

    A progressive disorder of relatively focal but asymmetric biposterior dysfunction is described in a 54 year old right handed male. Initial clinical features included letter-by-letter alexia, visual anomia, acalculia, mild agraphia, constructional apraxia, and visuospatial compromise. Serial testing demonstrated relentless deterioration with additional development of transcortical sensory aphasia, Gerstmann's tetrad, and severe visuoperceptual impairment. Amnesia was not an early clinical feature. Judgment, personality, insight, and awareness remained preserved throughout most of the clinical course. Extinction in the right visual field to bilateral stimulation was the sole neurological abnormality. Early CT was normal and late MRI showed asymmetrical bioccipitoparietal atrophy with greater involvement of the left hemisphere. Results from positron emission tomography (PET) showed bilaterally asymmetric (left greater than right) occipitotemporoparietal hypometabolism. The metabolic decrement was strikingly asymmetric with a 50% reduction in glucose consumption confined to the left occipital cortex. The picture of occipitotemporoparietal compromise verified by MRI, PET, and neurobehavioural testing would be unusual for such degenerative dementias as Alzheimer's (AD) and Pick's disease, although atypical AD with predominant occipital lobe involvement cannot be excluded. This case supports the concepts of posterior cortical dementia (PCD) as a clinically distinct entity and for the first time documents its corresponding metabolic deficit using PET. Images PMID:1865209

  15. Exploring the utility of axial lumbar MRI for automatic diagnosis of intervertebral disc abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the importance of axial lumbar MRI slices for automatic detection of abnormalities. In the past, only the sagittal views were taken into account for lumbar CAD systems, ignoring the fact that a radiologist scans through the axial slices as well, to confirm the diagnosis and quantify various abnormalities like herniation and stenosis. Hence, we present an automatic diagnosis system from axial slices using CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) for dynamic feature extraction and classification of normal and abnormal lumbar discs. We show 80:81% accuracy (with a specificity of 85:29% and sensitivity of 75:56%) on 86 cases (391 discs) using only an axial slice for each disc, which implies the usefulness of axial views for automatic lumbar abnormality diagnosis in conjunction with sagittal views.

  16. MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic, adolescent, elite tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Alyas, F; Turner, M; Connell, D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the lumbar spine in asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis players, to serve as the baseline for a future prospective longitudinal cohort study. Design Observational study. Setting Institutional, national tennis centre. Participants 33 asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis players, mean (SD) age, 17.3 (1.7) years (18 male, 15 female). Methods Sagittal T1, T2, STIR, and axial T2 weighted MRI images were reviewed for the presence of abnormalities by two radiologists in consensus. Abnormalities included disc degeneration, disc herniation, pars lesions (fracture or stress reaction), and facet joint arthropathy. Results Five players (15.2%) had a normal MRI examination and 28 (84.8%) had an abnormal examination. Nine players showed pars lesions (10 lesions; one at two levels) predominately at the L5 level (9/10, L5; 1/10, L4). Three of the 10 lesions were complete fractures; two showed grade 1 and one grade 2 spondylolisthesis, both of which resulted in moderate narrowing of the L5 exit foramen. There were two acute and five chronic stress reactions of the pars. Twenty three patients showed signs of early facet arthropathy occurring at L5/S1 (15/29 joints) and L4/5 (12/29 joints). These were classified as mild degeneration (20/29) and moderate degeneration (9/29), with 20/29 showing sclerosis and 24/29 showing hypertrophy of the facet joint. Synovial cysts were identified in 14 of the 29 joints. Thirteen players showed disc desiccation and disc bulging (mild in 13; moderate in two) most often at L4/5 and L5/S1 levels (12 of 15 discs). Conclusions Abnormalities were frequent, predominately in the lower lumbar spine, almost exclusively at L4/5 and L5/S1 levels. Pars injuries and facet joint arthroses were relatively common. PMID:17640926

  17. Late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse: a case report with MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Camara, Massaman; Mbonda, Paul Chimi; Toffa, Dènahin; Touré, Kamadore

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in the world. The relation between marijuana use and epileptic seizures is still controversial. We report a case of late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse, with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A 44-year-old patient was admitted for 03 isolated episodes of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. He had a history of 26 years regular marijuana smoking. On admission, we found a tachycardia, psychomotor slowing, asymmetric hyperreflexia, bilateral Babinski sign without weakness. Laboratory work-up showed a high level of urine of Δ-9-tétrahydroxycannabinol. Electroencephalogram was normal. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensities in the right frontal lobe and basal ganglia. Seizures cessation was obtained with anti-epileptic treatment. We suggest that marijuana abuse through vascular and toxic mechanisms could explain seizures in this case. PMID:25120871

  18. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  19. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00±29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70±22.26) (p<0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  20. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  1. Brain CT and MRI: differential diagnosis of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C; Gadhia, Rajan; Faridar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Following a traditional approach, in Chapters 5 and 14-29 in the previous volume, diverse brain diseases are listed and their imaging findings described in detail. In this chapter the approach is from the imaging finding to the disease: for instance, what list of diseases can give rise to a contrast-enhancing mass in the cerebellopontine angle? Imaging findings that are reviewed in succession include the location of the lesion, its multiplicity and symmetry, its volume, ranging from atrophy to mass effect, its homogeneity, its density, measurable by computed tomography (CT), its appearance on T1, T2, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, finally, its characteristics after the infusion of intravenous contrast. A differential diagnosis for each finding is provided. While the approach adopted in this chapter is unconventional, we hope that it will be most helpful to anyone reading images. Furthermore, it could serve as the basis to create or complete image databases to guide in the interpretation of brain CT and MRI. PMID:27430457

  2. CT and MRI findings in a case of pelvic schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Nasu, K; Arima, K; Yoshimatsu, J; Miyakawa, I

    1998-08-01

    We compared the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pelvic schwannoma. This 46-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of a retroperitoneal pelvic mass and myoma uteri. The retroperitoneal pelvic mass had been detected by a CT scan at a routine health examination. A CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed cystic tumor (4 x 3 cm) at the right internal obturator muscle portion. The CT number of the inner part of the tumor was 21. Only the cyst wall was enhanced by injection of a contrast medium. MRI showed a 4 x 3 x 3-cm retroperitoneal cystic tumor that demonstrated low-intensity signals on T1-weighted images and high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images. Small areas of low intensity inside the tumor were observed on T2-weighted images. Histological examination revealed a typical schwannoma of mixed Antoni type A and type B. These findings indicate that both MRI and CT are useful for diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannomas.

  3. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder investigated with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Milham, Michael P; Bain, Earle E; Mah, Linda; Cannon, Dara M; Marrett, Sean; Zarate, Carlos A; Pine, Daniel S; Price, Joseph L; Drevets, Wayne C

    2006-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with abnormalities of brain structure. Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum. These structures share anatomical connections with each other and form part of a "visceromotor" network modulating emotional behavior. Areas of the lateral orbital, superior temporal and posterior cingulate cortices project to this network, but morphometric abnormalities in these areas have not been established in BD. The current study assessed tissue volumes within these areas in BD using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). MRI images were obtained from 36 BD subjects and 65 healthy controls. To account for possible neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of psychotropic medications, BD subjects were divided into medicated and unmedicated groups. Images were segmented into tissue compartments, which were examined on a voxel-wise basis to determine the location and extent of morphometric changes. The GM was reduced in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and superior temporal gyrus of unmedicated BD subjects relative to medicated BD subjects and in the lateral orbital cortex of medicated BD subjects relative to controls. White matter (WM) was increased in the orbital and posterior cingulate cortices, which most likely reflected alterations in gyral morphology resulting from the reductions in the associated GM. The morphometric abnormalities in the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and lateral orbital cortices in BD support the hypothesis that the extended network of neuroanatomical structures subserving visceromotor regulation contains structural alterations in BD. Additionally, localization of morphometric abnormalities to areas known to exhibit increased metabolism in depression supports the hypothesis that repeated stress and elevated glucocorticoid

  4. Pachymeningitis and optic neuritis in rheumatoid arthritis: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Ağildere, A M; Tutar, N U; Yücel, E; Coşkun, M; Benli, S; Aydin, P

    1999-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease in which cerebral and eye involvement is neither common nor fully understood. Although it is rarely the cause of pachymeningitis and optic neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis should always be kept in mind in these two conditions. We present a 52-year-old male with an 8 month history of rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to the neurology department with headache and decreasing vision and was diagnosed as having rheumatoid pachymeningitis and optic neuritis on the basis of MRI findings.

  5. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  6. Pre-radiographic MRI findings are associated with onset of knee symptoms: the most study

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, M. K.; Lynch, J. A.; Tolstykh, I.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Aliabadi, P.; McCulloch, C.; Curtis, J.; Felson, D.; Lane, N. E.; Torner, J.; Nevitt, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greater sensitivity to detect osteoarthritis (OA) damage than radiographs but it is uncertain which MRI findings in early OA are clinically important. We examined MRI abnormalities detected in knees without radiographic OA and their association with incident knee symptoms. Method Participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) without frequent knee symptoms (FKS) at baseline were eligible if they also lacked radiographic features of OA at baseline. At 15 months, knees that developed FKS were defined as cases while control knees were drawn from those that remained without FKS. Baseline MRIs were scored at each subregion for cartilage lesions (CARTs); osteophytes (OST); bone marrow lesions (BML) and cysts. We compared cases and controls using marginal logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), previous injury and clinic site. Results 36 case knees and 128 control knees were analyzed. MRI damage was common in both cases and controls. The presence of a severe CART (P = 0.03), BML (P = 0.02) or OST (P = 0.02) in the whole knee joint was more common in cases while subchondral cysts did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.1). Case status at 15 months was predicted by baseline damage at only two locations; a BML in the lateral patella (P = 0.047) and at the tibial subspinous subregions (P = 0.01). Conclusion In knees without significant symptoms or radiographic features of OA, MRI lesions of OA in only a few specific locations preceded onset of clinical symptoms and suggest that changes in bone play a role in the early development of knee pain. Confirmation of these findings in other prospective studies of knee OA is warranted. PMID:19919856

  7. Acute Brain MRI Findings in 120 Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria: New Insights into an Ancient Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potchen, Michael J.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Seydel, Karl B.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Bradley, William G.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Glover, Simon J.; Ugorji, Joseph O.; Latourette, Matt; Siebert, James; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), a common, often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM to those in a control group who were infected with malaria but who were likely to have a non-malarial cause of coma. Materials and Methods Consecutive children admitted with traditionally defined CM (parasitemia, coma and no other coma etiology evident) were eligible for this study. The presence or absence of malaria retinopathy was determined. MRI findings in patients with retinopathy-positive (ret+) CM (cases) were compared to those with retinopathy-negative (ret−) CM (controls). Two radiologists blinded to retinopathy status jointly developed a scoring procedure for image interpretation and provided independent reviews. MRI findings were compared between patients with and without retinopathy, to assess the specificity of changes for patients with very strictly defined CM. Results Of 152 children with clinically defined CM, 120 were ret+, and 32 were ret −. Abnormalities were much more common in the ret + cases, and included severe edema, abnormal T2 signal, and DWI abnormalities in the cortical, deep gray and white matter structures. Focal abnormalities rarely respected vascular distributions. Most of the scans in the more clinically heterogeneous ret− group were normal, and none of the abnormalities noted were more prevalent in controls. Conclusions Distinctive MRI findings present in patients meeting a stringent definition of CM may offer insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:22517285

  8. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  9. Spinal MRI Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Ozlem; Yildirim, Tulin; Tokmak, Naime; Tan, Meliha

    2009-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a relatively common, acute, and rapidly progressive, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms and signs, aided by cerebrospinal fluid findings and electrophysiologic criteria. Previously, radiologic examinations have been used only to rule out other spinal abnormalities. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome with marked enhancement of nerve roots of the conus medullaris and cauda equina on MR imaging. These MR observations may help confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:22470650

  10. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  11. Abnormal Neural Connectivity in Schizophrenia and fMRI-Brain-Computer Interface as a Potential Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sergio; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2012-01-01

    Considering that single locations of structural and functional abnormalities are insufficient to explain the diverse psychopathology of schizophrenia, new models have postulated that the impairments associated with the disease arise from a failure to integrate the activity of local and distributed neural circuits: the “abnormal neural connectivity hypothesis.” In the last years, new evidence coming from neuroimaging have supported and expanded this theory. However, despite the increasing evidence that schizophrenia is a disorder of neural connectivity, so far there are no treatments that have shown to produce a significant change in brain connectivity, or that have been specifically designed to alleviate this problem. Brain-Computer Interfaces based on real-time functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI-BCI) are novel techniques that have allowed subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. In recent studies, experiments with this technology have resulted in new findings suggesting that this methodology could be used to train subjects to enhance brain connectivity, and therefore could potentially be used as a therapeutic tool in mental disorders including schizophrenia. The present article summarizes the findings coming from hemodynamics-based neuroimaging that support the abnormal connectivity hypothesis in schizophrenia, and discusses a new approach that could address this problem. PMID:23525496

  12. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients

  13. Characterization of abnormal wall shear stress using 4D flow MRI in human bicuspid aortopathy

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, Maria; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Fedak, Paul W.M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    There exists considerable controversy surrounding the timing and extent of aortic resection for patients with BAV disease. Since abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is potentially associated with tissue remodeling in BAV-related aortopathy, we propose a methodology that creates patient-specific ‘heat maps’ of abnormal WSS, based on 4D flow MRI. The heat maps were created by detecting outlier measurements from a volumetric 3D map of ensemble-averaged WSS in healthy controls. 4D flow MRI was performed in 13 BAV patients, referred for aortic resection and 10 age-matched controls. Systolic WSS was calculated from this data, and an ensemble-average and standard deviation (SD) WSS map of the controls was created. Regions of the individual WSS maps of the BAV patients that showed a higher WSS than the mean+1.96SD of the ensemble-average control WSS map were highlighted. Elevated WSS was found on the greater ascending aorta (35% ± 15 of the surface area), which correlated significantly with peak systolic velocity (R2=0.5, P=0.01) and showed good agreement with the resected aortic regions. This novel approach to characterize regional aortic WSS may allow clinicians to gain unique insights regarding the heterogeneous expression of aortopathy and may be leveraged to guide patient-specific resection strategies for aorta repair. PMID:25118671

  14. Characterization of abnormal wall shear stress using 4D flow MRI in human bicuspid aortopathy.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, Maria; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S Chris; Fedak, Paul W M; McCarthy, Patrick M; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J

    2015-06-01

    There exists considerable controversy surrounding the timing and extent of aortic resection for patients with BAV disease. Since abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is potentially associated with tissue remodeling in BAV-related aortopathy, we propose a methodology that creates patient-specific 'heat maps' of abnormal WSS, based on 4D flow MRI. The heat maps were created by detecting outlier measurements from a volumetric 3D map of ensemble-averaged WSS in healthy controls. 4D flow MRI was performed in 13 BAV patients, referred for aortic resection and 10 age-matched controls. Systolic WSS was calculated from this data, and an ensemble-average and standard deviation (SD) WSS map of the controls was created. Regions of the individual WSS maps of the BAV patients that showed a higher WSS than the mean + 1.96SD of the ensemble-average control WSS map were highlighted. Elevated WSS was found on the greater ascending aorta (35% ± 15 of the surface area), which correlated significantly with peak systolic velocity (R (2) = 0.5, p = 0.01) and showed good agreement with the resected aortic regions. This novel approach to characterize regional aortic WSS may allow clinicians to gain unique insights regarding the heterogeneous expression of aortopathy and may be leveraged to guide patient-specific resection strategies for aorta repair. PMID:25118671

  15. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  16. [MRI findings in the diagnosis of pseudotumoral humeral hydatid].

    PubMed

    Khadraoui, M B; Arifa-Achour, N; Mhiri-Souei, M; Elouni, F; Jemni, H; Mrad-Dali, K; Mokni, M; Ben Ayeche, M A; Tlili-Graiess, K

    2005-06-01

    Hydatidosis of bone is rare. Vertebral localizations predominate. Standard imaging may be misleading, suggestive of a malignant tumor or infection. We present the case of a patient with a humeral hydatid. This localization is very rare and presents an unusual radiographic aspect. Computed tomography produces an image suggestive of a tumor. The correct diagnosis can be established with MRI, particularly with the STIR sequence. In our patient, MRI enabled us to establish the diagnosis preoperatively and evaluate extension. MRI has been found to be highly contributive to the diagnosis of hydatidosis of bone and for assessment of intra- and peri-osseous extension.

  17. Abnormal Subcortical Components of the Corticostriatal System in Young Adults with DLI: A Combined Structural MRI and DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Language Impairment (DLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 12% to 14% of the school-age children in the United States. While substantial studies have shown a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic difficulty in individuals with DLI, very little is known about the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this disorder. In the current study, we examined the subcortical components of the corticostriatal system in young adults with DLI, including the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus, and the thalamus. Additionally, the four cerebral lobes and the hippocampus were also comprised for an exploratory analysis. We used conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure regional brain volumes, as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess water diffusion anisotropy as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA). Two groups of participants, one with DLI (n=12) and the other without ( n=12), were recruited from a prior behavioral study, and all were matched on age, gender, and handedness. Volumetric analyses revealed region-specific abnormalities in individuals with DLI, showing pathological enlargement bilaterally in the putamen and the nucleus accumbens, and unilaterally in the right globus pallidus after the intracranial volumes were controlled. Regarding the DTI findings, the DLI group showed decreased FA values in the globus pallidus and the thalamus but these significant differences disappeared after controlling for the whole-brain FA value, indicating that microstructural abnormality is diffuse and affects other regions of the brain. Taken together, these results suggest region-specific corticostriatal abnormalities in DLI at the macrostructural level, but corticostriatal abnormalities at the microstructural level may be a part of a diffuse pattern of brain development. Future work is suggested to investigate the relationship between corticostriatal connectivity and individual differences in

  18. POTENTIAL OF MRI FINDINGS TO REFINE CASE DEFINITION FOR MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Endean, Alison; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2011-01-01

    Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis Objective To assess how confidently LBP can be attributed to abnormalities on MRI, and thereby explore the potential value of MRI abnormalities in refining case definition for mechanical low back pain (LBP) in epidemiological research. Summary of background data Most epidemiological studies of mechanical LBP have defined cases only by reported symptoms, but it is possible that the potency of causes differs according to whether or not there is demonstrable underlying spinal pathology. Methods We reviewed the published literature on MRI abnormalities, looking for data on the repeatability of their assessment, their prevalence in people free from LBP, and their association with LBP. Where data were sufficient, we calculated a summary estimate of prevalence in people without LBP and a meta-estimate of the odds ratio for the association with LBP. A formula was then applied to estimate the corresponding prevalence rate ratio (PRR), assuming three possible prevalence rates for LBP in the general population. Results Data were most extensive for disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and high intensity zone (HIZ), all of which could be assessed repeatably. All were associated with LBP, meta-estimates of odds ratios ranging from 2.3 (nerve root displacement/compression) to 3.6 (disc protrusion). However, even for disc protrusion, estimates of the corresponding PRRs were mostly less than two. Conclusion MRI findings of disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and HIZ are all associated with LBP, but individually, none of these abnormalities provides a strong indication that LBP is attributable to underlying pathology. This limits their value in refining epidemiological case definitions for LBP. PMID:20739918

  19. Automatic computer aided detection of abnormalities in multi-parametric prostate MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G. J. S.; Vos, P. C.; Barentsz, J. O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Development of CAD systems for detection of prostate cancer has been a recent topic of research. A multi-stage computer aided detection scheme is proposed to help reduce perception and oversight errors in multi-parametric prostate cancer screening MRI. In addition, important features for development of computer aided detection systems for prostate cancer screening MRI are identified. A fast, robust prostate segmentation routine is used to segment the prostate, based on coupled appearance and anatomy models. Subsequently a voxel classification is performed using a support vector machine to compute an abnormality likelihood map of the prostate. This classification step is based on quantitative voxel features like the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pharmacokinetic parameters. Local maxima in the likelihood map are found using a local maxima detector, after which regions around the local maxima are segmented. Region features are computed to represent statistical properties of the voxel features within the regions. Region classification is performed using these features, which results in a likelihood of abnormality per region. Performance was validated using a 188 patient dataset in a leave-one-patient-out manner. Ground truth was annotated by two expert radiologists. The results were evaluated using FROC analysis. The FROC curves show that inclusion of ADC and pharmacokinetic parameter features increases the performance of an automatic detection system. In addition it shows the potential of such an automated system in aiding radiologists diagnosing prostate MR, obtaining a sensitivity of respectively 74.7% and 83.4% at 7 and 9 false positives per patient.

  20. MRI in multiple myeloma: a pictorial review of diagnostic and post-treatment findings.

    PubMed

    Dutoit, Julie C; Verstraete, Koenraad L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnostic work-up of patients with multiple myeloma. Since 2014, MRI findings are included in the new diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Patients with smouldering myeloma presenting with more than one unequivocal focal lesion in the bone marrow on MRI are considered having symptomatic myeloma requiring treatment, regardless of the presence of lytic bone lesions. However, bone marrow evaluation with MRI offers more than only morphological information regarding the detection of focal lesions in patients with MM. The overall performance of MRI is enhanced by applying dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted imaging sequences, providing additional functional information on bone marrow vascularization and cellularity.This pictorial review provides an overview of the most important imaging findings in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and multiple myeloma, by performing a 'total' MRI investigation with implications for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment. Main message • Conventional MRI diagnoses multiple myeloma by assessing the infiltration pattern. • Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI diagnoses multiple myeloma by assessing vascularization and perfusion. • Diffusion weighted imaging evaluates bone marrow composition and cellularity in multiple myeloma. • Combined morphological and functional MRI provides optimal bone marrow assessment for staging. • Combined morphological and functional MRI is of considerable value in treatment follow-up. PMID:27164915

  1. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to subcapsular renal hematoma: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Balci, N C; Sirvanci, M; Tüfek, I; Onat, L; Duran, C

    2001-10-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a rare intraabdominal bleeding. In this report we present a case of a nontraumatic retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous subcapsular renal hematoma. A 54-year-old patient who was under warfarin therapy, developed subcapsular right renal hematoma. Subcapsular and retroperitoneal hemorrhage were low signal on T1- and T2-weighted images consistent with acute stage of blood. The source of subcapsular hematoma was shown to be the rupture of hemorrhagic renal cyst on MRI. Extension of hemorrhage into the retroperitoneal space anterior to right psoas muscle was also successfully shown on MRI. Patient underwent nephrectomy and retroperitoneal blood was evacuated.

  2. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  3. Soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal: Subject review of CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chakeres, D.W.; Kapila, A.; LaMasters, D.

    1985-07-01

    The authors review the normal anatomy and discuss characteristic findings of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal (EAC). The indications for computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone have been significantly expanded with the inclusion of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external ear and the auditory canal. CT scans of 25 patients who had soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC were reviewed. The clinical data were correlated with the radiographic findings. They conclude that CT is the best overall radiographic modality for evaluating the extent and character of soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC. Significant clinical information that is helpful in patient management decisions is added by this technique.

  4. Abnormal Activation of the Social Brain Network in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Young; Choi, Uk-Su; Park, Sung-Yeon; Oh, Se-Hong; Yoon, Hyo-Woon; Koh, Yun-Joo; Im, Woo-Young; Park, Jee-In; Song, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal findings of social brain network in Korean children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to examine brain activations during the processing of emotional faces (happy, fearful, and neutral) in 17 children with ASD, 24 TDC. Results When emotional face stimuli were given to children with ASD, various areas of the social brain relevant to social cognition showed reduced activation. Specifically, ASD children exhibited less activation in the right amygdala (AMY), right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than TDC group when fearful faces were shown. Activation of left insular cortex and right IFG in response to happy faces was less in the ASD group. Similar findings were also found in left superior insular gyrus and right insula in case of neutral stimulation. Conclusion These findings suggest that children with ASD have different processing of social and emotional experience at the neural level. In other words, the deficit of social cognition in ASD could be explained by the deterioration of the capacity for visual analysis of emotional faces, the subsequent inner imitation through mirror neuron system (MNS), and the ability to transmit it to the limbic system and to process the transmitted emotion. PMID:25670944

  5. MRI of the athletic knee. Findings in asymptomatic professional basketball and collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M C; Flower, S P; Evancho, A M; Allman, F L; Apple, D F; Fajman, W A

    1989-01-01

    For the dedicated athlete in whom minor injuries are frequent and major injuries relatively common, a noninvasive knee assessment could either obviate the need for arthroscopy or focus its direction. The opportunity to study asymptomatic athletes was not feasible before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this preliminary work, we examined 40 knees in 20 asymptomatic volunteer athletes, including five professional basketball players and 15 collegiate football players. Images were obtained at 0.5 T or 1.5 T. Spin echo sequences were used to obtain 5.0 mm thick coronal and sagittal sections. Fifty percent of asymptomatic athletes (10/20) had significant baseline MRI abnormalities that could have adversely affected scan interpretation in the context of an acute injury. Half of these athletes with MRI abnormalities, or 25% of the total (5/20), had no previous surgery and were unaware of significant injury.

  6. Normal versus Abnormal Genital Findings in Children: How Well Do Examiners Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Wells, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Preselected colposcopic photographs of the anogenital area of 16 patients were shown to 170 medical examiners, who rated their level of suggestion or indication of penetrating injury. Agreement between the participants and experts was higher on the abnormal cases than on the normal cases, and higher on genital findings than on anal findings.…

  7. Visual outcome in children with congenital hemiplegia: correlation with MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, E; Spanò, M; Bruccini, G; Frisone, M F; Trombetta, J C; Blandino, A; Longo, M; Guzzetta, F

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen children with congenital hemiplegia were studied with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision (linear acuity, stereopsis, visual fields) and MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a congenital lesion on visual function. The results showed a very high incidence (78%) of children who had abnormal results on at least one of the visual tests. Visual abnormalities were not correlated with the clinical severity of hemiplegia or with a specific pattern of lesion on MRI. Similarly no constant association could be found between visual structures (optic radiations and primary visual cortex) and visual function. Finally, our results would suggest that all the children with congenital hemiplegia need to be investigated irrespective of the clinical severity or of the type or the extent of the lesion. This would help to identify children with minor visual abnormalities which can affect everyday life performance. PMID:8892366

  8. Clinical and MRI findings in spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.

    PubMed

    Stevanin, G; Herman, A; Brice, A; Dürr, A

    1999-10-12

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), one of the genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, was assigned to chromosome 11 in a single family descending from the grandparents of President Abraham Lincoln. We report a second, apparently unrelated, SCA5 family of French origin. The overall clinical picture was a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome beginning mostly in the third decade (27+/-10 years, range 14 to 40). MRI showed a marked global cerebellar atrophy similar to SCA6.

  9. Time to follow up after an abnormal finding in organized gastric cancer screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognosis for an abnormal medical finding is affected by both early detection and adherence to the presecribed schedule for follow-up examinations. In this study, we examined the time to follow up after an abnormal finding and determined the risk factors related to delays in follow up in a population-based screening program. Methods The study population consisted of patients who were newly diagnosed with gastric cancer through a gastric cancer screening program sponsored by the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2005. Due to the skewed nature of the distribution of time to follow up, medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) are presented, and we analyzed the number of days preceding the follow-up time as a binary variable (≤90 days or >90 days). We used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the risk factors for a long delay. Results The median number of days to follow-up initiation after an abnormal finding was 11 (IQR 7–27); 13.9% of the patients with gastric cancer obtained their follow-up evaluation more than 90 days. Age, type of health insurance, screening method, and screening results were risk factors for delays in follow up. Conclusions This study examined delays from the time of the discovery of an abnormal finding to time of the follow-up evaluation. Because inadequate follow up of abnormal exam results undermines the potential benefits of cancer screening, it is important to organize services that minimize delays between cancer screening and treatment. PMID:22963347

  10. Abnormal GABAergic Function and Face Processing in Schizophrenia: A Pharmacologic-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Ivy F.; Fang, Yu; Phan, K. Luan; Welsh, Robert C.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli (“Do you like this face?”). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3 weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26363970

  11. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26363970

  12. A prospective study on MRI findings and prognostic factors in athletes with MTSS.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Schmikli, S L; Weir, A; Steeneken, V; Stapper, G; de Slegte, R; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2014-02-01

    In medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) bone marrow and periosteal edema of the tibia on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently reported. The relationship between these MRI findings and recovery has not been previously studied. This prospective study describes MRI findings of 52 athletes with MTSS. Baseline characteristics were recorded and recovery was related to these parameters and MRI findings to examine for prognostic factors. Results showed that 43.5% of the symptomatic legs showed bone marrow or periosteal edema. Absence of periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI was associated with longer recovery (P = 0.033 and P = 0.013). A clinical scoring system for sports activity (SARS score) was significantly higher in the presence of bone marrow edema (P = 0.027). When clinical scoring systems (SARS score and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale) were combined in a model, time to recovery could be predicted substantially (explaining 54% of variance, P = 0.006). In conclusion, in athletes with MTSS, bone marrow or periosteal edema is seen on MRI in 43,5% of the symptomatic legs. Furthermore, periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI and clinical scoring systems are prognostic factors. Future studies should focus on MRI findings in symptomatic MTSS and compare these with a matched control group.

  13. Cardiac Metastasis from Invasive Thymoma Via the Superior Vena Cava: Cardiac MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dursun, Memduh Sarvar, Sadik; Cekrezi, Bledi; Kaba, Erkan; Bakir, Baris; Toker, Alper

    2008-07-15

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and metastatic deposits are more common than primary cardiac tumors. We present cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 50-year-old woman with invasive thymoma. Cardiac MRI revealed a heterogeneous, lobulated anterior mediastinal mass invading the superior vena cava and extending to the right atrium. In cine images there was no invasion to the right atrial wall.

  14. 3–5 BI-RADs Microcalcifications: Correlation between MRI and Histological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Pistolese, Chiara Adriana; Perretta, Tommaso; Cossu, Elsa; Arganini, Chiara; Salimbeni, Claudia; Scarano, Angela Lia; Arduini, Silvia; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the correlation between MRI and histopathological findings in patients with mammographically detected 3–5 BI-RAD (Breast Imaging Reporting And Data Systems) microcalcifications and to allow a better surgical planning. Materials and Method. 62 female Patients (age 50 ± 12) with screening detected 3–5 BI-RAD microcalcifications underwent dynamic 3 T contrast-enhanced breast MRI. After 30-day (range 24–36 days) period, 55 Patients underwent biopsy using stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), 5 Patients underwent stereotactic mammographically guided biopsy, and 2 Patients underwent MRI-guided VAB. Results. Microhistology examination demonstrated 36 malignant lesions and 26 benign lesions. The analysis of MRI findings identified 8 cases of MRI BI-RADS 5, 23 cases of MRI BI-RADS 4, 11 cases of MRI BI-RADS 3, 4 cases type A and 7 cases type B, and 20 cases of MRI BI-RADS 1-2. MRI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 88.8%, 76.9%, 84.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. PMID:22084735

  15. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  16. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Via, Esther; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Davey, Christopher G.; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2) and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN. PMID:26197051

  17. Multiple nodular lesions in spleen associated with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report of MRI-findings.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guoqun; Yang, Guangzhao; Cheng, Yougen; Zee, Chi S; Huang, Wenmin; Ni, Weiyang; Meng, Guanmin; Chen, Zhilu

    2014-12-01

    The spleen is one of the most commonly involved organs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, there were few reports about imaging findings of splenic leishmaniasis, especially regarding MRI findings. This case report describes a 45 years old male patient from Zhejiang province of southeastern China, who was admitted for persistent fever of unknown origin, with splenomegaly and multiple hypodense/low echo nodules on CT/ultrasonography (USG) studies. MRI showed multiple nodules with concentric rings in the spleen on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), with no obvious diffusion restriction on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and gradual ring-like enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast medium. So MRI suggested necrotic granulomatous lesion. By reviewing the clinical history and following positive serological leishmania antibody test, the patient was finally confirmed a recent infection with VL. The patient received antimony gluconate therapy intravenously. At 4 months follow-up, the contrast-enhanced abdominal MRI showed that the size of the spleen was returned to normal and the splenic lesions were completely resolved except for reduced infarction compared with the previous MRI. This is the first case which was performed MRI examination completely. Meanwhile, it is the second case which MRI findings were reported. As for the characteristics of MRI in this case, there are several features, which are helpful for giving the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of VL.

  18. A case study of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis with PET/MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Day, Brian K.; Eisenman, Lawrence; Black, Joseph; Maccotta, Luigi; Hogan, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the significance of inflammation and autoantibodies in epilepsy, and the use of immunotherapies in certain situations has become an established practice. Temporal lobe epilepsy can follow paraneoplastic or nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies directed against brain antigens. Here, we focus on a patient with worsening confusion and temporal lobe seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic medications. Serial brain MRIs did not conclusively reveal structural abnormalities, so the patient underwent brain PET/MRI to simultaneously evaluate brain structure and function, revealing bitemporal abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis based on clinical presentation, imaging findings, and antibody testing. Treatment included the addition of a second antiepileptic agent and oral steroids. His seizures and cognitive deficits improved and stabilized. PMID:26106579

  19. Gray Matter Alterations in Schizophrenia High-Risk Youth and Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Review of Structural MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on structural MRI findings in pediatric and young adult populations at clinical or genetic high-risk for schizophrenia, as well as in early-onset schizophrenia. The authors discuss the implications of this research for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and for early intervention strategies for prevention of the illness. The evidence linking brain structural changes in pre-psychosis development and early-onset schizophrenia with disruptions of normal neurodevelopmental processes during childhood and/or adolescence are described. In addition, the authors outline future directions for research to address current knowledge gaps regarding the neurobiological basis of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and to help improve the utility of these abnormalities for preventative interventions. PMID:24012081

  20. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion.

  1. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion. PMID:26353878

  2. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lv; Zhaohui, Liu; Fei, Yan; Ting, Li; Pengfei, Zhao; Wang, Du; Cheng, Dong; Pengde, Guo; Xiaoyi, Han; Xiao, Wang; Rui, Li; Zhenchang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n = 42) and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n = 42) to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF) of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients. PMID:24872895

  3. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  4. [Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of gastric cancer: X-ray versus MRI anatomic findings].

    PubMed

    Portnoĭ, L M; Denisova, L B; Stashuk, G A; Nefedova, V O

    2000-01-01

    The paper assesses the present-day role of MRI in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The authors consider the major prerequisites for the main aim of their study to be: 1) a dramatic incidence of diffuse (endophytic) gastric carcinoma, which requires significant correction of today's approaches to its diagnosis and 2) a rather biased and, in the authors' opinion, present-day mainly negative attitude towards MRI of the stomach as a diagnostic method for its tumor lesions. By applying the X-ray-MRI anatomic principle to the comparative study of MRI findings in 50 patients with predominantly gastric intramural carcinoma and in 25 patients without gastric tumors (controls), the authors present their methods for gastric MRI, the MRI semiotics of gastric cancer by concurrently touching upon a variety of problems that characterize the potentialities of MRI of the stomach in the diagnosis of its tumor lesions, including their differential diagnosis. As a result, the authors highly appreciate gastric MRI and consider this method to be included into the diagnostic algorithm of radiation techniques used in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, which should occupy its definite diagnostic place.

  5. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. PMID:25597047

  6. False-positive Extra-Mammary Findings in Breast MRI: Another Cause for Concern.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shilpa A; Freyvogel, Mary; Dietz, Jill; Valente, Stephanie; O'Rourke, Colin; Grobmyer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been repeatedly shown to have a high false-positive rate for additional findings in the breast resulting in additional breast imaging and biopsies. We hypothesize that breast MRI is also associated with a high rate of false-positive findings outside of the breast requiring additional evaluation, interventions, and delays in treatment. We performed a retrospective review of all breast MRIs performed on breast cancer patients in 2010 at a single institution. MRI reports were analyzed for extra-mammary findings. The timing and yield of the additional procedures was also analyzed. Three hundred and twenty-seven breast cancer patients (average age = 53.53 ± 11.08 years) had a breast MRI. Incidental, extra-mammary findings were reported in 35/327 patients (10.7%) with a total of 38 incidental findings. The extra-mammary findings were located in the liver (n = 21, 60.0%), thoracic cavity (n = 12, 34.3%), kidneys (n = 1, 2.9%), musculoskeletal system (n = 3, 8.6%), and neck (n = 1, 2.9%). Eighteen of the 35 patients (51.4%) received additional radiographic imaging, 3 (8.6%) received additional laboratory testing, 2 (5.7%) received additional physician referrals and 2 (5.7%) received a biopsy of the finding. The average time to additional procedures in these patients was 14.5 days. None of the incidental, extra-mammary findings were associated with breast cancer or other malignancy. Breast MRI was associated with a high rate (10.7%) of extra-mammary findings, which led to costly additional imaging studies, referrals, and tests. These findings were not associated with breast cancer or other malignancies. Extra-mammary findings highlight an unrecognized adverse consequence of breast MRI.

  7. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  8. Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical significance of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LLSCS), found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through correlating the imaging findings with patient symptoms, walking capacity and electromyography (EMG) measurements. Method 102 patients with symptoms of LSS referred for operative treatment were studied in this uncontrolled study. Of these patients, subjects with distinct only lateral LSS were included. Accordingly, 140 roots in 14 patients (mean age 58, range 48-76 years, male 43%) were evaluated. In MR images the entrance and mid zones of the lateral lumbar nerve root canal were graded as normal, narrowed but not compressed, or compressed. In quantitative analysis, the minimal widths of the lateral recess and mid zone area were measured. Clinical symptoms were recorded with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), specific low back pain (LBP; NRS-11), specific leg pain (LP NRS-11), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and walking distance in the treadmill test. Lumbar paraspinal (L2- L5) and lower limb (L3 – S1) needle EMG studies were performed. The findings were classified root by root as 1 = normal, 2 = abnormal. The associations between radiological, EMG and clinical findings were tested with each other. Results EMG findings were normal in 92 roots and abnormal in 48 roots. All of the patients had at least one abnormal nerve root finding. Severity of the mid zone stenosis in MRI correlated with abnormal EMG findings (p = 0.015). Patients with abnormal EMG had also higher scores in the VAS (41.9 ± 25.7 vs 31.5 ± 18.1; p = 0.018), NRS leg pain (7.5 ± 1.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.000) and BDI (9.8 ± 3.8 vs 8.0 ± 3.9; p = 0.014). However, no statistically significant correlations between MRI findings and clinical symptoms or walking capacity were found. Conclusions Among persons previously selected for surgery, lateral stenosis seen on MRI correlates with EMG, and thus may be a clinically

  9. Fetal diastematomyelia associated with vertebral malformation: ultrasound, MRI, and pathomorphological findings.

    PubMed

    Korostyshevskaya, Aleksandra; Makogon, Arkadiy; Savelov, Andrey; Avdeeva, Darya; Tulupov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Using a specific clinical example, we demonstrate the ability of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose associated spine and spinal cord malformations in the group of spinal dysraphisms. Thus, the original ultrasound (US) and MRI results for the affected fetus at week 21 are illustrated and described in detail. The paucity of reports of prenatal MR-semiotic findings of split cord malformation comparing US and pathomorphological findings at a relatively early gestational age makes the present case unique and instructive. The outstanding capability of MRI to diagnose spinal pathologies indicates the necessity of including prenatal MRI in the diagnostic algorithm to determine the severity of the lesions and the appropriate management during pregnancy, childbirth, and the early postnatal period. PMID:26576982

  10. Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the associations between knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography (CR) and by high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biomechanical factors and findings from physical examination in patients with knee OA. Methods This was an explorative cross-sectional study of 105 patients with knee OA. Index knees were imaged using CR and MRI. Multiple features from CR and MRI (cartilage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, effusion and synovitis) were related to biomechanical factors (quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, proprioceptive accuracy and varus-valgus laxity) and physical examination findings (bony tenderness, crepitus, bony enlargement and palpable warmth), using multivariable regression analyses. Results Quadriceps weakness was associated with cartilage integrity, effusion, synovitis (all detected by MRI) and CR-detected joint space narrowing. Knee joint laxity was associated with MRI-detected cartilage integrity, CR-detected joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation. Multiple tissue abnormalities including cartilage integrity, osteophytes and effusion, but only those detected by MRI, were found to be associated with physical examination findings such as crepitus. Conclusion We observed clinically relevant findings, including a significant association between quadriceps weakness and both effusion and synovitis, detected by MRI. Inflammation was detected in over one-third of the participants, emphasizing the inflammatory component of OA and a possible important role for anti-inflammatory therapies in knee OA. In general, OA-related tissue abnormalities of the knee, even those detected by MRI, were found to be discordant with biomechanical and physical examination features. PMID:23039323

  11. Incidental findings of pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bondemark, Lars; Jeppsson, Malin; Lindh-Ingildsen, Lina; Rangne, Klara

    2006-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs, in combination with a clinical examination, are routinely used as an aid to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and location of incidental findings of pathology and abnormalities in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. A total of 496 patients (232 girls and 264 boys; mean age 11.2 years, SD 2.33) were randomly selected from the Orthodontic Clinic at the Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. All radiographic examinations were performed between 1999 and 2003 at the Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. Two independent examiners analyzed the radiographs for abnormalities and diagnoses of pathology. However, caries and findings related to the orthodontic treatment plan, such as eruption disturbances and missing or supernumerary teeth, were not recorded. All radiographs with positive findings were reexamined by a third examiner, a specialist registrar in oral radiology. A total of 56 findings in 43 patients (8.7%) were recorded, and significantly more findings were detected in girls (P = .007). The most common findings were radiopacities (idiopathic sclerosis) in alveolar bone (n = 22), thickening of mucosal lining in sinus maxillaris (n = 15), and periapical inflammatory lesions (n = 10). The majority of the periapical lesions and radiopacities were found in the mandible. In most cases, the findings had no consequence for the orthodontic treatment plan and did not require medical or odontological management. However, the clinician should be aware of the potential to detect pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. PMID:16448276

  12. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  13. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tate, D F; York, G E; Reid, M W; Cooper, D B; Jones, L; Robin, D A; Kennedy, J E; Lewis, J

    2014-03-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  14. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia: correlation with the severity of their motor abnormality.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K; Horie, M; Inukai, K; Kito, H; Shimabukuro, S; Kodama, K

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patients. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severe motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. PMID:2774092

  15. Interictal Electroencephalography (EEG) Findings in Children with Epilepsy and Bilateral Brain Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Zubcevic, Smail; Milos, Maja; Catibusic, Feriha; Uzicanin, Sajra; Krdzalic, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroimaging procedures and electroencephalography (EEG) are basic parts of investigation of patients with epilepsies. Aim: The aim is to try to assess relationship between bilaterally localized brain lesions found in routine management of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and their interictal EEG findings. Patients and methods: Total amount of 68 patients filled criteria for inclusion in the study that was performed at Neuropediatrics Department, Pediatric Hospital, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, or its outpatient clinic. There were 33 girls (48,5%) and 35 boys (51,5%). Average age at diagnosis of epilepsy was 3,5 years. Results: Both neurological and neuropsychological examination in the moment of making diagnosis of epilepsy was normal in 27 (39,7%) patients, and showed some kind of delay or other neurological finding in 41 (60,3%). Brain MRI showed lesions that can be related to antenatal or perinatal events in most of the patients (ventricular dilation in 30,9%, delayed myelination and post-hypoxic changes in 27,9%). More than half of patients (55,9%) showed bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges on their EEGs, and further 14,7% had other kinds of bilateral abnormalities. Frequency of bilateral epileptic discharges showed statistically significant predominance on level of p<0,05. Cross tabulation between specific types of bilateral brain MRI lesions and EEG finding did not reveal significant type of EEG for assessed brain lesions. Conclusion: We conclude that there exists relationship between bilaterally localized brain MRI lesions and interictal bilateral epileptiform or nonspecific EEG findings in children with newly diagnosed epilepsies. These data are suggesting that in cases when they do not correlate there is a need for further investigation of seizure etiology. PMID:26862242

  16. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  17. [Three siblings with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis--pathophysiology of dystonia and MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Uyama, E; Terasaki, T; Owada, M; Naito, M; Araki, S

    1990-08-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a rare neurovisceral storage disease caused by an inherited deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase. The characteristic neurological feature of type 3 (adult or chronic) GM1-gangliosidosis is usually a slowly progressive dystonia with dysarthria due to predominant involvement of basal ganglia. About 20 adult patients with this disorder have been reported in the literature. However, there are no reports of 3 brothers with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis, and MRI findings. Case 1 (proband): A 28-year-old man was hospitalized because of facial grimace, dysarthria, and generalized dystonia. He was born after normal pregnancy and delivery. His development was normal until 3 years of age when the difficulties of speaking and walking were noticed by his parents. These neurological abnormalities progressed slowly and facial grimace and dystonic movements occurred 7 years later. He could not walk at 22 years of age. On admission, he was bedridden with marked scoliosis and subluxation of the mandibule. The communication was possible only by pointing the words written on the board. Case 2: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1, showed the similar neurological features and clinical course. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal opacities which were located in the deep stroma. Case 3: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1 or case 2. At age 10-11, he noted similar symptoms as case 1 or case 2. The severity of dystonia was milder than his brothers. A diagnosis of GM1-gangliosidosis in three patients was made on the basis of the following data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  19. The prevalence of positive imaging findings on MRI scans ordered by chiropractic versus medical providers

    PubMed Central

    Morries, Larry; Yochum, Terry; Barry, Michael; Slizeski, John; Freuden, Donald; Danielson, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if there is a greater yield of pathological findings identified on MRI scans of patients referred by chiropractors as compared to those referred by allopathic providers. Methods MRI reports authored by medical radiologists from two independent MRI centers in the Denver metropolitan area were analyzed retrospectively for pathological data related to the spinal regions studied. A pathological report data sheet was used to record pathological findings in 22 different categories. A total of 150 reports from each provider group were reviewed. Results Of the 22 pathological conditions studied, a statistically significant difference between doctor of chiropractic and medical doctor referrers was identified in 4 categories: central spinal canal stenosis, lateral stenosis, facet arthrosis, and negative report. The most common primary diagnoses given for MRI referral were low back pain/sciatica, neck pain, and extremity pain. Seventy-four percent of the reports evaluated were performed on patients referred with a diagnosis of pain. In 3 of the 22 categories (14%), the medical doctors had a statistically higher pathological yield than the chiropractors. However, in 4 of the 22 categories (18%), the chiropractors had a statistically higher pathological yield. In 18 of the 22 categories (82%), there was no statistical difference between the two provider groups. Conclusion The data presented in this study suggests chiropractic and medical providers are compeer at ordering MRI for suspected pathological findings. PMID:19674677

  20. Role of Percutaneous Image Guided Biopsy in Spinal Lesions: Adequacy and Correlation with MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although, MRI has increased our understanding of spinal pathologies, accurate diagnosis of spinal lesions need biopsy, so that early treatment can be initiated. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of biopsy, safety and yield of percutaneously done image guided spinal biopsy using a large bore needle and correlate between MRI findings and biopsy as well as the importance of various MRI findings in establishing the diagnosis. Materials and Methods All spinal lesions after clinical and MRI evaluation were subjected to Jamshidi Needle biopsy using 11 gauge needles. Biopsy material was sent for culture/sensitivity, AFB smear and histopathological examination. The outcome assessment included percentage of patients in whom diagnosis was changed after biopsy, yield in biopsy and complications of biopsy. MRI findings, biopsy findings and final diagnosis were correlated to know the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and biopsy diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the importance of each of MRI findings in making a diagnosis. Results Forty five patients with spinal lesions underwent biopsy using an 11 gauge Jamshidi needle. Initial biopsy was inconclusive in 4 patients giving a positive yield in about 91.2% of cases and a repeat biopsy ensured conclusive report in all cases. Following biopsy there was a change in diagnosis in 8% cases. MRI showed sensitivity of 85.71% and specificity of 93.54% for the diagnosis of malignancy and sensitivity of 85.71% and specificity of 86.48% for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. In contrast, initial biopsy had sensitivity of 92.85% and specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of malignancy and sensitivity of 71.42% and specificity of 100 % for the diagnosis of infection. Logistic regression analysis showed good correlation between malignancy and posterior bugle in the vertebral body in the absence of a fracture (p = 0.007), involvement of pedicles and posterior elements (p = 0.001) and soft tissue extension (p = 0

  1. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  2. Interventions to Improve Follow-Up of Abnormal Findings in Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Yabroff, K. Robin; Myers, Ronald E.; Glenn, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The potential reduction in morbidity and mortality through cancer screening cannot be realized without receipt of appropriate follow-up care for abnormalities identified via screening. In this paper, the authors critically examine the existing literature on correlates of receipt of appropriate follow-up care for screen-detected abnormalities, as well as the literature on interventions designed to increase rates of receipt of follow-up care. Lessons learned describe what is known and not known about factors that are related to or predict receipt of follow-up care. Similarly, effective interventions to increase follow-up are described and gaps identified. A conceptual model is developed that categorizes the health care system in the United States as comprising four levels: policy, practice, provider, and patient. Some patient-level factors that influence follow-up receipt are identified, but the lack of data severely limit the understanding of provider, practice, and policy-level correlates. The majority of intervention studies to increase follow-up receipt have focused on patient-level factors and have targeted follow-up of abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Insufficient information is available regarding the effectiveness of provider, practice, or policy-level interventions. Standard definitions of what constitutes appropriate follow-up are lacking, which severely limit comparability of findings across studies. The validity of various methods of obtaining outcome data has not been clearly established. More research is needed on interventions targeting provider, system, and policy-level factors, particularly interventions focusing on follow-up of colorectal and breast abnormalities. Standardization of definitions and measures is needed to facilitate comparisons across studies. PMID:15316914

  3. Detailed shoulder MRI findings in manual wheelchair users with shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Melissa M B; Van Straaten, Meegan G; Murthy, Naveen S; Braman, Jonathan P; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities. PMID:25180192

  4. Clinical and MRI findings of cerebellar agenesis in two living adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa; Kalaycı, Tuğçe Özlem; Çelebisoy, Mehmet; Karakaş, Levent; Akkurt, Hülya Erdoğan; Koç, Feray

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar agenesis (CA) is an extremely rare entity. We present two adult patients with CA. The 61-year-old man had ataxia, dysarthria, abnormalities in cerebellar tests, severe cognitive impairment, and moderate mental retardation. The 26-year-old woman had dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria as well as mild cognitive impairment and mild mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete absence of the cerebellum with small residual vermis. Brainstem was hypoplastic and structures above tentorium were normal. Supratentorial white matter bundles were unaffected in diffusion tensor tractography. Only few adult patients with CA have so far been published. These cases show that patients with CA present with a variety of developmental, clinical, and mental abnormalities; and emphasize the role of the cerebellum in normal motor, language, and mental development. PMID:27293341

  5. The Diagnostic Value of MRI in Brucella Spondylitis With Comparison to Clinical and Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Ali Baradaran; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Chokan, Niaz Mohamad Jafari; Abbasi, Bita; Akhavan, Reza; Bolvardi, Ehsan; Soroureddin, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease, especially in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions and can involve many organs and tissue. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication. Spondylitis is its most prevalent clinical form in adults, and there may be difficult in diagnosis and treatment. In present study, we aimed to assess these diagnostic value of MRI, in patients with spondylitis due to brucella, comparing with clinical and laboratory findings. Method: Patients with low back pain who were admitted to Sheikhol-raees MRI center were included in this study. None of these patients had any documented infectious disease. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made, based on MRI findings, which would be approved by serology. After confirmation with serology, the group with positive serology were compared with the negative group, in sex, age, MRI findings level of vertebral involvements, signal intensity in T1 weighted and T2 weighted. Results: Among 53 patients with diagnosis of brucella spondylitis, 33 underwent serology study, 20 were positive and 13 were negative and the others consider out of study. From these 20, 3 had tuberculosis spondylitis, whose mean age was 56 and the 67% of them were male. Mean age in the positive brucella spondylitis were 46 and 67% of them were male. In negative group mean age was 55, and of whom 57% were male. There was no statistically significant difference in MRI findings such as changes in signal intensity, disk space narrowing, Intracanalicular mass, Abscess formation. Level of invlovment in vertebrae. Conclusion: The results of this study shows that although MRI is Modality of choice in diagnosis of spondylitis, it is not enough specific to diagnosis the reasons of spondylitis. PMID:27147801

  6. Breast MRI Findings of Radiation Associated Angiosarcoma of the Breast (RAS)

    PubMed Central

    Chikarmane, Sona A.; Gombos, Eva C.; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Raut, Chandrajit; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the breast MRI characteristics of radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas (RAS). Materials and Methods In this institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective study, fifty-six (57) women were diagnosed with pathology confirmed RAS during the study period (January 1999 - May 2013). Seventeen women underwent pre-treatment breast MRI (prior to surgical resection or chemotherapy), of which 16 studies were available for review. Imaging features of these tumors were evaluated by two radiologists and correlated with clinical management and outcomes. Results Median age of patients at original breast cancer diagnosis was 69.3 years (range 42-84 years), with average time from initial radiation therapy to diagnosis of RAS of 7.3 years (range 5.1 – 9.5 years). Nine women had mammogram (9/16, 56%) and five had breast ultrasound (US) (5/16, 31%) prior to MRI, which demonstrated expected, non-suspicious findings of skin thickening in over half the cases. Four patients had distinct intraparenchymal masses on US, mammogram, and MRI. MRI findings included diffuse T2 high signal skin thickening (16/16, 100%). Nearly half (7/16, 44%) of patients had T2 low signal intensity lesions; all lesions rapidly enhanced on post-contrast T1 weighted imaging. All women underwent surgical resection, with 8/16 (50%) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four women died during the study period. Conclusion Clinical, mammographic and sonographic findings of RAS are non-specific and may be occult on conventional breast imaging; MRI findings of RAS include rapidly enhancing dermal and intraparenchymal lesions, some of which are low signal on T2 weighted imaging. PMID:25504856

  7. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients. PMID:25919300

  8. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  9. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  10. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  11. Serial MRI and neurobehavioural findings after mild to moderate closed head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; Williams, D H; Eisenberg, H M; High, W M; Guinto, F C

    1992-01-01

    Fifty patients who sustained mild to moderate closed head injury (CHI) underwent a CT scan, MRI, and neurobehavioural testing. At baseline 40 patients had intracranial hyperintensities detected by MRI which predominated in the frontal and temporal regions, whereas 10 patients had lesions detected by CT. Neurobehavioural data obtained during the first admission to hospital disclosed no distinctive pattern in subgroups of patients characterised by lesions confined to the frontal, temporal, or frontotemporal regions, whereas all three groups exhibited pervasive deficits in relation to normal control subjects. The size of extraparenchymal lesion was significantly related to the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, whereas this relation was not present in parenchymal lesions. One and three month follow up MRI findings showed substantial resolution of lesion while neuropsychological data reflected impressive recovery. The follow up data disclosed a trend from pervasive deficits to more specific impairments which were inconsistently related to the site of brain lesion. These results corroborate and extend previous findings, indicating that intracranial lesions detected by MRI are present in most patients hospitalised after mild to moderate CHI. Individual differences in the relation between site of lesion and the pattern of neuropsychological findings, which persist over one to three months after mild to moderate CHI, remain unexplained. Images PMID:1583509

  12. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, M; Taşar, M; Bulakbaşi, N; Tayfun, C; Somuncu, I

    1998-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. PMID:9683695

  13. MRI and motor evoked potential findings in nondisabled multiple sclerosis patients with and without symptoms of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Colombo, B; Martinelli Boneschi, F; Rossi, P; Rovaris, M; Maderna, L; Filippi, M; Comi, G

    2000-07-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) even in the early phases of the disease, when neurological disability is usually still not present. To investigate the pathophysiology of fatigue we compared neurophysiological (motor evoked potentials of the four limbs, MEPs) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two groups of nondisabled MS patients, those with (n=15) and those without (n=15) fatigue. Fatigue was assessed by an interview and scored by the Fatigue Severity Scale. The two groups were matched for sex, age, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, pyramidal Functional System (FS) score, and depression score. MEPs were abnormal in five patients with fatigue and in one patient without fatigue. A significant association was found between the patient scores on the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the burden of MRI lesions (r=0.5; P< 0.005). Significantly higher parietal lobe (P< 0.05), internal capsule (P< 0.05), and periventricular trigone (P< 0.05) lesion loads were found in patients with fatigue than in those without. Our results agree with a central nervous system origin of fatigue in MS patients. This symptom might be a consequence either of a functional deafferentation of the cortex due to cortico-subcortical interconnection damage or of a demyelination in critical sites of the CNS, such as the cortico-spinal tract. PMID:10993490

  14. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: enamel abnormalities and oral clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Ilaria; Nucci, Cesare; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Alkhamis, Nadia; Marchionni, Silvia; Piana, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a genetic disorder related to alterations in bones and teeth formation, due to low levels of phosphate in blood. Oral findings in XLH have been enamel and dentine abnormalities, high pulp horns, large pulp chambers, and some cases of periapical abscesses related to teeth without caries or traumatic injuries. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of enamel alterations, such as microclefts and/or structure defects in patients with XLH and give guidelines of prevention of XLH dental complications. History taking, oral clinical and radiological examination in 10 young patients affected by XLH (average age of 9) and in 6 patients without XLH (average age of 8). Impressions were performed on the vestibular surfaces of teeth in order to obtain replicas. The replicas were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared to replicas of control group. The images of replicas of XLH patients showed deep microclefts and irregular enamel surface structure compared to replicas of control group. The replica of a patient with spontaneous periapical abscesses showed numerous enamel crater-shaped depressions and deep microcleavages penetrating into the enamel thickness. In absence of caries or fractures, the abscesses pathogenesis may be related to microcleavages of the enamel and dentin, which allow bacterial invasion of the pulp. There could be a relationship between XLH disease and enamel abnormalities. PMID:24677288

  15. THE MRI FINDINGS OF IRIS METASTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akça, Zeki; Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Öztürk, Mustafa; Taşdemir, Mustafa; Kubilay Yazıcıoğlu, Alper; Kaplan, Bünyamin; Uçar, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common tumors that metastasize to iris. The metastasis of iris was generally diagnosed on ophthalmologic examination. In this case, we reported iris metastasis of patients with adenocarcinoma of breast cancer and MRI findings. We report a case of a 51-year-old. She was diagnosed breast cancer two years ago. After adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and trastuzumab, she was admitted to hospital with the complaints of headache on February 2012. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) revealed multiple brain metastasis. Whole brain radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy were applied to the patients. In follow-up, on ophthalmological examination, there was a solid lesion on iris. The orbital MRI was performed and it revealed the thickness on iris of left eye. After diagnostic procedure final pathological rewiev reported that invasive ductal carcinom metastasis. Iris metastasis may be considered by MRI findings following: The thickness on iris and contrast enhanced lesion. This reason may be resulted that the fine niddle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of iris metastasis is not need. PMID:23378695

  16. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-11-15

    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  17. Polymicrogyric Cortex may Predispose to Seizures via Abnormal Network Topology: An fMRI Connectomics Study.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Moksh; Pedersen, Mangor; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-03-01

    Polymicrogyria is a significant malformation of cortical development with a high incidence of epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Graph theoretic analysis is a useful approach to studying network organization in brain disorders. In this study, we used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from four patients with polymicrogyria and refractory epilepsy. Gray matter masks from structural MRI data were parcellated into 1,024 network nodes. Functional "connectomes" were obtained based on fMRI time series between the parcellated network nodes; network analysis was conducted using clustering coefficient, path length, node degree, and participation coefficient. These graph metrics were compared between nodes within polymicrogyric cortex and normal brain tissue in contralateral homologous cortical regions. Polymicrogyric nodes showed significantly increased clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. This is the first study using functional connectivity analysis in polymicrogyria--our results indicate a shift toward a regular network topology in polymicrogyric nodes. Regularized network topology has been demonstrated previously in patients with focal epilepsy and during focal seizures. Thus, we postulate that these network alterations predispose to seizures and may be relevant to cognitive deficits in patients with polymicrogyria.

  18. Polymicrogyric Cortex may Predispose to Seizures via Abnormal Network Topology: An fMRI Connectomics Study.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Moksh; Pedersen, Mangor; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-03-01

    Polymicrogyria is a significant malformation of cortical development with a high incidence of epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Graph theoretic analysis is a useful approach to studying network organization in brain disorders. In this study, we used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from four patients with polymicrogyria and refractory epilepsy. Gray matter masks from structural MRI data were parcellated into 1,024 network nodes. Functional "connectomes" were obtained based on fMRI time series between the parcellated network nodes; network analysis was conducted using clustering coefficient, path length, node degree, and participation coefficient. These graph metrics were compared between nodes within polymicrogyric cortex and normal brain tissue in contralateral homologous cortical regions. Polymicrogyric nodes showed significantly increased clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. This is the first study using functional connectivity analysis in polymicrogyria--our results indicate a shift toward a regular network topology in polymicrogyric nodes. Regularized network topology has been demonstrated previously in patients with focal epilepsy and during focal seizures. Thus, we postulate that these network alterations predispose to seizures and may be relevant to cognitive deficits in patients with polymicrogyria. PMID:26763051

  19. Thickening of the optic nerves in metachromatic leucodystrophy: A new MRI finding.

    PubMed

    Roi, Dylan; Mankad, Kshitij; Kaliakatsos, Marios; Cleary, Maureen; Manzur, Adnan; D'Arco, Felice

    2016-04-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are both lysosomal storage disorders that share some common MRI features. Amongst the imaging findings useful to distinguish one from the other, optic chiasm/nerves thickening have been described as specific key features for differential diagnosis favouring KD. We report the first case of enlargement of the optic nerves and chiasm described in a patient with genetically confirmed MLD.

  20. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks.

  1. Correlation of MRI findings to histology of acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aliza T; Ou, Xiawei; James, Laura P; Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; McCullough, Sandra; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Borrelli, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is responsible for approximately half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States. The mouse model of APAP toxicity is widely used to examine mechanisms of APAP toxicity. Noninvasive approaches would allow for serial measurements in a single animal to study the effects of experimental interventions on the development and resolution of hepatocellular necrosis. The following study examined the time course of hepatic necrosis using small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the administration of 200 mg/kg ip APAP given to B6C3F1 male mice. Mice treated with saline served as controls (CON). Other mice received treatment with the clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC). Mouse liver pathology was characterized using T1- and T2-weighted sequences at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h following APAP administration. Standard assays for APAP toxicity [serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver sections] were examined relative to MRI findings. Overall, T2 sequences had a greater sensitivity for necrosis and hemorrhage than T1 (FLASH) images. Liver injury severity scoring of MR images demonstrated increased scores in the APAP mice at 4, 8 and 24 h compared to the CON mice. APAP+NAC mice had MRI scores similar to the CON mice. Semiquantitative analysis of hepatic hemorrhage strongly correlated with serum ALT. Small animal MRI can be used to monitor the evolution of APAP toxicity over time and to evaluate the response to therapy.

  2. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks. PMID:27656202

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANGIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Malay; Dhavale, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in psychiatric and primary care practice and a frequent reason for extensive diagnostic work-up. Despite extensive investigations no recognizable medical cause to account for these symptoms is detected in many patients with chest pain. Studies of patients with non-cardiac chest pain have revealed that many continue to report symptoms and disability despite medical reassurances. The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality profile and stressors along with functional impairment in patients with chest pain and normal angiographic findings and compare the same with patients who have chest pain but abnormal angiographic findings and a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The study included 30 consecutive patients in each group. The scales used were SCID-I of DSM-III-R, 16-PF, semi structured questionnaire for assessment of type A behaviour, PSLES and GAF scale of DSM-III-R. Panic disorder and depression were highly prevalent in patients with atypical chest pain. These patients had lower prevalence of type A behaviour, a unique 16-PF profile, experienced more stresses at any given point in time and significant impairment in day-day and in socio-occupational functioning. PMID:21430803

  4. Multimodal functional cardiac MRI in creatine kinase-deficient mice reveals subtle abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Streif, Jörg U; Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ritter, Oliver; Sosnovik, David; Bauer, Lisa; Neubauer, Stefan; Jakob, Peter M; Ertl, Georg; Spindler, Matthias; Bauer, Wolfgang R

    2006-06-01

    A decrease in the supply of ATP from the creatine kinase (CK) system is thought to contribute to the evolution of heart failure. However, previous studies on mice with a combined knockout of the mitochondrial and cytosolic CK (CK(-/-)) have not revealed overt left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to employ novel MRI techniques to measure maximal myocardial velocity (V(max)) and myocardial perfusion and thus determine whether abnormalities in the myocardial phenotype existed in CK(-/-) mice, both at baseline and 4 wk after myocardial infarction (MI). As a result, myocardial hypertrophy was seen in all CK(-/-) mice, but ejection fraction (EF) remained normal. V(max), however, was significantly reduced in the CK(-/-) mice [wild-type, 2.32 +/- 0.09 vs. CK(-/-), 1.43 +/- 0.16 cm/s, P < 0.05; and wild-type MI, 1.53 +/- 0.11 vs. CK(-/-) MI, 1.26 +/- 0.11 cm/s, P = not significant (NS), P < 0.05 vs. baseline]. Myocardial perfusion was also lower in the CK(-/-) mice (wild-type, 6.68 +/- 0.27 vs. CK(-/-), 4.12 +/- 0.63 ml/g.min, P < 0.05; and wild-type MI, 3.97 +/- 0.65 vs. CK(-/-) MI, 3.71 +/- 0.57 ml/g.min, P = NS, P < 0.05 vs. baseline), paralleled by a significantly reduced capillary density (histology). In conclusion, myocardial function in transgenic mice may appear normal when only gross indexes of performance such as EF are assessed. However, the use of a combination of novel MRI techniques to measure myocardial perfusion and mechanics allowed the abnormalities in the CK(-/-) phenotype to be detected. The myocardium in CK-deficient mice is characterized by reduced perfusion and reduced maximal contraction velocity, suggesting that the myocardial hypertrophy seen in these mice cannot fully compensate for the absence of the CK system.

  5. Functional brain abnormalities localized in 55 chronic tinnitus patients: fusion of SPECT coincidence imaging and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaee, Mohammad; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Ghasemikian, Khosro; Gholami, Saeid; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Beyty, Saeid; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Madani, Sedighe; Bakaev, Valery; Moradkhani, Seddighe; Raeisali, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Tinnitus is often defined as the perception of sounds or noise in the absence of any external auditory stimuli. The pathophysiology of subjective idiopathic tinnitus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional brain activities and possible involved cerebral areas in subjective idiopathic tinnitus patients by means of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) coincidence imaging, which was fused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this cross-sectional study, 56 patients (1 subject excluded) with subjective tinnitus and 8 healthy controls were enrolled. After intravenous injection of 5 mCi F18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), all subjects underwent a brain SPECT coincidence scan, which was then superimposed on their MRIs. In the eight regions of interest (middle temporal, inferotemporal, medial temporal, lateral temporal, temporoparietal, frontal, frontoparietal, and parietal areas), the more pronounced values were represented in medial temporal, inferotemporal, and temporoparietal areas, which showed more important proportion of associative auditory cortices in functional attributions of tinnitus than primary auditory cortex. Brain coincidence SPECT scan, when fused on MRI is a valuable technique in the assessment of patients with tinnitus and could show the significant role of different regions of central nervous system in functional attributions of tinnitus. PMID:20068582

  6. Functional brain abnormalities localized in 55 chronic tinnitus patients: fusion of SPECT coincidence imaging and MRI.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaee, Mohammad; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Ghasemikian, Khosro; Gholami, Saeid; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Beyty, Saeid; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Madani, Sedighe; Bakaev, Valery; Moradkhani, Seddighe; Raeisali, Gholamreza

    2010-04-01

    Tinnitus is often defined as the perception of sounds or noise in the absence of any external auditory stimuli. The pathophysiology of subjective idiopathic tinnitus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional brain activities and possible involved cerebral areas in subjective idiopathic tinnitus patients by means of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) coincidence imaging, which was fused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this cross-sectional study, 56 patients (1 subject excluded) with subjective tinnitus and 8 healthy controls were enrolled. After intravenous injection of 5 mCi F18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), all subjects underwent a brain SPECT coincidence scan, which was then superimposed on their MRIs. In the eight regions of interest (middle temporal, inferotemporal, medial temporal, lateral temporal, temporoparietal, frontal, frontoparietal, and parietal areas), the more pronounced values were represented in medial temporal, inferotemporal, and temporoparietal areas, which showed more important proportion of associative auditory cortices in functional attributions of tinnitus than primary auditory cortex. Brain coincidence SPECT scan, when fused on MRI is a valuable technique in the assessment of patients with tinnitus and could show the significant role of different regions of central nervous system in functional attributions of tinnitus.

  7. A CAD system for assessment of MRI findings to track the progression of multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alexis; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zee, Chi-Shing; Guo, Bing; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways. MRI has become the medical imaging study of choice both for the diagnosis and for the follow-up and monitoring of multiple sclerosis. The progression of the disease is variable, and requires routine follow-up to document disease exacerbation, improvement, or stability of the characteristic MS lesions or plaques. The difficulties with using MRI as a monitoring tool are the significant quantities of time needed by the radiologist to actually measure the size of the lesions, and the poor reproducibility of these manual measurements. A CAD system for automatic image analysis improves clinical efficiency and standardizes the lesion measurements. Multiple sclerosis is a disease well suited for automated analysis. The segmentation algorithm devised classifies normal and abnormal brain structures and measures the volume of multiple sclerosis lesions using fuzzy c-means clustering with incorporated spatial (sFCM) information. First, an intracranial structures mask in T1 image data is localized and then superimposed in FLAIR image data. Next, MS lesions are identified by sFCM and quantified within a predefined volume. The initial validation process confirms a satisfactory comparison of automatic segmentation to manual outline by a neuroradiologist and the results will be presented.

  8. Unique Functional Abnormalities in Youth with Combined Marijuana Use and Depression: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kristen A.; Wammes, Michael; Neufeld, Richard W.; Mitchell, Derek; Théberge, Jean; Williamson, Peter; Osuch, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ) use and depression; however, this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants [healthy controls (HC), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), frequent MJ users, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD + MJ)]. For each participant, a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale), and each completed two 6-min fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent pre-processing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD + MJ). Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an analysis of covariance with two factors (group × music type) and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest [MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score]. We identified a significant group × music type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed that the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD + MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ, or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward processing in ways that are absent with either frequent MJ use or MDD alone. This could help inform

  9. [MRI findings in iliotibial band friction syndrome: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Isusi, M; Oleaga, L; Campo, M; Grande, D

    2007-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two males clinically diagnosed with iliotibial band friction syndrome (IBFS), a frequent cause of pain in the lateral compartment of the knee. Coronal T2-weighted images with fat saturation show an ill-defined area of high signal intensity in the soft tissues situated immediately below the iliotibial band lateral to the external condyle of the femur. No thickening of the iliotibial band or changes in its signal intensity were observed. Osseous edema and subchondral osseous erosion in the external condyle of the femur were observed in both cases. Pain in the lateral compartment of the knee might be due to multiple causes that should be included in the differential diagnosis and MRI can play a significant role in reaching the definitive diagnosis.

  10. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  11. Correlation Between Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Disorders and MRI Characteristics of Disc Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers. It is important for the maxillofacial radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its advanced and irreversible phase which is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further the MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms. Henceforth, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether MRI findings of various degrees of disk displacement could be correlated with the presence or absence of clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 44 patients (88 TMJs) were examined clinically and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of TMDs either unilaterally or bilaterally and considered as study group. Group 2 consisted of 22 patients with no signs and symptoms of TMDs and considered as control group. MRI was done for both the TMJs of each patient. Displacement of the posterior band of articular disc in relation to the condyle was quantified as anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR), posterior disc displacement (PDD). Results : Disk displacement was found in 18 (81.8%) patients of 22 symptomatic subjects in Group 1

  12. Thiamine deficiency in a cat: resolution of MRI abnormalities following thiamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Palus, Viktor; Penderis, Jacques; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto

    2010-10-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B(1)) is an essential component of a number of metabolic pathways and thiamine deficiency results in a progressive encephalopathy in both humans and animals. Confirming thiamine deficiency is problematic and relies on demonstrating reduced red blood cells transketolase activity, or indirect methods including urinary organic acid analysis and dietary analysis. The characteristic and selective vulnerability of different brain regions in carnivores has been demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dog and cat as an aid to diagnosis. A 2-year-old, female, domestic shorthair cat was presented with an acute onset of seizures and ataxia. MR imaging was consistent with thiamine deficiency and supplementation resulted in a progressive clinical improvement. Repeated MR imaging 4 days after starting thiamine supplementation revealed near complete resolution of the MR abnormalities. Repeated MR imaging following appropriate therapy may be useful to further confirm thiamine deficiency.

  13. Extraspinal Incidental Findings on Routine MRI of Lumbar Spine: Prevalence and Reporting Rates in 1278 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çaglı, Bekir; Tekataş, Aslan; Kırıcı, Mehmet Yadigar; Ünlü, Ercüment; Gençhellaç, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. Results A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Conclusion Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports. PMID:26175587

  14. Deep grey matter MRI abnormalities and cognitive function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Debernard, Laëtitia; Melzer, Tracy R; Alla, Sridhar; Eagle, Jane; Van Stockum, Saskia; Graham, Charlotte; Osborne, Jonathan R; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Miller, David H; Mason, Deborah F

    2015-12-30

    Although deep grey matter (GM) involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well documented, in-vivo multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and association with detailed cognitive measures are limited. We investigated volumetric, diffusion and perfusion metrics in thalamus, hippocampus, putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidum, and neuropsychological measures, spanning 4 cognitive domains, in 60 relapsing-remitting MS patients (RRMS) (mean disease duration of 5.1 years, median EDSS of 1.5) and 30 healthy controls. There was significantly reduced volume of thalamus, hippocampus and putamen in the RRMS patients, but no diffusion or perfusion changes in these structures. Decreased volume in these deep GM volumes in RRMS patients was associated with a modest reduction in cognitive performance, particularly information processing speed, consistent with a subtle disruption of distributed networks, that subserve cognition, in these patients. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the influence of deep GM changes on the evolution of cognitive deficits in MS. PMID:26602610

  15. Quantitative MRI Demonstrates Abnormality of the Fornix and Cingulum in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Syc, Stephanie B.; Harrison, Daniel M.; Saidha, Shiv; Seigo, Michaela; Calabresi, Peter A.; Reich, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To characterize MR signal changes associated with tissue damage in the fornix and cingulum in multiple sclerosis (MS) using quantitative MRI measures and to determine associations with cognitive dysfunction. Background. The fornix and cingulum are white-matter bundles that carry information related to cognition. While cognitive dysfunction is reported in 40–60% of MS patients, the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive impairment remain incompletely understood. Methods. The cingulum, pillars of the fornix, and corticospinal tract were segmented by fiber tracking via diffusion tensor imaging. Average tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were compared in MS cases and healthy volunteers. Associations with clinical measures and neuropsychological tests were derived by multivariate linear regression. Results. Fornix FA (P = 0.004) and MTR (P = 0.005) were decreased, and fornix MD (P < 0.001) and cingulum MD (P < 0.001) increased, in MS cases (n = 101) relative to healthy volunteers (n = 16) after adjustment for age and sex. Lower fornix FA and MTR, and higher fornix MD and λ||, were correlated with lower PASAT-3 scores, but not with slower 25FTW times. Lower PASAT-3 scores were associated with lower cingulum FA and higher MD and λ⊥. Conclusions. Cognitive dysfunction in MS may involve damage to a widespread network of brain structures, including white-matter pathways within the limbic system. PMID:23476776

  16. Can MRI Findings Help to Predict Neurological Recovery in Paraplegics With Thoracolumbar Fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonchul; Koh, Seong-Eun; Jung, Heeyoune; Lee, Hye Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the prognosis of neurological recovery in paraplegics with thoracolumbar fracture using association analysis with clinical outcomes and electrodiagnostic features. Methods This retrospective study involved 30 patients treated for paraplegia following thoracolumbar fracture. On axial and sagittal T2-weighted MRI scans, nerve root sedimentation sign, root aggregation sign, and signal intensity changes in the conus medullaris were independently assessed by two raters. A positive sedimentation sign was defined as the absence of nerve root sedimentation. The root aggregation sign was defined as the presence of root aggregation in at least one axial MRI scan. Clinical outcomes including the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale, ambulatory capacity, and electrodiagnostic features were used for association analysis. Results Inter-rater reliability of the nerve root sedimentation sign and the root aggregation sign were κ=0.67 (p=0.001) and κ=0.78 (p<0.001), respectively. A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity after a rehabilitation program (χ2=4.854, p=0.028). The presence of the root aggregation sign was associated with reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude of common peroneal and tibial nerves in nerve conduction studies (χ2=5.026, p=0.025). Conclusion A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity and not indicative of persistent paralysis. The root aggregation sign suggested the existence of significant cauda equina injuries. PMID:26798606

  17. Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

    2014-07-01

    Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

  18. Incidental optochiasmatic cavernoma: Case report of an unusual finding on 3 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Trentadue, Mirko; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Piovan, Enrico; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    Cavernoma is a vascular hamartoma, which represents 10-20% of all central nervous system vascular malformations. The majority (80%) of them are supratentorial, while involvement of the cranial nerves and the optic pathways is extremely rare. The main clinical presentation of optochiasmatic cavernomas consists of chiasmatic apoplexy, which is a neurosurgical emergency. Here, we report a case in which the finding was incidentally detected in a 49-year-old man. We describe the imaging characteristics of the lesion in such a rare location, highlighting the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (specifically 3 Tesla) in the management of asymptomatic patients.

  19. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  20. [MRI findings and effectiveness of cyproheptadine in two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Nara, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    We reported the MRI findings and clinical course of two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine. Both patients presented with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. Contrast enhanced MR imaging revealed unilateral enhancement and thickening of the oculomotor nerve in one patient. Prednisolone was effective in both patients, but only could transiently. On the other hand, cyproheptadine hydrochloride could completely prevent recurrent attacks of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Thus, MR imaging with of contrast enhancement is useful in the diagnosis of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Cyproheptadine hydrochloride is better than prednisolone to prevention recurrent attacks and to avoid adverse effects.

  1. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Coeli, Regina Ramos; Rocha, Maria Angela; Sobral da Silva, Paula; Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Maria; van der Linden, Ana; Cesario de Holanda, Arthur; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. Design Retrospective study with a case series. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Types of abnormalities and the radiological pattern of lesions identified on CT and MRI brain scans. Results Six of the 23 children tested positive for IgM antibodies to Zika virus in cerebrospinal fluid. The other 17 children met the protocol criteria for congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus, even without being tested for IgM antibodies to the virus—the test was not yet available on a routine basis. Of the 23 children, 15 underwent CT, seven underwent both CT and MRI, and one underwent MRI. Of the 22 children who underwent CT, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, 21 (95%) had malformations of cortical development, 20 (91%) had a decreased brain volume, 19 (86%) had ventriculomegaly, and 11 (50%) had hypoplasia of the cerebellum or brainstem. Of the eight children who underwent MRI, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, malformations of cortical development occurring predominantly in the frontal lobes, and ventriculomegaly. Seven of the eight (88%) children had enlarged cisterna magna, seven (88%) delayed myelination, and six each (75%) a moderate to severe decrease in brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (38% hypogenesis and 38% hypoplasia). Malformations were symmetrical in 75% of the cases. Conclusion Severe cerebral damage was

  2. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient analysis of encephalitis: A comparative study with topographic evaluation and conventional MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Katirag, Ahmet; Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Unlu, Ebru; Demirbas, Hayri; Demirturk, Nese

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to reveal the efficiency of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of encephalitis, and to determine the relation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, the onset of the clinical symptoms, and the lesion extent. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 17 patients with encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of laboratory, clinical and radiologic findings during 2009 and 2015. Based on the duration between the onset of the symptoms and the brain MRI findings, the patients were divided into three groups. ADC values of the encephalitis lesion, the lesions’ topographic analysis score, deep gray matter involvement, patients’ clinical situation and the duration of the arrival to the clinic was examined. Results: Mean ADC values were 0,988±0,335 x10-3 mm2/s in group I (0-2 days), 1,045±0,347 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-II (3-7 days), 1,451±0,225 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-III (8 days and over). The relation between the ADC values and the duration of the arrival, topographic analysis score, the relation between the patients’ clinical situation and the deep gray matter involvement were found to be statistically significant. The deep gray matter involvement was demonstrated more clearly by FLAIR images when compared with DWI. Conclusion: Conventional MRI sequences may be insufficient in showing the encephalitis lesion. DWI must be added to the imaging modalities immediately in the cases suspected of having encephalitis. PMID:27375722

  3. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis.

  4. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  5. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  6. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    MRI does not use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions rarely ...

  7. Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Poh, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2(nd) and/or 3(rd) carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2(nd) carpometacarpal (metacarpal-trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss.

  8. Severe hypermagnesemia presenting with abnormal electrocardiographic findings similar to those of hyperkalemia in a child undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Jhang, Won Kyoung; Lee, Yoon Jung; Kim, Young A; Park, Seong Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a pediatric case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia resulting from the use of magnesium oxide as a laxative in a child undergoing continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. The patient showed abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) findings, such as tall T waves, a widened QRS complex, and irregular conduction, which were initially misdiagnosed as hyperkalemia; later, the correct diagnosis of hypermagnesemia was obtained. Emergent hemodialysis successfully returned the serum magnesium concentration to normal without complications. When abnormal ECG changes are detected in patients with renal failure, hypermagnesemia should be considered. PMID:23908672

  9. Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A Methodology to Detect Abnormal Relative Wall Shear Stress on the Full Surface of the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Allen, Bradley D.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compute cohort-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) maps in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic dilatation or valvular stenosis and to detect abnormal regional WSS. Methods Systolic WSS vectors, estimated from 4D flow MRI data, were calculated along the thoracic aorta lumen in 10 controls, 10 patients with dilated aortas and 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis. 3D segmentations of each aorta were co-registered by group and used to create a cohort-specific aortic geometry. The WSS vectors of each subject were interpolated onto the corresponding cohort-specific geometry to create cohort-averaged WSS maps. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to generate aortic P-value maps (P<0.05) representing regional relative WSS differences between groups. Results Cohort-averaged systolic WSS maps and P-value maps were successfully created for all cohorts and comparisons. The dilation cohort showed significantly lower WSS on 7% of the ascending aorta surface, whereas the stenosis cohort showed significantly higher WSS aorta on 34% the ascending aorta surface. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrated the feasibility of generating cohort-averaged WSS maps for the visualization and identification of regionally altered WSS in the presence of disease, as compared to healthy controls. PMID:24753241

  11. Non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart: CT angiography findings.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ersin; Kafadar, Cahit; Tutar, Süleyman; Bozlar, Uğur; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is most commonly performed for the evaluation of the coronary arteries; however, non-coronary cardiac pathologies are frequently detected on these scans. In cases where magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used, cardiac CT can serve as the first-line imaging modality to evaluate many non-coronary cardiac pathologies. In this article, we discuss congenital non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart and their cardiac CT imaging features. PMID:27609435

  12. Why Do Some Find it Hard to Disagree? An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez D, Juan F.; Taing, Sreyneth A.; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people's level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that activity across a network of brain areas [comprising posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus] was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low) had no effect on behavior or brain activity. PMID:26858629

  13. Early MRI and intraoperative findings in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is still unclear. Also, there have been only few reports on the initial stage of the disease. We report a case of an initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA, documented by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings. Presentation of case A 77-year-old woman reported left hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Initial radiographs showed no obvious abnormality. After 4 months of conservative therapy, radiographs showed progressive joint-space narrowing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a bone-marrow edema pattern not only on the femoral head but also on the lateral side of the acetabulum. Then during total hip arthroplasty, we found extensive inversion of the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum, and the location was mostly consistent with the bone-marrow edema lesions in the femoral head and acetabulum. Discussion Several theories for the etiology of rapidly destructive hip OA have been proposed, including idiopathic chondrolysis, abnormal immunoreaction, intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and subchondral insufficiency fracture. One of the reasons rapidly destructive hip OA is still considered idiopathic is the lack of reports regarding the initial stage of the disease. Our report is the first to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging for initial-stage disease with intraoperative findings before collapse of the femoral head. Conclusion Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be a mechanism of rapidly destructive hip OA. PMID:25603485

  14. Exome sequencing reveals a novel WDR45 frameshift mutation and inherited POLR3A heterozygous variants in a female with a complex phenotype and mixed brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Naffaa, Lena

    2015-08-01

    WDR45 and POLR3A are newly recognized genes; each is associated with a distinct neurodegenerative disease. WDR45 is an X-linked gene associated with a dominant form of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), manifested by progressive disabilities, dystonia, cognitive decline, spastic paraplegia, neuropsychiatric abnormalities and iron deposition in the basal ganglia on brain imaging. POLR3A, on the other hand, is an autosomal gene, and its mutations cause a recessive form of a hypomyelination with leukodystrophy disease, also known as 4H syndrome, characterized by congenital Hypomyelination with thinning of the corpus callosum, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism. We report on a female child with severe intellectual disability, aphasia, short stature, ataxia, failure to thrive and structural brain abnormalities. Brain MRI obtained in late infancy showed hypomyelination involving the central periventricular white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum with no evidence of iron accumulation. Brain MRI obtained in childhood showed stable hypomyelination, with progressive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia, in particular in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) identified a novel WDR45 frameshift deleterious mutation in Exon 9 (c.587-588del) and also revealed three POLR3A missense heterozygous variants. The first is a maternally inherited novel missense variant in exon 4 (c.346A > G). Exon 13 carried two heterozygous missense variants, a maternally inherited variant (c.1724A > T) and a paternally inherited variant (1745G > A). These variants are considered likely damaging. The patient's complex clinical phenotype and mixed brain MRI findings might be attributed to the confounding effects of the expression of these two mutant genes.

  15. A solitary fibrous tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space, with MRI and FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Murono, Shigeyuki; Minato, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2009-06-01

    We present the imaging and pathological features of a 38-year-old man in whom a large parapharyngeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) on the left side was found. On MRI, the tumor showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance. The inner nodule revealed high signal intensities both on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The entire tumor showed heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) identified heterogeneous radiotracer uptake of FDG in the inner nodule of the tumor. Histologic examinations revealed an admixture of growth patterns, including a "patternless pattern" and "haemangiopericytoma-like pattern". The tumor was positive for CD34. Imaging features of SFT arising in the parapharyngeal space are discussed with a review of literatures. This is the first report of FDG-PET finding of SFT arising in the head and neck. More cases are needed to achieve diagnostic significance from FDG-PET findings of parapharyngeal SFTs.

  16. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lischinsky, Julieta E.; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10–12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  17. Systematic comparison of MRI findings in pediatric ependymoblastoma with ependymoma and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor not otherwise specified

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Johannes; Seidel, Carolin; Pietsch, Torsten; Alkonyi, Balint; Fuss, Taylor Laura; Friedrich, Carsten; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Ependymoblastoma (EBL), ependymoma (EP), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system not otherwise specified (CNS-PNET NOS) are pediatric brain tumors that can be differentiated by histopathology in the clinical setting. Recently, we described specific MRI features of EBL. In this study, we compare standardized MRI characteristics of EBL with EP and CNS-PNET NOS in a series comprising 22 patients in each group. Methods All 66 centrally reviewed cases were obtained from the database of the German multicenter HIT trials. We systematically analyzed the initial MRI scans at diagnosis according to standardized criteria, and paired comparison was performed for EBL and EP, as well as for EBL and CNS-PNET NOS. Results We found differences between EBL and EP regarding age at diagnosis, MR signal intensity, tumor margin and surrounding edema, presence and size of cysts, and contrast enhancement pattern. Although MRI appearance of EBL shares many features with CNS-PNET NOS, we revealed significant differences in terms of age at diagnosis, tumor volume and localization, tumor margins, edema, and contrast enhancement. Conclusion This is the first study that systematically compares multiple parameters of MRI in pediatric EBL with findings in EP and CNS-PNET NOS. Although a definite differentiation by means of MRI alone might not be feasible in the individual case, we identify significant differences between these tumor entities. PMID:25916887

  18. Large national series of patients with Xq28 duplication involving MECP2: Delineation of brain MRI abnormalities in 30 affected patients.

    PubMed

    El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Malan, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne; Nizon, Mathilde; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Pasquier, Laurent; Callier, Patrick; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Marle, Nathalie; Dubourg, Christèle; Julia, Sophie; Sarret, Catherine; Francannet, Christine; Laffargue, Fanny; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; David, Albert; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Leheup, Bruno; Lambert, Laetitia; Philippe, Christophe; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Andrieux, Joris; Plessis, Ghislaine; Toutain, Annick; Goldenberg, Alice; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rio, Marlène; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Thevenon, Julien; Echenne, Bernard; Journel, Hubert; Afenjar, Alexandra; Burglen, Lydie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Addor, Marie-Claude; Lebon, Sébastien; Martinet, Danièle; Baumann, Clarisse; Perrin, Laurence; Drunat, Séverine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Devillard, Françoise; Coutton, Charles; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Philip, Nicole; Moncla, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Perreton, Nathalie; Masurel, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Des Portes, Vincent; Guibaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.

  19. Large national series of patients with Xq28 duplication involving MECP2: Delineation of brain MRI abnormalities in 30 affected patients.

    PubMed

    El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Malan, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne; Nizon, Mathilde; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Pasquier, Laurent; Callier, Patrick; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Marle, Nathalie; Dubourg, Christèle; Julia, Sophie; Sarret, Catherine; Francannet, Christine; Laffargue, Fanny; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; David, Albert; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Leheup, Bruno; Lambert, Laetitia; Philippe, Christophe; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Andrieux, Joris; Plessis, Ghislaine; Toutain, Annick; Goldenberg, Alice; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rio, Marlène; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Thevenon, Julien; Echenne, Bernard; Journel, Hubert; Afenjar, Alexandra; Burglen, Lydie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Addor, Marie-Claude; Lebon, Sébastien; Martinet, Danièle; Baumann, Clarisse; Perrin, Laurence; Drunat, Séverine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Devillard, Françoise; Coutton, Charles; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Philip, Nicole; Moncla, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Perreton, Nathalie; Masurel, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Des Portes, Vincent; Guibaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment. PMID:26420639

  20. Abnormal ERD/ERS but unaffected BOLD response in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease during index extension: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Visani, E; Minati, L; Canafoglia, L; Gilioli, I; Granvillano, A; Varotto, G; Aquino, D; Fazio, P; Bruzzone, M G; Franceschetti, S; Panzica, F

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that Unverricht-Lundborg's disease (ULD), the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy in Europe, is characterized by the involvement of multiple cortical regions in degenerative changes that lead to enhanced excitation and deficient inhibition. We searched for the haemodynamic correlates of these effects using functional MRI (fMRI) of self-paced index extensions, a well-accepted task highlighting significant differences. EEG and fMRI were simultaneously acquired in 11 ULD patients and 16 controls, performing the index extensions individually (event-related task) as well as repetitively (block task). ERD/ERS analysis was performed for the EEG data in the alpha and beta bands. fMRI time-series were analyzed using the traditional general linear model, as well as with an assumption-free approach, and by means of cross-region correlations representing functional connectivity. In line with the existing literature, ULD patients had enhanced desynchronization in the alpha band and reduced post-movement synchronization in the beta band. By contrast, fMRI did not reveal any difference between the two groups; there were no activation intensity, latency or extent effects, no significant engagement of additional regions, and no changes to functional connectivity. We conclude that, so long as the patients are executing a task which does not induce obvious action myoclonus, the hypothesized abnormalities in pyramidal neuron and interneuron dynamics are relatively subtle, embodied in processes which are not metabolically-demanding and take place at a time-scale invisible to fMRI. PMID:21107673

  1. Athletic groin pain (part 1): a prospective anatomical diagnosis of 382 patients—clinical findings, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome measures at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Falvey, É C; King, E; Kinsella, S; Franklyn-Miller, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletic groin pain remains a common field-based team sports time-loss injury. There are few reports of non-surgically managed cohorts with athletic groin pain. Aim To describe clinical presentation/examination, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for an athletic groin pain cohort. Methods All patients had a history including demographics, injury duration, sport played and standardised clinical examination. All patients underwent MRI and PRO score to assess recovery. A clinical diagnosis of the injured anatomical structure was made based on these findings. Statistical assessment of the reliability of accepted standard investigations undertaken in making an anatomical diagnosis was performed. Result 382 consecutive athletic groin pain patients, all male, enrolled. Median time in pain at presentation was (IQR) 36 (16–75) weeks. Most (91%) played field-based ball-sports. Injury to the pubic aponeurosis (PA) 240 (62.8%) was the most common diagnosis. This was followed by injuries to the hip in 81 (21.2%) and adductors in 56 (14.7%) cases. The adductor squeeze test (90° hip flexion) was sensitive (85.4%) but not specific for the pubic aponeurosis and adductor pathology (negative likelihood ratio 1.95). Analysed in series, positive MRI findings and tenderness of the pubic aponeurosis had a 92.8% post-test probability. Conclusions In this largest cohort of patients with athletic groin pain combining clinical and MRI diagnostics there was a 63% prevalence of PA injury. The adductor squeeze test was sensitive for athletic groin pain, but not specific individual pathologies. MRI improved diagnostic post-test probability. No hernia or incipient hernia was diagnosed. Clinical trial registration number NCT02437942. PMID:26626272

  2. ABNORMAL IMAGING FINDINGS OF THE FEMORAL THIRD TROCHANTER IN 20 HORSES.

    PubMed

    Shields, Georgette E; Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Vaughan, Betsy; Wisner, Erik R

    2015-01-01

    Injuries involving the femoral third trochanter are an uncommon but important source of equine lameness; however, clinical localization can be challenging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings in a group of horses with presumed third trochanter injury. Medical records of an equine referral hospital were searched from 2004-2014, and 20 horses met the inclusion criteria. Lesions consistent with third trochanter fracture were identified with ultrasound in 14/20 horses. Onset of lameness was acute (11), insidious (2), or unknown (1). All but one horse was lame at presentation, ranging from Grade 2-4/5. Ultrasound was the primary diagnostic modality in 5/14 horses with fragmentation, while scintigraphic findings of intense (3), moderate (5), and mild (1) increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) prompted ultrasonographic examinations in 9/14 fractured horses. A nondisplaced fracture was suspected in an additional horse with intense IRU and negative ultrasound findings. In the remaining five horses, imaging findings included only mild IRU. Lameness was localized to other regions in these cases. Six of 12 fractured horses with available outcome data were returned to function after a prolonged rehabilitation of 8-18 months. Scintigraphic findings helped to direct focused ultrasound exams in the majority of fracture cases. Horses with evidence of third trochanter fracture had similar clinical characteristics to that reported for pelvic fractures and authors therefore recommend ultrasonographic examination of both regions, especially when scintigraphy is unavailable. Prognosis for return to function in horses of the current study was less favorable than previously reported.

  3. Distribution of Hyperpolarized Xenon in the Brain Following Sensory Stimulation: Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Mary L.; Walvick, Ronn P.; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Yanping; Shah, Niral; Mansour, Joey; Gereige, Jessica; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2011-01-01

    In hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance imaging (HP 129Xe MRI), the inhaled spin-1/2 isotope of xenon gas is used to generate the MR signal. Because hyperpolarized xenon is an MR signal source with properties very different from those generated from water-protons, HP 129Xe MRI may yield structural and functional information not detectable by conventional proton-based MRI methods. Here we demonstrate the differential distribution of HP 129Xe in the cerebral cortex of the rat following a pain stimulus evoked in the animal's forepaw. Areas of higher HP 129Xe signal corresponded to those areas previously demonstrated by conventional functional MRI (fMRI) methods as being activated by a forepaw pain stimulus. The percent increase in HP 129Xe signal over baseline was 13–28%, and was detectable with a single set of pre and post stimulus images. Recent innovations in the production of highly polarized 129Xe should make feasible the emergence of HP 129Xe MRI as a viable adjunct method to conventional MRI for the study of brain function and disease. PMID:21789173

  4. The application of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy and changes on MRI findings in a patient with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Spanos, G; Zounis, M; Natsika, M; May, S

    2013-12-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is an unusual presentation for patients with neck pain. Its diagnosis and management is uncertain. This case report presents an example of a patient with cervical radiculopathy who responded to Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy, and whose MRI findings changed over time. PMID:23127992

  5. Dynamic ultrasound with postural change facilitated the detection of an incisional hernia in a case with negative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Wongsithichai, Patcharaporn; Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Incisional hernias commonly develop after abdominal surgeries with a lower incidence in patients receiving laparoscopy. Diagnosis through a non-surgical approach is usually made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance images (MRI) but both image modalities require patients to be examined in a supine position. We reported a case noticing a mass over her right lower abdomen after a laparoscopic liver segmentectomy with negative findings of hernia on MRI. A hernia sac was found by ultrasound with the patient being standing, highlighting the utility of dynamic ultrasound with postural change in investigation of incisional hernias.

  6. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris.

  7. Analysis of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction according to the combined injury, degenerative change, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Chang, Moon Jong; Yim, Hyun Seok

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze the results of revision ACL reconstruction, and to determine the effects of pre-revision combined injuries, degenerative changes, and post-revision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on clinical results. Forty patients (41 operations) were enrolled in this study. Clinical results and stabilities were evaluated. Radiological results were evaluated using Fairbank scale. For the subgroup analysis, Fairbank scale and preoperative combined injuries were used. Follow-up MRIs were also available for 31(75.6%) patients and we searched for relations between MRI findings and clinical results. Significant improvements in subjective, objective scores (p<0.0001), and stability (p<0.0001) were observed between pre-revision surgery and final follow-up results. In the subgroup analysis according to the degenerative change, the mild group achieved better clinical results than the severe group (p=0.015 and 0.035, respectively). In the subgroup analysis according to the combined injuries, no significant difference was observed between 2 groups in terms of final follow-up Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores (p=0.083 and 0.085, respectively). No relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings (p=0.26~0.99). Our results show that the severities of combined injuries were not correlated with clinical results, but the severities of degenerative changes were correlated with clinical results and that results were better in the no or mildly degenerated group. We also found that MRI is helpful for evaluating revision ACL, but that no relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings of the graft after revision surgery.

  8. Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A voxel-based morphometric and fMRI study of the whole brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Zhu, Qifeng; Gong, Xiangyang; Zhu, Cheng; Wang, Yiquan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-10-15

    The primary aim of this study was to identify structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Another aim was to assess the effect of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on brain structure of OCD patients. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting functional MRI (fMRI). High-resolution three-dimensional images were processed using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The final analysis included 18 OCD patients and 16 healthy controls. In the OCD patients there was a decrease in gray matter volume in the bilateral cingulate cortex and bilateral striatum. In some cortical structures including the cerebellar anterior lobe, left orbital frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus, there was an increase in gray matter volume. On fMRI the OCD patients had overactivation of the right cerebellum and right parietal lobe and reduced activation of the left cingulate gyrus, putamen, and caudate nucleus. Eleven OCD patients who improved during 12 weeks of drug treatment with sertraline hydrochloride had a significant increase in gray matter volume in several brain structures but no significant differences were found on resting fMRI. The results indicated a consistent trend between structural and functional images. Higher cortical structures showed increased gray matter volume and increased activation as did the cerebellum whereas subcortical structures showed decreased gray matter volume and decreased activation. And brain structure improvement consisted with symptom improvement after SSRIs treatment in OCD patients. PMID:27388149

  9. Spectrum of anterior cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kumral, E; Bayulkem, G; Evyapan, D; Yunten, N

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate and review the clinical spectrum of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarction, we studied 48 consecutive patients who admitted to our stroke unit over a 6-year period. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in all patients, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in 21. In our stroke registry, patients with ACA infarction represented 1.3% of 3705 patients with ischemic stroke. The main risk factors of ACA infarcts was hypertension in 58% of patients, diabetes mellitus in 29%, hypercholesterolemia in 25%, cigarette smoking in 19%, atrial fibrillation in 19%, and myocardial infarct in 6%. Presumed causes of ACA infarct were large-artery disease and cardioembolism in 13 patients each, small-artery disease (SAD) in the territory of Heubner's artery in two and atherosclerosis of large-arteries (<50% stenosis) in 16. On clinico-radiologic analysis there were three main clinical patterns depending on lesion side; left-side infarction (30 patients) consisting of mutism, transcortical motor aphasia, and hemiparesis with lower limb predominance; right side infarction (16 patients) accompanied by acute confusional state, motor hemineglect and hemiparesis; bilateral infarction (two patients) presented with akinetic mutism, severe sphincter dysfunction, and dependent functional outcome. Our findings suggest that clinical and etiologic spectrum of ACA infarction may present similar features as that of middle cerebral artery infarction, but frontal dysfunctions and callosal syndromes can help to make a clinical differential diagnosis. Moreover, at the early phase of stroke, DWI is useful imaging method to locate and delineate the boundary of lesion in the territory of ACA.

  10. Pre-critical MRI findings of an Alzheimer's disease patient with pathologically proven cerebral amyloid angiopathy related lobar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Ide, Toshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideo

    2016-05-31

    An 85-year-old woman with untreated hypertension was admitted with a disturbance of consciousness. On admission, brain CT revealed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage with a midline shift. An intracranial hematoma was evacuated via a life-saving craniotomy. Definite pathological findings of amyloid-β deposition in the excised hematoma (strong in anti-amyloid β40 immunostain, but weak in anti- amyloid β42) indicated cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). She had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at a regional memory clinic one month before symptom onset based on MRI findings of medial temporal lobe atrophy as well as CAA-related features of multiple strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds in the occipital lobe, cortical superficial siderosis and >20 enlarged perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale. This experience suggests that comprehensive interpretation of such CAA-related findings on MRI might help to improve the management of cardiovascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27151228

  11. Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Won; Lim, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Won Il; Lee, Eun Kyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Yang, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI. PMID:27103964

  12. Non-Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the General Population: The Incidence of Abnormal Findings in Patients 50 Years Old and Younger Compared to Older Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Maj, Edyta; Kulisiewicz, Piotr; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.; Jakoniuk-Glodala, Karolina; Chlipala-Nitek, Irena; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess and compare the incidence of abnormal findings detected during non-contrast-enhanced whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in the general population in two age groups: (1) 50 years old and younger; and (2) over 50 years old. Materials and Methods The analysis included 666 non-contrast-enhanced WB-MRIs performed on a 1.5-T scanner between December 2009 and June 2013 in a private hospital in 451 patients 50 years old and younger and 215 patients over 50 years old. The following images were obtained: T2-STIR (whole body-coronal plane), T2-STIR (whole spine-sagittal), T2-TSE with fat-saturation (neck and trunk-axial), T2-FLAIR (head-axial), 3D T1-GRE (thorax-coronal, axial), T2-TSE (abdomen-axial), chemical shift (abdomen-axial). Detected abnormalities were classified as: insignificant (type I), potentially significant, requiring medical attention (type II), significant, requiring treatment (type III). Results There were 3375 incidental findings depicted in 659 (98.9%) subjects: 2997 type I lesions (88.8%), 363 type II lesions (10.8%) and 15 type III lesions (0.4%), including malignant or possibly malignant lesions in seven subjects. The most differences in the prevalence of abnormalities on WB-MRI between patients 50 years old and younger and over 50 years old concerned: brain infarction (22.2%, 45.0% respectively), thyroid cysts/nodules (8.7%, 18.8%), pulmonary nodules (5.0%, 16.2%), significant degenerative disease of the spine (23.3%, 44.5%), extra-spinal degenerative disease (22.4%, 61.1%), hepatic steatosis (15.8%, 24.9%), liver cysts/hemangiomas (24%, 34.5%), renal cysts (16.9%, 40.6%), prostate enlargement (5.1% of males, 34.2% of males), uterine fibroids (16.3% of females, 37.9% of females). Conclusions Incidental findings were detected in almost all of the subjects. WB-MRI demonstrated that the prevalence of the vast majority of abnormalities increases with age. PMID:25259581

  13. Evaluation of CT and MRI Findings among Patients Presented with Chief Complaint of Headache in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tina; Jain, Leena; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Roshan, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Headache is one of the most common presenting complaints in day to day medical practice however the secondary causes of headache are uncommon. Thus, appropriate selection of headache patient (Pt) is important to determine those that require neuroimaging due to likely secondary cause. Red flags and Clinical warning criterion (CWC) act as a screening tool to help in identifying those who may get benefit from neuroimaging. Aim To evaluate the findings of computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) among patients presented with the chief complaint of headache and to compare the findings between two groups of patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective observational study was carried out in 500 selected patients, who underwent CT or MRI scan of head in Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bhopal, MP during the period of 2 year in between Jan 2013 to Dec 2014. Siemens Somatom sensation 40 slice MDCT and Siemens magnetom 1.5T MRI scanner were used for imaging. Five hundred patients of 10 to 70 year age were selected for the study based on our criterions of selection. Results All 500 patients were divided in to two groups A and B based on presence or absence of red flag signs and CWC signs. Group A consists of 48 patients having one or more red flag or CWC signs and group B consists of 452 patients those don’t have any above signs. 29 cases (60.4%) out of total 48 cases of group A is suffering from chronic headache as compared to 97 cases (21.5%) out of total 452 patients of group B is having positive findings (p-value<0.05). Out of 500 patients, only 29 cases (5.8%) revealed some form of brain parenchymal pathology whereas other associated findings were seen in 97 cases e.g. sinusitis in 58 (11.6%), bone related pathology in 26 (5.2%) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in 13 (2.6%) patients. Conclusion CT/MRI in patients without red flag or CWC sign yields very low percentage of clinically significant

  14. Behçet's Disease Presenting with Acute Transverse Myelitis: MRI Findings and Review of the Nosology. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sanal, H T; Bulakbasi, N; Kocaoglu, M; Tayfun, C

    2007-04-30

    Spinal cord involvement, either isolated or together with brain, in Behçet's disease (BD) has been reported. In these cases the existence of the disease was previously known or the classical triad of disease such as oral and genital ulcers with uveitis/iritis was present. Here we describe a 22-year-old man in whom acute transverse myelitis diagnosed with MRI was the first finding of BD. PMID:24299651

  15. MRI findings of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the mid-sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman.

  16. [Impact of indirect factors on the growing prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in periodic general health examinations: a survey on the definition and detection of such abnormal workers by occupational health organizations].

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, T; Takahashi, K; Fujishiro, K; Uchida, K; Okubo, T

    2000-05-01

    The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in periodic general health examinations (PGHEx) has been growing recently in Japan and reached 41.2% in 1998. To clarify the indirect factors related to such an increase in workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx, we carried out a questionnaire survey on the content of the statutory notification form of results of the PGHEx among a representative sample of 136 Occupational Health Organizations (OHOs). Questions on how those workers with abnormal findings were defined and detected and when the definition and the reference intervals for total cholesterol became available were included. Of the 107 OHOs which answered the questionnaire, 85 were included in the analyses because they actually calculated the number of workers with abnormal findings in each company and helped the employer fill out the notification form. The results revealed that there was no standardized definition of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx. Both reference intervals of items in the PGHEx and algorithm in detecting workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx varied among the OHOs. When detecting the workers, 13 OHOs (15.3%) selected them taking into consideration medical background factors such as previous results of the PGHEx and current medical treatment. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, many OHOs modified the definition of workers with abnormal findings, and have tended to reduce the upper limit of the reference interval for serum cholesterol. This is mainly due to amendment of the Industrial Safety and Health Law and a new recommendation for a reference interval/value proposed by the related scientific society. Although the prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx has continuously increased, it is not valid to compare the prevalence over the years because of modification in the definition of such workers. The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx, which is one of the most important

  17. Pulmonary Valve Anatomy and Abnormalities: A Pictorial Essay of Radiography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Jonas, Samuel N; Kligerman, Seth J; Burke, Allen P; Frazier, Aletta Ann; White, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Given its inconspicuous appearance on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the pulmonary valve (PV) is often overlooked as an important cause of both cardiac and pulmonary disease. In this pictorial essay, we review the normal appearance of the PV as well as various congenital anomalies including pulmonary atresia, pulmonary stenosis, and valvular fusion anomalies. Infectious entities, degenerative conditions, and malignant lesions are also depicted. We discuss surgical techniques used to repair both congenital and acquired pulmonary valvular diseases and describe postoperative appearances of the PV on imaging.

  18. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  19. Dobutamine-tagged MRI for inotropic reserve assessment in severe CAD: relationship with PET findings.

    PubMed

    Mazzadi, Alejandro N; Janier, Marc F; Brossier, Benjamin; André-Fouët, Xavier; McFadden, Eugene; Revel, Didier; Croisille, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    The impact of blood flow reductions on the intramyocardial inotropic reserve has not yet been established in coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore evaluated in severe CAD the relationship between positron emission tomography (PET) patterns of perfusion and glucose uptake and the corresponding tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tagged MRI) values of midmyocardial strains under low-dose dobutamine. Eighteen patients underwent tagged MRI (at rest, with dobutamine) and H2(15)O/18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Regional midmyocardial circumferential shortening (Ecc) and PET patterns (normal, match viable, mismatch viable, and infarcted) were assessed in three tagged MRI/PET short-axis slices. Regional Ecc at rest correlated with both perfusion (r = 0.49) and glucose uptake (r = 0.58). The presence of the inotropic reserve was similar in normal, match viable, and infarcted (approximately 40% of regions vs. 52% in mismatch viable, P < 0.05), but the extent of the increase after dobutamine was lower in infarcted regions (P = 0.06). Within each PET pattern, regions were grouped according to their Ecc values at rest into three categories (high, intermediate, and low contractile performance). In mismatch viable (hibernation), the inotropic reserve was similar among the three categories, but in the other PET patterns the presence and extent of the inotropic reserve was higher in those regions with lowest Ecc (without significant differences in perfusion). In severe CAD, the presence of the inotropic reserve assessed by midmyocardial changes under dobutamine does not relate to resting perfusion. At a similar level of perfusion, the presence of the inotropic reserve is inversely related to contractile performance at rest, but our results suggest that it may not be true for hibernating myocardium. PMID:14726299

  20. Cardiac involvement in Erdheim- Chester disease: MRI findings and literature revision

    PubMed Central

    Puglia, Marta; Barbuto, Luigi; Solla, Raffaele; Altiero, Michele; Lubrano, Valentina; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by the involvement of several organs. The lesions may be skeletal or extra-skeletal: in particular, long bones, skin, lungs, and the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems can be affected. In this report, we describe a case of a 34-year-old man, who came to our observation with symptomatic ECD, for a correct assessment of the degree of cardiac involvement through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26405559

  1. [Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome with a Pro102Leu mutation in the prion protein gene and atypical MRI findings, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Imaiso, Y; Mitsuo, K

    1998-01-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is reported. She was admitted to our hospital for progressive amnesia, twitching of the right upper limb, and difficulty in speaking and walking for 5 months. Physical examination revealed a fever, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis without any evidence of inflammation or infection. Neurological examinations demonstrated dementia, frontal lobe signs, and spontaneous myoclonus. She developed akinetic mutism 4 months later. The levels of neuron-specific enolase and 14-3-3 protein were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid, and serial EEG showed periodic synchronous discharges. DNA analysis of the prion protein gene revealed a Pro102Leu mutation and therefore she was diagnosed as GSS102. Head MRI showed abnormal high signal intensity by T2 weighted image in bilateral caudate nuclei, putamen, frontal lobes, and white matter around the posterior horn of lateral ventricles at admission, and extension to global cerebral cortex and diffuse deep white matter with marked atrophy of bilateral frontal and cerebellar cortices 4 months later. In 123I-IMP SPECT study, uptake of RI decreased slightly only in left frontal region at admission, but decreased markedly in bilateral frontal region 4 months later. Analysis of autonomic function (analysis of noradrenarine in plasma and urine, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals before and after giving atenolol, Aschner's eyeball pressure test, intracutaneous atropine and adrenaline injection test) revealed sympathetic hyperactivity but normal parasympathetic activity. This is a very rare case of GSS102 with atypical MRI findings and clinical features like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease rather than GSS102, presenting hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis caused presumably by sympathetic hyperactivity as well as fatal familial insomnia. Therefore it is suggested that some factors besides the codon mutation in the prion protein gene may influence clinical

  2. The endolymphatic sac in patients with Ménière's disease: correlation between the MRI and the surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Fukaya, T; Noda, M

    2000-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to have close relations to pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. Here is reported a retrospective study of 41 patients (42 ears) with Meniere's disease who underwent MRI prior to endolymphatic sac surgery. Based on proton-density weighted image (PDI) and T2-weighted image (T2), the ES including an endolymphatic duct (ED) were estimated whether it was detectable or not. Fourteen ESs were detected on both images (Group A), 14 ESs were detected only on PDI (Group B), and the remaining 14 ESs were not detected on either image (Group D). The actual shape of the sac, obtained from surgical findings, was classified into three (normoplastic, atrophic, invisible). Seventeen ears showed normoplastic ESs and 14 showed atrophic ESs. ES was not detected in 11 ears during surgery, and these findings were compared with image classification. From the study data, normoplastic ESs tend to be observed on both images whereas atrophic or invisible sacs were hardly observed on T2. This classification of ES on MRI was thought to correlate with surgical findings and this correlation was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. r(s) = 0.58, p < 0.01).

  3. Association of physical activity measured by accelerometer, knee joint abnormalities and cartilage T2-measurements obtained from 3T MRI: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, M.; Lin, W.; Nardo, L.; Joseph, G. B.; Dunlop, D. D.; Heilmeier, U.; Nevitt, M. C.; Alizai, H.; McCulloch, C. E.; Lynch, J. A.; Link, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the cross-sectional association between physical activity measured with an accelerometer, structural knee abnormalities and cartilage T2-values assessed with 3T MRI. Methods We included 274 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort without definite radiographic osteoarthritis (KL 0 and 1) and at most mild pain, stiffness and functional limitation in the study knee (WOMAC 0–1), which had not limited their activity due to knee pain. Physical activity was measured over seven days with an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Subjects were categorized by quartile of physical activity based on the average daily minutes of moderate/vigorous activity (mv-PA). MR images of the right knee (at 48-months visit) were assessed for structural abnormalities using a modified WORMS score and for T2-relaxation times derived from segmented cartilage of 4 femorotibial regions and the patella. WORMS-grades and T2-measurements were compared between activity quartiles using a linear regression model. Covariates included age, sex, BMI, knee injury, family history of knee replacement, knee symptoms, hip and ankle pain and daily wear time of the accelerometer. Results Higher mv-PA was associated with increased severity (p=0.0087) and number of lesions of the medial meniscus (p=0.0089) and severity of bone marrow edema lesions (p=0.0053). No association between cartilage lesions and mv-PA was found. T2-values of cartilage (loss, damage, abnormalities) tended to be greater in the higher quartiles of mv-PA, but the differences were non-significant. Conclusion In knees without radiographic osteoarthritis in subjects with no or mild knee pain, higher physical activity levels were associated with increases in meniscal and BMEP lesions. PMID:25777255

  4. Tenosynovitis of the peroneal tendons associated with a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle: radiography and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Celikyay, Fatih; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Almus, Ferdag; Bilgic, Erkal

    2014-01-01

    An enlarged peroneal tubercle can cause a peroneal tendon tear and/or tenosynovitis due to chronic friction. We present the case of a 45-year-old man with tenosynovitis in the peroneus longus and brevis tendons associated with a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle. On admission to our facility, the patient presented with pain while walking and had a fixed mass on the lateral aspect of his right foot. In addition, an osseous prominence corresponding to a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle was seen on the lateral side of the right calcaneus on radiography. MRI confirmed the hypertrophic peroneal tubercle and revealed high-signal intensity within the peroneus longus and brevis tendons along with fluid in their sheaths. PMID:24748135

  5. Hot water epilepsy with cerebral lesion: a report of five cases with cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Tezer, F Irsel; Ertas, Nalan; Yalcin, Destina; Saygi, Serap

    2006-05-01

    Hot water epilepsy (HWE) is included in the reflex epilepsies. Although, in general, not common, HWE is concentrated in certain regions of the world. Different bathing habits and genetic factors may be responsible for the high incidence of HWE in these regions. However, the exact pathogenesis of HWE is not known. The facts that complex partial seizures are the most common clinical presentation and EEG recordings show an epileptic focus in the temporal lobe suggested the presence of a structural lesion in the temporal lobe. To our knowledge, however, there were no demonstrable structural changes on MRI and CT scans except in a few case reports. Here, we describe an additional five cases of HWE having an intracranial pathology, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, dysplasia, and a huge cystic lesion. We believe that investigations with new detailed neuroimaging techniques, in addition to experimental and clinical studies, might help us to understand the mechanism of this reflex epilepsy. PMID:16546449

  6. Routine MRI findings of the asymptomatic foot in diabetic patients with unilateral Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Imaging studies of bones in patients with sensory deficits are scarce. Aim To investigate bone MR images of the lower limb in diabetic patients with severe sensory polyneuropathy, and in control subjects without sensory deficits. Methods Routine T1 weighted and T2-fat-suppressed-STIR-sequences without contrast media were performed of the asymptomatic foot in 10 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and unilateral inactive Charcot foot, and in 10 matched and 10 younger, non-obese unmatched control subjects. Simultaneously, a Gadolinium containing phantom was also assessed for reference. T1 weighted signal intensity (SI) was recorded at representative regions of interest at the peritendineal soft tissue, the tibia, the calcaneus, and at the phantom. Any abnormal skeletal morphology was also recorded. Results Mean SI at the soft tissue, the calcaneus, and the tibia, respectively, was 105%, 105% and 84% of that at the phantom in the matched and unmatched control subjects, compared to 102% (soft tissue), 112% (calcaneus) and 64% (tibia) in the patients; differences of tibia vs. calcaneus or soft tissue were highly significant (p < 0.005). SI at the tibia was lower in the patients than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Occult traumatic skeletal lesions were found in 8 of the 10 asymptomatic diabetic feet (none in the control feet). Conclusion MR imaging did not reveal grossly abnormal bone marrow signalling in the limbs with severe sensory polyneuropathy, but occult sequelae of previous traumatic injuries. PMID:20412561

  7. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential-functional MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Jimenez, Amy M; Roach, Brian J; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Ford, Judith M; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  8. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Roach, Brian J.; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Ford, Judith M.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  9. Encephalopathy and Neuropathy due to Glue, Paint Thinner, and Gasoline Sniffing in Trinidad and Tobago-MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Ramesar, Amrit; Ramdath, Moshanti; Teelucksingh, Joel; Gosein, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old male petrol station pump attendant was admitted with ataxia and clinical evidence of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy which developed over the preceding 3 months. He had cognitive dysfunction, hearing loss, and cerebellar clinical abnormalities that came on slowly over the three years. He had a fifteen-year history of sniffing mostly glue, occasionally paint thinners, and, in the recent two years, gasoline. Magnetic resonance brain imaging showed abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, cerebral white matter, corpus callosum, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, hypointensities of basal ganglia, red nuclei, and substantia nigra as previously described in toluene sniffing. Abstinence for six months led to partial clinical improvement. Clinicians need to be aware of this preventable entity which has peculiar radiological findings which are being increasingly accepted as typical. PMID:25045557

  10. An Unusual Case of Ascending Pancreatitis with Mediastinal Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Ernesto; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Gennarelli, Antonio; Felli, Valentina; Vellucci, Valentina; Casazza, Ines; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Fluid collections are common findings of pancreatitis and spread, more often, along preferential drainage pathways in the abdomen. In some rare cases, fluid collections may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the mediastinum leading to the formation of mediastinal collections. We present the case of a 52-years-old man with pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and mid-epigastrium lasting for some hours. Laboratory tests suggested a diagnosis of pancreatitis. CT and subsequent MRI revealed changes consistent with acute exacerbation on chronic pancreatitis spreading to the mediastinum and to the greater omentum. The patient received medical treatment and reported gradual improvement in his laboratory results and CT findings. PMID:24955277

  11. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085

  12. Do women with fragile X syndrome have problems in switching attention: preliminary findings from ERP and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Kim; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Wilding, John; Morris, Peter; Jackson, Georgina

    2004-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that represents the most common known cause of developmental delay. Recent neuropsychological findings indicate that females with FXS present with a specific pattern of cognitive deficits and that these difficulties primarily involve skills requiring executive control. The present study is the first to examine the extent to which neural activity of females with FXS can be observed on a task that specifically taps two core deficits, namely switching and response inhibition. Brain activity was measured using both event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) and event-related functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging in separate studies using the same cognitive paradigm. Compared to controls, females with FXS were significantly slower and made more errors on trials that required an immediate response (Go) to stimulus onset but were comparable on trials that required a delayed response (Wait) to stimulus onset. At the brain level, several areas showed significantly greater activation for females with FXS compared with controls, including the cingulate cortex and left and right ventral prefrontal areas. In contrast, no areas were found to show significantly greater activation for controls compared with females with FXS.

  13. A challenging diagnosis of late-onset tumefactive multiple sclerosis associated to cervicodorsal syringomyelia: doubtful CT, MRI, and bioptic findings

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Renata; Capasso, Raffaella; Galasso, Rosario; Cirillo, Mario; Taglialatela, Gemma; Galasso, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease characterized by lesions with pseudotumoral appearance on radiological imaging mimicking other space-occupying lesions, such as neoplasms, infections, and infarction. Especially when the patient's medical history is incompatible with MS, the differential diagnosis between these lesions constitutes a diagnostic challenge often requiring histological investigation. An older age at onset makes distinguishing tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) from tumors even more challenging. Methods: We report a case of brain TDL as the initial manifestation of late-onset MS associated with cervico-dorsal syringomyelia. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a 15-day history headache was referred to our hospital because of the acute onset of paraphasia. She suffered from noncommunicating syringomyelia associated to basilar impression and she reported a 10-year history of burning dysesthesia of the left side of the chest extended to the internipple line level. Results: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations revealed a left frontal lesion with features suspicious for a tumor. Given the degree of overlap with other pathologic processes, CT and MRI findings failed to provide an unambiguous diagnosis; furthermore, because of the negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis for oligoclonal bands, the absence of other lesions, and the heightened suspicion of neoplasia, the clinicians opted to perform a stereotactic biopsy. Brain specimen analysis did not exclude the possibility of perilesional reactive gliosis and the patient, receiving anitiedemigen therapy, was monthly followed up. In the meanwhile, the second histological opinion of the brain specimen described the absence of pleomorphic glial cells indicating a tumor. These findings were interpreted as destructive inflammatory demyelinating disease and according to the evolution of MRI lesion burden, MS

  14. Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during “Target” sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

  15. Infantile Type Sandhoff Disease with Striking Brain MRI Findings and a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Elmas, Muhsin; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Bukulmez, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. Case Report This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation. She was diagnosed with a genetically proven novel mutation and by demonstrating it’s specific imaging findings. Conclusions Determination of spesific changes in neuroimaging which are initial findings for GM2 gangliosidosis is important from the point of diagnosis and follow-up in infants suspected of having a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26985245

  16. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: conventional MRI findings including gadolinium-enhanced dynamic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    A great variety of MR pulse sequences for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are now available. In this article, we reviewed the current MR imaging techniques that are routinely used for hepatic imaging, and described the optimization of these sequences as well as the utility and characteristics of each sequence for the accurate diagnosis of HCCs. Then, we reviewed various MR imaging findings of advanced and early HCCs with emphasis on signal intensity and hemodynamic patterns. Finally, we described the value of multi-arterial-phase contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging of the whole liver with excellent temporal resolution for evaluating transitional hemodynamics of hepatic lesions during the six arterial phases.

  18. CT and MRI Findings in a Rare Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif; Gulpinar, Basak; Karadag, Hale; Erden, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma (PNET/EES) is a very rare renal tumor. Case Report We report a case of primary renal PNET/EES of the kidney in an adult patient and describe its computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including diffusion weighted images along with a review of the current medical literature. Conclusions Although very rare, a relatively large renal mass which shows very infiltrative growth pattern on CT and MR imaging and striking diffusion restriction should raise the suspicion of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor, in a young adult. PMID:27635170

  19. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the “core” and “extended” face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the “core” (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and “extended” (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the “core” and “extended” face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences. PMID:25431556

  20. The Human Likeness Dimension of the “Uncanny Valley Hypothesis”: Behavioral and Functional MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates “uncanny” research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori’s DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future “uncanny” studies consider CP and the DOH’s category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects. PMID:22131970

  1. Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N.; Türkbey, Barış; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Minhaj Siddiqui, M.; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. RESULTS The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. CONCLUSION In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (≤3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:24509182

  2. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  3. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Andrea C.; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration. PMID:23825652

  4. Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with diffusion weighted MRI after (chemo)radiotherapy: Correlation between radiologic and histopathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecaveye, Vincent; Keyzer, Frederik de; Nuyts, Sandra; Deraedt, Karen; Dirix, Piet; Hamaekers, Pascal; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert . E-mail: Robert.Hermans@uzleuven.be

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating persistent or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from nontumoral postradiotherapeutic alterations. Methods and Materials: In 26 patients with suspicion of persistent or recurrent HNSCC, MRI of the head and neck was performed, including routine turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences and an additional echo-planar DW-MRI sequence, using a large range of b-values (0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. In the suspect areas at the primary site and in the suspect lymph nodes, signal intensity was measured on the native b0 and b1000 images and ADC values were calculated for these tissues. The same was done for surrounding irradiated normal tissue. Imaging results were correlated to histopathology. Results: Signal intensity on native b0 images was significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral postradiotherapeutic tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 60.8%, and accuracy of 62.4%. Signal intensity on native b1000 images was significantly higher for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 71.6%, specificity of 71.3%, and accuracy of 71.4%. ADC values were significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 94.6%, specificity of 95.9%, and accuracy of 95.5%. When compared with computed tomography, TSE-MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, DW-MRI yielded fewer false-positive results in persistent primary site abnormalities and in persistent adenopathies, and aided in the detection of subcentimetric nodal metastases. Conclusions: Diffusion weighted-MRI accurately differentiates persistent or recurrent HNSCC from nontumoral tissue changes after (chemo)radiotherapy.

  5. Musculoskeletal MRI.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jaime E; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    MRI has the unique ability to detect abnormal fluid content, and is therefore unparalleled in its role of detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and follow-up evaluation of musculoskeletal disease. MRI in companion animals should be considered in the following circumstances: a definitive diagnosis cannot be made on radiographs; a patient is nonresponsive to medical or surgical therapy; prognostic information is desired; assessing surgical margins and traumatic and/or infectious joint and bone disease; ruling out subtle developmental or early aggressive bone lesions. The MRI features of common disorders affecting the shoulder, elbow, stifle, carpal, and tarsal joints are included in this chapter.

  6. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. Patients and methods. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results. Gross intratumoral hemorrhage on T2WI was absent in 15 patients (79%) with primary central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P < 0.001), irrespective of gross intratumoral hemorrhage. Conclusions. Low intratumoral susceptibility signal grades can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal. PMID:26029023

  7. Are Nonlinguistic Functions in ''Broca's Area'' Prerequisites for Language Acquisition? fMRI Findings from an Ontogenetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ralph-Axel; Basho, Surina

    2004-01-01

    There is incomplete consensus on the anatomical demarcation of Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus and its functional characterization remains a matter of debate. Exclusive syntactic specialization has been proposed, but is overall inconsistent with the neuroimaging literature. We examined three functional MRI (fMRI) datasets on…

  8. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI. PMID:27482782

  9. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI.

  10. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart.

  11. Relation of behavior problems with findings of cranial diffusion tensor MRI and MR spectroscopy in autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Ogur, Torel; Boyunaga, Oznur Leman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate any relation of behavior problems with cranial Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in autism spectrum disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 males children (12 autistic patients and 8 healthy controls) was examined by cranial DTI and MRS. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to calculate the irritability, lethargy-social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and speech disorder scores for each patient. The results of MRS and DTI were evaluated together with the ABC scores. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) values demonstrated significant decreases in the left frontoparietal white matter, anterior limb of the right internal capsule, and left middle cerebellar peduncle as the behavior problem scores elevated (P < 0.05). With the exception of social withdrawal, as the behavior problem scores increased, metabolite levels increased, as well. Conclusion: The positive correlation between the MRS findings, behavior problem scores, and metabolite levels suggests the presence of a dysfunction leading to hypo and hyper neuronal function in various locations. Reduced FA values in DTI and negative correlation of behavior problems with FA values in the contralateral hemisphere, may indicate reduced myelination and abnormal axonal organization. PMID:26131145

  12. Regional Microstructural and Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Abnormalities in the Corpus Callosum of Neonates With Congenital Heart Defect Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Cornelia; Singer, Jitka; Latal, Beatrice; Knirsch, Walter; Makki, Malek

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the structural development of the corpus callosum in term neonates with congenital heart defect before and after surgery using diffusion tensor imaging and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared parallel and radial diffusions, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy, and volume of 5 substructures of the corpus callosum: genu, rostral body, body, isthmus, and splenium. Compared to healthy controls, we found a significantly lower volume of the splenium and total corpus callosum and a higher radial diffusion and lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of patients presurgery; a lower volume in all substructures in the postsurgery group; higher radial diffusion in the rostral body, body, and splenium; and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of postsurgery patients. Similar fractional anisotropy changes in congenital heart defect patients were reported in preterm infants. Our findings in apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of these patients (pre and postsurgery) are comparable to findings in preterm neonates with psychomotor delay. Delayed maturation of the isthmus was also reported in preterm infants.

  13. Echocardiographic findings and abnormalities in HIV-infected patients: results from a large, prospective, multicenter HIV-heart study

    PubMed Central

    Reinsch, Nico; Kahlert, Philipp; Esser, Stefan; Sundermeyer, Andreas; Neuhaus, Katrin; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Potthoff, Anja; Erbel, Raimund; Buck, Thomas; Neumann, Till

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the current study was to assess cardiac structure and function as well as cardiac abnormalities in a large patient-population based multicenter study of HIV-infected subjects. Materials and methods: We enrolled 803 HIV-positive adults (83.4% men, mean age: 44.2 ± 10.3 yrs) in this prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. The study protocol included a standardized documentation of patient history, medical treatment and clinical examination. All subjects underwent a standardized transthoracic echocardiographic examination protocol including Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Echocardiographic measurements revealed a structural dilatation of the left ventricle in 10.1% of all HIV-infected subjects. Interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness were increased in 18.0% and 11.1%, respectively, with elevated muscle mass in 14.3% male and 19.4% female patients. Of all participants 13.5% exhibited a pathologic contraction characteristic of one or more myocardial segments. Prevalence of systolic and diastolic dysfunction was 34.3% and 48.0%, respectively. However, severe forms of ventricular dysfunction were rare. Conclusions: In conclusion our results demonstrate the relevance of echocardiography in this patient-population in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Above all, left ventricular wall thickness and function should be controlled regularly in HIV-infected subjects. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01119729). PMID:22254197

  14. [Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging in a child with Alice in Wonderland syndrome following Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Akasaka, Manami; Chida, Shoichi

    2002-07-01

    Characteristic pathologic changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have never been reported in "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome (AIWS) caused by Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection. We present here a 10-year-old girl with AIWS with an abnormal MR finding. During the course of serologically confirmed EB virus encephalopathy, she had distortion of the body image, visual hallucinations and depersonalization characteristic of AIWS. MRI demonstrated transient T2 prolongation and swelling of the cerebral cortex, especially at the bilateral temporal lobes, bilateral cingulate gyrus, right upper frontal gyrus, bilateral caudate nucleus, and bilateral putamen, whereas CT showed no abnormalities. Transient MRI lesions were occasionally reported in patients with EB virus encephalopathy/encephalitis who presented visual illusions and psychotic reactions, although the diagnosis of AIWS was not described. We consider that any patient with symptoms of AIWS should have MRI because the abnormal MRI findings may disappear in a short period. PMID:12134688

  15. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis.

  16. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  17. Association of computerized texture features on MRI with early treatment response following laser ablation for neuropathic cancer pain: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar F; Jiang, Benjamin; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-10-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain) and has shown promise over radio frequency (RF)-based ablation, due to magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance that allows for precise ablation. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short- and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally, treatment effects for neurological conditions are evaluated by monitoring changes in intensities and/or volume of the ablation zone on post-treatment Gadolinium-contrast T1-w (Gd-T1) MRI. However, LITT introduces subtle localized changes corresponding to tissues response to treatment, which may not be appreciable on visual inspection of volumetric or intensity changes. Additionally, different MRI protocols [Gd-T1, T2w, gradient echo sequence (GRE), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)] are known to capture complementary diagnostic information regarding the patient's response to treatment; the utility of these MRI protocols has so far not been investigated to evaluate early and localized response to LITT treatment in the context of neuropathic cancer pain. In this work, we present the first attempt at (a) examining early treatment-related changes on a per-voxel basis via quantitative comparison of computer-extracted texture descriptors across pre- and post-LITT multiparametric (MP-MRI) (Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, FLAIR), subtle microarchitectural texture changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities or volumetric differences, and (b) investigating the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing immediate post-treatment changes reflected (1) within and (2) outside the ablation zone. A retrospective cohort of four patient studies comprising pre- and immediate (24 h) post-LITT 3 Tesla Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, and FLAIR acquisitions

  18. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    PubMed

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots. PMID:26697417

  19. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Good, Ryan J.; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V.; Press, Craig A.; Carpenter, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic–ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots. PMID:26697417

  20. Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Paul; Zhou, Juan; Lim, Joseph K W; Poh, Joann S; Zheng, Hui; Tng, Han Ying; Krishnan, Ranga; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S E; Adcock, R Alison; Wood, Stephen J; Fornito, Alex; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-11-01

    There is cumulative evidence that young people in an "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to, but less extensive than those reported in established schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while large studies from other populations are missing. We conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we did not find any statistically significant difference between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2 regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes, did not return any significant difference either. Several characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in ARMS. PMID:25745033

  1. Quantitative MRI Measures in SIV-Infected Macaque Brains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Chunxia

    2013-01-01

    Multiple MRI modalities including Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), perfusion MRI, in vivo MR Spectroscopy (MRS), volumetric MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and functional MRI have demonstrated abnormalities of the structural and functional integrity as well as neurochemical alterations of the HIV-infected central nervous system (CNS). MRI has been proposed as a robust imaging approach for the characterization of the stage of progression in HIV infection. However, the interpretation of the MRI findings of HIV patients is complicated by the fact that these clinical studies cannot readily be controlled. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected macaques exhibit neuropathological symptoms similar to those of HIV patients, and are an important model for studying the course of CNS infection, cognitive impairment, and neuropathology of HIV disease as well as treatment efficacy. MRI of non-human primates (NHPs) is of limited benefit on most clinical scanners operating at or below 1.5 Tesla because this low field strength does not produce high-quality images of the relatively small NHP brain. Contemporary high field MRI (3T or more) for clinical use provides impressive sensitivity for magnetic resonance signal detection and is now accessible in many imaging centers and hospitals, facilitating the use of various MRI techniques in NHP studies. In this article, several high field MRI techniques and applications in macaque models of neuroAIDS are reviewed and the relation between quantitative MRI measures and blood T-cell alterations is discussed. PMID:24244892

  2. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  3. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight

  4. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight

  5. Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko; Nozaki, Taiki

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5). The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.

  6. Incidental Intracranial Findings and Their Clinical Impact; The HUNT MRI Study in a General Population of 1006 Participants between 50-66 Years

    PubMed Central

    Håberg, Asta Kristine; Hammer, Tommy Arild; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Rydland, Jana; Müller, Tomm B.; Eikenes, Live; Gårseth, Mari; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate types and prevalence of all, incidental, and clinically relevant incidental intracranial findings, i.e. those referred to primary physician or clinical specialist, in a cohort between 50 and 66 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) study. Types of follow-up, outcome of repeated neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment were assessed. Material and Methods 1006 participants (530 women) underwent MRI of the head at 1.5T consisting of T1 weighted sagittal IR-FSPGR volume, axial T2 weighted, gradient echo T2* weighted and FLAIR sequences plus time of flight cerebral angiography covering the circle of Willis. The nature of a finding and if it was incidental were determined from previous radiological examinations, patient records, phone interview, and/or additional neuroimaging. Handling and outcome of the clinically relevant incidental findings were prospectively recorded. True and false positives were estimated from the repeated neuroimaging. Results Prevalence of any intracranial finding was 32.7%. Incidental intracranial findings were present in 27.1% and clinically relevant findings in 15.1% of the participants in the HUNT MRI cohort. 185 individuals (18.4%) were contacted by phone about their findings. 40 participants (6.2%) underwent ≥ 1 additional neuroimaging session to establish etiology. Most false positives were linked to an initial diagnosis of suspected glioma, and overall positive predictive value of initial MRI was 0.90 across different diagnoses. 90.8% of the clinically relevant incidental findings were developmental and acquired cerebrovascular pathologies, the remaining 9.2% were intracranial tumors, of which extra-axial tumors predominated. In total, 3.9% of the participants were referred to a clinical specialist, and 11.7% to their primary physician. 1.4% underwent neurosurgery/radiotherapy, and 1 (0.1%) experienced a procedure related postoperative deficit. Conclusions In a general population between 50 and 66 years most

  7. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    atrophy (5), hippocampal sclerosis (4), infarct/gliosis (3), cortical dysgenesis (2) and tumors (2). One patient had an arachnoid cyst in the right occipital region. Of the 17 patients with an abnormal MRI, 14 had an abnormal EEG, this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant associaton between epileptographic changes and MRI findings (p = 0.078). EEG findings were associated with MRI findings (p = 0.004). The association between an abnormal EEG and an abnormal MRI had a specificity of 82.4%, while epileptogenic changes had a specificity of 64.7% in relation to abnormal MRI findings. This meants that those patients in rural hospitals with abnormal EEGs should be referred to a neurology center for further workup and an MRI to detect causes with an epileptic focus.

  8. Association between sonographic diagnosis of fatty liver with histopathologic abnormalities and liver biopsy findings in middle age patient with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Moradi, Farhad; Hassanzade, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver biopsy is required to diagnose non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to examine the relationship between sonographic diagnosis of fatty liver with histopathologic abnormalities and liver biopsy findings in patient with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 180 patients, with an age range of 18-60 year old, with NAFLD based on ultrasonograghic findings were evaluated. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of liver disease and laboratory parameters recorded for all patients. Hence, grade of steatosis and stage of fibrosis were evaluated by liver biopsy. Results: A total of 220 patients were enrolled. Liver biopsy was performed in 180 patients. Mean age was 43 ± 10.6 years old and 66% were male. Ultrasonograghic findings showed mild, moderate and severe NAFLD was define in 100 (55.5%), 72 (40%) and 8 (4.5%) of patients, respectively. Liver biopsies showed that steatosis scores of <5%, 5-33% and 33-66% was define in 56 (31%), 116 (64%) and 9 (5%) of patients, respectively. Furthermore, fibrosis was defined as follow; none 92 (51%), mild 68 (38%), moderate 11 (6%), bridging 5 (3%) and cirrhosis 3 (2%) patients. There was no statistically significant relationship between ultrasonograghic findings and steatosis scores (P = 0.44), but statistically significant relationship was found between ultrasonograghic findings and fibrosis stage (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Findings revealed that, in patients with NAFLD, ultrasonographic finding were not in associate to steatosis, but were in relation with fibrosis stage. PMID:27563632

  9. MRI and (1)H MRS findings of hepatobilary changes and cholangiocarcinoma development in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mairiang, Eimorn

    2015-11-01

    3 T MRI and (1)H MRS were useful for quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobiliary changes in Opisthorchis viverrini infection in hamsters, and the differential diagnosis of cholangiocacinoma (CCA) development from bile duct changes and normal condition is unclear. In this study, we investigated the serial development of hepatobiliary changes and CCAgenesis in O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) treated hamsters (ON group) using 3 T MRI and (1)H MRS and the results were compared with those either in the O. viverrini-infected group (OV group) and uninfected normal controls. In the ON group, CCAs were first found at 9 weeks post-infection, with sizes of ~2 mm. The typical MR signal characteristics of CCA were hypo- and occasionally isointensity signal on T1-weighted images, and mild-moderate to hyper-intensity signal on T2-weighted images compared to the liver parenchyma. T2-weighted images with fat suppression revealed dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, and often defined the anatomical level of biliary obstruction, cystic lesions, liver abscesses, and CCA which was starting seen of these noticeable abnormalities at 5 weeks onwards. The results of fibrosis grading using MR images showed a positive correlation (r=0.90, P<0.038 by Spearman's rank correlation test) with those of the histopathological grading. In addition, 3.0 T (1)H MRS showed elevated choline and decreased lipids levels in the liver tissues of the ON group. In conclusion, MRI and (1)H MRS are useful for the quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobilary changes and CCA in hamsters, and are potentially useful as early diagnostic tools for CCA. PMID:26117689

  10. MRI and (1)H MRS findings of hepatobilary changes and cholangiocarcinoma development in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mairiang, Eimorn

    2015-11-01

    3 T MRI and (1)H MRS were useful for quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobiliary changes in Opisthorchis viverrini infection in hamsters, and the differential diagnosis of cholangiocacinoma (CCA) development from bile duct changes and normal condition is unclear. In this study, we investigated the serial development of hepatobiliary changes and CCAgenesis in O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) treated hamsters (ON group) using 3 T MRI and (1)H MRS and the results were compared with those either in the O. viverrini-infected group (OV group) and uninfected normal controls. In the ON group, CCAs were first found at 9 weeks post-infection, with sizes of ~2 mm. The typical MR signal characteristics of CCA were hypo- and occasionally isointensity signal on T1-weighted images, and mild-moderate to hyper-intensity signal on T2-weighted images compared to the liver parenchyma. T2-weighted images with fat suppression revealed dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, and often defined the anatomical level of biliary obstruction, cystic lesions, liver abscesses, and CCA which was starting seen of these noticeable abnormalities at 5 weeks onwards. The results of fibrosis grading using MR images showed a positive correlation (r=0.90, P<0.038 by Spearman's rank correlation test) with those of the histopathological grading. In addition, 3.0 T (1)H MRS showed elevated choline and decreased lipids levels in the liver tissues of the ON group. In conclusion, MRI and (1)H MRS are useful for the quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobilary changes and CCA in hamsters, and are potentially useful as early diagnostic tools for CCA.

  11. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination.

  12. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination. PMID:27635171

  13. Breast cancer and bone metastases: the association of axial skeleton MRI findings with skeletal-related events and survival.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Christian B; Schweitzer, Mark E; Di Primio, Gina; Sampaio, Marcos L; Kielar, Ania; Clemons, Mark; Jaberi, Arash

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if bone metastasis characteristics on axial skeleton MRI are associated with either skeletal-related events (SREs) or survival in breast cancer patients. A retrospective review was performed on 247 breast cancer patients with bone metastases identified on axial skeleton MRI. MRI studies were reviewed for metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, complete vertebral metastatic marrow replacement, metastases quantity, and distribution. Odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated, with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI), to determine association with either future SREs or survival. At the time of analysis, 174 (70 %) patients had developed SREs and 176 (71 %) patients were dead. Features of skeletal metastases associated with SREs included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; OR 2.363 (95 % CI 1.240-4.504, P = 0.0090), and more widely distributed metastases; OR 1.239 (95 % CI 1.070-1.435, P = 0.0040). Features associated with shorter survival included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; HR 1.500 (95 % CI 1.105-2.036, P = 0.0093), and more widely distributed metastases; HR 1.141 (95 % CI 1.047-1.243, P = 0.0027). Metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, and surprisingly quantity were not associated with SREs or survival. Axial skeleton MRI was able to identify characteristics predictive of future SREs and survival. These characteristics could be used for risk stratification for future trials if prospectively validated.

  14. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  15. Quantifying Post- Laser Ablation Prostate Therapy Changes on MRI via a Domain-Specific Biomechanical Model: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Focal laser ablation destroys cancerous cells via thermal destruction of tissue by a laser. Heat is absorbed, causing thermal necrosis of the target region. It combines the aggressive benefits of radiation treatment (destroying cancer cells) without the harmful side effects (due to its precise localization). MRI is typically used pre-treatment to determine the targeted area, and post-treatment to determine efficacy by detecting necrotic tissue, or tumor recurrence. However, no system exists to quantitatively evaluate the post-treatment effects on the morphology and structure via MRI. To quantify these changes, the pre- and post-treatment MR images must first be spatially aligned. The goal is to quantify (a) laser-induced shape-based changes, and (b) changes in MRI parameters post-treatment. The shape-based changes may be correlated with treatment efficacy, and the quantitative effects of laser treatment over time is currently poorly understood. This work attempts to model changes in gland morphology following laser treatment due to (1) patient alignment, (2) changes due to surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum, and (3) changes due to the treatment itself. To isolate the treatment-induced shape-based changes, the changes from (1) and (2) are first modeled and removed using a finite element model (FEM). A FEM models the physical properties of tissue. The use of a physical biomechanical model is important since a stated goal of this work is to determine the physical shape-based changes to the prostate from the treatment, and therefore only physical real deformations are to be allowed. A second FEM is then used to isolate the physical, shape-based, treatment-induced changes. We applied and evaluated our model in capturing the laser induced changes to the prostate morphology on eight patients with 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted MRI, acquired approximately six months following treatment. Our results suggest the laser treatment causes a decrease in prostate volume

  16. Quantifying Post- Laser Ablation Prostate Therapy Changes on MRI via a Domain-Specific Biomechanical Model: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Focal laser ablation destroys cancerous cells via thermal destruction of tissue by a laser. Heat is absorbed, causing thermal necrosis of the target region. It combines the aggressive benefits of radiation treatment (destroying cancer cells) without the harmful side effects (due to its precise localization). MRI is typically used pre-treatment to determine the targeted area, and post-treatment to determine efficacy by detecting necrotic tissue, or tumor recurrence. However, no system exists to quantitatively evaluate the post-treatment effects on the morphology and structure via MRI. To quantify these changes, the pre- and post-treatment MR images must first be spatially aligned. The goal is to quantify (a) laser-induced shape-based changes, and (b) changes in MRI parameters post-treatment. The shape-based changes may be correlated with treatment efficacy, and the quantitative effects of laser treatment over time is currently poorly understood. This work attempts to model changes in gland morphology following laser treatment due to (1) patient alignment, (2) changes due to surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum, and (3) changes due to the treatment itself. To isolate the treatment-induced shape-based changes, the changes from (1) and (2) are first modeled and removed using a finite element model (FEM). A FEM models the physical properties of tissue. The use of a physical biomechanical model is important since a stated goal of this work is to determine the physical shape-based changes to the prostate from the treatment, and therefore only physical real deformations are to be allowed. A second FEM is then used to isolate the physical, shape-based, treatment-induced changes. We applied and evaluated our model in capturing the laser induced changes to the prostate morphology on eight patients with 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted MRI, acquired approximately six months following treatment. Our results suggest the laser treatment causes a decrease in prostate volume

  17. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  18. Abnormal regional homogeneity as potential imaging biomarker for psychosis risk syndrome: a resting-state fMRI study and support vector machine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Guodong; Lv, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) have structural and functional abnormalities in several brain regions. However, regional functional synchronization of PRS has not been clarified. We recruited 34 PRS subjects and 37 healthy controls. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans was employed to analyze regional functional synchronization in these participants. Receiver operating characteristic curves and support vector machines were used to detect whether abnormal regional functional synchronization could be utilized to separate PRS subjects from healthy controls. We observed that PRS subjects showed significant ReHo decreases in the left inferior temporal gyrus and increases in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen compared with the controls. No correlations between abnormal regional functional synchronization in these brain regions and clinical characteristics existed. A combination of the ReHo values in the three brain regions showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.24%, 91.89%, and 90.14%, respectively, for discriminating PRS subjects from healthy controls. We inferred that abnormal regional functional synchronization exists in the cerebrum of PRS subjects, and a combination of ReHo values in these abnormal regions could be applied as potential image biomarker to identify PRS subjects from healthy controls. PMID:27272341

  19. Abnormal regional homogeneity as potential imaging biomarker for psychosis risk syndrome: a resting-state fMRI study and support vector machine analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Guodong; Lv, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) have structural and functional abnormalities in several brain regions. However, regional functional synchronization of PRS has not been clarified. We recruited 34 PRS subjects and 37 healthy controls. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans was employed to analyze regional functional synchronization in these participants. Receiver operating characteristic curves and support vector machines were used to detect whether abnormal regional functional synchronization could be utilized to separate PRS subjects from healthy controls. We observed that PRS subjects showed significant ReHo decreases in the left inferior temporal gyrus and increases in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen compared with the controls. No correlations between abnormal regional functional synchronization in these brain regions and clinical characteristics existed. A combination of the ReHo values in the three brain regions showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.24%, 91.89%, and 90.14%, respectively, for discriminating PRS subjects from healthy controls. We inferred that abnormal regional functional synchronization exists in the cerebrum of PRS subjects, and a combination of ReHo values in these abnormal regions could be applied as potential image biomarker to identify PRS subjects from healthy controls. PMID:27272341

  20. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  1. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  2. MRI-induced heating of selected thin wire metallic implants-- laboratory and computational studies-- findings and new questions raised.

    PubMed

    Bassen, H; Kainz, W; Mendoza, G; Kellom, T

    2006-01-01

    We performed experiments and computer modeling of heating of a cardiovascular stent and a straight, thin wire by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI birdcage coil at 64 MHz. We used ASTM F2182-02a standard and normalized results to 4 W/kg whole body average. We used a rectangular saline-gel filled phantom and a coiled, double stent (Intracoil by ev3 Inc) 11 cm long. The stent had thin electrical insulation except for bare ends (simulating drug eluting coating). The stent and phantom were placed close to the wall of the RF Coil and had approximately 0.5 degrees C initial temperature rise at the ends (local SAR = 320 W/kg). We exposed a wire (24.1 cm, 0.5 mm diameter) with 0.5 mm insulation and saw an 8.6 degrees C temperature rise (local SAR = 5,680 W/kg) at the bare ends. All heating was within 1 mm3 of the ends, so the position of our fiber optic temperature probe was critical for repeatability. Our computational study used finite difference time domain software with a thermodynamics solver. We modeled a coiled bare-wire stent as a spiral with a rectangular cross section and found a maximum increase of 0.05 degrees C induced at the tips for plane wave exposures. A maximum local SAR of up to 200 W/kg occurred in a volume of only 8 x 10(-3) mm. We developed improved computational exposure sources-- optimized birdcage coils and quasi-MRI fields that may eliminate the need to model an RF coil. We learned that local (point) SAR (initial linear temperature rise) is the most reliable indicator of the maximum heating of an implant. Local SAR depends greatly on implant length, insulation and shape, and position in the MRI coil. Accurate heating must be measured with sensors or software having millimeter resolution. Many commercially available fiber optic temperature probes do meet this requirement.

  3. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children.

  4. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children. PMID:27028532

  5. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  6. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong; Song, Sang-Heon

    2016-03-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  9. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated.

  10. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  11. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology. PMID:27349086

  12. Investigating effective brain connectivity from fMRI data: past findings and current issues with reference to Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence-synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis-hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider application of

  13. Investigating Effective Brain Connectivity from fMRI Data: Past Findings and Current Issues with Reference to Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence—synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis—hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider

  14. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  15. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  16. Fetal Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings In Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection With Postnatal Imaging Correlation.

    PubMed

    Averill, Lauren W; Kandula, Vinay V R; Akyol, Yakup; Epelman, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool in the diagnosis of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection, requiring a detailed search for specific features. A combination of anterior temporal lobe abnormalities, white matter lesions, and polymicrogyria is especially predictive. Fetal MRI may provide a unique opportunity to detect anterior temporal cysts and occipital horn septations, as dilation of these areas may decrease later in development. Cortical migration abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, cerebellar dysplasia, and periventricular calcifications are often better depicted on postnatal imaging but can also be detected on fetal MRI. We present the prenatal brain MRI findings seen in congenital cytomegalovirus infection and provide postnatal imaging correlation, highlighting the evolution of findings at different times in prenatal and postnatal developments. PMID:26614131

  17. Associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and findings from quantitative MRI in human osteoarthritic cartilage of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Du, Xiaotao; Liu, Jun; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and the results of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteochondral samples were harvested from the middle part of the femoral condyle and tibial plateaus of 20 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) during total knee arthroplasty. Sagittal T2 mapping, T1pre, and T1Gd were performed using 7.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution was evaluated by OARSI, collagen anisotropy was assessed by polarized light microscopy (PLM), and biochemical analyses measured water, GAG, and collagen content. Associations between properties of the cartilage matrix and T2 and ΔR1 (1/T1Gd-1/T1pre) values were explored using correlation analysis. T2 and ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with the degree of cartilage degeneration (OARSI grade; Ρ = 0.53 and 0.77). T2 values were significantly correlated with water content (r = 0.69; P < 0.001), GAG content (r = -0.43; P < 0.001), and PLM grade (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), but not with collagen content (r = -0.02; P = 0.110). ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with GAG content (r = -0.84; P < 0.001) and PLM grade (r = 0.41; P < 0.001). Taken together, T2 mapping and dGEMRIC results were correlated with the properties of the cartilage matrix in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Combination T2 mapping and dGEMRIC represents a potential non-invasive monitoring technique to detect the progress of knee OA. PMID:26097577

  18. Do Women with Fragile X Syndrome Have Problems in Switching Attention: Preliminary Findings from ERP and fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Wilding, John; Morris, Peter; Jackson, Georgina

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that represents the most common known cause of developmental delay. Recent neuropsychological findings indicate that females with FXS present with a specific pattern of cognitive deficits and that these difficulties primarily involve skills requiring executive control. The present study is…

  19. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  20. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in juvenile onset neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, M; Saunders, D; Brown, S; Ramsden, L; Martin, N; Moraitis, E; Pilkington, C A; Brogan, P A; Eleftheriou, D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities identified with conventional MRI in children with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). This was single-centre (Great Ormond Street Hospital, London) retrospective case series of patients with juvenile NPSLE seen in 2003-2013. Brain MR images of the first episode of active NPSLE were reviewed. All patients fulfilled the 1999 ACR case definitions for NPSLE syndromes. Presenting neuropsychiatric manifestations, immunological findings and treatment are reported. Results are expressed as median and ranges or percentages. Fisher's exact test was used to identify clinical predictors of abnormal MRI. A total of 27 patients (22 females), median age 11 years (4-15), were identified. Presenting clinical symptoms included the following: headaches (85.1 %), mood disorder/depression (62.9 %), seizures (22.2 %), acute psychosis (18.5 %), cognitive dysfunction (14.8 %), movement disorder (14.8 %), acute confusional state (14.8 %), aseptic meningitis (7.4 %), demyelinating syndrome (3.7 %), myelopathy (3.7 %), dysautonomia (3.7 %) and cranial neuropathy (3.7 %). The principal MR findings were as follows: (1) absence of MRI abnormalities despite signs and symptoms of active NPSLE (59 %); (2) basilar artery territory infarction (3 %); (3) focal white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted imaging (33 %); (4) cortical grey matter lesions (3 %); and (5) brain atrophy (18.5 %). The presence of an anxiety disorder strongly associated with abnormal MRI findings (p = 0.008). In over half the children with NPSLE, no conventional MRI abnormalities were observed; white matter hyperintensities were the most commonly described abnormalities. Improved MR techniques coupled with other alternative diagnostic imaging modalities may improve the detection rate of brain involvement in juvenile NPSLE. PMID:27527090

  2. The Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy With Cognitive Function and Brain MRI Findings: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, James F.; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Bryan, R. Nick; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Murray, Anne M.; Chew, Emily Y.; Danis, Ronald P.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Miller, Michael E.; Ding, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Longitudinal evidence linking diabetic retinopathy with changes in brain structure and cognition is sparse. We used data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial to determine whether diabetic retinopathy at baseline predicted changes in brain structure or cognition 40 months later. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants from the ACCORD-MIND and ACCORD-Eye substudies were included in analyses of cognition (n = 1,862) and MRI-derived brain variables (n = 432). Retinopathy was categorized as none, mild nonproliferative, or moderate/severe. Tests of cognition included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop test. Primary brain outcomes were gray matter and abnormal white matter volumes. RESULTS Baseline retinopathy was associated with lower gray matter volume (adjusted means of 470, 466, and 461 cm3 for none, mild, and moderate/severe retinopathy, respectively; P = 0.03). Baseline retinopathy also predicted a greater change in MMSE and DSST scores at 40 months in each retinopathy category (MMSE: −0.20, −0.57, and −0.42, respectively [P = 0.04]; DSST: −1.30, −1.84, and −2.89, respectively[P = 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS Diabetic retinopathy is associated with future cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. Although diabetic retinopathy is not a perfect proxy for diabetes-related brain and cognitive decline, patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy represent a subgroup at higher risk for future cognitive decline. PMID:25193529

  3. Neonatal White Matter Abnormalities an Important Predictor of Neurocognitive Outcome for Very Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Lianne J.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Bora, Samudragupta; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. Objective Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. Design/Methods The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) infants born from 1998–2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. Results At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white matter abnormalities on

  4. Associated brain abnormalities in patients with corpus callosum anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tekgül, H; Dizdarer, G; Yalman, O; Sener, N; Yünten, N; Tütüncüoğlu, S

    1999-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies.

  5. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis.

  6. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  7. Oligoclonal banding of IgG in CSF, blood-brain barrier function, and MRI findings in patients with sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Behçet's disease involving the nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, B N; Miller, D; Thompson, E J

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of CSF and serum analysis from a total of 43 patients with sarcoidosis, 20 with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 12 with Behçet's disease with neurological involvement found local synthesis of oligoclonal IgG using isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting in 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively at some stage in their disease. Blood-brain barrier breakdown, when assessed with an albumin ratio found 47% of patients with sarcoidosis, 30% of those with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 42% of patients with Behçet's disease exhibiting abnormal barrier function at some time. Serial CSF analysis showed that clinical relapses were associated with worsening barrier function and in some patients the development of local oligoclonal IgG synthesis; conversely steroid treatment led to a statistically significant improvement in barrier function, and in two patients a loss of oligoclonal IgG bands. A higher proportion of patients had MRI abnormalities than oligoclonal IgG or blood-brain barrier breakdown, MRI being abnormal in 16 of 19 patients with sarcoidosis, three of four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and seven of nine patients with Behçet's disease, although this may have been due to temporal factors. In the differential diagnosis of chronic neurological disorders, locally synthesised oligoclonal IgG cannot distinguish between diseases, but the loss of bands seen in two patients contrasts with what is seen in multiple sclerosis, and thus may be a useful diagnostic clue. PMID:7745401

  8. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included.

  9. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  10. Frequency, prognosis and surgical treatment of structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging in childhood epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions identified by MRI; (ii) clinical factors associated with ‘positive’ MRI scans; and (iii) the utilization of comprehensive epilepsy evaluations and neurosurgery. Of the original cohort of 613 children, 518 (85%) had usable MRI scans. Eighty-two (16%) had MRI abnormalities potentially relevant to epilepsy (‘positive’ scans). Idiopathic epilepsy syndromes were identified in 162 (31%) of whom 3% had positive scans. The remainder had non-idiopathic epilepsy syndromes of which 22% had positive MRI findings. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified non-idiopathic epilepsy and abnormal motor-sensory (neurological) examinations as predictors of a positive MRI scan. Of the non-idiopathic patients with normal neurological exams and who were not pharmacoresistant, 10% had positive MRI scans, including four patients with gliomas. Evaluations at comprehensive epilepsy centres occurred in 54 pharmacoresistant cases. To date 5% of the imaged cohort or 8% of non-idiopathic epilepsy patients have undergone surgical procedures (including vagal nerve stimulator implantation) to treat their epilepsy (n = 22) or for tumours (n = 6) without being drug resistant. Applying our findings to the general population of children in the USA, we estimate that there will be 127/1 000 000 new cases per year of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and 52/1 000 000 childhood-onset epilepsy patients undergoing epilepsy evaluations. In addition, approximately 27/1 000 000 will have an epilepsy-related surgical procedure. These findings support recommendations for the use of MRI in evaluating newly diagnosed paediatric epilepsy patients, especially with non

  11. Clinical characteristics of children with cerebral white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, R; Uvebrant, P; Wiklund, L M

    2000-01-01

    The rapidly expanding use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with neurological impairments of unknown aetiology has revealed a large number of children with abnormalities of the cerebral white matter, some with leukodystrophy-like white matter abnormalities on MRI, but non-progressive in clinical presentation and course. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroradiological characteristics of 26 children with white matter abnormalities of unknown origin and to find diagnostic clues or indicators of progressive versus nonprogressive disease. The typical child with white matter abnormalities was characterized by onset of symptoms within the first year of life, most often presenting as general developmental delay and hypotonia. Later-appearing signs were spasticity and ataxia and as a rule severe learning and motor disabilities. Serious ophthalmological signs were frequently seen. Perinatal adverse events were rare, infectious aetiologies not indicated but prenatal stigmata relatively common. The clinical course was progressive in 11 children and non-progressive in 15. Late onset presentation was associated with a progressive course whereas prenatal stigmata and asymmetrical white matter lesions only were found in children with a non-progressive disorder. The MRI showed three main patterns: a) a generalized increase of the T2 signal of the white matter in 12 children, b) a bilateral, symmetric but not generalized abnormality in nine and c) asymmetric, focal or multifocal pathology in five. Useful information as to clinical entities and course was obtained from the combined clinical and radiological assessment. A precise nosological diagnosis could be made in six cases. The study showed that white matter abnormalities in children constitute a heterogeneous group of rare and 'anonymous' conditions, motivating collaborative studies for further clarification of background and management. PMID:10701100

  12. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. MRI brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  14. MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Friedemann; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A.; Tenembaum, Silvia; Asgari, Nasrin; Palace, Jacqueline; Klawiter, Eric C.; Sato, Douglas K.; de Seze, Jérôme; Wuerfel, Jens; Banwell, Brenda L.; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Kim, Su-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti–aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti–aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from multiple sclerosis. Differentiating these conditions is of prime importance because early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy is the key to preventing attack-related disability in NMOSD, whereas some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis may exacerbate the disease. Therefore, identifying the MRI features suggestive of NMOSD has diagnostic and prognostic implications. We herein review the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord MRI findings of NMOSD. PMID:25695963

  15. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in MRSA Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Patricia; Mandell, Gerald A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a severe form of infection characterized by multifocal or multiple segmental osseous involvement and subperiosteal abscess formation with increased frequency of extraosseous complications including pyomyositis, septic thrombus, and septic arthritis. Bone scan showed long segment and/or multifocal involvement in 4 of 5 patients with areas of abnormal increased and decreased uptake. The clinical presentations included limp and/or pain. Joint involvement was seen in 4 cases. Bone scan abnormalities correlated well with MRI findings of severe and extensive bone disease, abscess formation, muscle, as well as joint and soft tissue involvement.

  16. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  17. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  18. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  19. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  20. Reconciling abnormalities of brain network structure and function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fornito, Alex; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is widely regarded as a disorder of abnormal brain connectivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggests that patients show robust reductions of structural connectivity. However, corresponding changes in functional connectivity do not always follow, with increased functional connectivity being reported in many cases. Here, we consider different methodological and mechanistic accounts that might reconcile these apparently contradictory findings and argue that increased functional connectivity in schizophrenia likely represents a pathophysiological dysregulation of brain activity arising from abnormal neurodevelopmental wiring of structural connections linking putative hub regions of association cortex to other brain areas. Elucidating the pathophysiological significance of connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia will be contingent on better understanding how network structure shapes and constrains function.

  1. Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies.

  2. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  3. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  4. Randomized Comparison of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) with Surgical Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids (REST Trial): Subanalysis of 5-Year MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Murray, Lilian; Ritchie, Moira; Murray, Gordon; Bryden, Fiona; Lassman, Sue; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Moss, Jon G.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention. Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.

  5. Radiologic Findings and Risk Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study with 3-Year Follow-Up Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    So, Wan-Soo; Ku, Min-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Byung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to figure out the radiologic findings and risk factors related to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using 3-year follow-up radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Methods A retrospective matched comparative study was performed for 64 patients who underwent single-level ACDF with a cage and plate. Radiologic parameters, including upper segment range of motion (USROM), lower segment range of motion (LSROM), upper segment disc height (UDH), and lower segment disc height (LDH), clinical outcomes assessed with neck and arm visual analogue scale (VAS), and risk factors were analyzed. Results Patients were categorized into the ASD (32 patients) and non-ASD (32 patients) group. The decrease of UDH was significantly greater in the ASD group at each follow-up visit. At 36 months postoperatively, the difference for USROM value from the preoperative one significantly increased in the ASD group than non-ASD group. Preoperative other segment degeneration was significantly associated with the increased incidence of ASD at 36 months. However, pain intensity for the neck and arm was not significantly different between groups at any post-operative follow-up visit. Conclusion The main factor affecting ASD is preoperative other segment degeneration out of the adjacent segment. In addition, patients over the age of 50 are at higher risk of developing ASD. Although there was definite radiologic degeneration in the ASD group, no significant difference was observed between the ASD and non-ASD groups in terms of the incidence of symptomatic disease. PMID:26962418

  6. A decision support system based on an ensemble of random forests for improving the management of women with abnormal findings at cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bountris, Panagiotis; Haritou, Maria; Pouliakis, Abraham; Karakitsos, Petros; Koutsouris, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In most cases, cervical cancer (CxCa) develops due to underestimated abnormalities in the Pap test. Today, there are ancillary molecular biology techniques available that provide important information related to CxCa and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) natural history, including HPV DNA tests, HPV mRNA tests and immunocytochemistry techniques such as overexpression of p16. These techniques are either highly sensitive or highly specific, however not both at the same time, thus no perfect method is available today. In this paper we present a decision support system (DSS) based on an ensemble of Random Forests (RFs) for the intelligent combination of the results of classic and ancillary techniques that are available for CxCa detection, in order to exploit the benefits of each technique and produce more accurate results. The proposed system achieved both, high sensitivity (86.1%) and high specificity (93.3%), as well as high overall accuracy (91.8%), in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). The system's performance was better than any other single test involved in this study. Moreover, the proposed architecture of employing an ensemble of RFs proved to be better than the single classifier approach. The presented system can handle cases with missing tests and more importantly cases with inadequate cytological outcome, thus it can also produce accurate results in the case of stand-alone HPV-based screening, where Pap test is not applied. The proposed system may identify women at true risk of developing CxCa and guide personalised management and therapeutic interventions.

  7. MRI and low back pain

    MedlinePlus

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  8. Brain tissue damage in dementia with Lewy bodies: an in vivo diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Bozzali, M; Falini, A; Cercignani, M; Baglio, F; Farina, E; Alberoni, M; Vezzulli, P; Olivotto, F; Mantovani, F; Shallice, T; Scotti, G; Canal, N; Nemni, R

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI), a quantitative MRI measure which reflects tissue organization, to dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). DT-MRI scans were obtained from 15 patients with probable DLB and 10 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Abnormalities were found in the corpus callosum, pericallosal areas and the frontal, parietal, occipital and, less prominently, temporal white matter of patients compared with controls. Abnormalities were also found in the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The average grey matter volume was lower in patients than in controls. These findings of concomitant grey matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities (as detected by DT-MRI) in regions with a high prevalence of long connecting fibre tracts might suggest the presence of neurodegeneration involving associative cortices. The modest involvement of the temporal lobe fits with the relative preservation of global neuropsychological measures and memory tasks in the early stage of DLB. The selective involvement of parietal, frontal and occipital lobes might explain some of the clinical and neuropsychological features of DLB, providing a possible distinctive marker for this disease. The abnormalities found in the subcortical grey matter may indicate that DLB and Parkinson's disease share a similar nigrostriatal involvement caused by common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  9. PACS: effect on incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Green, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have addressed the increased volume of incidental findings when interpreting MRI lumbar spine studies after the implementation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The purpose of this study is to confirm prior findings and contribute additional knowledge that supports the use of technology in complimenting the quality of patient care. Lumbar spine interpretations were reprinted from 900 studies and individually reviewed. These lumbar spine studies were performed on a 1.5-tesla magnet. Included were 300 consecutive lumbar spine reports over a two year period: four months prior to PACS introduction, four months during the transition to PACS, and four months post PACS implementation. Reports stating incidental findings were tabulated, along with the frequency patient gender, age, location (outpatient, inpatient or emergency room), reporting radiologist, specific finding and radiologist recommendations in each case were documented. The number of incidental findings increased from five pre-PACS to nine during the transition phase to PACS, followed by 11 post-PACS. This results in a maximum increase of 120 percent from pre- to post-PACS. The most common incidental findings include renal mass, cyst or lesions, aortic aneurysms and lymph node abnormalities. Statistical data confirms that the implementation of PACS into a radiology practice for MRI lumbar spine imaging appears to have a beneficial impact on the number of reported incidental findings and recommended follow-up studies.

  10. MRI and Ultrasound Injury in Preterm Infants with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Sullivan, Joseph; Rogers, Elizabeth; Ferriero, Donna M.; Goldstein, Ruth; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a universal screening tool in preterm infants has been contested; however, MR is increasingly used in investigation of neonatal seizures. We evaluated 236 infants <34 weeks gestation at birth. Seizures were documented according to clinical standard of care. Infants were imaged using MRI and head ultrasound during the neonatal period. A neuroradiologist and ultrasonologist performed detailed reviews of the images. Nine infants (3.8%) had clinical suspicion of seizures during the hospital course. MRI was abnormal in each case (three with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarct, two with findings of hypoxia-ischemia, three with white matter injury (WMI) and one each with schizencephaly and dysplasia –one infant had two lesions). Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct was more common in infants with seizures (33% vs 6% of those without seizures, OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.8-36.7). Infants with seizures were more likely to have WMI, though the difference was not significant (RR 2.4, 95% CI 0.54-11.1, P=0.3). Head ultrasound failed to detect the extent of brain abnormality in eight (89%) of the infants. In this large cohort, infants with clinical suspicion of seizures had a high rate of MRI abnormalities that were not as well characterized by head ultrasound. MRI may be the study of choice for evaluating preterm infants with seizures. Further studies using better seizure monitoring are necessary to evaluate electrographic seizures and their relationship to brain injury on MRI. PMID:19745086

  11. MRI Based Preterm White Matter Injury Classification: The Importance of Sequential Imaging in Determining Severity of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Biarge, Miriam; Groenendaal, Floris; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Foti, Francesca; Cowan, Frances M.; de Vries, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI) based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings. Methods Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks) were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and confirmed on MRI. Results 138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32), mid (2–6 weeks; n = 30) and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76). 63 infants (77%) had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami. Conclusion In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2–6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI. PMID:27257863

  12. 7-Tesla MRI demonstrates absence of structural lesions in patients with vestibular paroxysmia.

    PubMed

    Rommer, Paulus S; Wiest, Gerald; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Zach, Heidemarie; Loader, Benjamin; Elwischger, Kirsten; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular parxoysmia (VP) is a rare vestibular disorder. A neurovascular cross-compression (NVCC) between the vestibulochochlear nerve and an artery seems to be responsible for short attacks of vertigo in this entity. An NVCC can be seen in up to every fourth subject. The significance of these findings is not clear, as not all subjects suffer from symptoms. The aim of the present study was to assess possible structural lesions of the vestibulocochlear nerve by means of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and whether high field MRI may help to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic subjects. 7 Tesla MRI was performed in six patients with VP and confirmed NVCC seen on 1.5 and 3.0 MRI. No structural abnormalities were detected in any of the patients in 7 Tesla MRI. These findings imply that high field MRI does not help to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic NVCC and that the symptoms of VP are not caused by structural nerve lesions. This supports the hypothesis that the nystagmus associated with VP has to be conceived pathophysiologically as an excitatory vestibular phenomenon, being not related to vestibular hypofunction. 7 Tesla MRI outperforms conventional MRI in image resolution and may be useful in vestibular disorders.

  13. The circuitry of abulia: Insights from functional connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J.S.; Snyder, A.Z.; Metcalf, N.V.; Fucetola, R.P.; Hacker, C.D.; Shimony, J.S.; Shulman, G.L.; Corbetta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional imaging and lesion studies have associated willed behavior with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Abulia is a syndrome characterized by apathy and deficiency of motivated behavior. Abulia is most frequently associated with ACC damage, but also occurs following damage to subcortical nuclei (striatum, globus pallidus, thalamic nuclei). We present resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) data from an individual who suffered a stroke leading to abulia. We hypothesized that, although structural imaging revealed no damage to the patient's ACC, fcMRI would uncover aberrant function in this region and in the relevant cortical networks. Methods Resting state correlations in the patient's gray matter were compared to those of age-matched controls. Using a novel method to identify abnormal patterns of functional connectivity in single subjects, we identified areas and networks with aberrant connectivity. Results Networks associated with memory (default mode network) and executive function (cingulo-opercular network) were abnormal. The patient's anterior cingulate was among the areas showing aberrant functional connectivity. In a rescan 3 years later, deficits remained stable and fcMRI findings were replicated. Conclusions These findings suggest that the aberrant functional connectivity mapping approach described may be useful for linking stroke symptoms to disrupted network connectivity. PMID:25379445

  14. Network Connectivity in Epilepsy: Resting State fMRI and EEG–fMRI Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Maria; Carmichael, David W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks underlying the core phenomena in epilepsy, from seizure generation to cognitive dysfunction or response to treatment. The investigation of networks in epilepsy has become a key concept to unlock a deeper understanding of the disease. Functional imaging can provide valuable information to characterize network dysfunction; in particular resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI), which is increasingly being applied to study brain networks in a number of diseases. In patients with epilepsy, network connectivity derived from RS-fMRI has found connectivity abnormalities in a number of networks; these include the epileptogenic, cognitive and sensory processing networks. However, in majority of these studies, the effect of epileptic transients in the connectivity of networks has been neglected. EEG–fMRI has frequently shown networks related to epileptic transients that in many cases are concordant with the abnormalities shown in RS studies. This points toward a relevant role of epileptic transients in the network abnormalities detected in RS-fMRI studies. In this review, we summarize the network abnormalities reported by these two techniques side by side, provide evidence of their overlapping findings, and discuss their significance in the context of the methodology of each technique. A number of clinically relevant factors that have been associated with connectivity changes are in turn associated with changes in the frequency of epileptic transients. These factors include different aspects of epilepsy ranging from treatment effects, cognitive processes, or transition between different alertness states (i.e., awake–sleep transition). For RS-fMRI to become a more effective tool to investigate clinically relevant aspects of epilepsy it is necessary to understand connectivity changes associated with epileptic transients, those associated with other clinically relevant factors and the interaction between them

  15. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Toma, Keiichiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals created by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  16. Diffusion-MRI in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Mascalchi, Mario; Cosottini, Mirco; Diciotti, Stefano; De Santis, Silvia; Passamonti, Luca; Tessa, Carlo; Toschi, Nicola; Giannelli, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The ability to image the whole brain through ever more subtle and specific methods/contrasts has come to play a key role in understanding the basis of brain abnormalities in several diseases. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), "diffusion" (i.e. the random, thermally-induced displacements of water molecules over time) represents an extraordinarily sensitive contrast mechanism, and the exquisite structural detail it affords has proven useful in a vast number of clinical as well as research applications. Since diffusion-MRI is a truly quantitative imaging technique, the indices it provides can serve as potential imaging biomarkers which could allow early detection of pathological alterations as well as tracking and possibly predicting subtle changes in follow-up examinations and clinical trials. Accordingly, diffusion-MRI has proven useful in obtaining information to better understand the microstructural changes and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying various neurodegenerative disorders. In this review article, we summarize and explore the main applications, findings, perspectives as well as challenges and future research of diffusion-MRI in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and degenerative ataxias. PMID:25917917

  17. A decision aid for diagnosis of liver lesions on MRI.

    PubMed Central

    Tombropoulos, R.; Shiffman, S.; Davidson, C.

    1993-01-01

    Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation of liver abnormalities. The interpretation of MR images requires expert training in a rapidly changing field. DAFODILL (Decision Aid for Diagnosing Liver Lesions) is a decision-support tool designed to aid radiologists in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions seen on MRI. DAFODILL uses a knowledge base of MRI findings and a belief-network inference engine to generate probabilistic differential diagnoses of the most commonly encountered hepatic lesions. DAFODILL performs limited image processing to identify clinically relevant features, which are presented to the user for confirmation before they are used by the network. Preliminary evaluation of an initial version of the system suggests that DAFODILL may be a useful tool for radiology residents and nonexpert radiologists in interpreting MR images of the liver. PMID:8130512

  18. Development and Validation of Electronic Health Record-based Triggers to Detect Delays in Follow-up of Abnormal Lung Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Daniel R; Thomas, Eric J; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-10-01

    . Conclusion EHR-based triggers can be used to identify patients with suspicious imaging findings in whom follow-up diagnostic evaluation was delayed. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  19. Development and Validation of Electronic Health Record-based Triggers to Detect Delays in Follow-up of Abnormal Lung Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Daniel R; Thomas, Eric J; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-10-01

    . Conclusion EHR-based triggers can be used to identify patients with suspicious imaging findings in whom follow-up diagnostic evaluation was delayed. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25961634

  20. Sonography in Hypotension and Cardiac Arrest (SHoC): Rates of Abnormal Findings in Undifferentiated Hypotension and During Cardiac Arrest as a Basis for Consensus on a Hierarchical Point of Care Ultrasound Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Milne, James; Lewis, David; Fraser, Jacqueline; Diegelmann, Laura; Olszynski, Paul; Stander, Melanie; Lamprecht, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH and ACES) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. PoCUS also provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We wished to report disease incidence as a basis to develop a hierarchical approach to PoCUS in hypotension and during cardiac arrest. Methods We summarized the recorded incidence of PoCUS findings from the initial cohort during the interim analysis of two prospective studies. We propose that this will form the basis for developing a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data to obtain the input of a panel of international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM). The modified Delphi tool will be developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients as well as into cardiac arrest algorithms. Results Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). During cardiac arrest there were no pericardial effusions, however abnormalities of ventricular contraction (45%) and valvular motion (39%) were common among the 43 patients included. Conclusions A prospectively collected disease incidence-based hierarchy of scanning can be developed based on the reported findings. This will inform an international consensus

  1. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Intracranial Abnormalities in Unprovoked Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kathleen; Bennett, Jonathan; Conners, Gregory; Bailey, Pam; Callahan, James; Akman, Cigdem; Feldstein, Neil; Kriger, Joshua; Hauser, W. Allen; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prospective data are lacking to determine which children might benefit from prompt neuroimaging after unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, relevant intracranial abnormalities in children with first, unprovoked seizures. METHODS: We conducted a 6-center prospective study in children aged >28 days to 18 years with seemingly unprovoked seizures. Emergency department (ED) clinicians documented clinical findings on a standardized form. Our main outcome was the presence of a clinically relevant intracranial abnormality on computed tomography (CT) or MRI, defined as those that might change management, either emergently, urgently, or nonurgently. RESULTS: We enrolled 475 of 625 (76%) eligible patients. Of 354 patients for whom cranial MRI or CT scans were obtained in the ED or within 4 months of the ED visit, 40 (11.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–14.6%) had clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities, with 3 (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.1–1.8%) having emergent/urgent abnormalities. On logistic regression analysis, a high-risk past medical history (adjusted odds ratio: 9.2; 95% CI: 2.4–35.7) and any focal aspect to the seizure (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.3) were independently associated with clinically relevant abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities occur in 11% of children with first, unprovoked seizures. Emergent/urgent abnormalities, however, occur in <1%, suggesting that most children do not require neuroimaging in the ED. Findings on patient history and physical examination identify patients at higher risk of relevant abnormalities. PMID:26195538

  2. Bilateral renal lymphangiectasia: radiological findings by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Khaled Youssef; Almutairi, Badr M; Zidan, Ahmed Touni

    2015-01-01

    Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare benign condition of the kidney without specific clinical presentations. Classic imaging findings are described in literature. Here, we present a case of renal lymphangiectasia with history of bilateral flank pain and abnormal renal function tests. The radiological appearance on ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) showed features of bilateral renal lymphangiectasia but the patient refused invasive procedure for aspiration of the cysts. So, follow-up of the patient was done by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings of our case on US, CT, and MRI are discussed along with details of the additional finding of dilated retroperitoneal lymphatic channels, cisterna chyli, as well as the thoracic duct.

  3. Internal impingement of the shoulder: comparison of findings between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Halbrecht, J L; Tirman, P; Atkin, D

    1999-04-01

    The authors evaluated and compared the findings of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of throwing and nonthrowing shoulders in college baseball athletes and contrasted these findings with the clinical examination results. Ten throwing college baseball athletes were prospectively clinically examined for instability, range of motion, impingement signs, and relocation testing, then evaluated with bilateral gadolinium enhanced MRI using the nonthrowing shoulder as a control. All MRIs were performed on a 1.5-Tesla magnet and included routine adduction images and images obtained in abduction and external rotation (ABER). Studies were interpreted by a musculoskeletal radiologist and an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in shoulder surgery. In all shoulders, ABER imaging showed physical contact between the undersurface of the rotator cuff and the posterior superior glenoid. No imaging or physical examination abnormalities were identified in the nonthrowing shoulders. Three of 10 throwing shoulders had superior labral tears and adjacent paralabral cysts extending toward or into the spinoglenoid notch. Four of 10 throwing shoulders had abnormal signal change in the rotator cuff tendons. No correlation was identified between positive MRI findings and instability on physical examination. Physical contact between the rotator cuff undersurface and the subjacent labrum can be seen normally in the ABER position. Abnormalities of the rotator cuff and superior labrum are seen in asymptomatic throwing shoulders but not nonthrowing shoulders. MRI abnormalities consistent with internal impingement can be seen in asymptomatic patients. Treatment of these abnormalities in young throwing athletes should be approached with caution.

  4. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  5. In vivo magnetization transfer MRI shows dysmyelination in an ischemic mouse model of periventricular leukomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Ali; Wilson, Mary Ann; Phillips, Andre W; McMahon, Michael T; Zhang, Jiangyang; Smith, Seth A; Arauz, Edwin J; Falahati, Sina; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Bodagala, Hima; Mori, Susumu; Johnston, Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia, PVL, is the leading cause of cerebral palsy in prematurely born infants, and therefore more effective interventions are required. The objective of this study was to develop an ischemic injury model of PVL in mice and to determine the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a potential monitoring tool for the evaluation of disease severity and experimental therapeutics. Neonatal CD-1 mice underwent unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day 5 (P5); at P60, in vivo T2-weighted (T2w) and MT-MRI were performed and correlated with postmortem histopathology. In vivo T2w MRI showed thinning of the right corpus callosum, but no significant changes in hippocampal and hemispheric volumes. Magnetization transfer MRI revealed significant white matter abnormalities in the bilateral corpus callosum and internal capsule. These quantitative MT-MRI changes correlated highly with postmortem findings of reduced myelin basic protein in bilateral white matter tracts. Ventriculomegaly and persistent astrogliosis were observed on the ligated side, along with evidence of axonopathy and fewer oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum. We present an ischemia-induced mouse model of PVL, which has pathologic abnormalities resembling autopsy reports in infants with PVL. We further validate in vivo MRI techniques as quantitative monitoring tools that highly correlate with postmortem histopathology. PMID:21540870

  6. Retrospective multicenter evaluation of the "fly-catching syndrome" in 24 dogs: EEG, BAER, MRI, CSF findings and response to antiepileptic and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Pakozdy, Akos

    2015-12-01

    The fly-catching syndrome (FCS) is a rare canine condition of sudden, occasional, or constant episodes of biting the air. It may be accompanied by jumping, licking, and swallowing. The etiology of FCS is unknown and controversial. Various explanations for its occurrence have included epileptoid disorders such as visual cortex epileptiform disturbances and simple and complex partial seizures as well as compulsive disorders, hallucinatory behavior, and stereotypy. A retrospective multicenter analysis of 24 dogs with clinical symptoms of FCS is presented. Clinical signs at the time of presentation, the mean age at onset of the disease, the response to treatment, and the clinical outcome were recorded and analyzed in all patients. All dogs underwent clinical, neurological, and otoscopic examinations. Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) and serum chemistry panels were obtained from each dog. Diagnostic testing included MRI and EEG examinations in 21 cases, BAER in 19 cases, and CSF analysis in 20 cases. The EEG revealed spike activity in 8 (38%) of the 21 cases, 7 of which had activity in the occipital lobes. The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) revealed three cases of bilateral deafness. The MRI revealed six cases of Chiari malformation (CM), one case of syringohydromyelia (SM), and one case of a falx cerebri meningioma. The dogs were divided into groups according to their treatment protocol. Group A included dogs treated with phenobarbital (PB), and group B consisted of dogs treated with fluoxetine (FLX). Thirty-six percent of the dogs in group A responded to PB, while 100% of the dogs in group B responded to FLX. The results suggest that FCS is more responsive to FLX than PB. However, the etiology of this behavior remains unclear in most cases.

  7. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  9. MRI and FDG PET/CT imaging manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Sweiss, Nadera J

    2015-12-01

    A 52-year-old man had biopsy-proven sarcoidosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. Cardiac sarcoidosis was confirmed on cardiac MRI with typical imaging features as delayed gadolinium enhancement. Follow-up FDG PET/CT with a 3-day pretest diet modification showed suppression of overall myocardial uptake of FDG but with multifocal abnormal FDG uptake in the myocardium regions corresponding to the previous MRI findings. Additional noncardiac active sarcoidosis involving multiple organ and lymph nodes were also visualized on FDG PET/CT. PMID:26544904

  10. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto-striatal-thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  11. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto–striatal–thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  12. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  13. Resting-state abnormalities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, W K W; Leung, M-K; Lee, T M C; Law, A C K

    2016-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As no effective drug can cure AD, early diagnosis and intervention for aMCI are urgently needed. The standard diagnostic procedure for aMCI primarily relies on subjective neuropsychological examinations that require the judgment of experienced clinicians. The development of other objective and reliable aMCI markers, such as neural markers, is therefore required. Previous neuroimaging findings revealed various abnormalities in resting-state activity in MCI patients, but the findings have been inconsistent. The current study provides an updated activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on aMCI. The authors searched on the MEDLINE/PubMed databases for whole-brain resting-state fMRI studies on aMCI published until March 2015. We included 21 whole-brain resting-state fMRI studies that reported a total of 156 distinct foci. Significant regional resting-state differences were consistently found in aMCI patients relative to controls, including the posterior cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral middle temporal gyri. Our findings support that abnormalities in resting-state activities of these regions may serve as neuroimaging markers for aMCI. PMID:27115121

  14. R6/2 Huntington’s disease Mice Develop Early and Progressive Abnormal Brain Metabolism and Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda-Prado, E; Popp, S; Khan, U; Stefanov, D; Rodriguez, J; Menalled, L; Dow-Edwards, D; Small, SA; Moreno, H

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several HD mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI-signals (relative cerebral blood volumes-rCBV) and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions- thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [14C] deoxyglucose (2DG) maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice, and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

  15. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  16. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker.

    PubMed

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or "MR Conditional" (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less.

  17. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker

    PubMed Central

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M.; Shellock, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or “MR Conditional” (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less. PMID:26266051

  18. Abnormal cerebellar volume in acute and remitted major depression.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal cortical volume is well-documented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but cerebellar findings have been heterogeneous. It is unclear whether abnormal cerebellar structure relates to disease state or medication. In this study, using structural MRI, we investigated cerebellar volume in clinically acute (with and without psychotropic treatment) and remitted MDD patients. High-resolution structural MRI data at 3T were obtained from acute medicated (n=29), acute unmedicated (n=14) and remitted patients (n=16). Data from 29 healthy controls were used for comparison purposes. Cerebellar volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Patients with an acute MDD episode showed increased volume of left cerebellar area IX, and this was true for both medicated and unmedicated individuals (p<0.05 cluster-corrected). Remitted patients exhibited bilaterally increased area IX volume. In remitted, but not in acutely ill patients, area IX volume was significantly associated with measures of depression severity, as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). In addition, area IX volume in remitted patients was significantly related to the duration of antidepressant treatment. In acutely ill patients, no significant relationships were established using clinical variables, such as HAMD, illness or treatment duration and number of depressive episodes. The data suggest that cerebellar area IX, a non-motor region that belongs to a large-scale brain functional network with known relevance to core depressive symptom expression, exhibits abnormal volume in patients independent of clinical severity or medication. Thus, the data imply a possible trait marker of the disorder. However, given bilaterality and an association with clinical scores at least in remitted patients, the current findings raise the possibility that cerebellar volume may be reflective of successful treatment as well.

  19. Abnormal Head Impulse Test in a Unilateral Cerebellar Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seol-Hee; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Moon Ho; Choi, June; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings of head impulse tests (HIT) are usually normal in cerebellar lesions. Case Report A 46-year-old male presented with progressive dizziness and imbalance of 3 weeks duration. The patient exhibited catch-up saccades during bedside horizontal HIT to either side, which was more evident during the rightward HIT. However, results of bithermal caloric tests and rotatory chair test were normal. MRI revealed a lesion in the inferior cerebellum near the flocculus. Conclusions This case provides additional evidence that damage to the flocculus or its connections may impair the vestibulo-ocular reflex only during high-speed stimuli, especially when the stimuli are applied to the contralesional side. By observing accompanying cerebellar signs, the abnormal HIT findings caused by a cerebellar disorder can be distinguished from those produced by peripheral vestibular disorders. PMID:25749819

  20. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  1. Gauging MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Ison; Goodman, Jeremy

    2009-11-01

    Axisymmetric stability of viscous resistive magnetized Couette flow is re-examined, with emphasis on flows that would be hydrodynamically stable according to Rayleigh's criterion: opposing gradients of angular velocity and specific angular momentum. A uniform axial magnetic field permeates the fluid. In this regime, magnetorotational instability (MRI) may occur. It is proved that MRI is suppressed, in fact no instability at all occurs, with insulating boundary conditions, when the magnetic resistivity is sufficiently large. This shows conclusively that small magnetic dissipation is a feature of this instability for all magnetic Prandtl numbers. A criterion is provided for the onset of MRI.

  2. Reversible cerebral shrinkage in kwashiorkor: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gunston, G D; Burkimsher, D; Malan, H; Sive, A A

    1992-08-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is associated with cerebral atrophy which may be detrimental to intellectual development. The aim of this study was to document the anatomical abnormalities which lead to the appearance of cerebral atrophy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute stage of kwashiorkor and to monitor changes during nutritional rehabilitation. Twelve children aged 6 to 37 months requiring admission to hospital for the treatment of kwashiorkor were studied. The children were evaluated clinically, biochemically, and by MRI of their brains on admission and 30 and 90 days later. Brain shrinkage was present in every child on admission. White and grey matter appeared equally affected and the myelination was normal for age. At 90 days, the cerebral changes had resolved in nine and improved substantially in the remainder, by which time serum proteins and weight for age were within the normal range. The findings of this study suggest that brain shrinkage associated with kwashiorkor reverses rapidly with nutritional rehabilitation.

  3. Radiologic-pathologic findings of solitary fibrous tumor of the prostate presenting as a large mass with delayed filling-in on MRI.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Puneet; Lee, Jean Hwa; Gupta, Saurabh; Seyal, Adeel Rahim; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Moshiri, Mariam; Dighe, Manjiri Kiran

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a solitary fibrous tumor of prostate presenting with urinary retention and a large prostate mass. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and histopathology of this rare, benign tumor. Although clinical and radiologic appearances embrace various differential diagnoses including sarcoma, this mass was confirmed by histologic analysis following surgical resection. We report this rare, benign tumor to help the radiologist suggest the diagnosis when presented with a similar case.

  4. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  5. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  6. Pre-Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Petra L.; Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F.

    2011-12-15

    Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifth of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Naziya P.; Murthy, G.S.N.; Nori, Madhavi; Abkari, Anand; Pooja, B.K.; Venkateswarlu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental delay is defined as significant delay in one or more developmental domains. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the best modality to investigate such patients. Evaluation of a child with developmental delay is important not only because it allows early diagnosis and treatment but also helpful for parental counseling regarding the outcome of their child and to identify any possible risk of recurrence in the siblings. Thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the developmental delay in Indian children which will help the clinicians in providing an estimation of the child’s ultimate developmental potential and organize specific treatment requirement and also relieve parental apprehension. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of normal and abnormal MRI in pediatric patients presenting with developmental delay and further categorize the abnormal MRI based on its morphological features. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, observational & descriptive study of MRI Brain in 81 paediatric patients (46 Males and 35 Females), aged between three months to 12 years; presenting with developmental delay in Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad; over a period of three years (Sept 2011 to Sept 2014). MRI brain was done on 1.5T Siemens Magnetom Essenza & 0.35T Magnetom C with appropriate sequences and planes after making the child sleep/sedated/ anesthetized. Various anatomical structures like Ventricles, Corpus callosum, etc were systematically assessed. The MRI findings were divided into various aetiological subgroups. Results: Normal MRI findings were seen in 32% cases and 68% had abnormal findings of which the proportion of Traumatic/ Neurovascular Diseases, Congenital & Developmental, Metabolic and Degenerative, neoplastic and non specific were 31%, 17%, 10%, 2.5% and 7.5% respectively. The ventricles and white matter mainly the corpus callosum were the most commonly affected anatomical structures. The diagnostic yield was

  8. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging findings of medulloblastoma in 3.0T MRI: A retrospective analysis of 17 cases☆

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangyao; Pang, Haopeng; Ghimire, Prasanna; Liu, Guobing

    2012-01-01

    1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging features of the cerebellar vermis in 17 medulloblastoma patients were retrospectively analyzed, and 17 healthy volunteers were selected as controls. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that in all 17 medulloblastoma patients, N-acetyl aspartate and creatine peaks were significantly decreased, the choline peak was significantly increased, and there was evidence of a myo-inositol peak. Further, 11 patients showed a low taurine peak at 3.4 ppm, five patients showed a lipid peak at 0.9–1.3 ppm, and three patients showed a negative lactic acid peak at 1.33 ppm. Compared with the control group, the ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline and N-acetyl aspartate/creatine were significantly decreased, and the ratio of choline/creatine was increased, in medulloblastoma patients. Diffusion weighted imaging displayed hyperintensity and decreased apparent diffusion coefficient in medulloblastoma patients. These findings indicate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging are useful for qualitative diagnosis of medulloblastoma. PMID:25337109

  9. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  10. MRI for patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Nazarian, Saman

    2014-05-01

    MRI has become an invaluable tool in the evaluation of soft tissue and bony abnormalities. The presence of a cardiac implantable electrical device (CIED) may complicate matters, however, because these devices are considered a contraindication to MRI scanning. When MRI is performed in patients with a CIED, risks include reed switch activation in older devices, lead heating, system malfunction, and significant radiofrequency noise resulting in inappropriate inhibition of demand pacing, tachycardia therapies, or programming changes. This report reviews indications and risk-benefit evaluation of MRI in patients with CIED and provides a clinical algorithm for performing MRI in patients with implanted devices. PMID:24793805

  11. MRI of the breast: does the internet accurately report its beneficial uses and limitations?

    PubMed

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Kiarsis, Keith; Elmore, Joann G

    2009-01-01

    As consumer use of the Internet for medical information grows, continuing evaluation of the medical content on the Internet is needed. We evaluated Internet sites describing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging technology tool in breast cancer diagnosis and screening. We searched Google for sites describing breast MRI and abstracted the affiliation, content, media type, readability, and quality of 90 most popular unique sites. Over half (56%) of the sites were commercially sponsored. The content varied by site and included medical and procedural facts, information about clinical trials, grants and journal articles, as well as human interest stories. Most (82%) sites described potentially beneficial uses of breast MRI, such as further evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancers (58%); screening women at high risk for breast cancer (54%); evaluation of abnormal breast findings (48%); screening women with dense breasts (48%) or implants (27%); and surveillance for breast cancer recurrences (24%). Approximately half (56%) of the sites described the limitations of breast MRI, most commonly false positive findings (44%) and costs (24%). Website quality, including the display of contact information, sponsorship, currency of information, authorship, and references varied. The reading level was close to high school graduate. Internet sites describing breast MRI were mostly commercially sponsored, more often described the potential beneficial uses of the procedure than its limitations, and were of variable quality and high reading level. With the lack of enforceable standards for display of medical information on the Internet, providers should encourage patients to direct their searches to the most credible sites. PMID:19292806

  12. MRI of the breast: does the internet accurately report its beneficial uses and limitations?

    PubMed

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Kiarsis, Keith; Elmore, Joann G

    2009-01-01

    As consumer use of the Internet for medical information grows, continuing evaluation of the medical content on the Internet is needed. We evaluated Internet sites describing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging technology tool in breast cancer diagnosis and screening. We searched Google for sites describing breast MRI and abstracted the affiliation, content, media type, readability, and quality of 90 most popular unique sites. Over half (56%) of the sites were commercially sponsored. The content varied by site and included medical and procedural facts, information about clinical trials, grants and journal articles, as well as human interest stories. Most (82%) sites described potentially beneficial uses of breast MRI, such as further evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancers (58%); screening women at high risk for breast cancer (54%); evaluation of abnormal breast findings (48%); screening women with dense breasts (48%) or implants (27%); and surveillance for breast cancer recurrences (24%). Approximately half (56%) of the sites described the limitations of breast MRI, most commonly false positive findings (44%) and costs (24%). Website quality, including the display of contact information, sponsorship, currency of information, authorship, and references varied. The reading level was close to high school graduate. Internet sites describing breast MRI were mostly commercially sponsored, more often described the potential beneficial uses of the procedure than its limitations, and were of variable quality and high reading level. With the lack of enforceable standards for display of medical information on the Internet, providers should encourage patients to direct their searches to the most credible sites.

  13. Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in clinical anxiety and comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Song, Inkyung; Blair Simpson, Helen; Posner, Jonathan; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-05-01

    Given the high prevalence rates of comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders, identifying a common neural pathway to both disorders is important not only for better diagnosis and treatment, but also for a more complete conceptualization of each disease. Hippocampal abnormalities have been implicated in anxiety and depression, separately; however, it remains unknown whether these abnormalities are also implicated in their comorbidity. Here we address this question by testing 32 adults with generalized anxiety disorder (15 GAD only and 17 comorbid MDD) and 25 healthy controls (HC) using multimodal MRI (structure, diffusion and functional) and automated hippocampal segmentation. We demonstrate that (i) abnormal microstructure of the CA1 and CA2-3 is associated with GAD/MDD comorbidity and (ii) decreased anterior hippocampal reactivity in response to repetition of the threat cue is associated with GAD (with or without MDD comorbidity). In addition, mediation-structural equation modeling (SEM) reveals that our hippocampal and dimensional symptom data are best explained by a model describing a significant influence of abnormal hippocampal microstructure on both anxiety and depression-mediated through its impact on abnormal hippocampal threat processing. Collectively, our findings show a strong association between changes in hippocampal microstructure and threat processing, which together may present a common neural pathway to comorbidity of anxiety and depression.

  14. Association of urodynamic findings in new onset multiple sclerosis with subsequent occurrence of urinary symptoms and acute episode of disease in females

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Farhad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Bzeih, Hussein; Zargham, Mahtab; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kia; Akbari, Mojtaba; Tadayyon, Borna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the relative frequency of abnormal urodynamic findings in new multiple sclerosis (MS) cases without micturition complaints and to find its correlation with the number of MS plaques on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urinary tract involvement and the number of disease episodes. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 new female case of multiple sclerosis were enrolled. Age, urodynamic findings, micturition complaints and number of plaques on MRI were recorded on admission. Occurrence of urinary symptoms and number of episodes of the disease were recorded every three months during one-year follow-up. Results: The mean patients’ age was 32.4 ± 7.2 years and all patients were female. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had a normal urodynamic test and 31 (62%) had abnormal urodynamic findings at the beginning of the study. The occurrence of micturition complaints during follow-up in patients with abnormal urodynamic findings (94%) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than patients with normal urodynamic findings (37%). In addition, the number of plaques on MRI at the beginning of the study in patients with abnormal urodynamic finding was significantly higher (p < 0.004) compared to patients with a normal urodynamic study. The number of episodes during follow-up was not statistically different between patients with normal and abnormal urodynamic findings (p = 0.46). Conclusions: According to this study, 62% of all new MS patients had an abnormal urodynamic test. This is a considerable proportion of patients and it seems urodynamic studies can be used when MS is first diagnosed. PMID:23267402

  15. Integration of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI Quantitative Parameters for Breast Lesion Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Amato, Daniela Maria; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an imaging protocol combining dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods. A total of 31 breast lesions (15 malignant and 16 benign proved by histological examination) in 26 female patients were included in this study. For both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI model free and model based parameters were computed pixel by pixel on manually segmented ROIs. Statistical procedures included conventional linear analysis and more advanced techniques for classification of lesions in benign and malignant. Results. Our findings indicated no strong correlation between DCE-MRI and DW-MRI parameters. Results of classification analysis show that combining of DCE parameters or DW-MRI parameter, in comparison of single feature, does not yield a dramatic improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques alone. The best performance was obtained considering a full combination of all features. Moreover, the classification results combining all features are dominated by DCE-MRI features alone. Conclusion. The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI does not show a potential to dramatically increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. DCE-MRI alone gave the same performance as in combination with DW-MRI. PMID:26339597

  16. Ultrasonography and MRI features of the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rousset, P; Raudrant, D; Peyron, N; Buy, J-N; Valette, P-J; Hoeffel, C

    2013-09-01

    Although Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is a rare condition with a reported incidence of 1/4500 female live births, it represents the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea and has psychologically devastating consequences. The radiologist plays a pivotal role in both making the accurate initial diagnosis of this condition and assessing findings that may contribute to treatment planning. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the capabilities of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and management of this syndrome with emphasis on the relevant clinical and surgical findings and to describe potential associated abnormalities and differential diagnosis.

  17. Battlefield MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  18. New findings in the ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay.

    PubMed

    Gazulla, José; Benavente, Isabel; Vela, Ana Carmen; Marín, Miguel Angel; Pablo, Luis Emilio; Tessa, Alessandra; Barrena, María Rosario; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Nesti, Claudia; Modrego, Pedro; Tintoré, María; Berciano, José

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of the ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, based on the findings presented herein. Five patients with a molecular diagnosis of this disease underwent clinical, radiological, ophthalmologic and electrophysiological examinations. Five novel mutations, which included nonsense and missense variants, were identified, with these resulting in milder phenotypes. In addition to the usual manifestations, a straight dorsal spine was found in every case, and imaging techniques showed loss of the dorsal kyphosis. Cranial MRI demonstrated hypointense linear striations at the pons. Tensor diffusion MRI sequences revealed that these striations corresponded with hyperplastic pontocerebellar fibres, and tractographic sequences showed interrupted pyramidal tracts at the pons. Ocular coherence tomography demonstrated abnormal thickness of the nerve fibre layer. Electrophysiological studies showed nerve conduction abnormalities compatible with a dysmyelinating neuropathy, with signs of chronic denervation in distal muscles. The authors suggest that the hyperplastic pontocerebellar fibres compress the pyramidal tracts at the pons, and that the amount of retinal fibres traversing the optic discs is enlarged. These facts point to the contribution of an abnormal developmental mechanism in the ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. Accordingly, spasticity would be mediated by compression of the pyramidal tracts, neuromuscular symptoms by secondary axonal degeneration superimposed on the peripheral myelinopathy, while the cause of the progressive ataxia remains speculative. The distinctive aspect of the dorsal spine could be of help in the clinical diagnosis. PMID:21993619

  19. Altered Dynamics of the fMRI Response to Faces in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal fMRI habituation in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been proposed as a critical component in social impairment. This study investigated habituation to fearful faces and houses in ASD and whether fMRI measures of brain activity discriminate between ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. Two identical fMRI runs presenting masked…

  20. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality. PMID:25560665

  1. Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Daniel; Rzezak, Patricia; Pereira, Fabricio R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Santos, Luciana C; Duran, Fábio L S; Barreiros, Maria A; Castro, Cláudio C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Tavares, Hermano; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-06-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers (HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-T instrument. Using Freesurfer software, we performed an exploratory whole-brain voxelwise volume comparison between the PG group and the HV group, with false-discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Using a more flexible statistical threshold (p < 0.01, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), we also measured absolute and regional volumes of several brain structures separately. The voxelwise analysis showed no clusters of significant regional differences between the PG and HV groups. The additional analyses of absolute and regional brain volumes showed increased absolute global gray matter volumes in PG patients relative to the HV group, as well as relatively decreased volumes specifically in the left putamen, right thalamus and right hippocampus (corrected for total gray matter). Our findings indicate that structural brain abnormalities may contribute to the functional changes associated with the symptoms of PG, and they highlight the relevance of the brain reward system to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  2. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  3. Gyrification brain abnormalities as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Manara, Renzo; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Gyrification brain abnormalities are considered a marker of early deviations from normal developmental trajectories and a putative predictor of poor outcome in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore cortical folding morphology in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A MRI brain study was conducted on 38 patients with AN, 20 fully recovered patients, and 38 healthy women. Local gyrification was measured with procedures implemented in FreeSurfer. Vertex-wise comparisons were carried out to compare: (1) AN patients and healthy women; (2) patients with a full remission at a 3-year longitudinal follow-up assessment and patients who did not recover. AN patients exhibited significantly lower gyrification when compared with healthy controls. Patients with a poor 3-year outcome had significantly lower baseline gyrification when compared to both healthy women and patients with full recovery at follow-up, even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and gray matter volume. No significant correlation has been found between gyrification, body mass index, amount of weight loss, onset age, and duration of illness. Brain gyrification significantly predicted outcome at follow-up even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and other clinical prognostic factors. Although the role of starvation in determining our findings cannot be excluded, our study showed that brain gyrification might be a predictor of outcome in AN. Further studies are needed to understand if brain gyrification abnormalities are indices of early neurodevelopmental alterations, the consequence of starvation, or the interaction between both factors.

  4. Brain perfusion SPECT and MRI in foetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, R; Salonen, I; Partanen, K; Verho, S

    1999-10-01

    Six boys and five girls with a mean age of 8.6 (range 3 to 13) years with foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) were studied by MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to find specific areas of vulnerability. Morphological anomalies shown in six of 11 patients by MRI were situated both cortically and subcortically: cortical atrophy (N = 2), dilated ventricle (N = 1), corpus callosum hypoplasia (N = 1), cerebellar atrophy (N = 2), one of the latter with Arnold-Chiari malformation (N = 1). Delayed myelination of the white matter was seen in two patients. Volumetric studies of the hippocampus showed morphological left-right asymmetry in five of eight patients. However, SPECT showed mild hypoperfusion of the left hemisphere in all 10 subjects. The negative left-right index was located especially in the left parietooccipital region, i.e. in the brain areas implicated in arithmetical and logical-grammatical functions, which are known to be affected in FAS. Normal left-right dominance was also lacking in the frontal area, i.e. the brain area affected in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detection of these abnormalities, although they are not unique to FAS, may be helpful in the diagnosis and any attempts at rehabilitation. Diverse morphological and functional abnormalities are more frequent than has usually been believed even in less impaired children with FAS.

  5. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  8. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  9. Pelvis MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - pelvis; MRI - hips; Pelvic MRI with prostate probe; Magnetic resonance imaging - pelvis ... care provider if you are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine ...

  10. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... the same breast or the other breast after breast cancer has been diagnosed Distinguish between scar tissue and ...

  11. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Patterns in Adults with ADHD: A Coherence Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, João Ricardo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Castellanos, Xavier Francisco; Rohde, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to subjects with typical development (TD). Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n = 21; TD age-matched subjects, n = 21; young TD subjects, n = 21) using a more comprehensive analytical approach – unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p = 0.014); the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p = 0.480); the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p = 0.016). Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits. PMID:23049834

  12. Brain positron emission tomography in splenectomized adults with β-thalassemia intermedia: uncovering yet another covert abnormality.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Khaled M; Nasreddine, Wassim; Beydoun, Ahmad; Hourani, Roula; Hankir, Ahmed; Koussa, Suzanne; Haidar, Mohamad; Taher, Ali T

    2012-02-01

    Covert brain infarction is an emerging concern in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (TI). We have recently observed a high prevalence (60%) of silent brain infarction on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 30 splenectomized adults with TI. In this work, we further evaluate cerebral involvement in the same 30 patients using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-54 years) with a male to female ratio of 13:17. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had evidence of decreased neuronal function on PET-CT. Involvement was mostly left sided, multiple, and most commonly in the temporal and parietal lobes. Elevated liver iron concentration, beyond 15 mg Fe/g dry weight, characterized patients with decreased neuronal function. The concordance rate between brain MRI and PET-CT for the detection of brain abnormality was only 36.7% (Kappa 0.056, P = 0.757), highlighting that both modalities reveal different types of brain pathology. Decreased neuronal function is a common finding in patients with TI and is associated with iron overload. Moreover, the addition of PET-CT to MRI identifies a greater proportion of TI patients with silent neuroimaging abnormalities.

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  14. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  15. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, A; Yiğit, S; Firat, M; Oran, O

    2000-05-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia.

  16. Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management.

  17. Abnormal interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of the insula in heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yang, Yi-Hsin Connie; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-09-30

    Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity is attracting more and more attention in the field of substance use. This study aimed to examine 1) the differences in interhemispheric functional connections of the insula with the contralateral insula and other brain regions between heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and healthy controls, and 2) the association between heroin users' interhemispheric insular functional connectivity using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the results of urine heroin analysis. Sixty male right-handed persons, including 30 with heroin dependence under MMT and 30 healthy controls, were recruited to this study. Resting fMRI experiments and urine heroin analysis were performed. Compared with the controls, the heroin users had a significantly lower interhemispheric insular functional connectivity. They also exhibited lower functional connectivity between insula and contralateral inferior orbital frontal lobe. After controlling for age, educational level and methadone dosage, less deviation of the interhemispheric insula functional connectivity was significantly associated with a lower risk of a positive urine heroin analysis result. Our findings demonstrated that the heroin users under MMT had abnormal long-range and interhemispheric resting functional connections. Those with a less dysfunctional interhemispheric insula functional connectivity had a lower risk of a positive urine heroin test. PMID:27497215

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  20. Imaging strategies in the evaluation of soft-tissue hemangiomas of the extremities: correlation of the findings of plain radiography, angiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasonography in 12 histologically proven cases.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A; McGahan, J P; Vogelsang, P; Szabo, R M

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients with the histologic diagnosis of soft-tissue hemangioma of the extremities (nine intramuscular, two subcutaneous, and one synovial) were evaluated in a retrospective study using plain film radiography (n = 12), angiography (n = 8), computed tomography (CT; n = 4), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 3), and ultrasonography (US; n = 2). In eight of nine intramuscular lesions, the plain film demonstration of phleboliths suggested the diagnosis, while the plain radiographs were normal in three. Angiograms showed the pathognomonic features of soft-tissue hemangioma in six patients. MRI was characteristic in all three patients: The lesion demonstrated intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted spin echo images and extremely bright signal on T2-weighting. US showed a hypoechoic soft-tissue mass in one case and a mixed echo pattern in the other. In one case, a central echogenic focus with acoustic shadowing consistent with a calcified phlebolith was identified, and one lesion exhibited increased color flow and low resistance arterial Doppler signal. CT showed a nonspecific mass in one of four cases and a mass with phleboliths in three. If a deep hemangioma is suspected, we recommend initial imaging with plain radiography followed by MRI. US may be useful in confirming the presence of a mass in doubtful cases or if MRI is unavailable. CT offers no distinct advantage over the combined use of plain radiography and MRI. Although angiography demonstrated the pathognomonic features in all six deeply situated lesions, because of its invasiveness it should be reserved chiefly for those patients undergoing surgical resection. PMID:1546331

  1. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  2. Abnormalities in hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in two patients with pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dahhan, Talal; Kaushik, Shiv S; He, Mu; Mammarappallil, Joseph G; Tapson, Victor F; McAdams, Holman P; Sporn, Thomas A; Driehuys, Bastiaan; Rajagopal, Sudarshan

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) is usually based on hemodynamic and/or clinical criteria. Noninvasive imaging of the heart and proximal vasculature can also provide useful information. An alternate approach to such criteria in the diagnosis of PVD is to image the vascular abnormalities in the lungs themselves. Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel technique for assessing abnormalities in ventilation and gas exchange in the lungs. We applied this technique to two patients for whom there was clinical suspicion of PVD. Two patients who had significant hypoxemia and dyspnea with no significant abnormalities on computed tomography imaging or ventilation-perfusion scan and only mild or borderline pulmonary arterial hypertension at catheterization were evaluated. They underwent HP (129)Xe imaging and subsequently had tissue diagnosis obtained from lung pathology. In both patients, HP (129)Xe imaging demonstrated normal ventilation but markedly decreased gas transfer to red blood cells with focal defects on imaging, a pattern distinct from those previously described for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or obstructive lung disease. Pathology on both patients later demonstrated severe PVD. These findings suggest that HP (129)Xe MRI may be useful in the diagnosis of PVD and monitoring response to therapy. Further studies are required to determine its sensitivity and specificity in these settings. PMID:27162620

  3. Anatomical Abnormalities of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schizophrenia: Bridging the Gap Between Neuroimaging and Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Fornito, Alex; Yücel, Murat; Dean, Brian; Wood, Stephen J.; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a functionally heterogeneous region involved in diverse cognitive and emotional processes that support goal-directed behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings over the past two decades have converged to suggest abnormalities in the region may represent a neurobiological basis for many of the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. However, while each approach offers complimentary information that can provide clues regarding underlying patholophysiological processes, the findings from these 2 fields are seldom integrated. In this article, we review structural neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of the ACC, focusing on the unique information they provide. The available imaging data suggest grey matter reductions in the ACC precede psychosis onset in some categories of high-risk individuals, show sub-regional specificity, and may progress with illness duration. The available post-mortem findings indicate these imaging-related changes are accompanied by reductions in neuronal, synaptic, and dendritic density, as well as increased afferent input, suggesting the grey matter differences observed with MRI arise from alterations in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue compartments. We discuss the potential mechanisms that might facilitate integration of these findings and consider strategies for future research. PMID:18436528

  4. [Striatal involvement on MRI in adrenomyeloneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, T; Sakakibara, R; Katayama, K; Nakajima, M; Hirayama, K

    1991-07-01

    Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a clinical variant of child adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), is an adult-onset progressive disorder which presents spastic paraparesis with peripheral nerve involvement and affects mainly the pyramidal tracts from the brainstem to the spinal cord. We report a case of AMN in which serial MRI showed unusual development of areas of high signal in the right striatum. The patient was in good health until the age of 12, when he began to lose his hair. At age 25 he started to have progressive gait disturbance and erectile impotence. In his first admission to our hospital at age 33, he showed diffuse baldness. He was intelligent but childish. His cranial nerves were normal. Muscle strength was weak (3-4/5) in the lower extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were hyperactive in the lower extremities while normal in the upper extremities. Babinski signs were elicited bilaterally. Pinprick and vibratory sensation was impaired in the lower legs. Proprioceptive sensations were normal. Co-ordination was intact. There were urinary incontinence and impairment of erection with preserved libido and ejaculation. Routine laboratory data including hematological studies, serum chemistry and urinalysis were all normal except for mild hyperlipidemia. Serum cortisol response to ACTH was low and serum levels of very long chain fatty acids were increased. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal and consistent with peripheral polyneuropathy. A biopsy specimen of left sural nerve revealed a mild loss of myelinated fibers with thinning of the myelin. These findings and the clinical features confirmed the diagnosis of AMN. MRI in SE2000/40 scans at age 34 disclosed areas of high signal in the bilateral internal capsules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1654965

  5. MRI of Little Leaguer's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Stephen F; Recht, Michael P; Profitt, Brad

    2006-02-01

    The MRI appearance of 'Little Leaguer's shoulder' has not been previously reported in the radiology literature. Purported etiologies include proximal humeral epiphyseolysis, osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis, stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate, and rotational stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in four patients and review the literature.

  6. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  7. MRI Assessment of Lean and Adipose Tissue Distribution in Female Patients with Cushing’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Punyanitya, Mark; Looker, Helen C.; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Chronic hypercortisolemia due to Cushing’s Disease (CD) results in abnormal adipose tissue (AT) distribution. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine lean and AT distribution in female patients with CD to further understand the role of glucocorticoid excess in the development of abnormal AT distribution and obesity. Design Cross-sectional and case control study. Patients 15 females with CD and 12 healthy controls. Measurements Mass of skeletal muscle (SM) and AT in the visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and inter-muscular (IMAT) compartments from whole-body MRI and serum levels of insulin, glucose, and leptin were measured. Results CD patients had leptin values that correlated to total AT (TAT) and SAT (p < 0.05) but not to VAT. CD patients had higher VAT/TAT ratios (p < 0.01) and lower SAT/TAT ratios (p < 0.05) compared to controls. TAT, VAT, and trunk SAT (TrSAT) were greater in CD patients (p < 0.01). SM was less in CD (p < 0.001) but IMAT was not different. Conclusions TAT, VAT, trSAT, and the proportion of AT in the visceral depot were greater in CD, though the proportion in the subcutaneous depot was less. SM was less but IMAT was not different. These findings have implications for understanding the role of cortisol in the abnormal AT distribution and metabolic risk seen in patients exposed to chronic excess glucocorticoids. PMID:20550536

  8. Clinical and MRI investigation of temporomandibular joint in major depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, SLPC; Costa, ALF; Cruz, AD; Li, LM; de Almeida, SM

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and MRI findings of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs) of the non-psychotic type. Methods 40 patients (80 TMJs) who were diagnosed as having MDDs were selected for this study. The clinical examination of the TMJs was conducted according to the research diagnostic criteria and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The MRIs were obtained bilaterally in each patient with axial, parasagittal and paracoronal sections within a real-time dynamic sequence. Two trained oral radiologists assessed all images. For statistical analyses, Fisher's exact test and χ2 test were applied (α = 0.05). Results Migraine was reported in 52.5% of subjects. Considering disc position, statistically significant differences between opening patterns with and without alteration (p = 0.00) and between present and absent joint noises (p = 0.00) were found. Regarding muscular pain, patients with and without abnormalities in disc function and patients with and without abnormalities in disc position were not statistically significant (p = 0.42 and p = 0.40, respectively). Significant differences between mandibular pathway with and without abnormalities (p = 0.00) and between present and absent joint noises (p = 0.00) were observed. Conclusion Based on the preliminary results observed by clinical and MRI examination of the TMJ, no direct relationship could be determined between MDDs and TMDs. PMID:22517997

  9. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in children: spinal incidental findings in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ramadorai, Uma E; Hire, Justin M; DeVine, John G

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  12. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  13. [Neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated clinical abnormalities in 27 children].

    PubMed

    Syrbe, S; Eberle, K; Strenge, S; Bernhard, M K; Herbertz, S; Bierbach, U; Hirsch, W; Froster, U G; Kiess, W; Merkenschlager, A

    2007-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the most common of the phakomatoses and the clinical follow-up is an interdisciplinary challenge. The data of 27 patients with NF1 were systematically reviewed and compared to data from the literature. All of our patients had clinical signs of NF1. Besides the classic criteria café-au-lait spots (100%), freckling (48,1%), positive family history (44,1%), neurofibromas (40,7%), Lisch nodules (22,2%) and optic pathway tumors (22,2%) there were developmental delay (40,7%), macrocephaly (33,3%), strabism (29,6%), scoliosis (18,5%), epilepsy (14,8%), pubertal anomalies (14,8%), short stature (11,1%) and tics. Morphologically, CNS hamartomas (55,5%), astrocytomas (22,2%) and one pheochromocytoma became apparent. Special findings consist of one aneurysm of internal carotic arteria, juvenile xanthogranulomas, a case of pulmonary stenosis and an intracardial tumor. Four new mutations in the NF1 gene were found. Regular screening of optic glioma with MRI had no clinical significance. In contrast to other authors, one of our patients with optic glioma showed clinical progress after twelve years of age. The detection of astrocytomas led only to therapeutic consequences, when clinical signs or symptoms occurred. As with other authors, we found no potential for CNS hamartoma to proliferate. In three cases with pubertal anomalies we found CNS gliomas, which indicates the need for MRI. The expense of screening, apart from clinical surveillance, seems inadequate in relation to clinical relevance and costs. We describe four new mutations in the NF1 gene; there have been no specific genotype-phenotype correlations. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated clinical abnormalities in 27 children. PMID:18183640

  14. Infantile Refsum disease: serial evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakirer, Sinan; Savas, Mahmut R

    2005-02-01

    Refsum disease is a rare metabolic disorder, which is characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid in the blood and tissues, including the brain. A variant of this condition that occurs in young children is called infantile Refsum disease. The MRI findings of symmetrical signal change involving the corticospinal tracts, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and corpus callosum are characteristic. We report the serial MRI findings of a child with this rare metabolic disorder.

  15. Early characteristic findings in bowleg deformities: evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mukai, S; Suzuki, S; Seto, Y; Kashiwagi, N; Hwang, E S

    2000-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate bowleg deformities in infancy. Twenty-five tibiae of 13 infants were examined and divided into two groups based on MRI findings: group A had high intensity area in the medial epiphyseal cartilage on T2-weighted images. Group B had depression of medial physis and abnormal signal in the perichondrial region in addition to the epiphyseal lesion. At the final follow-up, all cases in group A demonstrated normal lower leg alignments, whereas five cases in group B showed characteristic roentogenographic findings of Blount's disease. The improvement rate of metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle was correlated with this classification. These findings suggested that abnormal findings in physis and perichondrial region might be preliminary findings in early stage of Blount's disease. The high intensity areas in the medial epiphyseal cartilage were commonly found among the cases with bowing deformities, which suggested that there might be a common pathomechanism between physiologic bowing and infantile Blount's disease. PMID:11008740

  16. Gray Matter Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Relationships with Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Episodic Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Gaelle E.; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects multiple brain regions through evidence from both structural (gray matter; GM) and functional connectivity (FC) studies. We tested whether these structural abnormalities were associated with FC abnormalities, and assessed the ability of these measures to explain episodic memory impairments in this population. A resting-state and T1 sequences were acquired on 94 (45 with mesial temporal pathology) TLE patients and 50 controls, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was computed to determine the GM volume differences between groups (right, left TLE, controls). Resting-state FC between the abnormal GM volume regions was computed, and compared between groups. Finally, we investigated the relation between EM, GM and FC findings. Patients with and without temporal pathology were analyzed separately. The results revealed reduced GM volume in multiple regions in the patients relative to the controls. Using FC, we found the abnormal GM regions did not display abnormal functional connectivity. Lastly, we found in left TLE patients, verbal episodic memory was associated with abnormal left posterior hippocampus volume, while in right TLE, non-verbal episodic memory was better predicted by resting-state FC measures. This study investigated TLE abnormalities using a multi-modal approach combining GM, FC and neurocognitive measures. We did not find that the GM abnormalities were functionally or abnormally connected during an inter-ictal resting state, which may reflect a weak sensitivity of functional connectivity to the epileptic network. We provided evidence that verbal and non-verbal episodic memory in left and right TLE patients may have distinct relationships with structural and functional measures. Lastly, we provide data suggesting that in the setting of occult, non-lesional right TLE pathology, a coupling of structural and functional abnormalities in extra-temporal/non-ictal regions is

  17. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  18. Clinical image: MRI during migraine with aura

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, A.C.

    1996-03-01

    Migraine refers to severe headaches that are usually unilateral, throbbing, and associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia. Migraine with aura (formerly called {open_quotes}classic migraine{close_quotes}) consists of the headache preceded or accompanied by neurological dysfunction. This dysfunction (aura) usually involves visual and sensory symptoms. The patient described herein experienced migraine with aura. MRI during and after the attack showed a reversible abnormality of the right posterior cerebral artery, with no parenchymal lesions. This appears to be the first report of abnormal MR vascular imaging during migraine with aura. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Dorsal Striatum and Its Limbic Connectivity Mediate Abnormal Anticipatory Reward Processing in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Immonen, Heidi; Lindroos, Markus M.; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly obese (n = 19) and normal weighted (n = 16) subjects with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while anticipatory food reward was induced by repeated presentations of appetizing and bland food pictures. First, we found that glucose uptake rate in the dorsal caudate nucleus was higher in obese than in normal-weight subjects. Second, obese subjects showed increased hemodynamic responses in the caudate nucleus while viewing appetizing versus bland foods in fMRI. The caudate also showed elevated task-related functional connectivity with amygdala and insula in the obese versus normal-weight subjects. Finally, obese subjects had smaller responses to appetizing versus bland foods in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices than did normal-weight subjects, and failure to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was correlated with high glucose metabolism in the dorsal caudate nucleus. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity to external food cues in obesity may involve abnormal stimulus-response learning and incentive motivation subserved by the dorsal caudate nucleus, which in turn may be due to abnormally high input from the amygdala and insula and dysfunctional inhibitory control by the frontal cortical regions. These functional changes in the responsiveness and interconnectivity of the reward circuit could be a critical mechanism to explain overeating in obesity. PMID:22319604

  20. Concomitant Fractional Anisotropy and Volumetric Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Cross-Sectional Evidence for Progressive Neurologic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Jan S.; Weber, Bernd; Deppe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated hippocampal sclerosis (TLEhs) there are brain abnormalities extending beyond the presumed epileptogenic zone as revealed separately in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. However, little is known about the relation between macroscopic atrophy (revealed by volumetric MRI) and microstructural degeneration (inferred by DTI). Methodology/Principal Findings For 62 patients with unilateral TLEhs and 68 healthy controls, we determined volumes and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) of ipsilateral and contralateral brain structures from T1-weighted and DTI data, respectively. We report significant volume atrophy and FA alterations of temporal lobe, subcortical and callosal regions, which were more diffuse and bilateral in patients with left TLEhs relative to right TLEhs. We observed significant relationships between volume loss and mean FA, particularly of the thalamus and putamen bilaterally. When corrected for age, duration of epilepsy was significantly correlated with FA loss of an anatomically plausible route - including ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus and temporal lobe white matter, the thalamus bilaterally, and posterior regions of the corpus callosum that contain temporal lobe fibres - that may be suggestive of progressive brain degeneration in response to recurrent seizures. Conclusions/Significance Chronic TLEhs is associated with interrelated DTI-derived and volume-derived brain degenerative abnormalities that are influenced by the duration of the disorder and the side of seizure onset. This work confirms previously contradictory findings by employing multi-modal imaging techniques in parallel in a large sample of patients. PMID:23071638

  1. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  2. Cerebellar white matter abnormalities following primary blast injury in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related 'mild' traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation.

  3. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal-frontal function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N; Cassidy, Brittany S; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L; Tootell, Roger B H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to "keep their distance" from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal-frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body ("personal space"). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal-frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26484048

  4. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal-frontal function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N; Cassidy, Brittany S; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L; Tootell, Roger B H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to "keep their distance" from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal-frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body ("personal space"). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal-frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  5. Cerebellar White Matter Abnormalities following Primary Blast Injury in US Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation. PMID:23409052

  6. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Daphne J.; Boeke, Emily A.; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N.; Cassidy, Brittany S.; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26484048

  7. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  8. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  9. Breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy: is it indicated?

    PubMed

    Vanderwalde, Lindi H; Dang, Catherine M; Tabrizi, Robert; Saouaf, Rola; Phillips, Edward H

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the use of breast MRI as a diagnostic or surveillance tool in patients after bilateral mastectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy. Participants consisted of 48 women with prior bilateral mastectomy who underwent breast MRI between 2003 and 2009. Seventy-nine breast MRIs were obtained. The median time between mastectomy and first MRI was 36 months. MRI was ordered most often by a medical oncologist (71%). Median age at bilateral mastectomy was 49 years (range, 33 to 72 years). Reasons for obtaining MRI included surveillance in 60 (76%), mass in eight (10%), lymph nodes in four (5%), pain in three (4%), and abscess in one (1%). Overall, 68 (86%) MRIs showed benign imaging findings only. Within the surveillance group, six patients had MRIs with findings that changed management; four patients had some residual breast tissue, and two patients had findings outside the breast that were better evaluated by CT or bone scan and were ultimately benign. MRI confirmed locoregional recurrence in two patients with highly suspicious physical findings. Overall, postmastectomy breast MRI had limited use, finding no unsuspected recurrences within our study group. Although MRI can be helpful to establish the presence of residual breast tissue after bilateral mastectomy, subsequent routine screening breast MRI should be questioned if no residual breast tissue is identified. PMID:21337876

  10. Volumetric quantitation by MRI in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: volumes of plaques and atrophy correlated with neurological disability.

    PubMed

    Ukkonen, M; Dastidar, P; Heinonen, T; Laasonen, E; Elovaara, I

    2003-11-01

    In primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) abnormalities in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differ from abnormalities in other subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS). It was investigated whether the extent of brain and spinal cord MRI abnormalities is reflected in the neurological disability in PPMS. Focal and diffuse changes and atrophy in central nervous system (CNS) in patients with PPMS (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 20) were assessed by semi-automatic MRI segmentation and volumetric analysis. The measurements were related to neurological disability as expressed by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the regional functional scoring system (RFSS), the arm index and the ambulation index. Plaques in T1- and/or T2-weighted images were seen in all brains, while spinal plaques were detected in 23 of 28 patients (82%). The total volumes of brain and spinal cord were significantly smaller in patients than in controls (P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). The volumes of T1 or T2 lesions in the brain correlated to the ambulation index (r = 0.51, P = 0.005 and r = 0.53, P = 0.004, respectively). No correlations were detected between MRI measurements and total EDSS score, but relative brain atrophy correlated inversely with the total RFSS scores, poor arm index and higher cerebral disturbances (r = -0.53, P = 0.004; r = -0.53, P = 0.004; and r = -0.52, P = 0.005, respectively). Although the number of spinal T2 lesions correlated with sensory disturbances (r = 0.60, P = 0.001), no correlations were found between EDSS subscores and spinal cord atrophy. These findings show that marked atrophy of brain and spinal cord detected by volumetric quantitation correlates with neurological disability. This observation indicates the importance of neurodegenerative events in PPMS. PMID:14641511

  11. A Case of Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Liver Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma on EOB-MRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Tsunoda, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Yoshihito; Yokomori, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was referred to us for investigation of a liver mass and adenomyomatosis of gallbladder. Findings on ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) led to a presumptive diagnosis of a 1.5 cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the right posterior lobe of the liver. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of the tumor were attempted. After 2 months, CT scan and EOB-MRI showed that the tumor had enlarged to 3 cm. Positron emission tomography (PET) confirmed abnormal metabolic activity with a high standardized uptake value of 7.3 in the lesion. These findings could indicate malignancy such as well-differentiated HCC or cholangiocarcinoma or a benign lesion such as hepatic abscess. Histopathological examination of a liver biopsy revealed a granuloma with many inflammatory cells, leading to a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver. We report a rare case of hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor with enhancement on EOB-MRI and increased uptake on PET, mimicking HCC. PMID:23781250

  12. Abnormal Neural Responses to Social Exclusion in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gradin, Victoria B.; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a ‘ball’ between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions. PMID:22916139

  13. Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE. PMID:24831083

  14. Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE.

  15. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  16. The Evaluation of the Clinical, Laboratory, and Radiological Findings of 16 Cases of Brucellar Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohui; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and radiological presentation of 16 cases of brucellar spondylitis. Methods. The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings of 16 patients (aged from 24 to 66 years) with brucellar spondylitis treated between September 2012 and September 2014 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Clinical manifestations included high fever, severe pain, sweating, and fatigue. One patient had epididymitis, and two showed clear signs of spinal nerve damage. Laboratory tests showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein content. Serum brucella agglutination tests were positive, and 11 brucella blood cultures were positive. Imaging manifestations mainly consisted of abnormal signals in the intervertebral space or abnormal signals in the adjacent vertebral bodies (16/16, 100%) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disc space narrowing (14/16, 88%) in X-ray and MRI, or bone destruction and sclerosis around the damaged zone (13/16, 81%) in computed tomography, with rare cases of psoas abscess (2/16, 13%) and sequestrum (1/16, 6%). Conclusion. Since brucellar spondylitis exhibited characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations, it could be diagnosed with specific laboratory tests. Early MRI examination of suspected cases could improve rapid diagnosis. PMID:27672661

  17. The Evaluation of the Clinical, Laboratory, and Radiological Findings of 16 Cases of Brucellar Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohui; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and radiological presentation of 16 cases of brucellar spondylitis. Methods. The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings of 16 patients (aged from 24 to 66 years) with brucellar spondylitis treated between September 2012 and September 2014 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Clinical manifestations included high fever, severe pain, sweating, and fatigue. One patient had epididymitis, and two showed clear signs of spinal nerve damage. Laboratory tests showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein content. Serum brucella agglutination tests were positive, and 11 brucella blood cultures were positive. Imaging manifestations mainly consisted of abnormal signals in the intervertebral space or abnormal signals in the adjacent vertebral bodies (16/16, 100%) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disc space narrowing (14/16, 88%) in X-ray and MRI, or bone destruction and sclerosis around the damaged zone (13/16, 81%) in computed tomography, with rare cases of psoas abscess (2/16, 13%) and sequestrum (1/16, 6%). Conclusion. Since brucellar spondylitis exhibited characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations, it could be diagnosed with specific laboratory tests. Early MRI examination of suspected cases could improve rapid diagnosis.

  18. Getting an MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed ...

  19. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  20. Emerging Applications of Abdominal 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Comprehensive assessment of abdominal hemodynamics is crucial for many clinical diagnoses but is challenged by a tremendous complexity of anatomy, normal physiology, and a wide variety of pathologic abnormalities. This article introduces 4D flow MRI as a powerful technique for noninvasive assessment of the hemodynamics of abdominal vascular territories. CONCLUSION Four-dimensional flow MRI provides clinicians with a more extensive and straightforward approach to evaluate disorders that affect blood flow in the abdomen. This review presents a series of clinical cases to illustrate the utility of 4D flow MRI in the comprehensive assessment of the abdominal circulation. PMID:27187681

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. [Genome Abnormality and Histological Findings in Breast Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Takuya; Suzuki, Soichiro; Kanomata, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancers contain variable histologies as well as biology. Gene expression profiling and cluster analyses have been performed since the beginning of the 21st century. The use of intrinsic subtype classification has replaced histological classification of breast carcinomas, as it frequently yields the same results. For examples, around 80% of triple negative (estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cancers are of the basal-like subtype. In daily practice, adjuvant therapy is selected based on histological features, but the results of ordinal cluster analyses and histological intrinsic subtypes are not always the same for individual cases. With advanced genetic analysis, new concepts have been elucidated, ie, the molecular identification of claudin-low breast cancer. Proposals of a new classification system and a new therapeutic approach are expected in the future. PMID:27067844

  3. Clinical findings and immunological abnormalities in Yu-Cheng patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Y.C.; Wu, Y.C.

    1985-02-01

    An outbreak of poisoning caused by ingestion of rice bran oil which was accidentally contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) broke out in Taiwan in February 1979. Diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients were performed at special clinics, and subjective symptoms and cutaneous changes such as peculiar acneform eruptions and pigmentation were recorded. The patients were divided into six age groups of both essex, and the body surface of the patients was divided into 12 sections according to the nature of skin. The prevalence of each type of cutaneous change was proved statistically by the chi-square test. The examination of the immune system function in the patients at 1 year revealed: decreased concentration of IgM and IgA but not of IgG; decreased percentage of total T-cells, active T-cells, and helper T-cells, normal percentage of B-cells and suppressor T-cells; suppression of delayed type response to recalling antigens; enhancement of lymphocyte spontaneous proliferation; and enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation with PHA, PWM, and PPD stimulation but not ConA. Follow-up studies 3 years later showed decreased blood PCB levels; some improvement of subjective symptoms and cutaneous changes; recovery of skin testing response to PPD; normal percentage of total T-cells and increased percentage of suppressor T-cells; and enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation spontaneously or under the stimulation of various mitogens.

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. Magnetostimulation in MRI.

    PubMed

    Irnich, W; Schmitt, F

    1995-05-01

    In national and international bodies, there is active discussion of appropriate safety regulations of levels of magnetic field strength in MRI. Present limits are usually expressed in terms of the switching rate dB/dt, but the validity of this is open to debate. Application of the fundamental law of electrostimulation is well-established, both on theoretical and experimental grounds. Application of this law, in combination with Maxwell's law, yields a very simple equation that we call the fundamental law of magnetostimulation. This law has the hyperbolic form of a strength-duration curve and allows an estimation of the lowest possible value of the magnetic flux density capable of stimulating nerves and muscles. Calculations prove that the threshold for heart excitation is much higher than those for nerve and muscle stimulations. Experimental results from us and other authors confirm the correctness of the derived laws for magnetostimulation. In light of these findings, proposed safety limits should be reconsidered. PMID:7596265

  6. MRI guided wire localization muscle biopsy in a child with juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Tuen, Victoria C; Zingula, Shannon N; Moir, Christopher; Reed, Ann M; Matsumoto, Jane M; Woodrum, David A

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for preoperative MRI guided wire localization for targeted surgical excisional biopsy of muscle is described in a pediatric patient with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). This technique allows for preoperative localization of abnormalities seen only with MRI. Using this technique, the patient underwent successful targeted muscle biopsy for confirmation of the diagnosis and staging of dermatomyositis. PMID:23566445

  7. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  9. The clinical impact of SPECT/PET co-registration with MRI in patients with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Scott, A.M.; Zhang, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical impact of co-registering SPECT and PET images with MRI (Gd-DTPA) in brain tumor patients. 81 patients with known or suspected brain tumors had 168 SPECT and/or PET scans which were difficult to interpret were coregistered with MRI. A modified Pellizari/Chen surface matching algorithm was used to fit the SPECT/PET and MR images. Impact of the technique on interpretation of the scans was defined as (A) no effect, (B) moderate effect (better localize abnormal uptake to suspected tumor and distinguish normal activity from tumor), (C) basis for final interpretation (distinguish tumor from necrosis, localize biopsy site, find occult tumor, grading of tumor). Impact on patient management was defined as (A) no effect, (B) altered diagnostic/treatment decision (continuation of conservative care, or justify chemo or radiation), (C) basis for treatment (direct biopsy, surgery, and/or radiation).

  10. The accuracy of clinical symptoms in detecting cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing acute MRI of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ahad, Abdul; Elsayed, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A large number of patients do not have cauda equina syndrome (CES) on MRI to account for their clinical findings; consequently, the majority of urgent scans requested are normal. We aimed to determine whether any clinical manifestation of CES, as stated in Royal College of Radiology guidelines, could predict the presence of established CES on MRI. We also aimed to support a larger study to develop a more universal assessment tool for acute lower back pain. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who warranted urgent MRI was conducted. Seventy-nine patients were eligible for study. The Kendall’s tau test was used for statistical analysis of all data. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. MRI was performed in 62 patients out of 79. A total of 32.9% of patients had scans within 24 hours of admission. Nine of these patients were referred to neurosurgery for urgent neurosurgical review. Of these, 6.3% of patients had an established CES on MRI scan. One patient who had an out-patient MRI spine (15 days from hospital presentation) was found to have an established CES, was urgently referred to spinal surgery and underwent primary fenestration excision of the lumbar vertebra. No clinical features that were able to predict the presence of an established CES on MRI were elucidated. Findings included decreased anal tone 7.6% (p = 0.282), faecal incontinence 3.8% (p = 0.648), urinary retention 7.6% (p = 0.510), bladder incontinence 8.9% (p = 0.474), constipation 2.5% (p = 0.011) and saddle anaesthesia 8.9% (p = 0.368). Patients who had an abnormal MRI spine for back pain prior to this presentation showed a correlation with a newly diagnosed CES on MRI (p = 0.016) with a correlation coefficient of 0.272. PMID:26306934

  11. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  12. Functional MRI of music emotion processing in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Agustus, Jennifer L; Mahoney, Colin J; Downey, Laura E; Omar, Rohani; Cohen, Miriam; White, Mark J; Scott, Sophie K; Mancini, Laura; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is an important neurodegenerative disorder of younger life led by profound emotional and social dysfunction. Here we used fMRI to assess brain mechanisms of music emotion processing in a cohort of patients with frontotemporal dementia (n = 15) in relation to healthy age-matched individuals (n = 11). In a passive-listening paradigm, we manipulated levels of emotion processing in simple arpeggio chords (mode versus dissonance) and emotion modality (music versus human emotional vocalizations). A complex profile of disease-associated functional alterations was identified with separable signatures of musical mode, emotion level, and emotion modality within a common, distributed brain network, including posterior and anterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices and dorsal brainstem effector nuclei. Separable functional signatures were identified post-hoc in patients with and without abnormal craving for music (musicophilia): a model for specific abnormal emotional behaviors in frontotemporal dementia. Our findings indicate the potential of music to delineate neural mechanisms of altered emotion processing in dementias, with implications for future disease tracking and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Functional MRI of music emotion processing in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Agustus, Jennifer L; Mahoney, Colin J; Downey, Laura E; Omar, Rohani; Cohen, Miriam; White, Mark J; Scott, Sophie K; Mancini, Laura; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is an important neurodegenerative disorder of younger life led by profound emotional and social dysfunction. Here we used fMRI to assess brain mechanisms of music emotion processing in a cohort of patients with frontotemporal dementia (n = 15) in relation to healthy age-matched individuals (n = 11). In a passive-listening paradigm, we manipulated levels of emotion processing in simple arpeggio chords (mode versus dissonance) and emotion modality (music versus human emotional vocalizations). A complex profile of disease-associated functional alterations was identified with separable signatures of musical mode, emotion level, and emotion modality within a common, distributed brain network, including posterior and anterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices and dorsal brainstem effector nuclei. Separable functional signatures were identified post-hoc in patients with and without abnormal craving for music (musicophilia): a model for specific abnormal emotional behaviors in frontotemporal dementia. Our findings indicate the potential of music to delineate neural mechanisms of altered emotion processing in dementias, with implications for future disease tracking and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25773639

  14. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  15. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  16. Abnormal Neural Responses to Emotional Stimuli but Not Go/NoGo and Stroop Tasks in Adults with a History of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Background Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common disorder in school-aged children. Previous studies have reported that children with NE exhibit structural, functional and neurochemical abnormalities in the brain, suggesting that children with NE may have cognitive problems. Additionally, children with NE have been shown to process emotions differently from control children. In fact, most cases of NE resolve with age. However, adults who had experienced NE during childhood may still have potential cognitive or emotion problems, and this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain functional changes in adults with a history of NE. Two groups, consisting of 21 adults with NE and 21 healthy controls, were scanned using fMRI. We did not observe a significant abnormality in activation during the Go/NoGo and Stroop tasks in adults with a history of NE compared with the control group. However, compared to healthy subjects, young adults with a history of NE mainly showed increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex while looking at negative vs. neutral pictures. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that adults with a history of childhood NE have no obvious deficit in response inhibition or cognitive control but showed abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli. PMID:26571500

  17. Prefrontal cortical abnormalities in currently depressed versus currently remitted patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Salvadore, Giacomo; Nugent, Allison C.; Lemaitre, Herve; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Tinsley, Ruth; Cannon, Dara M.; Neumeister, Alexander; Zarate, Carlos A.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuromorphometric investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported abnormalities in gray matter in several regions, although the results have been inconsistent across studies. Some discrepancies in the results across studies may reflect design limitations such as small sample sizes, whereas others may reflect biological variability that potentially manifests as differences in clinical course. For example, it remains unclear whether the abnormalities found in persistently depressed MDD subjects extend to or persist in patients who experience prolonged remission. The aim of the present study was to investigate gray matter (GM) differences in unmedicated, currently-depressed participants (dMDD) and unmedicated, currently-remitted (rMDD) participants with MDD compared to healthy controls (HC). The GM density and volume was compared across groups using voxel-based morphometry, a quantitative neuroanatomical technique, and high-resolution MRI images from 107 HC, 58 dMDD and 27 rMDD subjects. Relative to the HC group the dMDD group had reduced GM in the dorsal anterolateral (DALPFC), the dorsomedial (DMPFC) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Relative to the rMDD group the dMDD group showed reduced GM in the DALPFC, the VLPFC, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the precuneus and the inferior parietal lobule. No regions were identified in which the rMDD group showed significantly lower GM compared to the HC group after p-values were corrected for the number of comparisons performed. In unmedicated patients in the depressed phase of MDD, we found evidence of morphometric abnormalities in DALPFC and in medial prefrontal cortical regions belonging to the visceromotor network. These findings, along with the absence of GM abnormalities in the remitted sample imply a possible link between greater GM tissue and better clinical outcome. Consistent with other neuroimaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of MDD, we also found evidence

  18. Microstructural abnormalities of the brain white matter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lei, Du; He, Ning; Hu, Xinyu; Chen, Ying; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jinbo; Guo, Lanting; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple behavioural problems and executive dysfunctions for which neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of abnormalities, with inconsistencies partly owing to confounding by medication and concurrent psychiatric disease. We aimed to investigate the microstructural abnormalities of white matter in unmedicated children and adolescents with pure ADHD and to explore the association between these abnormalities and behavioural symptoms and executive functions. Methods We assessed children and adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls using psychiatric interviews. Behavioural problems were rated using the revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, and executive functions were measured using the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data using a 3 T MRI system, and we compared diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial and radial diffusivities, between the 2 groups. Results Thirty-three children and adolescents with ADHD and 35 healthy controls were included in our study. In patients compared with controls, FA was increased in the left posterior cingulum bundle as a result of both increased axial diffusivity and decreased radial diffusivity. In addition, the averaged FA of the cluster in this region correlated with behavioural measures as well as executive function in patients with ADHD. Limitations This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and small sample size. The cluster size of the significant result was small. Conclusion Our findings suggest that white matter abnormalities within the limbic network could be part of the neural underpinning of behavioural problems and executive dysfunction in patients with ADHD. PMID:25853285

  19. Prefrontal cortical abnormalities in currently depressed versus currently remitted patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Salvadore, Giacomo; Nugent, Allison C; Lemaitre, Herve; Luckenbaugh, David A; Tinsley, Ruth; Cannon, Dara M; Neumeister, Alexander; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C

    2011-02-14

    Previous neuromorphometric investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported abnormalities in gray matter in several regions, although the results have been inconsistent across studies. Some discrepancies in the results across studies may reflect design limitations such as small sample sizes, whereas others may reflect biological variability that potentially manifests as differences in clinical course. For example, it remains unclear whether the abnormalities found in persistently depressed MDD subjects extend to or persist in patients who experience prolonged remission. The aim of the present study was to investigate gray matter (GM) differences in unmedicated, currently-depressed participants (dMDD) and unmedicated, currently-remitted (rMDD) participants with MDD compared to healthy controls (HC). The GM density and volume were compared across groups using voxel-based morphometry, a quantitative neuroanatomical technique, and high-resolution MRI images from 107 HC, 58 dMDD and 27 rMDD subjects. Relative to the HC group the dMDD group had reduced GM in the dorsal anterolateral (DALPFC), the dorsomedial (DMPFC) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Relative to the rMDD group the dMDD group showed reduced GM in the DALPFC, the VLPFC, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the precuneus and the inferior parietal lobule. No regions were identified in which the rMDD group showed significantly lower GM compared to the HC group after p-values were corrected for the number of comparisons performed. In unmedicated patients in the depressed phase of MDD, we found evidence of morphometric abnormalities in DALPFC and in medial prefrontal cortical regions belonging to the visceromotor network. These findings, along with the absence of GM abnormalities in the remitted sample imply a possible link between greater GM tissue and better clinical outcome. Consistent with other neuroimaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of MDD, we also found

  20. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  1. Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

  2. Imaging findings in arthrofibrosis of the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Linklater, James M; Fessa, Chris K

    2012-07-01

    Arthrofibrosis is defined as joint pain and stiffness that does not allow functional range of motion and is due to adhesions or contracture of the joint. Arthrofibrosis is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of fibrous tissue that may be focal or diffuse and intra-articular or extra-articular. Trauma and surgery are the most common etiological factors. In the ankle and foot symptomatic arthrofibrosis is not uncommonly seen in the talocrural joint, posterior subtalar joint, and the metatarsophalangeal joints. Imaging can assist with diagnosis and planning treatment, most commonly using MRI and occasionally ultrasound. Typical imaging findings consist of capsular and pericapsular thickening and scarring, best demonstrated on proton-density MR images but also demonstrable on ultrasound.

  3. Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients' behavior.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2013-01-01

    Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient's intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals' (e.g., attentional) behavior. PMID:24137123

  4. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  5. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  6. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  7. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  8. MRI and MRS alterations in the preclinical phase of murine prion disease: association with neuropathological and behavioural changes.

    PubMed

    Broom, Kerry A; Anthony, Daniel C; Lowe, John P; Griffin, Julian L; Scott, Helen; Blamire, Andrew M; Styles, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Sibson, Nicola R

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases are fatal chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Previous qualitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies report conflicting results in the symptomatic stages of the disease, but little work has been carried out during the earlier stages of the disease. Here we have used the murine ME7 model of prion disease to quantitatively investigate MRI and MRS changes during the period prior to the onset of overt clinical signs (20+ weeks) and have correlated these with pathological and behavioural abnormalities. Using in vivo MRI, at the later stages of the preclinical period (18 weeks) the diffusion of tissue water was significantly reduced, coinciding with significant microglial activation and behavioural hyperactivity. Using in vivo MRS, we found early (12 weeks) decreases in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to both choline (NAA/Cho) and creatine (NAA/Cr) in the thalamus and hippocampus, which were associated with early behavioural deficits. Ex vivo MRS of brain extracts confirmed and extended these findings, showing early (8-12 weeks) decreases in both the neuronal metabolites NAA and glutamate, and the metabolic metabolites lactate and glucose. Increases in the glial metabolite myo-inositol were observed at later stages when microglial and astrocyte activation is substantial. These changes in MRI and MRS signals, which precede overt clinical signs of disease, could provide insights into the pathogenesis of this disease and may enable early detection of pathology. PMID:17490889

  9. Abnormal striatal resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Gail A; Mueller, Bryon A; Schreiner, Melinda Westlund; Campbell, Sarah M; Regan, Emily K; Nelson, Peter M; Houri, Alaa K; Lee, Susanne S; Zagoloff, Alexandra D; Lim, Kelvin O; Yacoub, Essa S; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2016-01-30

    Neuroimaging research has implicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuitry in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) was used to investigate functional connectivity in the CSTC circuitry in adolescents with OCD. Imaging was obtained with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) scanner using newly developed pulse sequences which allow for higher spatial and temporal resolution. Fifteen adolescents with OCD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (ages 12-19) underwent R-fMRI on the 3T HCP scanner. Twenty-four minutes of resting-state scans (two consecutive 12-min scans) were acquired. We investigated functional connectivity of the striatum using a seed-based, whole brain approach with anatomically-defined seeds placed in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Adolescents with OCD compared with controls exhibited significantly lower functional connectivity between the left putamen and a single cluster of right-sided cortical areas including parts of the orbitofrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and operculum. Preliminary findings suggest that impaired striatal connectivity in adolescents with OCD in part falls within the predicted CSTC network, and also involves impaired connections between a key CSTC network region (i.e., putamen) and key regions in the salience network (i.e., insula/operculum). The relevance of impaired putamen-insula/operculum connectivity in OCD is discussed. PMID:26674413

  10. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  11. Pulmonary imaging abnormalities in an adult case of congenital lobar emphysema.

    PubMed

    Pike, Damien; Mohan, Sindu; Ma, Weijing; Lewis, James F; Parraga, Grace

    2015-02-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema is mainly diagnosed in infants, although rare cases are reported in adults. A 20-yr-old female with acute dyspnea, chest pain and left upper lobe (LUL) chest x-ray hyperlucency underwent 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements, as well as CT for emphysema and airway wall measurements. Forced expiratory volume in 1s, residual volume, and airways-resistance were abnormal, but there was normal carbon-monoxide-diffusing-capacity. The LUL relative area of the density histogram <-950 HU and airway morphology were highly abnormal compared with the other lobes and coincident with highly abnormal MRI-derived acinar duct dimensions. CT also identified bronchial atresia and congenital lobar emphysema as the source of symptoms in this case where there was also functional imaging evidence of collateral ventilation from the fissure (and not the abnormally terminated airway) into the emphysematous LUL.

  12. MRI phase changes in multiple sclerosis vs neuromyelitis optica lesions at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Sinnecker, Tim; Schumacher, Sophie; Mueller, Katharina; Pache, Florence; Dusek, Petr; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Nytrova, Petra; Chawla, Sanjeev; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kister, Ilya; Ge, Yulin; Wuerfel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize paramagnetic MRI phase signal abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) vs multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in a cross-sectional study. Methods: Ten patients with NMOSD and 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS underwent 7-tesla brain MRI including supratentorial T2*-weighted imaging and supratentorial susceptibility weighted imaging. Next, we analyzed intra- and perilesional paramagnetic phase changes on susceptibility weighted imaging filtered magnetic resonance phase images. Results: We frequently observed paramagnetic rim-like (75 of 232 lesions, 32%) or nodular (32 of 232 lesions, 14%) phase changes in MS lesions, but only rarely in NMOSD lesions (rim-like phase changes: 2 of 112 lesions, 2%, p < 0.001; nodular phase changes: 2 of 112 lesions, 2%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Rim-like or nodular paramagnetic MRI phase changes are characteristic for MS lesions and not frequently detectable in NMOSD. Future prospective studies should ask whether these imaging findings can be used as a biomarker to distinguish between NMOSD- and MS-related brain lesions. PMID:27489865

  13. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Amygdala in Late-Onset Depression Was Associated with Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui; Hou, Zhenghua; Jiang, Wenhao; Bai, Feng; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased function of cortico-limbic circuits, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of MDD. Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) with the amygdala, which is involved in cortico-limbic circuits, has also been observed in MDD. However, little is known about connectivity alterations in late-onset depression (LOD) or whether disrupted connectivity is correlated with cognitive impairment in LOD. Methods and Results A total of twenty-two LOD patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and FC with bilateral amygdala seeds were used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data between two groups. Compared with HC, LOD patients showed decreased ReHo in the right middle frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. In the LOD group, the left amygdala had decreased FC with the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior frontal gyrus in the amygdala positive network, and it had increased FC with the right post-central gyrus in the amygdala negative network. However, significantly reduced FC with the right amygdala was observed in the right middle occipital gyrus in the amygdala negative network. Further correlative analyses revealed that decreased FC between the amygdala and the right middle occipital gyrus was negatively correlated with the verbal fluency test (VFT, r = −0.485, P = 0.022) and the digit span test (DST, r = −0.561, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings of reduced activity of the prefrontal gyrus and abnormal FC with the bilateral amygdala may be key markers of cognitive dysfunction in LOD patients. PMID:24040385

  14. Non-Wilsonian hepatolenticular degeneration: Clinical and MRI observations in four families from south India.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Saini, Jitender S; Kallolimath, Pradeep; Singh, Nivedita; Kumar, Arun; Bindu, Parayil S; Taly, Arun B

    2016-05-01

    Non-Wilsonian hepatolenticular degeneration (NWHD) is a heterogeneous neurological disorder occurring secondary to chronic acquired liver disease. Genetically determined familial NWHD is rare, poorly understood, and often mistaken for Wilson's disease (WD). We analysed clinical and MRI profiles of NWHD patients who did not have obvious cause for acquired liver disease, such as alcohol intake or hepatitis. Six patients from four families (four males, two females, mean age: 17.0±standard deviation 7.9years), presenting with chronic extrapyramidal disorder resembling WD and imaging (abdominal ultrasound/MRI) evidence of cirrhosis were studied. They lacked Kayser-Fleischer rings or biochemical and/or genetic evidence of WD. Clinical features included dystonia (n=6), parkinsonism (n=3), tremor (n=1), cerebellar ataxia (n=3), orofacial dyskinesia (n=1), behavioural abnormalities (n=3), and cognitive decline (n=1). Brain MRI revealed T1-weighted hyperintensity in the pallidum (n=6), crus cerebri (n=4), putamen (n=1), caudate (n=1), thalamus (n=1), and red nucleus (n=1) with T2-weighted shortening in some of these regions. Additional findings included giant cisterna magna (n=1), face of giant panda sign (n=1) and thin corpus callosum (n=1). Areas of "blooming" on susceptibility weighted images were noted in two patients in the caudate (n=2) and putamen (n=1). The finding of T1 shortening is distinct from that of WD where the majority of lesions are T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense. Extrapallidal T1-hyperintensity is also an exceptional observation in NWHD. The MRI appearance of intense T1 shortening coupled with the lack of increased susceptibility changes suggests that the most likely mineral deposited is manganese. The association of this neurological disorder and cirrhosis of the liver in the absence of an acquired liver disease is a distinct disease entity. This syndrome may represent a disorder of manganese metabolism resulting in its toxic deposition. PMID

  15. Non-Wilsonian hepatolenticular degeneration: Clinical and MRI observations in four families from south India.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Saini, Jitender S; Kallolimath, Pradeep; Singh, Nivedita; Kumar, Arun; Bindu, Parayil S; Taly, Arun B

    2016-05-01

    Non-Wilsonian hepatolenticular degeneration (NWHD) is a heterogeneous neurological disorder occurring secondary to chronic acquired liver disease. Genetically determined familial NWHD is rare, poorly understood, and often mistaken for Wilson's disease (WD). We analysed clinical and MRI profiles of NWHD patients who did not have obvious cause for acquired liver disease, such as alcohol intake or hepatitis. Six patients from four families (four males, two females, mean age: 17.0±standard deviation 7.9years), presenting with chronic extrapyramidal disorder resembling WD and imaging (abdominal ultrasound/MRI) evidence of cirrhosis were studied. They lacked Kayser-Fleischer rings or biochemical and/or genetic evidence of WD. Clinical features included dystonia (n=6), parkinsonism (n=3), tremor (n=1), cerebellar ataxia (n=3), orofacial dyskinesia (n=1), behavioural abnormalities (n=3), and cognitive decline (n=1). Brain MRI revealed T1-weighted hyperintensity in the pallidum (n=6), crus cerebri (n=4), putamen (n=1), caudate (n=1), thalamus (n=1), and red nucleus (n=1) with T2-weighted shortening in some of these regions. Additional findings included giant cisterna magna (n=1), face of giant panda sign (n=1) and thin corpus callosum (n=1). Areas of "blooming" on susceptibility weighted images were noted in two patients in the caudate (n=2) and putamen (n=1). The finding of T1 shortening is distinct from that of WD where the majority of lesions are T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense. Extrapallidal T1-hyperintensity is also an exceptional observation in NWHD. The MRI appearance of intense T1 shortening coupled with the lack of increased susceptibility changes suggests that the most likely mineral deposited is manganese. The association of this neurological disorder and cirrhosis of the liver in the absence of an acquired liver disease is a distinct disease entity. This syndrome may represent a disorder of manganese metabolism resulting in its toxic deposition.

  16. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  17. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  18. Can Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DW-MRI) Evaluate Inflammation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Zhang, Faming; Luan, Yun; Cao, Peng; Liu, Fei; He, Wenwen; Wang, Dehang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate diagnosis efficacy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in Crohn's disease (CD). To find out the correlations between functional MRI parameters including Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with a serologic biomarker. The relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC were also studied. Thirty-two patients with CD (22 men, 10 women; mean age: 30.5 years) and 18 healthy volunteers without any inflammatory disease (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 34.11 years) were enrolled into this approved prospective study. Pearson analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and C-reactive protein (CRP), ADC, and CRP respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the functional MRI parameters in terms of sensitivity and specificity were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Optimal cut-off values of each functional MRI parameters for differentiation of inflammatory from normal bowel were determined according to the Youden criterion. Mean value of Ktrans in the CD group was significantly higher than that of normal control group. Similar results were observed for Kep and Ve. On the contrary, the ADC value was lower in the CD group than that in the control group. Ktrans and Ve were shown to be correlated with CRP (r = 0.725, P < 0.001; r = 0.533, P = 0.002), meanwhile ADC showed negative correlation with CRP (r = −0.630, P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC, such as Ktrans to ADC (r = −0.856, P < 0.001), and Ve to ADC (r = −0.451, P = 0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.994 for Ktrans (P < 0.001), 0.905 for ADC (P < 0.001), 0.806 for Ve (P < 0.001), and 0.764 for Kep (P = 0.002). The cut-off point of the Ktrans was found to be 0.931 min–1. This value provided the best trade-off between

  19. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  20. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  1. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  4. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  5. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  6. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  7. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia in the context of abnormal neurodevelopment using multiple site data in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Xie, S; Liu, B; Song, M; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2016-01-19

    Schizophrenia has increasingly been considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, and the advancement of neuroimaging techniques and associated computational methods has enabled quantitative re-examination of this important theory on the pathogenesis of the disease. Inspired by previous findings from neonatal brains, we proposed that an increase in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) mean diffusivity (MD) should be observed in the cerebral cortex of schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls, corresponding to lower tissue complexity and potentially a failure to reach cortical maturation. We tested this hypothesis using dMRI data from a Chinese Han population comprising patients from four different hospital sites. Utilizing data-driven methods based on the state-of-the-art tensor-based registration algorithm, significantly increased MD measurements were consistently observed in the cortex of schizophrenia patients across all four sites, despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and scanners used for image acquisition. Specifically, we found increased MD in the limbic system of the schizophrenic brain, mainly involving the bilateral insular and prefrontal cortices. In light of the existing literature, we speculate that this may represent a neuroanatomical signature of the disorder, reflecting microstructural deficits due to developmental abnormalities. Our findings not only provide strong support to the abnormal neurodevelopment theory of schizophrenia, but also highlight an important neuroimaging endophenotype for monitoring the developmental trajectory of high-risk subjects of the disease, thereby facilitating early detection and prevention.

  8. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia in the context of abnormal neurodevelopment using multiple site data in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Xie, S; Liu, B; Song, M; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia has increasingly been considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, and the advancement of neuroimaging techniques and associated computational methods has enabled quantitative re-examination of this important theory on the pathogenesis of the disease. Inspired by previous findings from neonatal brains, we proposed that an increase in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) mean diffusivity (MD) should be observed in the cerebral cortex of schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls, corresponding to lower tissue complexity and potentially a failure to reach cortical maturation. We tested this hypothesis using dMRI data from a Chinese Han population comprising patients from four different hospital sites. Utilizing data-driven methods based on the state-of-the-art tensor-based registration algorithm, significantly increased MD measurements were consistently observed in the cortex of schizophrenia patients across all four sites, despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and scanners used for image acquisition. Specifically, we found increased MD in the limbic system of the schizophrenic brain, mainly involving the bilateral insular and prefrontal cortices. In light of the existing literature, we speculate that this may represent a neuroanatomical signature of the disorder, reflecting microstructural deficits due to developmental abnormalities. Our findings not only provide strong support to the abnormal neurodevelopment theory of schizophrenia, but also highlight an important neuroimaging endophenotype for monitoring the developmental trajectory of high-risk subjects of the disease, thereby facilitating early detection and prevention. PMID:26784969

  9. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia in the context of abnormal neurodevelopment using multiple site data in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Xie, S; Liu, B; Song, M; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia has increasingly been considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, and the advancement of neuroimaging techniques and associated computational methods has enabled quantitative re-examination of this important theory on the pathogenesis of the disease. Inspired by previous findings from neonatal brains, we proposed that an increase in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) mean diffusivity (MD) should be observed in the cerebral cortex of schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls, corresponding to lower tissue complexity and potentially a failure to reach cortical maturation. We tested this hypothesis using dMRI data from a Chinese Han population comprising patients from four different hospital sites. Utilizing data-driven methods based on the state-of-the-art tensor-based registration algorithm, significantly increased MD measurements were consistently observed in the cortex of schizophrenia patients across all four sites, despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and scanners used for image acquisition. Specifically, we found increased MD in the limbic system of the schizophrenic brain, mainly involving the bilateral insular and prefrontal cortices. In light of the existing literature, we speculate that this may represent a neuroanatomical signature of the disorder, reflecting microstructural deficits due to developmental abnormalities. Our findings not only provide strong support to the abnormal neurodevelopment theory of schizophrenia, but also highlight an important neuroimaging endophenotype for monitoring the developmental trajectory of high-risk subjects of the disease, thereby facilitating early detection and prevention. PMID:26784969

  10. CEST MRI reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanshu; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several reporter genes have been developed that can serve as a beacon for non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we provide a brief summary of recent advances in MRI reporter gene technology, as well as detailed "hands-on" protocols for cloning, expression, and imaging of reporter genes based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST).

  11. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Briani, Chiara; Dalla Torre, Chiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo; Pompanin, Sara; Binotto, Gianni; Adami, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD), is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established. PMID:24248213

  12. Cobalamin deficiency: clinical picture and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Briani, Chiara; Dalla Torre, Chiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo; Pompanin, Sara; Binotto, Gianni; Adami, Fausto

    2013-11-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD), is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established.

  13. Immunological findings in psychotic syndromes: a tertiary care hospital's CSF sample of 180 patients

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Perlov, Evgeniy; Baumgartner, Annette; Hottenrott, Tilman; Dersch, Rick; Stich, Oliver; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Immunological mechanisms and therapy approaches in psychotic syndromes were recently supported by the discovery of autoantibody-associated limbic and non-limbic encephalitis. However, how clinical diagnostic procedures in psychiatry should be adapted to these new insights is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimmunological alterations and their association with cerebral MRI (cMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings. From 2006 to 2013, we acquired 180 CSF samples from psychotic patients. Between 2006 and 2009, CSF examinations were only performed in cases in which organic brain disease was suspected. Since then, this procedure has been integrated into our routine diagnostic workup. CSF basic diagnostics were supplemented by measuring antineuronal antibodies against intracellular synaptic antigens, antibodies against intracellular onconeural antigens, antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens and thyroid antibodies. In addition, cMRIs and EEGs were conducted. We found white cell counts elevated in 3.4% of the cases, albumin quotient elevated in 21.8%, and protein concentration elevated in 42.2%. Evidence of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis was found in 7.2% of the cases. Antibodies measured against neuronal cell surface antigens were positive in 3.2%. Reactivity on antibodies against intracellular onconeural antigens were detected in 3.5%. Serum thyroid antibodies were elevated in 24.7%. Abnormalities were found in 39.5% of cMRIs and in 34.3% of EEGs. The main finding of our study was the high prevalence of CSF and autoantibody abnormalities in 54.4% of psychotic patients. In combination with cMRIs and EEGs, 75.6% showed abnormal findings. Our results are discussed with regard to the concept of immunological encephalopathy. Future studies should analyze the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:26441585

  14. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  15. Ultrasound findings in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Pramuljo, H S; Harun, S R

    1991-01-01

    The ultrasound examination of 29 children, aged between 2 to 13 years with clinical and serological proven dengue haemorrhagic fever were reviewed and correlated with the findings in the literature. Ultrasound findings consisted of: (1) ascites, (2) pleural effusion, (3) abnormal gallbladder wall and (4) abnormal liver parenchyma. Ascites is common in DHF. Pleural effusion was found on the right and on bilateral pleural spaces. There was no isolated left pleural effusions. The abnormal gallbladder wall has never been mentioned before in the literature and the abnormal liver parenchyma might be due to intraparenchymal and subcapsular haemorrhages.

  16. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

  17. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  18. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  19. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  20. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  1. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Bent, C L; Sahdev, A; Rockall, A G; Singh, N; Sohaib, S A; Reznek, R H

    2009-04-01

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm(3)) and mucinous (6358.2 cm(3)) subtypes (p=0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  2. Abnormal cortical thickness connectivity persists in childhood absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Curwood, Evan K; Pedersen, Mangor; Carney, Patrick W; Berg, Anne T; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a childhood-onset generalized epilepsy. Recent fMRI studies have suggested that frontal cortex activity occurs before thalamic involvement in epileptic discharges suggesting that frontal cortex may play an important role in childhood absence seizures. Neurocognitive deficits can persist after resolution of the epilepsy. We investigate whether structural connectivity changes are present in the brains of CAE patients in young adulthood. Methods Cortical thickness measurements were obtained for 30 subjects with CAE (mean age 21 ± 2 years) and 56 healthy controls (mean age 24 ± 4) and regressed for age, sex, and total intracranial volume (TIV). Structural connectivity was evaluated by measuring the correlation between average cortical thicknesses in 915 regions over the brain. Maps of connectivity strength were then obtained for both groups. Results When compared to controls, the CAE group shows overall increased “connectivity” with focal increased connection strength in anterior regions including; the anterior cingulate and the insula and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally; the right orbito-frontal and supramarginal regions; and the left entorhinal cortex. Decreased connection strength in the CAE group was found in the left occipital lobe, with a similar trend in right occipital lobe. Interpretation Brains in young adults whose CAE was resolved had abnormal structural connectivity. Our findings suggest that frontal regions correlate most with cortical thickness throughout the brain in CAE patients, whereas occipital regions correlate most in well matched normal controls. We interpret this as evidence of a developmental difference in CAE that emphasizes these frontal lobe regions, perhaps driven by frontal lobe epileptiform activity. PMID:26000319

  3. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  4. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  5. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  6. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  7. [Abnormal movements. Historical notes].

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, P J

    Most of the knowledge about movement disorders comes from the last fifty years. However, the ancients made some remarkable neurological depictions. We still can find some neurological descriptions including Parkinson's disease in the Bible, and the ancient writings of Atreya and Susruta. In addition, classic tests provide us of valuable information on historical personages, including the dystonia of Alexander the Great.

  8. Brain Morphometry using MRI in Schizophrenia Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanshina, I.; Pirogov, Yu.; Kupriyanov, D.; Orlova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Although its fundamental pathobiology remains elusive, neuroimaging studies provide evidence of abnormalities of cerebral structure and function in patients with schizophrenia. We used morphometry as a quantitative method for estimation of volume of brain structures. Seventy eight right-handed subjects aged 18-45 years were exposed to MRI-examination. Patients were divided into 3 groups: patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and healthy controls. The volumes of interested structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventricles, frontal and temporal lobe) were measured using T2-weighted MR-images. Correlations between structural differences and functional deficit were evaluated.

  9. MRI of absent left pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Debatin, J F; Moon, R E; Spritzer, C E; MacFall, J; Sostman, H D

    1992-01-01

    Unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery, more accurately referred to as unilateral proximal interruption of a pulmonary artery, is a rare congenital anomaly that may occur as an isolated lesion or in association with other congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Diagnosis of associated lesions is imperative as early detection and intervention may significantly improve the patient's prognosis. We present the case of an adult patient who had come to our attention after suffering neurological decompression illness related to scuba diving. The patient's cardiopulmonary anatomy was evaluated using MRI gated spin echo, cine, and breath-held fast spoiled recalled echo sequences.

  10. MRI volumetry of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres in men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Pennanen, Corina; Tiihonen, Eila; Laakso, Mikko P; Tiihonen, Jari; Aronen, Hannu J

    2004-07-30

    An association between cerebellar abnormalities and different manifestations of schizophrenia is increasingly hypothesized, either at the motor (anterior vermis), affective/psychotic (posterior vermis), or cognitive (cerebellar hemispheres) level. However, morphometric and volumetric cerebellar measurements have yielded highly divergent results. The main goal of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to separately estimate the volumes of the entire vermis, the cerebellar hemispheres and three midsaggital vermian areas among 38 men with schizophrenia and 26 healthy men. Compared with the control group, persons with schizophrenia had significantly smaller volumes of the whole vermis, but not of the cerebellar hemispheres, a difference that approached significance when only the patients without a comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence were considered. Significant anomalies of the posterior vermian areas (lobules VI and VII) were detected in both subgroups of patients, while abnormalities of the anterior vermis (lobules I-V) were observed only among patients with a dual diagnosis of alcoholism. No difference emerged between the groups at the inferior vermian level (lobules VIII-X). Overall, these findings corroborate the hypothesized association between schizophrenia and specific posterior vermian anomalies, which might not necessarily be the consequence of alcohol abuse. However, the suggestion that schizophrenia is related to abnormal volumes of the lateral cerebellum is not supported.

  11. Skeletal muscle MRI magnetisation transfer ratio reflects clinical severity in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Miranda, M A; Davagnanam, I; Cowley, P C; Mehta, H; Hanna, M G; Koltzenburg, M; Yousry, T A; Reilly, M M; Thornton, J S

    2012-01-01

    MRI may provide treatment outcome measures in neuromuscular conditions. The authors assessed MRI magnetisation transfer ratios (MTRs) in lower-limb musculature as markers of pathology in peripheral neuropathies and compared the findings with associated clinical data. Ten patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and nine patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) were compared with 10 healthy subjects. The MTR in the calf muscles was significantly lower than controls in the two patient groups (both p<0.001). The median MTRs (IQR) were 50.5(1.6) percentage units (p.u.) (control), 41.5(10.6) p.u. (CMT1A) and 39.3(8.7) p.u. (CIDP). Moreover, anterior lower leg MTR correlated strongly with strength of ankle dorsiflexion, measured with the Medical Research Council scale, in CIDP (ρ=0.88, p<0.001) and also in CMT1A (ρ=0.50, p<0.05), where MTR also showed an association with disease duration (ρ=-0.86, p<0.001). Short tau inversion recovery MRI of the same muscles showed abnormalities associated with regions of reduced MTR (p<0.001), and MTR was also reduced in other muscles otherwise deemed normal appearing (p<0.001), indicating that MTR may be more sensitive to muscle damaged by denervation than conventional MRI. The significant reductions in muscle MTR in peripheral neuropathies and the associated correlations with clinical measures indicate that MTR has potential as an imaging outcome measure in future therapeutic trials.

  12. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the FTD spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Bron, Esther E.; Osse, Robert Jan; de Koning, Inge; Jiskoot, Lize C.; Klein, Stefan; de Jong, Frank Jan; van der Lugt, Aad; van Swieten, John C.; Smits, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Purpose ‘Phenocopy’ frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) patients may clinically mimic the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD), but do not show functional decline or abnormalities upon visual inspection of routine neuroimaging. We aimed to identify abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volume and perfusion in phFTD and to assess whether phFTD belongs to the FTD spectrum. We compared phFTD patients with both healthy controls and bvFTD patients. Materials & methods Seven phFTD and 11 bvFTD patients, and 20 age-matched controls underwent structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) at 3T. Normalized GM (nGM) volumes and perfusion, corrected for partial volume effects, were quantified regionally as well as in the entire supratentorial cortex, and compared between groups taking into account potential confounding effects of gender and scanner. Results PhFTD patients showed cortical atrophy, most prominently in the right temporal lobe. Apart from this regional atrophy, GM volume was generally not different from either controls or from bvFTD. BvFTD however showed extensive frontotemporal atrophy. Perfusion was increased in the left prefrontal cortex compared to bvFTD and to a lesser extent to controls. Conclusion PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum. PMID:27222795

  13. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yusuke; Semba, Taro; Uesugi, Mai; Ozawa, Yoichi; Tohyama, Osamu; Uehara, Taisuke; Kimura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hideki; Asano, Makoto; Kawano, Satoshi; Tizon, Xavier; McCracken, Paul J; Matsui, Junji; Aoshima, Ken; Nomoto, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Eribulin mesylate