Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl
Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…
Gall, Andrew J; Poremba, Amy; Blumberg, Mark S
In week-old rats, lesions of the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DLPT) and nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) have opposing effects on nuchal muscle tone. Specifically, pups with DLPT lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of nuchal muscle atonia (indicative of sleep) and pups with PnO lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of high nuchal muscle tone (indicative of wakefulness). Here we test the hypothesis that nuchal muscle tone is modulated, at least in part, by cholinergically mediated interactions between these two regions. First, in unanesthetized pups, we found that chemical infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (22 mm, 0.1 microL) within the DLPT produced high muscle tone. Next, chemical lesions of the PnO were used to produce a chronic state of high nuchal muscle tone, at which time the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (10 mm, 0.1 microL) was infused into the DLPT. Scopolamine effectively decreased nuchal muscle tone, thus suggesting that lesions of the PnO increase muscle tone via cholinergic activation of the DLPT. Using 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, metabolic activation throughout the DLPT was observed after PnO lesions. Finally, consistent with the hypothesis that PnO inactivation produces high muscle tone, infusion of the sodium channel blocker lidocaine (2%) into the PnO of unanesthetized pups produced rapid increases in muscle tone. We conclude that, even early in infancy, the DLPT is critically involved in the regulation of muscle tone and behavioral state, and that its activity is modulated by a cholinergic mechanism that is directly or indirectly controlled by the PnO.
Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Jun Sub; Jang, Gwon Uk; Park, Seol; Park, Ji Won
[Purpose] Hemiplegia occurs when posturing with a dominant flexor tone is present in the upper limbs, thus preventing increased abnormal tone. We attempted to improve the side effects of this condition using elbow re-positioning with non-elastic tape; this method is used to modulate abnormal muscle tone in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen post-stroke patients were included in this study. Non-elastic tape was applied to the elbow joint in a spiral manner. Before and after the tape was applied, the degree of spasticity (hypertonia) was measured in the elbow flexor muscles using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Global synkinesis (GS) intensity using electromyography (EMG) was measured in the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during voluntary isometric elbow contractions of the contralateral upper limbs. [Results] Application of non-elastic tape at the elbow joint significantly changed the GS intensity, but no significant changes were found when compared with the MAS. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that non-elastic tape can be used to decrease abnormal elbow flexor tone. The findings may be used to influence the choice of intervention regarding muscle tone and spastic elbow flexion. PMID:26834377
Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot.
Moon, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Park, Si-Eun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of functional electrical stimulation on muscle tone and stiffness in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients who had suffered from stroke were recruited. The intervention was functional electrical stimulation on ankle dorsiflexor muscle (tibialis anterior). The duration of functional electrical stimulation was 30 minutes, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The Myoton was used a measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral part) on paretic side. [Results] In the assessment of muscle tone, medial and lateral part of gastrocnemius muscle showed differences before and after the experiment. Muscle stiffness of medial gastrocnemius muscle showed differences, and lateral gastrocnemius muscle showed differences before and after the experiment. The changes were greater in stiffness scores than muscle tone. [Conclusion] These results suggest that FES on ankle dorsiflexor muscle had a positive effect on muscle tone and stiffness of stroke patients. PMID:28265148
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of a combined intervention consisting of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on gastrocnemius muscle fatigue, assessing whether the intervention improved muscle tone, stiffness, and muscle contraction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy males in their 20s who were equally divided into a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group and a combined therapy group that received a combination of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Muscle fatigue was triggered on the gastrocnemius muscle, and the effects of intervention method on muscle tone, stiffness, and muscle contraction were examined over time. [Results] Lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle tone and stiffness significantly increased and gastrocnemius muscle contraction significantly decreased in each group immediately after fatigue was triggered on the gastrocnemius muscle. There was no difference in the effects of the two intervention methods over time. [Conclusion] This study verified that a combined therapy of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was able to be used effectively in improving muscle tone, stiffness, muscle contraction, thereby reducing gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. PMID:28210061
Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio
Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar region while individuals adopted the static prone position using sling suspension. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy women in their 20s. The muscle tone and stiffness of the upper and lower lumbar regions of the sling suspension group and a control group were measured using myotonmetory as they maintained the static prone positon. [Results] The sling suspension group showed statistically significant declines in the muscle tone and stiffness of the upper lumbar region 5–10 min after adopting the initial prone position. They also showed statistically significant declines in the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower lumbar region immediately after being suspended in the slings and a statistically significant decline in the muscle tone of the lower lumbar region 5–10 min after adopting the initial prone position during which the sling suspension was applied. In contrast, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar region of the control group increased while maintaining the static prone position. [Conclusion] The static prone position performed on a treatment table using sling suspension can be an effective intervention for reducing the muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar region. PMID:28174469
Serdarevic, Fadila; Ghassabian, Akhgar; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; White, Tonya; Blanken, Laura M E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
In a longitudinal population-based study of 2,905 children, we investigated if infants' neuromotor development was associated with autistic traits in childhood. Overall motor development and muscle tone were examined by trained research assistants with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between ages 2 and 5 months. Tone was assessed in several positions and items were scored as normal, low, or high tone. Parents rated their children's autistic traits with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist at 6 years. We defined clinical PDP if scores were >98th percentile of the norm population. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was clinically confirmed in 30 children. We observed a modest association between overall neuromotor development in infants and autistic traits. Low muscle tone in infancy predicted autistic traits measured by SRS (adjusted beta = 0.05, 95% CI for B: 0.00-0.02, P = 0.01), and PDP (adjusted beta = 0.08, 95% CI for B: 0.04-0.10, P < 0.001). Similar results emerged for the association of low muscle tone and clinical PDP (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.72, P = 0.01) at age 6 years. Results remained unchanged if adjusted for child intelligence. There was no association between high muscle tone and SRS or PDP. Exclusion of children with ASD diagnosis did not change the association. This large study showed a prospective association of infant muscle tone with autistic traits in childhood. Our findings suggest that early detection of low muscle tone might be a gateway to improve early diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha
Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044
Kumin, Libby; Von Hagel, Kimberly Chapman; Bahr, Diane Chapman
Parents were trained to provide infants (n=4) with low muscle tone secondary to Down Syndrome with a home intervention oral motor training program. Four case studies indicate that all four children demonstrated improved oral motor function for eating, drinking, and speaking. (Contains references.) (DB)
Fairbank, Nigel J; Connolly, Sarah C; Mackinnon, James D; Wehry, Kathrin; Deng, Linhong; Maksym, Geoffrey N
Chronic contractile activation, or tone, in asthma coupled with continuous stretching due to breathing may be involved in altering the contractile function of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Previously, we (11) showed that cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening responses to acute (2 h) localized stresses were modulated by the level of contractile activation of ASM. Here, we investigated if altered contractility in response to chronic mechanical strain was dependent on repeated modulation of contractile tone. Cultured human ASM cells received 5% cyclic (0.3 Hz), predominantly uniaxial strain for 5 days, with once-daily dosing of either sham, forskolin, carbachol, or histamine to alter tone. Stiffness, contractility (KCl), and "relaxability" (forskolin) were then measured as was cell alignment, myosin light-chain phosphorylation (pMLC), and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) content. Cells became aligned and baseline stiffness increased with strain, but repeated lowering of tone inhibited both effects (P < 0.05). Strain also reversed a negative tone-modulation dependence of MLCK, observed in static conditions in agreement with previous reports, with strain and tone together increasing both MLCK and pMLC. Furthermore, contractility increased 176% (SE 59) with repeated tone elevation. These findings indicate that with strain, and not without, repeated tone elevation promoted contractile function through changes in cytoskeletal organization and increased contractile protein. The ability of repeated contractile activation to increase contractility, but only with mechanical stretching, suggests a novel mechanism for increased ASM contractility in asthma and for the role of continuous bronchodilator and corticosteroid therapy in reversing airway hyperresponsiveness.
Sachse, Gregor; Faulhaber, Jörg; Seniuk, Anika; Ehmke, Heimo; Pongs, Olaf
The large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is an important determinant of vascular tone and contributes to blood pressure regulation. Both activities depend on the ancillary BKβ1 subunit. To determine the significance of smooth muscle BK channel activity for blood pressure regulation, we investigated the potential link between changes in arterial tone and altered blood pressure in BKβ1 knockout (BKβ1−/−) mice from three different genetically defined strains. While vascular tone was consistently increased in all BKβ1−/− mice independent of genetic background, BKβ1−/− strains exhibited increased (strain A), unaltered (strain B) or decreased (strain C) mean arterial blood pressures compared to their corresponding BKβ1+/+ controls. In agreement with previous data on aldosterone regulation by renal/adrenal BK channel function, BKβ1−/− strain A mice have increased plasma aldosterone and increased blood pressure. Consistently, blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors by spironolactone treatment reversibly restored the elevated blood pressure to the BKβ1+/+ strain A level. In contrast, loss of BKβ1 did not affect plasma aldosterone in strain C mice. Smooth muscle-restricted restoration of BKβ1 expression increased blood pressure in BKβ1−/− strain C mice, implying that impaired smooth muscle BK channel activity lowers blood pressure in these animals. We conclude that BK channel activity directly affects vascular tone but influences blood pressure independent of this effect via different pathways. PMID:24687584
Knutson, Gary A.; Owens, Edward F.
The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviewed the complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The concluding part of the review culminates in a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuromusculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention.
Knutson, Gary A; Owens, Edward F
The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviews complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The review culminates in Part II with a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuro-musculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention. Imagesp179-a
the wrist . To test the validity, the measurements recorded from the portable device shows good correlation with that recorded from the motor-driven...position was used to differentiate the normal muscle tone from that of a parkinsonism . However, there several factors, including the application of air...as stroke, spinal cord injury, and Parkinson’s disease . The hypertonia, including spasticity or rigidity, could impede normal motor function of
Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K
The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent.
Yom, Changho; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lee, ByoungHee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based ankle exercise on the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty persons who were in the chronic stroke subjects of this study and they were included and assigned to two groups: experimental (VRAE; Virtual Reality-based Ankle Exercise group) (n=10) and control groups (n=10). The VRAE group performed virtual environment system ankle exercise, and the control group watched a video. Both groups performed their respective interventions for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week over a 6-week period. To confirm the effects of the intervention, dynamic balance, muscle tone, and spatiotemporal gait were evaluated. [Results] The results showed that the dynamic balance and muscle tone was significantly more improved after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group (dynamic balance: 5.50±2.57; muscle tone: 0.90±0.39), and the improvements were more significant than those in the control (dynamic balance: 1.22±2.05; muscle tone: 0.10±0.21). Spatiotemporal gait measures were significantly more increased in the paretic limb after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group and the improvements were more significant than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that virtual reality-based ankle exercise effectively improves the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke patients.
Kampusch, Stefan; Kaniusas, Eugenijus; Széles, Jozsef C
Primary cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal, involuntary, and sustained contractions of cervical muscles. Current ways of treatment focus on alleviating symptomatic muscle activity. Besides pharmacological treatment, in severe cases patients may receive neuromodulative intervention such as deep brain stimulation. However, these (highly invasive) methods have some major drawbacks. For the first time, percutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (pVNS) was applied in a single case of primary cervical dystonia. Auricular vagus nerve stimulation was already shown to modulate the (autonomous) sympathovagal balance of the body and proved to be an effective treatment in acute and chronic pain, epilepsy, as well as major depression. pVNS effects on cervical dystonia may be hypothesized to rely upon: (i) the alteration of sensory input to the brain, which affects structures involved in the genesis of motoric and nonmotoric dystonic symptoms; and (ii) the alteration of the sympathovagal balance with a sustained impact on involuntary movement control, pain, quality of sleep, and general well-being. The presented data provide experimental evidence that pVNS may be a new alternative and minimally invasive treatment in primary cervical dystonia. One female patient (age 50 years) suffering from therapy refractory cervical dystonia was treated with pVNS over 20 months. Significant improvement in muscle pain, dystonic symptoms, and autonomic regulation as well as a subjective improvement in motility, sleep, and mood were achieved. A subjective improvement in pain recorded by visual analog scale ratings (0-10) was observed from 5.42 to 3.92 (medians). Muscle tone of the mainly affected left and right trapezius muscle in supine position was favorably reduced by about 96%. Significant reduction of muscle tone was also achieved in sitting and standing positions of the patient. Habituation to stimulation leading to reduced stimulation efficiency was observed and
Henin, Simon; Long, Glenis R; Thompson, Suzanne
The measurement of efferent-induced suppression of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) is complicated by potential contamination by the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), particularly at moderate to high CAS levels. When logarithmically sweeping primaries are used to measure distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the level and phase of the primaries at the entrance of the ear canal may be monitored simultaneously along with the OAEs elicited by the swept-tones. A method of detecting MEMR activation using swept-tones is presented in which the differences in the primaries in the ear canal with and without CAS are examined, permitting evaluation of MEMR effects over a broad frequency range. A range of CAS levels above and below expected contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds permitted evaluation of conditions with and without MEMR activation.
Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon
bstract. [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of trunk stabilization exercises on the spasticity of the lower limbs in stroke patients. [Subject] The subject of this study was a 38-year-old male patient who experienced a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and had motor paralysis symptoms and spasticity on the left side. [Methods] The Hmax/Mmax ratio was measured before and after the trunk stabilization exercises, by using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. [Results] The Hmax/Mmax ratio changed from 37% to 20%. [Conclusion] Trunk stabilization exercises help control the muscle tone in stroke patients. PMID:26357455
Karamanolis, G; Stevens, W; Vos, R; Tack, J; Clave, P; Sifrim, D
Previous studies have shown that the proximal striated muscle oesophagus is less compliant and more sensitive than the distal smooth muscle oesophagus. Conventional and high resolution manometry described a transition zone between striated and smooth muscle oesophagus. We aimed to evaluate oesophageal tone and sensitivity at the transition zone of oesophagus in healthy volunteers. In 18 subjects (seven men, mean age: 28 years) an oesophageal barostat study was performed. Tone and sensitivity were assessed using stepwise isobaric distensions with the balloon located at transition zone and at distal oesophagus in random order. To study the effect induced on transition zone by a previous distension at the distal oesophagus and vice versa, identical protocol was repeated after 7 days with inverted order. Initial distension of a region is referred to as 'naïf' distension and distension of a region following the distension of the other segment as 'primed' distension. Assessment of three oesophageal symptoms (chest pain, heartburn and 'other') was obtained at the end of every distension step. Compliance was significantly higher in the transition zone than in the distal oesophagus (1.47 +/- 0.14 vs 1.09 +/- 0.09 mL mmHg(-1), P = 0.03) after 'naif' distensions. This difference was not observed during 'primed' distensions. Higher sensitivity at transition zone level was found in 11/18 (61%) subjects compared to 6/18 (33%, P < 0.05) at smooth muscle oesophagus. Chest pain and 'other' symptom were more often induced by distention of the transition zone, whereas heartburn was equally triggered by distension of either region. The transition zone is more complaint and more sensitive than smooth muscle oesophagus.
Sekiguchi, F; Matsuda, K; Shimamura, K; Takeuchi, K; Sunano, S
Control of the active tone by endothelium in aortae from various strains of spontaneously hypertensive rats was studied. The active tone was negligibly observed in endothelium-intact preparation. The application of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10(-4) M) induced slowly developed active tone in the preparations from hypertensive rats but no active tone was induced in the preparation from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The developed tension was stronger in preparations from rats with higher blood pressure as observed in endothelium denuded preparations. The developed active tone in the presence of L-NNA was greater than that observed in endothelium denuded preparations. The active tone was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+ or by the application of Ca-antagonists. L-arginine counteracted the effects of L-NNA and depressed the developed active tone in the presence of the latter drug. The application of indomethacin (10(-5) M) depressed the active tone of the preparations from SHRSP by 25.5+/-5.2%. Increasing extracellular K+ concentration or application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) could not be used to observe the effect of endothelium-derived factors on the active tone, because of their strong contractile effect. Simultaneous application of apamin and charybdotoxin induced an elevation of tension which was often associated with spontaneous tension oscillation. It is concluded that the active tone, which is smooth muscle origin, is depressed by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) strongly and potentiated by a product of arachidonic acid cascade through cyclooxygenase pathway. The involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the depressing effect of endothelium is thought to be small.
Baik, Kwang; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Baek, Jae-Keun
The objective of this research is to verify the effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone of pelvic limbs and articular range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The research target is 16 children with spastic cerebral palsy, 8 children for the experimental group and 8 children for the control group. As a tool to measure the muscle tone, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), was used and a goniometer was used to measure the range of motion (ROM). A therapeutic horseback riding program was conducted to an experimental group of 8 children with spastic cerebral palsy in the therapeutic horseback riding for 60 min a day, 2 days a week and a total of 12 weeks. The results are as follows: First, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the muscle tone for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Second, though the difference in knee muscle tone between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. Third, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the hip-joint motion range for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Fourth, though the difference in the hip joint motion range between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. PMID:25426462
Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Yokoi, Yuka; Takahashi, Naoaki
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine, in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, if the response of tidal volume during manually assisted breathing is dependent upon both upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of manually assisted breathing. [Subjects] We recruited 13 patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and assessed their upper extremity muscle tone using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). The subjects were assigned to either the low MAS group (MAS≤2, n=7) or the high MAS group (MAS≥3, n=6). [Methods] The manually assisted breathing technique was applied at a pressure of 2 kgf and 4 kgf. A split-plot ANOVA was performed to compare the tidal volume of each pressure during manually assisted breathing between the low and the high MAS groups. [Results] Statistical analysis showed there were main effects of the upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of the manually assisted breathing technique. There was no interaction between these factors. [Conclusion] Our findings reveal that the tidal volume during the manually assisted breathing technique for patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation depends upon the patient’s upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity. PMID:26357431
Wright, David; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuya; Kutsuzawa, Keiichi; Miyawaki, Kazuhito; Nagata, Ken
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, degenerative condition that is characterised by tremor, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity and postural instability. Currently, only subjective tests are employed and we aim to develop a portable device to quantify muscle tone in patients with movement disorders, in particular, Parkinson's disease. A servo-motor robotic arm was developed to rhythmically flex and extend the subjects arm and their response was measured using continuous electromyography (EMG) sampled at 4kHz. Surface electrodes were attached over the biceps of the more severely affected arm and a reference electrode attached to the back of the contra-lateral hand. EMG data was normalized using the rest mean EMG level and then segmented into epochs according to the position data. EMG recorded from normal subjects remained flat throughout the trial with only very small fluctuations in amplitude about the mean. In contrast, biceps activity in parkinsonian patients tended to increase with flexion and as expected there were large variations in amplitude about the baseline activity. A fast fourier transform was also performed and spectra obtained from a typical Parkinsonian patient showed two peaks at approximately 6 Hz and 8 Hz, consistent with previously published data. In conclusion, the results clearly differentiate between normal and parkinsonian cases and to some extent severity. Quantification of disease severity might be possible given a broader range and greater number of patients.
Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…
Wu, Melinda D.; Belcik, J. Todd; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Yan; Benner, Cameron; Pei, Hong; Linden, Joel; Lindner, Jonathan R.
Background Microvascular dysregulation, abnormal rheology, and vaso-occlusive events play a role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that abnormalities in skeletal muscle perfusion in a murine model of SCD could be parametrically assessed by quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging. Methods We studied a murine model of moderate SCD without anemia produced by homozygous β-globin deletion replaced by human βs-globin transgene (NY1DD−/−, n=18), heterozygous transgene replacement (NY1DD+/−, n=19), and C57Bl/6 control mice (n=14). Quantitative CEU of the proximal hindlimb skeletal muscle was performed at rest and during contractile exercise (2 Hz). Time-intensity data were analyzed to measure microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular blood transit rate (β), and microvascular blood flow (MBF). Erythrocyte deformability was measured by elongation at various rotational shears. Results At rest, muscle MBV was similar between strains whereas β was significantly (ANOVA p=0.0015) reduced to a similar degree in NY1DD−/− and NY1DD+/− compared to wild-type mice (0.24±0.10, 0.16±0.07, and 0.34±0.14 s−1, respectively), resulting in a reduction in MBF. During contractile exercise, there were no group-wise differences in β (1.43±0.67 s−1, 1.09±0.42 s−1, 1.36±0.49 s−1; for NY1DD−/−, NY1DD+/−, and wild-type, respectively), nor for MBF or MBV. Erythrocyte deformability at high shear stress (≥5 Pa) was mildly reduced in both transgenic groups, although it did not correlate with the blood flow or β. Conclusions CEU in skeletal muscle has revealed a lower microvascular blood transit rate in the NY1DD model of SCD and sickle trait but no alterations in MBV. The abnormality in microvascular blood transit rate is likely due to vasomotor dysfunction since it abrogated by contractile exercise and at rest is only weakly related to erythrocyte deformability. PMID:26123012
Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Aparicio-García, Carlos; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pilar; Simón-Martínez, Cristina; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Manuel
Kinesio taping (KT) has been proposed to modulate muscle tone. However no studies have systematically studied the efficacy of KTon this primary outcome measure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) applied over the gastrocnemius muscles on muscle tone, extensibility, electromyography (EMG) and strength. Nineteen healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. KT and sham-tape were applied onto the gastrocnemius muscles of all subjects in two randomized sessions. Measurements before, at 10 min and 24 h after the intervention were taken. Outcome measurements included passive resistive torque to ankle dorsiflexion, dorsiflexion passive range of motion (PROM), surface Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG and maximal isometric voluntary force (MIVF). No significant differences were found between the sham-tape and KT groups for passive resistive torque, PROM nor maximal plantarflexion isometric voluntary force. A short-term increase of GM EMG activity was found in the KT group during the PROM mobilization, which was not maintained at 24 h following treatment. A short-term decrease in dorsiflexion force was produced 10 min after KT with respect to sham-tape application. These results demonstrate that the application of KT in the gastrocnemius muscles has no effect on healthy muscle tone, extensibility nor strength. However a short-term increase of GM EMG activity after KT treatment suggests the activation of central nervous system mechanisms, although without a therapeutic implication. Further studies with more appropriate designs are needed to clarify the physiological and therapeutic effects of this taping technique.
Schuster, Steffen H; Schuster, Frank M
Muscle spindles are increasingly recognized as playing a pivotal role in the cause of dystonia. This development and own laryngeal observations that support the idea of causally "well-intentioned" stuttering motivated us to present the following hypothesis: stuttering events compensate for a sensory problem that arises when the abductor/adductor ratio of afferent impulse rates from the posterior cricoarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscle spindles is abnormally reduced and processed for the occasional determination of the vocal fold position. This hypothesis implies that functional and structural brain abnormalities might be interpreted as secondary compensatory reactions. Verification of this hypothesis (using technologies such as microneurography, dissection and muscle afferent block) is important because its confirmation could relink dystonia and stuttering research, change the direction of stuttering therapy and destigmatize stuttering radically.
Meunier, S; Pol, S; Houeto, J L; Vidailhet, M
Disynaptic Ia reciprocal inhibition acts, at the spinal level, by actively inhibiting antagonist motor neurons and reducing the inhibition of agonist motor neurons. The deactivation of this pathway in Parkinson's disease is still debated. Disynaptic reciprocal inhibition of H reflexes in the forearm flexor muscles was examined in 15 control subjects and 16 treated parkinsonian patients at rest and at the onset of a voluntary wrist flexion. Two patients were reassessed 18 h after withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication. At rest, the level of Ia reciprocal inhibition between the wrist antagonist muscles was not significantly different between patients and controls. In contrast, clear abnormalities of this inhibition were revealed by voluntary movements in the patients. In normal subjects, at the onset of a wrist flexion, Ia reciprocal inhibition showed a large decrease, and we argue that this decrease is supraspinal in origin. On the less affected sides of the patients the descending modulation was still present but lower than in controls; on the more affected sides this modulation had vanished almost completely. These movement-induced abnormalities of disynaptic Ia reciprocal inhibition were closely associated with Parkinson's disease but were probably not dependent on L-dopa. They could play a role in the disturbances of precise voluntary movements observed in Parkinson's disease.
Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049
Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.
Matsukiyo, Ayumi; Goh, Ah-Cheng; Asagai, Yoshimi
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to quantify the resistance to passive movement by measuring changes in muscle-tendon length and joint range of motion (ROM), before and after applying a standardized 5-kilogram tension force, and to correlate and compare these changes to muscle tone. [Subjects and Methods] Children with cerebral palsy (n=29) and typically developed children (n=12) participated in this observational study. The modified Ashworth scale (MAS) was used to assess tone in the right plantarflexor muscle. An ultrasound-imaging device was used to measure Δmuscle-tendon length in the right medial gastrocnemius muscle, and a goniometer was used to measure right ankle ΔROM. [Results] Compared with the MAS, the results showed that ΔROM had the highest construct validity (convergent and discriminant) followed by Δmuscle-tendon unit length. Therefore, these parameters may be better alternatives to the MAS for the quantitative assessment of resistance to passive movement in patients with increased tone. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that measuring the change in the passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit, as well as the corresponding change in ROM, might provide better options for assessing resistance to passive movement or muscle tone. PMID:28265172
Farmer, S. F.; Harrison, L. M.; Mayston, M. J.; Parekh, A.; James, L. M.; Stephens, J. A.
X-linked Kallmann's (XKS) subjects, who display mirror movements, have abnormal corticospinal tracts which innervate motoneurons of the left and right distal muscles of the upper limb. The size of the abnormal ipsilateral projection is variable. We have used coherence and cumulant analysis between EEG and first dorsal interosseous muscle (1DI) EMG…
Stanek, Edward; Rodriguez, Erica; Zhao, Shengli; Han, Bao-Xia
Anatomical studies have identified brainstem neurons that project bilaterally to left and right oromotor pools, which could potentially mediate bilateral muscle coordination. We use retrograde lentiviruses combined with a split-intein-mediated split-Cre-recombinase system in mice to isolate, characterize, and manipulate a population of neurons projecting to both the left and right jaw-closing trigeminal motoneurons. We find that these bilaterally projecting premotor neurons (BPNs) reside primarily in the supratrigeminal nucleus (SupV) and the parvicellular and intermediate reticular regions dorsal to the facial motor nucleus. These BPNs also project to multiple midbrain and brainstem targets implicated in orofacial sensorimotor control, and consist of a mix of glutamatergic, GABAergic, and glycinergic neurons, which can drive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs to trigeminal motoneurons when optogenetically activated in slice. Silencing BPNs with tetanus toxin light chain (TeNT) increases bilateral masseter activation during chewing, an effect driven by the expression of TeNT in SupV BPNs. Acute unilateral optogenetic inhibition of SupV BPNs identifies a group of tonically active neurons that function to lower masseter muscle tone, whereas unilateral optogenetic activation of SupV BPNs is sufficient to induce bilateral masseter activation both during resting state and during chewing. These results provide evidence for SupV BPNs in tonically modulating jaw-closing muscle tone and in mediating bilateral jaw closing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We developed a method that combines retrograde lentiviruses with the split-intein-split-Cre system in mice to isolate, characterize, and manipulate neurons that project to both left and right jaw-closing motoneurons. We show that these bilaterally projecting premotor neurons (BPNs) reside primarily in the supratrigeminal nucleus and the rostral parvicellular and intermediate reticular nuclei. BPNs consist of both excitatory and
Boo, Jung-A; Moon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Min; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Park, Si-Eun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. Prior to occupational therapy, whole-body exercise was performed for 10 minutes, 5 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. Muscle tone and upper extremity function were measured. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to measure muscle tone, and the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FugM) were used to measure upper extremity function. [Results] MAS score was significantly decreased, and MFT and FugM were significantly increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy had a positive effect on muscle tone, and upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:27065354
Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Britton, D E; Adornato, B T; Eiben, R M
Two unrelated 9-year-old boys failed to thrive from ages 5 and 4 years, and had focal cerebral seizures followed by transcent hemipareses. Histochemistry of their muscle biopsies showed "ragged-red" fibers, which ultrastructurally contained clusters of mitochondria having loss of crisp delineation of crista membranes and contained amorphous inclusion material and parallel-packed cristae and sometimes paracrystalline inclusions. In the patients' cultured muscles, similar mitochondrial abnormalities were present. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, introduced to the medium of cultures of normal human muscle, produced mitochondrial abnormalities similar to those of the patients', and the medium of the patients' muscle cultures worsened the mitochondrial abnormalities. This study, in demonstrating a mitochondrial defect reproducible in the cultured muscle fibers and, therefore, intrinsic to the ragged-red muscle fibers themselves, raises the possibility of a collateral mitochondrial defect in CNS cells as part of a multicellular mitochondriopathy.
Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ya-Ju; Wong, Alice May-Kuen
This study used a repeated measures design to assess the effect of an eight-week repetitive passive movement (RPM) intervention on lower extremity muscle tone and function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighteen children (aged 9.5 [plus or minus] 2.1 years) with spastic CP were randomly assigned to a knee RPM intervention condition of 3…
Jantzie, Lauren L.; Getsy, Paulina M.; Denson, Jesse L.; Firl, Daniel J.; Maxwell, Jessie R.; Rogers, Danny A.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Robinson, Shenandoah
Infants who suffer perinatal brain injury, including those with encephalopathy of prematurity, are prone to chronic neurological deficits, including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems, such as anxiety, inattention, and poor social interaction. These deficits, especially in combination, pose the greatest hindrance to these children becoming independent adults. Cerebral function depends on adequate development of essential inhibitory neural circuits and the appropriate amount of excitation and inhibition at specific stages of maturation. Early neuronal synaptic responses to γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are initially excitatory. During the early postnatal period, GABAAR responses switch to inhibitory with the upregulation of potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2. With extrusion of chloride by KCC2, the Cl− reversal potential shifts and GABA and glycine responses become inhibitory. We hypothesized that prenatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury chronically impairs the developmental upregulation of KCC2 that is essential for cerebral circuit formation. Following late gestation hypoxia–ischemia (HI), diffusion tensor imaging in juvenile rats shows poor microstructural integrity in the hippocampal CA3 subfield, with reduced fractional anisotropy and elevated radial diffusivity. The loss of microstructure correlates with early reduced KCC2 expression on NeuN-positive pyramidal neurons, and decreased monomeric and oligomeric KCC2 protein expression in the CA3 subfield. Together with decreased inhibitory post-synaptic currents during a critical window of development, we document for the first time that prenatal transient systemic HI in rats impairs hippocampal CA3 inhibitory tone. Failure of timely development of inhibitory tone likely contributes to a lower seizure threshold and impaired cognitive function in children who suffer perinatal brain injury. PMID:26388734
Ibuki, Aileen; Bach, Timothy; Rogers, Douglas; Bernhardt, Julie
Orthoses are commonly prescribed for the management of spasticity but their neurophysiologic effect on spasticity remains unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three tone-reducing devices (dynamic foot orthosis, muscle stretch, and orthokinetic compression garment) on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke. A repeated measures intervention study was conducted on 13 patients with stroke selected from a sample of convenience. A custom-made dynamic foot orthosis, a range of motion walker to stretch the soleus muscle and class 1 and class 2 orthokinetic compression garments were assessed using the ratio of maximum Hoffmann reflex amplitude to maximum M-response amplitude (Hmax:Mmax) to determine their effect on soleus muscle reflex excitability. Only 10 subjects were able to complete the testing. There were no significant treatment effects for the interventions (F=1.208, df=3.232, p=0.328); however, when analyzed subject-by-subject, two subjects responded to the dynamic foot orthosis and one of those two subjects also responded to the class 1 orthokinetic compression garment. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tone-reducing devices had no significant effect on soleus reflex excitability suggesting that these tone-reducing orthotic devices have no significant neurophysiologic effect on spasticity.
Wasay, Mohammad; Sarangzai, Amanullah; Siddiqi, Ather; Nizami, Qamaruddin
We report three cases of ciguatera fish poisoning. One patient died secondary to respiratory failure. Two patients showed elevated muscle enzymes and one patients had an abnormal cervical spinal MRI. MRI findings have not been previously described. MRI findings explain the mechanism of the L'hermitte phenomenon (a common complaint) among these patients. Respiratory failure is rare in ciguatera fish poisoning. Our findings suggest this could be related to respiratory muscles involvement.
Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King; Nogalska, Anna
Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is the most common degenerative muscle disease in which aging appears to be a key risk factor. In this review we focus on several cellular molecular mechanisms responsible for multiprotein aggregation and accumulations within s-IBM muscle fibers, and their possible consequences. Those include mechanisms leading to: a) accumulation in the form of aggregates within the muscle fibers, of several proteins, including amyloid-β42 and its oligomers, and phosphorylated tau in the form of paired helical filaments, and we consider their putative detrimental influence; and b) protein misfolding and aggregation, including evidence of abnormal myoproteostasis, such as increased protein transcription, inadequate protein disposal, and abnormal posttranslational modifications of proteins. Pathogenic importance of our recently demonstrated abnormal mitophagy is also discussed. The intriguing phenotypic similarities between s-IBM muscle fibers and the brains of Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease patients, the two most common neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging, are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.
Burridge, J; McLellan, D
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between response to common peroneal nerve stimulation, timed to the swing phase of walking, and abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation patterns. METHOD—Eighteen patients who took part had a drop foot and had had a stroke at least 6 months before the study Twelve age matched normal subjects were also studied. Response to stimulation was measured by changes in the speed and effort of walking when the stimulator was used. Speed was measured over 10 m and effort by the physiological cost index. Abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation were measured in a rig by ability to follow a tracking signal moving sinusoidally at either 1 or 2 Hz, resistance to passive movement, and EMG activity during both passive and active movements. Indices were derived to define EMG response to passive stretch, coactivation, and ability to activate muscles appropriately during active movement RESULTS—Different mechanisms underlying the drop foot were seen. Results showed that patients who had poor control of ankle movement and spasticity, demonstrated by stretch reflex and coactivation, were more likely to respond well to stimulation. Those with mechanical resistance to passive movement and with normal muscle activation responded less well. CONCLUSIONS—The results support the hypothesis that stimulation of the common peroneal nerve to elicit a contraction of the anterior tibial muscles also inhibits the antagonist calf muscles. The technique used may be useful in directing physiotherapy by indicating the underlying cause of the drop foot. PMID:10945810
Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S.; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis
Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1. PMID:26018658
Zhang, Xinhua; Yin, Jing; Kanika, Nirmala D.; Tong, Yuehong; Villegas, Guillermo; Melman, Arnold; DiSanto, Michael E.
Objective The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates smooth muscle (SM) contractility predominantly via three G protein-coupled receptors. The S1P1 receptor is associated with nitric oxide-mediated SM relaxation while S1P2 & S1P3 receptors are linked to SM contraction via activation of the Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway. The objective of this study was to determine the role of S1P in the modulation of corpus cavernosum (CC) SM (CCSM) tone. Methods Human and rat samples were used. Plasma S1P levels were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of S1P1-3 receptors and sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. In vitro organ bath contractility and in vivo intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were performed. Results were expressed as mean ± SEM for n experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using either the Student’s t-test (when two sample treatments were being compared) or using ANOVA when multiple means were compared. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Plasma S1P levels were determined to be ~200 nanomolar. Human and rat CC both express SphK1 and all S1P1-3 receptors. Exogenous S1P and the S1P receptor agonist FTY720-P contracted while antagonist JTE-013 relaxed CCSM in vitro. Meanwhile, force produced by S1P and agonists could be totally reversed by ROK inhibitor. Also, intracavernous injection of FTY720-P inhibited ICP rise induced by submaximal electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve, while JTE-013 alone induced ICP increase in vivo. Finally, SphK1 siRNA knocked down rat CC SphK1 by 80% and ICP were significantly potentiated. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide novel data that S1P, possibly coupling S1P2 and S1P3 receptors via RhoA/ROK pathway, mediates CCSM in vitro and in vivo. Antagonizing S1P or its receptors induces CCSM relaxation and proerectile effects. Thus, we provide the first clear evidences that the S1P system is another key contractile regulatory
Staff, Nathan P.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Howe, Benjamin M.
Introduction MRI of peripheral nerve and muscle in patients with ALS may be performed to investigate alternative diagnoses including multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). MRI findings of peripheral nerve and muscle are not well described in these conditions, making interpretation of results difficult. Methods We examined systematically the peripheral nerve and muscle MRI findings in patients with ALS (n=60) and MMN (n=8). Results In patients with ALS and MMN, abnormal MRIs were common (85% and 75%, respectively) but did not correlate with disease severity. Peripheral nerve MRI abnormalities were similar in frequency (ALS: 58% vs. MMN: 63%) with most changes being of mild-to-moderate severity. Muscle MRI changes were more common in ALS (57% vs. 33%), and no muscle atrophy was seen in patients with MMN. Discussion MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle in ALS and MMN are common and share some features. PMID:25736373
Labyt, Etienne; Cassim, François; Devos, David; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Destée, Alain; Guieu, Jean-Daiel; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe
This study aimed at elucidating how the cortical mechanism underlying the preparation and the postmovement phase of voluntary hand muscle relaxation is affected in Parkinson's disease. Event-related mu and beta (de)synchronization (ERD/S) related to voluntary muscle contraction and relaxation were recorded in 16 untreated, akineto-rigid, predominantly hemiparkinsonian patients. The results were compared with data from 10 age-matched, healthy subjects. In the muscle relaxation task, the subject held the wrist in an extended position and then let the hand drop by voluntarily relaxing wrist extensor contraction, i.e., without any overt, associated muscle contraction. In the muscle contraction task, subjects performed a self-initiated brief wrist extension. A same pattern of ERD/S was observed in control subjects and parkinsonian patients performing the motor tasks with their less affected limb. In contrast, related to voluntary relaxation performed with the more affected limb, a delayed mu and beta ERD and a disappearance of beta ERS were revealed. These results demonstrate that the pattern of cortical oscillatory activity in a relaxation task is abnormal in parkinsonian patients. The authors suggest that this may be due to anomalous activity in inhibitory motor cortical systems and impaired sensorimotor integration of afferent inputs from muscle and joint receptors.
Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker.
Ito, Takashi; Oishi, Shohei; Takai, Mika; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Fujio, Yasushi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi
Taurine, a sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. To address the physiological role of taurine in mammalian tissues, taurine transporter-(TauT-) knockout models were recently generated. TauTKO mice exhibited loss of body weight, abnormal cardiac function and the reduced exercise capacity with tissue taurine depletion. In this chapter, we summarize pathological profile and histological feature of heart and skeletal muscle in TauTKO mice.
Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Yu, Yu-Chun; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ju, Yan-Ying
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity spasticity and ambulatory function in children with cerebral palsy with a complete crossover design. Sixteen participants aged 9.2 (2.1) years participated in this study. Half of the participants received a 10-min WBV, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Then a 4-week washout period followed, after which they received a sham WBV 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The other half received the intervention in a reversed order. The participants were evaluated via variables measuring range-of-motion, muscle tone, and ambulatory function before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after each intervention. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant beneficial effects on most variables expect the passive range-of-motion measurement. Significant correlations were found between timed up-and-go and relaxation index, and between timed up-and-go and six-minute walk test. The results suggested that an 8-week WBV intervention normalized muscle tone, improved active joint range and enhanced ambulatory performance in children with cerebral palsy for at least 3 days. These indicated that regular WBV can serve as an alternative, safe, and efficient treatment for these children in both clinical and home settings.
May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.
Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder
Tulaar, Angela B. M.; Immanuel, Suzana; Purba, A.; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Haryadi, Ratna Darjanti; Hadisoebroto, Ismail; Husni, Amin; Ibrahim, Nurhadi
Biomechanical abnormalities of pronated feet accompanied by functional leg length disparity may increase the risk of skeletal muscle injury. Objective of the study is to prove that correction of pronated feet by the foot orthoses will reduce the creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM) concentrations as the muscle injury indicator. The design study was double blind randomized clinical trials with control. Research subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 used the foot orthoses while group 2 did not used the foot orthoses. The whole subject examined the concentrations of the CK-MM enzyme before, and 24–72 hours after the walking test. The walking test was conducted 15 minutes with maximum speed. The concentration of the CK-MM enzyme before walking test on treatment group was 70.07±15.33 International Unit (IU), similar with the control group was 69.85±17.03 IU (P=0.971). The increased in CK-MM enzyme concentrations 45 hours after the walking test was lower in the treatment group (7.8±9 IU) than the control group (22.0±11.5 IU) (P=0.001). The CK-MM enzyme concentrations continued to decline in the treatment group after the second walking test (77.21±17.47 IU), and after the third walking test (69.86±11.88 IU) (P=0.018). The foot orthoses for correcting the pronated feet on the young women with biomechanical abnormalities is able to reduce the degree of the skeletal muscle injury after walking activity. PMID:27051564
Rachmawati, Maria Regina; Tulaar, Angela B M; Immanuel, Suzana; Purba, A; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Haryadi, Ratna Darjanti; Hadisoebroto, Ismail; Husni, Amin; Ibrahim, Nurhadi
Biomechanical abnormalities of pronated feet accompanied by functional leg length disparity may increase the risk of skeletal muscle injury. Objective of the study is to prove that correction of pronated feet by the foot orthoses will reduce the creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM) concentrations as the muscle injury indicator. The design study was double blind randomized clinical trials with control. Research subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 used the foot orthoses while group 2 did not used the foot orthoses. The whole subject examined the concentrations of the CK-MM enzyme before, and 24-72 hours after the walking test. The walking test was conducted 15 minutes with maximum speed. The concentration of the CK-MM enzyme before walking test on treatment group was 70.07±15.33 International Unit (IU), similar with the control group was 69.85±17.03 IU (P=0.971). The increased in CK-MM enzyme concentrations 45 hours after the walking test was lower in the treatment group (7.8±9 IU) than the control group (22.0±11.5 IU) (P=0.001). The CK-MM enzyme concentrations continued to decline in the treatment group after the second walking test (77.21±17.47 IU), and after the third walking test (69.86±11.88 IU) (P=0.018). The foot orthoses for correcting the pronated feet on the young women with biomechanical abnormalities is able to reduce the degree of the skeletal muscle injury after walking activity.
Cohen-Gould, L.; Robinson, T. F.; Factor, S. M.
Significant connective tissue abnormalities occurring in hearts of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters are reported. These abnormalities include a pronounced loss of the intrinsic connective tissue skeletal framework around foci of myocytolytic necrosis within the non-necrotic myocardium. These changes were demonstrated by a silver impregnation technique, and they were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Quantitation demonstrated more than a twofold increase in the area of ventricular wall affected by pathologic changes, when the connective tissue alterations were included with the myocardial necrosis. In addition, the authors also observed focal, thick "tethering" connective tissue fibers at the termini of necrotic lesions, seemingly connecting them to normal muscle. These connective tissue abnormalities may contribute to the progressive loss of ventricular function that occurs in this model of cardiomyopathy. They may permit greater wall thinning than would occur with focal necrosis alone, and they may increase focal mural stiffness in the tethered regions. Further investigation of the pathogenesis of these changes and their mechanical significance is indicated. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3578490
Bai, Xue; Lenhart, Kaitlin C.; Bird, Kim E.; Suen, Alisa A.; Rojas, Mauricio; Kakoki, Masao; Li, Feng; Smithies, Oliver; Mack, Christopher P.; Taylor, Joan M.
Although hypertension is a worldwide health issue, an incomplete understanding of its etiology has hindered our ability to treat this complex disease. Here we identify arhgap42 (also known as GRAF3) as a Rho-specific GAP expressed specifically in smooth muscle cells in mice and humans. We show that GRAF3-deficient mice exhibit significant hypertension and increased pressor responses to angiotensin II and endothelin-1; these effects are prevented by treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. RhoA activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation are elevated in GRAF3-depleted smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and isolated vessel segments from GRAF3-deficient mice show increased contractility. Taken together our data indicate that GRAF3-mediated inhibition of RhoA activity in vascular smooth muscle cells is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure homeostasis. Moreover, these findings provide a potential mechanism for a hypertensive locus recently identified within arhgap42 and provide a foundation for the future development of innovative hypertension therapies. PMID:24335996
Lembo, G; Napoli, R; Capaldo, B; Rendina, V; Iaccarino, G; Volpe, M; Trimarco, B; Saccà, L
The reason why hyperinsulinemia is associated with essential hypertension is not known. To test the hypothesis of a pathophysiologic link mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we measured the changes in forearm norepinephrine release, by using the forearm perfusion technique in conjunction with the infusion of tritiated NE, in patients with essential hypertension and in normal subjects receiving insulin intravenously (1 mU/kg per min) while maintaining euglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia (50-60 microU/ml in the deep forearm vein) evoked a significant increase in forearm NE release in both groups of subjects. However, the response of hypertensives was threefold greater compared to that of normotensives (2.28 +/- 45 ng.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and 0.80 +/- 0.27 ng.liter-1 in normals; P less than 0.01). Forearm glucose uptake rose to 5.1 +/- .7 mg.liter-1.min-1 in response to insulin in hypertensives and to 7.9 +/- 1.3 mg.liter-1.min-1 in normotensives (P less than 0.05). To clarify whether insulin action was due to a direct effect on muscle NE metabolism, in another set of experiments insulin was infused locally into the brachial artery to expose only the forearm tissues to the same insulin levels as in the systemic studies. During local hyperinsulinemia, forearm NE release remained virtually unchanged both in hypertensive and in normal subjects. Furthermore, forearm glucose disposal was activated to a similar extent in both groups (5.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.2 +/- 1.1 mg.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and in normals, respectively). These data demonstrate that: (a) insulin evokes an abnormal muscle sympathetic overactivity in essential hypertension which is mediated by mechanisms involving the central nervous system; and (b) insulin resistance associated with hypertension is demonstrable in the skeletal muscle tissue only with systemic insulin administration which produces muscle sympathetic overactivity. The data fit the hypothesis that the sympathetic system mediates
Danielsson, Jennifer; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Bernstein, Kyra; Barajas, Matthew B.; Zhang, Yi; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Pawan K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.
Background Perioperative bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to challenge anesthesiologists and intensivists. The TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We hypothesized that TMEM16A antagonists would relax ASM contraction by modulating membrane potential and calcium flux. Methods Human ASM, guinea pig tracheal rings or mouse peripheral airways were contracted with acetylcholine (Ach) or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then treated with the TMEM16A antagonists: benzbromarone, T16Ainh-A01, MONNA or B25. In separate studies, guinea pig tracheal rings were contracted with Ach and then exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0.01nM-10μM) ± benzbromarone. Plasma membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in human ASM cells. Results Benzbromarone was the most potent TMEM16A antagonist tested for relaxing an Ach-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings (n=6). Further studies were done to investigate benzbromarone’s clinical utility. In human ASM, benzbromarone relaxed either an acetylcholine- or LTD4-induced contraction (n=8). Benzbromarone was also effective in relaxing peripheral airways (n=9) and potentiating relaxation by β-agonists (n=5–10). In cellular mechanistic studies, benzbromarone hyperpolarized human ASM cells (n=9–12) and attenuated intracellular calcium flux from both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum (n=6–12). Conclusions TMEM16A antagonists work synergistically with β-agonists and through a novel pathway of interrupting ion flux both at the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum to acutely relax human airway smooth muscle. PMID:26181339
Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.
BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673
Steele, J G; Lamey, P J; Sharkey, S W; Smith, G M
Seventy-two migraine sufferers, whose attacks normally begin during or soon after waking from sleep, were compared with 37 age- and sex-matched controls to establish whether signs of mandibular dysfunction, occlusal discrepancies and known clenching or grinding habits were any more frequent among the former group. Temporomandibular joint tenderness or pain history, masticatory muscle tenderness and known clenching or grinding habits were found to occur at significantly increased levels in the migraine sufferers, with two-thirds of these patients reporting a parafunctional habit. Occlusal abnormalities, including non-working side or protrusive interferences and slides of greater than 1 mm to the intercuspal position, were found to occur at similar frequencies in the two groups. Assessment of wear of the occlusal surfaces also showed no difference, suggesting that any nocturnal habit with a role in migraine is more likely to be clenching in nature. In conclusion, evidence was found to support an aetiological role for nocturnal tooth clenching or grinding in migraine characterized by attacks that start predominantly during sleep or soon after waking, but no evidence of a link with occlusal factors was found in these patients.
Yocum, Gene T; Chen, Jun; Choi, Christine H; Townsend, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Dingbang; Fu, Xiao Wen; Sanderson, Michael J; Emala, Charles W
Asthma is a common disorder characterized, in part, by airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed on airway nerve fibers that modulates afferent signals resulting in cough, and potentially bronchoconstriction. In the present study, the TRPV1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in primary cultured human ASM cells, and the TRPV1 protein was detected in ASM of human trachea by immunohistochemistry. Proximity ligation assays suggest that TRPV1 is expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane of human ASM cells in close association with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2. In guinea pig tracheal ring organ bath experiments, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin led to ASM contraction, but this contraction was significantly attenuated by the sodium-channel inhibitor bupivicaine (N=4, p<0.05) and the NK-2 receptor antagonist GR 159897 (N=4, p<0.05), suggesting that this contraction is neurally-mediated. However, pretreatment of guinea pig and human ASM in organ bath experiments with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine inhibited the maintenance phase of an acetylcholine-induced contraction (N=4, p<0.01 for both species). Similarly, capsazepine inhibited methacholine-induced contraction of peripheral airways in mouse precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) experiments (N=4-5, p<0.05). Although capsazepine did not inhibit store-operated calicum entry in mouse ASM cells in PCLS (N=4-7, p=NS), it did inhibit calcium oscillations (N=3, p<0.001). These studies suggest that TRPV1 is expressed on ASM, including the SR, but that ASM TRPV1 activation does not play a significant role in initiation of ASM contraction. However, capsazepine does inhibit maintenance of contraction, likely by inhibiting calcium oscillation.
Foltz, Steven J.; Modi, Jill N.; Melick, Garrett A.; Abousaud, Marin I.; Luan, Junna; Fortunato, Marisa J.; Beedle, Aaron M.
Glycosylated α-dystroglycan provides an essential link between extracellular matrix proteins, like laminin, and the cellular cytoskeleton via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. In secondary dystroglycanopathy muscular dystrophy, glycosylation abnormalities disrupt a complex O-mannose glycan necessary for muscle structural integrity and signaling. Fktn-deficient dystroglycanopathy mice develop moderate to severe muscular dystrophy with skeletal muscle developmental and/or regeneration defects. To gain insight into the role of glycosylated α-dystroglycan in these processes, we performed muscle fiber typing in young (2, 4 and 8 week old) and regenerated muscle. In mice with Fktn disruption during skeletal muscle specification (Myf5/Fktn KO), newly regenerated fibers (embryonic myosin heavy chain positive) peaked at 4 weeks old, while total regenerated fibers (centrally nucleated) were highest at 8 weeks old in tibialis anterior (TA) and iliopsoas, indicating peak degeneration/regeneration activity around 4 weeks of age. In contrast, mature fiber type specification at 2, 4 and 8 weeks old was relatively unchanged. Fourteen days after necrotic toxin-induced injury, there was a divergence in muscle fiber types between Myf5/Fktn KO (skeletal-muscle specific) and whole animal knockout induced with tamoxifen post-development (Tam/Fktn KO) despite equivalent time after gene deletion. Notably, Tam/Fktn KO retained higher levels of embryonic myosin heavy chain expression after injury, suggesting a delay or abnormality in differentiation programs. In mature fiber type specification post-injury, there were significant interactions between genotype and toxin parameters for type 1, 2a, and 2x fibers, and a difference between Myf5/Fktn and Tam/Fktn study groups in type 2b fibers. These data suggest that functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan has a unique role in muscle regeneration and may influence fiber type specification post-injury. PMID:26751696
McLoon, Linda K.; Willoughby, Christy L.; Anderson, Jill S.; Bothun, Erick D.; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene
Purpose Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Methods Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Results Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform–expressing myofibers (all P < 0.015). Muscles from subjects with INS and albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. Conclusions These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children. PMID:27092717
Leone, Teresa C; Lehman, John J; Finck, Brian N; Schaeffer, Paul J; Wende, Adam R; Boudina, Sihem; Courtois, Michael; Wozniak, David F; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Chen, Zhouji; O. Holloszy, John; Medeiros, Denis M; Schmidt, Robert E; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Abel, E. Dale; Semenkovich, Clay F
The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) was targeted in mice. PGC-1α null (PGC-1α−/−) mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1α−/− mice. With age, the PGC-1α−/− mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1α−/− mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1α−/− mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1α−/− mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1α−/− mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1α−/− mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1α−/− mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1α is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life. PMID:15760270
Galindo, J; Hudecki, M S; Davis, F B; Davis, P J; Thacore, H R; Pollina, C M; Blas, S D; Schoenl, M
A skeletal muscle membrane fraction enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contained Ca2+-ATPase activity which was stimulated in vitro in normal chickens (line 412) by 6 nM purified bovine calmodulin (33% increase over control, P less than 0.001). In contrast, striated muscle from chickens (line 413) affected with an inherited form of muscular dystrophy, but otherwise genetically similar to line 412, contained SR-enriched Ca2+-ATPase activity which was resistant to stimulation in vitro by calmodulin. Basal levels of Ca2+-ATPase activity (no added calmodulin) were comparable in muscles of unaffected and affected animals, and the Ca2+ optima of the enzymes in normal and dystrophic muscle were identical. Purified SR vesicles, obtained by calcium phosphate loading and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, showed the same resistance of dystrophic Ca2+-ATPase to exogenous calmodulin as the SR-enriched muscle membrane fraction. Dystrophic muscle had increased Ca2+ content compared to that of normal animals (P less than 0.04) and has been previously shown to contain increased levels of immuno- and bioactive calmodulin and of calmodulin mRNA. The calmodulin resistance of the Ca2+-ATPase in dystrophic muscle reflects a defect in regulation of cell Ca2+ metabolism associated with elevated cellular Ca2+ and calmodulin concentrations.
Clements, G. N.
Many tone languages exhibit some form of downdrift or automatic downstep, the lowering of high tones separated by low tones. In extreme cases, the realization of high tones at the end of a domain (such as the sentence) may be lower than the realization of low tones at the beginning. Tone languages with this property are cross-level tone languages.…
Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )
To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.
Jiang, Chengrong; Xu, Wu; Dai, Yuxiang; Lu, Tianyu; Jin, Wei; Liang, Weibang
The objective of this study is to explore the cause of early abnormal muscle response (AMR) disappearance during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm and the clinical outcomes of these patients. Three hundred seventy-two patients received microvascular decompression (MVD) under intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital in 2014; the characteristic AMR of HFS was observed in 359 patients during the operation. And the 359 patients were divided into two groups based on whether AMR had remained before the beginning of the decompression procedure for offending vessels. Thirty-three patients who showed a permanent disappearance of AMR before the beginning of decompression were regarded as group I. Dural opening and the succeeding CSF drainage produced a permanent disappearance of AMR in 13. During the dissection of lateral cerebellomedullary cistern, a permanent disappearance of AMR was found in 20 patients. Thirty-two patients were cured immediately; delayed resolution (7 days after surgery) was found in one patient. No complications were observed and no recurrence was found during the follow-up period in the 33 patients. In the other 326 patients (group II), AMR disappeared temporarily before the beginning of the decompression procedure for offending vessels in 42 patients. After decompression, AMR disappeared completely in 305 patients. Two hundred sixty-seven patients were cured immediately and 57 patients got a delayed resolution (2 days to 45 weeks after surgery). The two left did not get a complete abolition of spasm. Three cases of hearing loss, one hoarseness, and nine delayed facial paralysis were observed. The reason of early abnormal muscle response disappearance may be that the degree of neurovascular compression was not serious; these patients were more likely to get an immediate cure. Continuous intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of AMR is necessary.
Ma, Junfeng; Slawson, Chad; Zeidan, Quira; Lugo-Fagundo, Nahyr S.; Xu, Mingguo; Shen, Xiaoxu; Gao, Wei Dong; Caceres, Viviane; Chakir, Khalid; DeVine, Lauren; Cole, Robert N.; Marchionni, Luigi; Paolocci, Nazareno; Hart, Gerald W.; Murphy, Anne M.
Contractile dysfunction and increased deposition of O-linked β-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in cardiac proteins are a hallmark of the diabetic heart. However, whether and how this posttranslational alteration contributes to lower cardiac function remains unclear. Using a refined β-elimination/Michael addition with tandem mass tags (TMT)–labeling proteomic technique, we show that CpOGA, a bacterial analog of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that cleaves O-GlcNAc in vivo, removes site-specific O-GlcNAcylation from myofilaments, restoring Ca2+ sensitivity in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic cardiac muscles. We report that in control rat hearts, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are mainly localized at the Z-line, whereas OGA is at the A-band. Conversely, in diabetic hearts O-GlcNAc levels are increased and OGT and OGA delocalized. Consistent changes were found in human diabetic hearts. STZ diabetic hearts display increased physical interactions of OGA with α-actin, tropomyosin, and myosin light chain 1, along with reduced OGT and increased OGA activities. Our study is the first to reveal that specific removal of O-GlcNAcylation restores myofilament response to Ca2+ in diabetic hearts and that altered O-GlcNAcylation is due to the subcellular redistribution of OGT and OGA rather than to changes in their overall activities. Thus, preventing sarcomeric OGT and OGA displacement represents a new possible strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26109417
Succi, G. P.; Munro, D. H.; Ingard, K. U.
Intense high frequency (25-38 kHz) tone bursts have been observed in acoustic tests of a scale model of a general aviation propeller. The amplitude of the tone burst is approximately equal to the amplitude of the propeller noise signature. The conditions necessary for the production of these tone bursts are described. The experiments indicate that the origin of these bursts is a periodic flow oscillation on the suction surface of the propeller blade tips which may be due to the interaction between an oscillating shock wave and a laminar boundary layer.
Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck
Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.
Online tone generators are free, user friendly, and can make for engaging and meaningful study of many topics in the areas of interference, waves, and the physics of music. By using a website such as OnlineToneGenerator.com, and through opening multiple windows simultaneously, students can immediately perform several experiments. In this article, I highlight five lesson ideas that come naturally from these types of websites.
Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek
The loudness for pure tones was measured by loudness matching for 1-s pure tones from 100 to 50
Cudahy, Edward; Schwaller, Derek
The loudness for pure tones was measured by loudness matching for 1-s pure tones from 100 to 50
Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...
Tanaka, Masayuki; Kanazashi, Miho; Maezawa, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Hiroyo; Fujino, Hidemi
Reduced ovarian hormone levels associated with menopause or ovariectomy (OVX) not only result in vascular dysfunction but also lead to structural abnormalities in capillaries. Therefore, the effect of OVX on the three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of capillary networks and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in rat soleus muscle. Seven-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into the OVX and sham-treated (Sham) groups. The OVX group exhibited lower endurance exercise capacity compared to the sham group and resulted in decreased capillary diameter, number of anastomoses and capillary/anastomosis volume in soleus muscle, indicating 3-D structural abnormalities of capillary networks. Furthermore, OVX led to increased concentrations of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) protein and a decreased VEGF-A/TSP-1 ratio, an indicator of angio-adaptations, in soleus muscle compared with the Sham group. These results indicate OVX may induce 3-D capillary regression in soleus muscle through an imbalance between VEGF-A and TSP-1 expression, possibly associated with decreased exercise tolerance in ovariectomized rats.
Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru
[Purpose] This study evaluated effects of a high-intensity linear polarized near-infrared ray irradiation for mitigation of muscle hypertonia. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 patients with cerebrovascular disease. [Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group received irradiation of the triceps surae. Passive range of motion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the intervention in knee extended and flexed positions. [Results] In the knee extended position, the mean changes in passive range of motion were 2.70° and −0.50° in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and the mean changes in passive resistive joint torque were −1.42 and −0.26 N·m in the intervention and control groups, respectively. In the knee flexed position, the mean changes in passive range of motion were 3.70° and 0.70° in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and the mean changes in passive resistive joint torque were −2.38 and −0.31 N·m in the intervention and control groups, respectively. In both knee positions, the mean changes in the two indices were greater in the intervention group than in the control group. [Conclusion] High-intensity linear polarized near-infrared ray irradiation increases passive range of motion and decreases passive resistive joint torque. PMID:26834360
Eckert, R E; Karsten, A J; Utz, J; Ziegler, M
The ischemia induced vasospasm of the renal arterial blood vessels mediated by alpha1-adrenoceptors is of importance for the loss of kidney function. This is based on reduced perfusion of the kidney cortex occurring in kidney transplant and organ preserving surgery. The present study considered the intracellular mechanism of the norepinephrine (NE) induced renal artery vasospasm by using swine renal artery smooth muscle ring. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine (PE) induced dose-dependent and fully reversible isometric contractions with a threshold concentration of 10 nM (n = 7) and 10 nM (n = 4), and an EC50 of 0.3 microM and 1 microM, respectively. The receptor was identified as alpha1A-subtype. The contraction was completely inhibited by verapamil (IC50 = 1.51 microM; n = 11) and diltiazem (IC50 = 9.49 microM; n = 8) and 85% by nifedipine (IC50 = 0.13 microM; n = 21). Blockade of the intracellular inositol- 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ store by thapsigargin (1 microM, n = 7) or suppression of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+-sensitive Ca2+ store by ryanodine (100 microM, n = 4) inhibited the PE induced contraction by 39.5% and 47.6%, respectively. The results suggest a key role of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ stores in the alpha1A-adrenoceptor induced contraction of the renal artery.
Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Slupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kołcz-Trzęsicka, Anna; Zwierzchowski, Kamil; Halska, Urszula; Przestrzelska, Monika; Mucha, Dariusz; Rosińczuk, Joanna
The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the resting bioelectrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (the UT muscle) before and after one of the two interventions: postisometric muscle relaxation (PIR) and Kinesio Taping (KT). Moreover a comparison between group results was conducted. From the initial 61 volunteers, 52 were selected after exclusion criteria and were allocated randomly to 2 groups: PIR group and KT group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure was change in bioelectrical activity of UT muscle evaluated by surface electromyography (sEMG). Secondary outcomes included subjective assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences were found only in KT group: the average resting bioelectrical activity decreased by 0.8 μV (p = 0.0237) and the average VAS result reduced by 2.0 points (p = 0.0001). Greater decrease of VAS results was recorded in KT group compared to PIR group (p = 0.0010). Both PIR and KT intervention did not influence significantly the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle. KT application was better for pain relief in the studied sample compared with PIR intervention. PMID:26347792
A study assessed the practical use of the simplified speech pattern approach to teaching lipreading in a tone language by comparing performance using an acoustic hearing-aid and a Sivo-aid in a tone labelling task. After initial assessment, subjects were given training to enhance perception of lexically contrastive tones, then post-tested. The…
Ohminami, Hirokazu; Amo, Kikuko; Taketani, Yutaka; Sato, Kazusa; Fukaya, Makiko; Uebanso, Takashi; Arai, Hidekazu; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji
A dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid strongly contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in Zucker fatty rats. However, the underlying mechanisms of the metabolic disorders are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the metabolic disorders were triggered at a stage earlier than the 8 weeks we had previously reported. In this study, we investigated early molecular events induced by the sucrose and linoleic acid diet in Zucker fatty rats by comparison with other combinations of carbohydrate (sucrose or palatinose) and fat (linoleic acid or oleic acid). Skeletal muscle arachidonic acid levels were significantly increased in the sucrose and linoleic acid group compared to the other dietary groups at 4 weeks, while there were no obvious differences in the metabolic phenotype between the groups. Expression of genes related to arachidonic acid synthesis was induced in skeletal muscle but not in liver and adipose tissue in sucrose and linoleic acid group rats. In addition, the sucrose and linoleic acid group exhibited a rapid induction in endoplasmic reticulum stress and abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. We concluded that the dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid primarily induces metabolic disorders in skeletal muscle through increases in arachidonic acid and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in advance of systemic metabolic disorders. PMID:25147427
Shneider, Neil A; Mentis, George Z; Schustak, Joshua; O'Donovan, Michael J
The mechanisms controlling the formation of synaptic connections between muscle spindle afferents and spinal motor neurons are believed to be regulated by factors originating from muscle spindles. Here, we find that the connections form with appropriate specificity in mice with abnormal spindle development caused by the conditional elimination of the neuregulin 1 receptor ErbB2 from muscle precursors. However, despite a modest ( approximately 30%) decrease in the number of afferent terminals on motor neuron somata, the amplitude of afferent-evoked synaptic potentials recorded in motor neurons was reduced by approximately 80%, suggesting that many of the connections that form are functionally silent. The selective elimination of neurotrophin 3 (NT3) from muscle spindles had no effect on the amplitude of afferent-evoked ventral root potentials until the second postnatal week, revealing a late role for spindle-derived NT3 in the functional maintenance of the connections. These findings indicate that spindle-derived factors regulate the strength of the connections but not their initial formation or their specificity.
Shneider, Neil A.; Mentis, George Z.; Schustak, Joshua; O’Donovan, Michael J.
Summary The mechanisms controlling the formation of synaptic connections between muscle spindle afferents and spinal motor neurons are believed to be regulated by factors originating from muscle spindles. Here, we find that the connections form with appropriate specificity in mice with abnormal spindle development caused by the conditional elimination of the neuregulin1 receptor ErbB2 from muscle precursors. However, despite a modest (~30%) decrease in the number of afferent terminals on motor neuron somata, the amplitude of afferent-evoked synaptic potentials recorded in motor neurons was reduced by ~80%, suggesting that many of the connections that form are functionally silent. The selective elimination of neurotrophin 3 (NT3) from muscle spindles had no effect on the amplitude of afferent-evoked ventral root potentials until the second postnatal week, revealing a late role for spindle-derived NT3 in the functional maintenance of the connections. These findings indicate that spindle-derived factors regulate the strength of the connections, but not their initial formation or their specificity. PMID:19369542
Yaşar, Necdet Fatih; Polat, Erdal; Duman, Mustafa; Dağdelen, Meltem; Günal, Mehmet Yalçın; Uzun, Orhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Peker, Kıvanç Derya; Yol, Sinan
Background/Aims It has been reported that proton pump inhibitors induce relaxation in different types of smooth muscles. The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro effects of proton pump inhibitors on human pylorus muscle. Methods Pyloric sphincters were studied in 10 patients who were operated for stomach cancer. In isolated organ bath, control and response to rabeprazole were recorded following contraction with carbachol. During the treatment experiment, while distilled water was applied during the control experiment in every 5 minutes, rabeprazole was administered in every 5 minutes at doses of 10−6, 10−5, 10−4, and 10−3 M respectively. Contraction frequencies, maximum contraction values and muscle tones were measured. Results The contraction frequencies in the control group were greater than the rabeprazole group in the second, third and fourth intervals while the maximum contraction values in the rabeprazole group were lower in the fourth interval. Even though muscles tones were not different in both groups during all intervals, it was remarkable that the muscle tone was significantly decreased in the rabeprazole group during the fourth interval compared to the first and second intervals. Conclusions In the present study, high doses of rabeprazole reduced contraction frequencies, maximum contraction values, and muscle tone of human pylorus. PMID:25843074
Bucci, Marco; Borra, Ronald; Någren, Kjell; Maggio, Romina; Tuunanen, Helena; Oikonen, Vesa; Del Ry, Silvia; Viljanen, Tapio; Taittonen, Markku; Rigazio, Sara; Giannessi, Daniela; Parkkola, Riitta; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Iozzo, Patricia
An impaired ability to store fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases via overexposure of lean tissues and production of free radicals from FA oxidation (FAO). We studied regional FA metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans and investigated the long-term effects of the FAO inhibitor trimetazidine on glucose and FA metabolism. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [(11)C]palmitate were used to compare FA metabolism in SAT and skeletal muscle between eight obese and eight nonobese subjects (BMI ≥/< 30 kg/m(2)). A subgroup of nine subjects underwent a 1-mo trimetazidine administration. PET with [(11)C]palmitate and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose, indirect calorimetry, and MRI before and after this period were performed to characterize glucose and FA metabolism, fat masses, skeletal muscle triglyceride, and creatine contents. Obesity was characterized by a 100% elevation in FAO and a defect in the FA esterification rate constant (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle. FA esterification was reduced by ~70% in SAT (P < 0.001) in obese vs. control subjects. The degrees of obesity and insulin resistance were both negatively associated with esterification-related parameters and positively with FAO (P < 0.05). Trimetazidine increased skeletal muscle FA esterification (P < 0.01) and mildly upregulated glucose phosphorylation (P = 0.066). Our data suggest that human obesity is characterized by a defect in tissue FA storage capability, which is accompanied by a (potentially compensatory) elevation in skeletal muscle FAO; trimetazidine diverted FA from oxidative to nonoxidative pathways and provoked an initial activation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.
Small, R G
A new surgical procedure, the proximal levator technique, achieves recession of the retracted upper eyelid in Graves' ophthalmopathy by sectioning the levator muscle proximal to Whitnall's ligament and fixing eyelid position with sutures that permit postoperative adjustment. This technique deserves further study. Enlargement of the proximal levator muscle in Graves' eye disease is shown on orbital CT scans and is found at surgery when the proximal levator technique is employed. Histologic and morphometric studies demonstrate increased levator muscle fiber size as well as increased extracellular volume. These findings suggest that levator muscle hypertrophy is important in the pathogenesis of upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 3 D FIGURE 4 A,B FIGURE 4 C,D,E FIGURE 4 F,G FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:2979032
High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... and doing daily tasks. Talk with your health care provider or physical therapist first before starting any ...
Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel
The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection.
Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE
Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of “short-term” (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (~50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21185100
Zsiga, Elizabeth; Nitisaroj, Rattima
This paper investigates the relationship between the phonological features of tone and tone perception in Thai. Specifically, it tests the hypothesis (proposed by Moren & Zsiga, 2006) that the principle perceptual cues to the five-way tonal contrast in Thai are high and low pitch targets aligned to moras. Results of four perception studies, one…
Morris, A. F.; And Others
Twenty-eight Down's syndrome and 33 normal children (4 to 17 years old) were evaluated for patellar tendon reflex, muscle tone, and grip strength. Results indicated that Down's syndrome children had a less brisk and more irregular patellar reflex response than normal controls. (Author/SB)
Coupe, Alexander R.
This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…
Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q
Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling.
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...
Zhou, Joanne; Butler, Erin E.; Rose, Jessica
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder in children. A diagnosis of CP is often made based on abnormal muscle tone or posture, a delay in reaching motor milestones, or the presence of gait abnormalities in young children. Neuroimaging of high-risk neonates and of children diagnosed with CP have identified patterns of neurologic injury associated with CP, however, the neural underpinnings of common gait abnormalities remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we review the nature of the brain injury in CP, as well as the neuromuscular deficits and subsequent gait abnormalities common among children with CP. We first discuss brain injury in terms of mechanism, pattern, and time of injury during the prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal period in preterm and term-born children. Second, we outline neuromuscular deficits of CP with a focus on spastic CP, characterized by muscle weakness, shortened muscle-tendon unit, spasticity, and impaired selective motor control, on both a microscopic and functional level. Third, we examine the influence of neuromuscular deficits on gait abnormalities in CP, while considering emerging information on neural correlates of gait abnormalities and the implications for strategic treatment. This review of the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP discusses what is known about links between the location and extent of brain injury and the type and severity of CP, in relation to the associated neuromuscular deficits, and subsequent gait abnormalities. Targeted treatment opportunities are identified that may improve functional outcomes for children with CP. By providing this context on the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP, we hope to highlight areas of further research that can reduce the long-term, debilitating effects of CP. PMID:28367118
Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier
High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.
Tobishima, Hana; Hatayama, Toru; Ohkuma, Hiroki
Mentalis muscle responses to electrical stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve are considered abnormal muscle responses (AMRs) and can be used to monitor the success of decompression in microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared to the outcome of surgery in which the AMR persisted. From 2005 to 2009, 131 patients with hemifacial spasm received MVD surgery with intraoperative monitoring of AMR. At 1 week postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 82% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 46% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 10% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 31% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate were present spasms in 8% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 23% of cases in the persistent-AMR group (P < 0.05). At 1 year postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 92% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 84% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 6% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate spasms were present in 3% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of the cases in the persistent-AMR group (P = 0.56). These results indicate that the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR persisted was no different to that of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared.
Hirono, Seiichiro; Yamakami, Iwao; Sato, Motoki; Kado, Ken; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Takao; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Saeki, Naokatsu
Intermittent monitoring of abnormal muscle response (iAMR) has been reported to be useful for improving the surgical outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, iAMR has not elucidated the relationship between AMR change and the corresponding surgical procedure, or the pathogenesis of AMR and HFS. The purpose of this study is to clarify the usefulness of continuous AMR monitoring (cAMR) for improving the surgical results of MVD and for understanding the relationship between AMR change and corresponding surgical procedure, and the pathogenesis of AMR and HFS. Fifty consecutive patients with HFS treated by MVD under cAMR monitoring, which continuously records AMR every minute throughout the surgical period, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were assessed for the presence of HFS 1 week after the surgery and at final follow-up. Forty-six patients showed the complete disappearance of HFS. In 32, AMR disappeared abruptly and simultaneously with decompression of an offending vessel. AMR showed dynamic and various changes including temporary disappearance, or sudden, gradual, or componential disappearance before and during the decompression procedure, and even during the dural and skin closure after the initial decompression procedure. Facial spasm remained in four patients despite permanent AMR disappearance. cAMR monitoring improves the outcome of MVD. Although the main cause of HFS and AMR is vascular compression at the facial nerve, hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus is also involved in the pathogenesis of HFS and AMR. The proportional involvement of these causes differs between patients.
Li, Jiping; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Yongjie
The reliability of intra-operative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intra-operative AMR changes and long-term post-operative outcome. We monitored intra-operative AMR during microvascular decompression (MVD) in consecutive patients with HFS (n = 104). Patients in this study were divided into two groups based on whether their AMR disappeared or persisted following MVD. Ninety patients were followed-up, and the mean duration from surgery to final follow-up examination was 3.7 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. AMR disappeared during surgery for 80 patients; of these, 74 achieved complete resolution of HFS, five had persistent HFS, and one patient developed a recurrence of HFS. Of the 10 patients with persistent AMR despite effective MVD, eight patients achieved complete resolution, one patient had persistent HFS, and one developed recurrent HFS. The long-term clinical outcome of HFS after MVD did not significantly correlate with intra-operative AMR changes (p = 0.791). Therefore, we suggest that intra-operative AMR monitoring may not be a reliable indicator of long-term post-operative outcome for HFS.
May, Noal D.
This study evaluated the acoustic characteristics of interference tones as experienced by FAA Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS's) and pilots who wear headsets with insert type ear pieces. The sound pressure levels (SPL's) of generated tones were measured through the headset at five randomly selected ATCS positions in each of seven Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC's). The SPL's were compared within and between four frequencies (.5, 1, 2, and 3 KHz) over ten discrete signal power levels. The comparisons demonstrated that SPL's of tones could not be predicted for ARTCC's or for positions within an ARTCC, and that the durations of exposure were brief, i.e., limited to the time needed to remove the headset earpiece from the ear canal. Potential amounts of temporary threshold shifts (TTS's) also were evaluated in a laboratory by checking hearing levels following exposures to tones played with ATCS/pilot communication through the same headset. Audiometric checks of 20 volunteer subjects indicated TTS could be detected following 1 KHz/114 dB/60 and 145 seconds, 2 KHz/108 dB/60 and 145 seconds, and 3 KHz/99 dB/145 seconds exposures, when hearing checks were made within the first 15 minutes. Such extended durations are highly unlikely for pilots and ATCS's and no TTS was detectable following exposures to shorter durations or to other frequencies with equivalent durations.
Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Keaney, John F; Fogarty, Kevin E; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng
Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca(2+)]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca(2+)]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence.
Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Keaney Jr, John F.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng
Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca2+-activated Cl− channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca2+]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca2+]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932
Danilova, M A; Ishmurzin, P V; Zakharov, S V
Simulation in 3D-model of skeletal forms of sagittal malocclusion revealed tendency in tonus' modification of muscles of mastication in formation of distal and mesial occlusion. It's shown that distal occlusion is characterized by hypotonic condition of muscles of mastication, except posterior fibers of temporal muscle. Mesial occlusion is characterized by complex combination of muscle tone with prevalence of hypotonic condition of anterior fibers of temporal muscle, superficial portion of masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle. We have detected that using of myofunctional devices in treatment of sagittal malocclusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction promotes of tone increasing of muscles of mastication.
Discusses dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes. Representative acoustic data were collected from the Missol, Slawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems and of how these tone systems compare to…
This article examines how key components of holistic tone production can help flutists form a resonant tone. This is framed in an exploration of tone pedagogy and includes a model of tone evaluation and education. This research is also applicable to other instrumentalists, especially wind players. In this case study information was collected by…
Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...
de Godoy, Márcio A. F.; Rattan, Neeru; Rattan, Satish
Prostanoids, produced endogenously via cyclooxygenases (COXs), have been implicated in the sustained contraction of different smooth muscles. The two major types of COXs are COX-1 and COX-2. The COX subtype involved in the basal state of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone is not known. To identify the COX subtype, we examined the effect of COX-1- and COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively, on basal tone in the rat IAS. We also determined the effect of selective deletion of COX-1 and COX-2 genes (COX-1−/− and COX-2−/− mice) on basal tone in murine IAS. Our data show that SC-560 causes significantly more efficacious and potent concentration-dependent decreases in IAS tone than rofecoxib. In support of these data, significantly higher levels of COX-1 than COX-2 mRNA were found in the IAS. In addition, higher levels of COX-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in rat IAS than rectal smooth muscle. In wild-type mice, IAS tone was decreased 41.4 ± 3.4% (mean ± SE) by SC-560 (1 × 10−5 M) and 5.4 ± 2.2% by rofecoxib (P < 0.05, n = 5). Basal tone was 0.172 ± 0.021 mN//mg in the IAS from wild-type mice and significantly less (0.080 ± 0.015 mN/mg) in the IAS from COX-1−/− mice (P < 0.05, n = 5). However, basal tone in COX-2−/− mice was not significantly different from that in wild-type mice. We conclude that COX-1-related products contribute significantly to IAS tone. PMID:19056763
Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei
This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.
Gotouda, A; Yamaguchi, T; Okada, K; Matsuki, T; Gotouda, S; Inoue, N
The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of change in sound tone of playing wind instruments on activity of jaw-closing muscles and the effect of sustained playing for a long time on fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. Electromyograms (EMG) of 19 brass instrument players and 14 woodwind instrument players were measured while playing instruments in tuning tone and high tone and under other conditions. Nine brass instrument players and nine woodwind instrument players played instruments for 90 min. Before and after the exercise, power spectral analyses of EMG from masseter muscles at 50% of maximum voluntary clenching level were performed and mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Root mean square (RMS) of EMG in masseter and temporal muscles while playing were slightly larger than those at rest but extremely small in comparison with those during maximum clenching. Root mean square in orbicularis oris and digastric muscles were relatively large when playing instruments. In the brass instrument group, RMS in high tone was significantly higher than that in tuning tone in all muscles examined. In the woodwind instrument group, RMS in high tone was not significantly higher than that in tuning tone in those muscles. Mean power frequency was not decreased after sustained playing in both instrument groups. These findings indicate that contractive load to jaw-closing muscles when playing a wind instrument in both medium and high tone is very small and playing an instrument for a long time does not obviously induce fatigue of jaw-closing muscles.
Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Huss, Martina; Moore, Brian C J
Some hearing-impaired subjects report pure tones as sounding highly distorted and noise-like. We assessed whether such reports indicate that the tone frequency falls inside a dead region (DR). Nine hearing-impaired and four normally hearing subjects rated pure tones on a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 indicates clear tone and 7 indicates noise. A white noise was presented as a reference for a sound that should be rated as 7. Stimuli covered the whole audible range of frequencies and levels. The noisiness ratings were, on average, higher for hearing-impaired subjects than for normally hearing subjects. For the former, the ratings were not markedly different for tones with frequencies just outside or inside a DR. However, ratings always exceeded 3 for tones falling more than 1.5 octaves inside a DR. The results indicate that judgement of a tone as sounding noise-like does not reliably indicate that the tone frequency falls in a DR. Both normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects rated 0.125 kHz and 12 kHz tones as somewhat noise-like, independently of the existence of a DR.
Hirano, Takeshi; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi
This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.
Elderkin, Edward D.
In a tone language, tonal distinctions between words in sequence can often be analyzed using the same devices that are applied within the word (e.g., downdrift or downstep). However, it is proposed here that Sandawe is a tone language in which the tonal relationships between constituents in clause structure, and between constituents in phrase…
Audio steganography for covert data transmission by impercep- tible tone insertion,” Proceedings Communications Sys- tems and Applications, IEEE, vol. 4, pp. 1647–1653, 2004. 1408 ...by a comfortable margin. Index Terms— Speech Watermarking, Hidden Tones, Speech Steganography , Speech Data Hiding 1. BACKGROUND Imperceptibly
This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…
Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi
Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…
Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol
Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.
This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...
The purpose of the dissertation is to examine Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of a syntax-dependent phonological rule Tone 3 Sandhi (T3S). A Tone 3 (low dipping tone) is changed to a Tone 2 (mid rising tone) when it is followed by another Tone 3. Application of T3S in fact involves a complex process. In setting up the prosodic domains…
Gabig, T G
Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.
Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A
Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth
Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.
Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.
Yu, Mufei; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.
Nanoparticles with a variety of organic/inorganic combinations have been investigated and the negative tone patterning was demonstrated using EUV radiation. Zirconium methacrylate (ZrMAA) nanoparticles had sensitivity with EUV exposure as high as 4.2 mJ/cm2 with a resolution up to 22 nm, and an LER of 5.6 nm. Meanwhile, the dual-tone behavior of ZrMAA photoresists using e-beam and deep UV exposures is another attractive feature of the nanoparticle photoresists, which may be further applied with EUV lithography. The current study investigates the positive tone patterning of ZrMAA and the process-dependent image reversal. Our proposed patterning mechanism is further illustrated and optimized based in a positive tone behavior study.
Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek; Fothergill, David; Wolgemuth, Keith
The loudness of underwater pure tones was measured by loudness matching for pure tones from 100 to 16,000 Hz. The standard was a one second tone at 1000 Hz. The signal duration was varied from 20 milliseconds to 5 seconds. Subjects were instructed to match the loudness of the comparison tone at one of the test frequencies to the loudness of the standard tone. Loudness was measured at the threshold, the most comfortable loudness, and the maximum tolerable loudness. The intensity of the standard was varied randomly across the test series. The subjects were bareheaded U.S. Navy divers tested at a depth of 3 meters. All subjects had normal in-air hearing. Tones were presented to the right side of the subject from an array of underwater sound projectors. The sound pressure level was calibrated at the location of the subject's head with the subject absent. Loudness increased and threshold decreased as duration increased. The effect was greatest at the lowest and highest frequencies. The shape of the loudness contours across frequency and duration derived from these measurements are different from in-air measurements. [Research supported by ONR.
Dougherty, N. S.; Liu, B. L.; Ofarrell, J. M.
Time accurate Navier-Stokes computations were performed to study a class 2 (acoustic) whistle, the edge tone, and to gain knowledge of the vortex-acoustic coupling mechanisms driving production of these tones. Results were obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible air flow of a two dimensional jet issuing from a slit interacting with a wedge. Cases considered were determined by varying the distance from the slit to the wedge. Flow speed was kept constant at 1,750 cm/s as was the slit thickness of 0.1 cm, corresponding to conditions in the experiments of Brown. The analytical computations revealed edge tones to be present in four harmonic stages of jet flow instability over the wedge as the jet length was varied from 0.3 to 1.6 cm. Excellent agreement was obtained in all four edge tone stage cases between the present computational results and the experimentally obtained frequencies and flow visualization results of Brown. Specific edge tone generation phenomena and further confirmation of certain theories and empirical formulas concerning these phenomena were brought to light in this analytical simulation of edge tones.
Abdulla, Haitham; Phillips, Bethan; Smith, Kenneth; Wilkinson, Daniel; Atherton, Philip J; Idris, Iskandar
Type II diabetes (T2D) is a progressive condition affecting approximately 350 million adults worldwide. Whilst skeletal muscle insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction are recognised causes of T2D, progressive loss of lean muscle mass (reducing surface area for glucose disposal area) in tandem with ageing-related adiposity (i.e. sarcopenic obesity) also plays an important role in driving hyperglycaemia progression. The anabolic effects of nutrition on the muscle are driven by the uptake of amino acids, into skeletal muscle protein, and insulin plays a crucial role in regulating this. Meanwhile glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose- dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are incretin hormones released from the gut into the bloodstream in response to macronutrients, and have an established role in enhancing insulin secretion. Intriguingly, endocrine functions of incretins were recently shown to extend beyond classical insulinotropic effects, with GLP-1/GIP receptors being found in extra-pancreatic cells i.e., skeletal muscle and peripheral (muscle) microvasculature. Since, incretins have been shown to modulate blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in an insulin-independent manner, incretins may play a role in regulating nutrient-mediated modulation of muscle metabolism and microvascular tone, independently of their insulinotropic effects. In this review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle in glucose homeostasis, disturbances related to insulin resistance, regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, muscle microvascular abnormalities and disturbances of protein (PRO) metabolism seen in old age and T2D. We will also discuss the emerging non-insulinotropic role of GLP-1 in modulating skeletal muscle metabolism and microvascular blood flow.
Zheng, Ya-Li; Yan, Bryan P; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y
Current markers for heart failure (HF) diagnosis and prognosis are mainly for the evaluation of cardiac functions. Since previous studies have reported that HF patients demonstrated abnormal vascular responses to external stimuli, it is speculated that vascular tone, a measure of activation level of vascular wall, may be able to reflect these abnormalities to assist HF detection. Nevertheless, vascular tone is difficult to be objectively quantified using existing tools. In this study, a vascular tone index was estimated from noninvasive blood pressure and pulse transit time measurements using system identification technique. This method was evaluated in 35 subjects (10 healthy, 13 with HF risk factors and 12 HF patients) in a regular maximal exercise test. It was found that the vascular tone index significantly increased by 24.4 ± 26.6% (p < 0.01) during maximal exercise in the healthy subjects. Moreover, the response was gradually attenuated in the risk-factor and HF groups (15.8 ± 36.5 and 0.9 ± 17.9%, respectively). The results reveal the association between the vascular tone response to maximal exercise and HF disease or risks. To conclude, the proposed method provides a quantitative characterization of vascular tone which may be a useful indicator of the pathological changes of the arteries or the heart.
Qian, Yao; Lee, Tan; Soong, Frank K
This paper studies automatic tone recognition in continuous Cantonese speech. Cantonese is a major Chinese dialect that is known for being rich in tones. Tone information serves as a useful knowledge source for automatic speech recognition of Cantonese. Cantonese tone recognition is difficult because the tones have similar shapes of pitch contours. The tones are differentiated mainly by their relative pitch heights. In natural speech, the pitch level of a tone may shift up and down and the F0 ranges of different tones overlap with each other, making them acoustically indistinguishable within the domain of a syllable. Our study shows that the relative pitch heights are largely preserved between neighboring tones. A novel method of supratone modeling is proposed for Cantonese tone recognition. Each supratone model characterizes the F0 contour of two or three tones in succession. The tone sequence of a continuous utterance is formed as an overlapped concatenation of supratone units. The most likely tone sequence is determined under phonological constraints on syllable-tone combinations. The proposed method attains an accuracy of 74.68% in speaker-independent tone recognition experiments. In particular, the confusion among the tones with similar contour shapes is greatly resolved.
Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong
Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…
Im, Gi Jung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun
Conclusion This study demonstrated excellent hearing recovery following the combined treatment of diuretic and oral steroid, and electrocochleography (ECoG) was significantly higher than normal side. This study reports characteristics of acute low-tone hearing loss (ALHL) that show the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG, and excellent recovery, even-though low-tone hearing loss is worse, which can be different compared with sudden deafness. Objective To analyze ALHL without vertigo, this study compared the ALHL group with all patients exhibiting low-tone hearing loss and ear fullness. Hearing changes and vestibular functions were analyzed. Materials and methods ALHL was defined as a mean hearing loss of ≥ 30 dB at 125, 250, and 500 Hz, and ≤ 20 dB at 2, 4, and 8 kHz. From 156 cases of low-tone hearing loss of more than 10 dB without vertigo, 31 met the ALHL criteria and were subjected to audio-vestibular assessments including PTA, ECoG, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing, and caloric testing. Results In ALHL, low-tone hearing loss was 42.7 ± 9.5 dB, and 83.9% of ALHL significantly recovered by more than 10 dB. The ECoG in ALHL was 0.334 ± 0.11 (higher than 0.25 ± 0.08 on the normal side) and ECoG abnormality was 35.5% (the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG value).
Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Matsuura, Tohru; Kurosaki, Tatsuaki; Amakusa, Yoshinobu; Kinoshita, Masanobu; Ibi, Tohru; Sahashi, Ko; Ohno, Kinji
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by transcription of CUG repeat RNA, which causes sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and upregulation of CUG triplet repeat RNA-binding protein (CUG-BP1). In DM1, dysregulation of these proteins contributes to many aberrant splicing events, causing various symptoms of the disorder. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of aberrant splicing of LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) exon 11 in DM1 skeletal muscle. Exon array surveys, RT-PCR, and western blotting studies demonstrated that exon 11 inclusion was DM1 specific and could be reproduced by transfection of a minigene containing the CTG repeat expansion. Moreover, we found that the LDB3 exon 11-positive isoform had reduced affinity for PKC compared to the exon 11-negative isoform. Since PKC exhibits hyperactivation in DM1 and stabilizes CUG-BP1 by phosphorylation, aberrant splicing of LDB3 may contribute to CUG-BP1 upregulation through changes in its affinity for PKC.
Zhou, Yining Victor
Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…
This paper focuses on the particular kinds of difficulties which arise in the study of an emergent tone-system, exemplified by Tamang in Nepal, where pitch, phonation and other laryngeal features combine in the definition of a tone. As a consequence, conducting a well-ordered analysis in stages first of phonetic transcription, then variation in…
The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .
Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael
our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory tone burst elicited vestibular evoked activation, indicated by eye muscle response. Our preliminary analyses showed that the skull tap elicited activation in medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and putamen. The auditory tone bursts elicited activation in medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules. In line with our hypothesis, skull taps elicited a pattern of cortical activity closely similar to one elicited by auditory tone bursts. Further analysis will determine the extent to which the skull taps can replace the auditory tone stimulation in clinical and basic science vestibular assessments.
Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.
The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.
Harrison, Andre; Mullins, Linda L.; Raglin, Adrienne; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph
Tone mapping operators compress high dynamic range images to improve the picture quality on a digital display when the dynamic range of the display is lower than that of the image. However, tone mapping operators have been largely designed and evaluated based on the aesthetic quality of the resulting displayed image or how perceptually similar the compressed image appears relative to the original scene. They also often require per image tuning of parameters depending on the content of the image. In military operations, however, the amount of information that can be perceived is more important than the aesthetic quality of the image and any parameter adjustment needs to be as automated as possible regardless of the content of the image. We have conducted two studies to evaluate the perceivable detail of a set of tone mapping algorithms, and we apply our findings to develop and test an automated tone mapping algorithm that demonstrates a consistent improvement in the amount of perceived detail. An automated, and thereby predictable, tone mapping method enables a consistent presentation of perceivable features, can reduce the bandwidth required to transmit the imagery, and can improve the accessibility of the data by reducing the needed expertise of the analyst(s) viewing the imagery.
Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Krishna, Chadalavada Vijay
Internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone plays an important role in rectoanal incontinence (RI). IAS tone may be compromised during aging, leading to RI in certain patients. We examined the influence of oxidative stress in the aging-associated decrease in IAS tone (AADI). Using adult (4–6 mo old) and aging (24–30 mo old) rats, we determined the effect of oxidative stress on IAS tone and the regulatory RhoA/ROCK signal transduction cascade. We determined the effect of the oxidative stress inducer LY83583, which produces superoxide anions (O2·−), on basal and stimulated IAS tone before and after treatment of intact smooth muscle strips and smooth muscle cells with the O2·− scavenger SOD. Our data showed that AADI was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Oxidative stress with a LY83583-mediated decrease in IAS tone and relaxation of IAS smooth muscle cells was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK signal transduction, which was reversible by SOD. In addition, LY83583 caused a significant decrease in IAS contraction produced by the RhoA activator and a known RhoA/ROCK agonist, U46619, that was also reversible by SOD. The inhibitory effects of LY83583 and the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 on the U46619-induced increase in IAS tone were similar. We conclude that an increase in oxidative stress plays an important role in AADI in the elderly and may be one of the underlying mechanisms of RI in certain aging patients. PMID:24742984
Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.
Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.
Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…
Beal, Heather D.
This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…
Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew
Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives.
Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.
As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget
An autosegmental account of the child's acquisition of grammatical tone in Sesotho, a southern Bantu language, is presented. The following theoretical questions are addressed: (1) When and how does the child figure out that Sesotho is a tonal rather than intonational, stress, or accentual language?; (2) How does the child acquire tonal rules?; and…
Herrick, Dylan; Berardo, Marcellino; Feeling, Durbin; Hirata-Edds, Tracy; Peter, Lizette
Cherokee, the sole member of the southern branch of Iroquoian languages, is a severely endangered language. Unlike other members of the Iroquoian family, Cherokee has lexical tone. Community members are concerned about the potential loss of their language, and both speakers and teachers comment on the difficulty that language learners have with…
Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.
A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.
Gonzalez, M; Mearin, F; Vasconez, C; Armengol, J; Malagelada, J
Background—The diagnosis and classification of oesophageal motility disorders is currently based on assessment of the phasic contractile activity of the oesophagus. Tonic muscular contraction of the oesophageal body (oesophageal tone) has not been well characterised. Aim—To quantify oesophageal tonic activity in healthy subjects and in patients with achalasia. Patients—Oesophageal tone was measured in 14 patients with untreated achalasia and in 14 healthy subjects. In eight patients with achalasia, oesophageal tone was again measured one month after either endoscopic or surgical treatment. Methods—Tonic wall activity was quantified by means of a flaccid intraoesophageal bag, 5 cm long and of 120 ml maximal capacity, which was placed and maintained 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter and connected to an external electronic barostat. The experimental design included measurement of oesophageal basal tone and compliance as well as the oesophageal tone response to a nitric oxide donor (0.5 ml amyl nitrite inhalation). Results—Oesophageal basal tone, expressed as the intrabag (intraoesophageal) volume at a minimal distending pressure (2 mm Hg), did not differ significantly between patients with achalasia and healthy controls (6.6 (2.5) ml versus 4.1 (0.8) ml, respectively). Oesophageal compliance (volume/pressure relation during intraoesophageal distension) was significantly increased in achalasia (oesophageal extension ratio: 3.2 (0.4) ml/mm Hg versus 1.9 (0.2) ml/mm Hg; p< 0.01). Amyl nitrite inhalation induced oesophageal relaxation both in patients and in controls, but the magnitude of relaxation was greater in the latter (intrabag volume increase: 15.3 (2.4) ml versus 36.2 (7.1) ml; p<0.01). Conclusion—In patients with achalasia, oesophageal tonic activity, and not only phasic activity, is impaired. Although oesophageal compliance is increased, residual oesophageal tone is maintained so that a significant relaxant response may occur
Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978
Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cordo, Paul J; Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B
Rigidity or hypertonicity is a cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that hypertonicity of the body axis affects functional performance of tasks involving balance, walking and turning. The magnitude of axial postural tone in the neck, trunk and hip segments of 15 subjects with PD (both ON and OFF levodopa) and 15 control subjects was quantified during unsupported standing in an axial twisting device in our laboratory as resistance to torsional rotation. Subjects also performed six functional tests (walking in a figure of eight [Figure of Eight], Timed Up & Go, Berg Balance Scale, supine rolling task [rollover], Functional Reach, and standing 360-deg turn-in-place) in the ON and OFF state. Results showed that PD subjects had increased tone throughout the axis compared to control subjects (p=0.008) and that this increase was most prominent in the neck. In PD subjects, axial tone was related to functional performance, but most strongly for tone at the neck and accounted for an especially large portion of the variability in the performance of the Figure of Eight test (rOFF=0.68 and rON=0.74, p<0.05) and the Rollover test (rOFF=0.67and rON=0.55, p<0.05). Our results suggest that neck tone plays a significant role in functional mobility and that abnormally high postural tone may be an important contributor to balance and mobility disorders in individuals with PD. PMID:19573528
Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert
An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.
Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…
This dissertation investigates how the Taiwanese Tone Sandhi Groups are perceived, and the acoustic/phonetics correlates of listeners' judgments. A series of perception experiments have been conducted to scrutinize the following topics--Taiwanese tone neutralization, Tone Sandhi Group (TSG) as a prosodic domain, perceived boundary strength in…
The author discusses his concept of "tonal spelling" for Chinese. This system spells out the patterns for the tone classes without marking their tone values; the same spelling formation spells out the same tone class and makes tonal orthography a "regular, striking, neat and clean-shaven script." Following a discussion of the…
This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.
Bagwell, R. C.
A prototype 6 tone Multi-Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) modem intended for tactical data transmissions in the HF band is evaluated. The main testing consisted of extensive trials using the Cobbett Hill HF Channel Simulator. Some limited live ratio trials between Bodo, northern Norway, and Cobbett Hill, southern England, are included. The modem performed satisfactorily during the evaluation period and returned good availability figures, both on the simulator, and during the radio trials.
Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Alvarado, Jorge A; Arboleda, Juan Camilo; Suarez, Daniel R; Spence, Charles
Research on the crossmodal correspondences has revealed that seemingly unrelated perceptual information can be matched across the senses in a manner that is consistent across individuals. An interesting extension of this line of research is to study how sensory information biases action. In the present study, we investigated whether different sounds (i.e. tones and piano chords) would bias participants' hand movements in a free movement task. Right-handed participants were instructed to move a computer mouse in order to represent three tones and two chords. They also had to rate each sound in terms of three visual analogue scales (slow-fast, unpleasant-pleasant, and weak-strong). The results demonstrate that tones and chords influence hand movements, with higher-(lower-)pitched sounds giving rise to a significant bias towards upper (lower) locations in space. These results are discussed in terms of the literature on forward models, embodied cognition, crossmodal correspondences, and mental imagery. Potential applications sports and rehabilitation are discussed briefly.
Iddings, Jennifer A.
Cerebral blood flow is controlled by two crucial processes, cerebral autoregulation (CA) and neurovascular coupling (NVC) or functional hyperemia. Whereas CA ensures constant blood flow over a wide range of systemic pressures, NVC ensures rapid spatial and temporal increases in cerebral blood flow in response to neuronal activation. The focus of this review is to discuss the cellular mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to the regulation of vascular tone in terms of their participation in NVC and, to a lesser extent, CA. We discuss evidence for the various signaling modalities by which astrocytic activation leads to vasodilation and vasoconstriction of parenchymal arterioles. Moreover, we provide a rationale for the contribution of astrocytes to pressure-induced increases in vascular tone via the vasoconstrictor 20-HETE (a downstream metabolite of arachidonic acid). Along these lines, we highlight the importance of the transient receptor potential channel of the vanilloid family (TRPV4) as a key molecular determinant in the regulation of vascular tone in cerebral arterioles. Finally, we discuss current advances in the technical tools available to study NVC mechanisms in the brain as it relates to the participation of astrocytes. PMID:23792684
Haywood, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Brian
A sudden change applied to a single component can cause its segregation from an ongoing complex tone as a pure-tone-like percept. Three experiments examined whether such pure-tone-like percepts are organized into streams by extending the research of Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). Those authors found that listeners struggled to identify the…
Tonk, V.; Schneider, N.R.; Schultz, R.A.
Inheritance of a cytogenetic abnormality from a clinically normal parent who is mosaic for the anomaly is rare event, although recent data suggest that such events may be more frequent than originally thought. The identification of such cases can have important implications for genetic counseling and can offer valuable resources for the mapping and analysis of genes involved in human disease and development. We describe a family in which two siblings exhibited developmental delay and very specific neurological abnormalities which included normal muscle mass but reduced muscle tone and mild muscle weakness. Cytogenetic evaluation revealed that both children had inherited a tandem duplication of a small portion of the long arm of chromosome 10 [dir dup (10) (q24.2-24.3)]. The clinically normal mother was found to be mosaic for the duplication which was identified in only two of the twenty metaphases examined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches, including total chromosome painting and the use of previously characterized regional-specific cosmid probes, were used to confirm and characterize the chromosome 10q origin of the duplicated material. This represents the smallest confirmed duplication of distal chromosome 10q reported to date.
Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric
Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states.
Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle
Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature.
Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Muff, G; Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E; Deffinis, C; Masat, J; Favret, F; Dufour, S P; Lecocq, J
Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle (ASM) can cause exercise-induced leg pain due to local nerve/vascular compression, muscle spasm, or local compartment syndrome. As intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce muscle tone and mass, we investigated whether local BTX-A injections relieve the pain associated with symptomatic ASM. We describe five patients presenting peri/retromalleolar exertional pain and a contractile muscle mass in the painful region. Com-pression neuropathy was ruled out by electromyo-graphic analysis of the lower limb muscles. Doppler ultrasonography was normal, excluding a local vascular compression. ASM was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. After a treadmill stress test, abnormal intramuscular pressure values in the ASM, confirmed the diagnosis of compartment syndrome only in one patient. All five patients received BTX-A injections in two points of the ASM. The treatment efficacy was evaluated based on the disappearance of exercise-induced pain and the resumption of normal physical and sports activities. After BTX-A injection, exertional pain disappeared and all five patients resumed their normal level of physical and sports performances. Neither side effects nor motor deficits were observed. BTX-A is well tolerated in patients with ASM and could be used as a new conservative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptomatic ASM before surgery.
Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are traditionally evoked by two-tone stimuli. In this study, emission data from Mongolian gerbils are reported that were obtained with stimuli consisting of six to 10 tones. The stimuli were constructed by replacing one of the tones of a tone pair by a narrowband multitone complex. This produced rich spectra of the ear canal sound pressure in which many of the third-order DPOAEs originated from the interaction of triplets of stimulus components. A careful choice of the stimulus frequencies ensured that none of these DPOAE components coincided. Three groups of DPOAEs are reported, two of which are closely related to DPOAEs evoked by tone pairs. The third group has no two-tone equivalent and only arises when using a multitone stimulus. We analyzed the relation between multitone-evoked DPOAEs and DPOAEs evoked by tone pairs, and explored the new degrees of freedom offered by the multitone paradigm. PMID:20838846
Micussi, Maria Thereza; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse; Soares, Elvira Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria; Maranhão, Técia Maria
[Purpose] To evaluate the electrical activity of the pelvic floor muscle in women during the follicular, ovulatory, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and its correlation with estradiol and total testosterone levels. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study involved 30 women with ovulatory menstrual cycles. Total testosterone and estradiol levels were measured and the muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles were evaluated using surface electromyography. [Results] Muscle tone was significantly lower during the follicular (21.1±3.3 μV) and ovulatory (27.1±5.9 μV) phases than the luteal phase (30.4±4.1 μV). The maximum voluntary contraction was not different across phases. The estradiol level on the 7th day of the menstrual cycle showed a strong positive correlation with muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction, and the testosterone level was positively correlated with muscle tone on the 21st day. [Conclusion] Women have better muscle tone during the luteal phase. The muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction were strongly correlated with the estradiol level on the 7th day, and the muscle tone was correlated with the testosterone level on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle. These findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle alter pelvic floor muscle activity. PMID:26311960
Miriutova, N F; Zaĭtsev, A A; Bartfel'd, N N; Lazarev, V Ia
The methodological approach to the rehabilitative treatment of the subjects presenting with occupational muscular-skeletal abnormalities in the upper limb girdle associated with their occupational activities implies the combined application of a pulsed magnetic field, therapeutic peloids and ultrasound therapy to the neuromuscular apparatus and tendinous-capsular structures of the rotator cuff undergoing dystrophic degeneration. This therapeutic modality makes it possible to improve the biomechanical conditions of the patients by broadening the range of active painless movements in the affected shoulder joint by 42% (p < 0.05), normalizing tonal and load-bearing characteristics of the muscles (increase of the initially reduced muscular tone at rest by 27% (p < 0.05) at a maximum voluntary tension (16%, p > 0.05), changing trophicity of periarticular tissues (elevation of the pain sensitivity threshold of tendons and painful indurations in the functionally active muscles of the thoracic girdle of the upper extremity by 76% (p < 0.05). It is concluded that these changes contribute to the improvement of professional activities of the patients.
Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.
The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory
Booher, C. R.; Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D. N.
In attempting further to define the deleterious effects of spaceflight on the human body, measurement systems and techniques were devised to determine the loss of skeletal muscle strength and tone as a result of spaceflight exposure. In order to determine how the muscle degradation process progresses with time during nonuse, a system for measuring muscle stress during bedrest was developed. The Bedrest Muscle Stress Apparatus is configured to slip snugly over the foot board of a standard hospital bed. Data collected with this device correlated well with pre- and post-bedrest data collected with the original skeletal muscle stress apparatus.
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles A A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...
With the conventional micro machining technologies: isotropic and anisotropic, dry and wet etching, a few shapes can be done. To overcome this limitation, both binary multi- tasking technique or direct EB writing were used, but an inexpensive one-step UV-lithographic method, using a so- called 'gray-tone reticle', seems to be the best choice to produce local intensity modulation during exposure process. Although, by using this method and common technologies in standard IC fabrication it is easy to obtain an arbitrarily 3D shaping of positive thick resists, there are some limitations, too. The maximum number of gray-levels, on projection reticle, achieved by e-beam writing, are only 200. Also, for very thick resists, the limited focus depth of the projection objective gives a poor lateral resolution. These are the reasons why the author prose da new approach to enhance the 3D resolution of gray-tone lithography applied for thick resist. By a high resolution, both for vertical direction, as well as for horizontal direction. Particular emphasis was put on the design, manufacturing and use of halftone transmission masks, required for UV- lithographic step in the fabrication process of mechanical, optical or electronics components. The original design and fabrication method for the gray-tone test reticle were supported by experiments showing the main advantage of this new technology: the 3D structuring of thick resist in a single exposure step and also a very promising aspect ratio obtained of over 9:1. Preliminary experimental results are presented for positive thick resists in SEM micrographs. A future optimization of the lithographic process opens interesting perspectives for application of this high 3D resolution structuring method in the fabrication process of different products, with imposed complex smooth profiles, such as: x-ray LiGA-masks, refractive optics and surface- relief DOEs.
Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren
Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners.
A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.
Noya, Go; Yamamoto, Kazuma; Matsumoto, Naoki; Takemura, Yukie; Ishii, Maki; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Ishii, Masahiro; Nagahara, Tatsuro; Pawlowski, Georg
The negative tone development (NTD) process has proven benefits for superior imaging performance in 193nm lithography. Shrink materials, such as AZ® RELACS® have found widespread use as a resolution enhancement technology in conventional 248nm (DUV), 193 nm dry (ArF) and 193 nm immersion (ArFi) lithography. Surfactant rinses, such as AZ® FIRM® are employed as yield enhancement materials to improve the lithographic performance by avoiding pattern collapse, eliminating defects, and improving CDU. This paper describes the development and recent achievements obtained with new shrink and rinse materials for application in NTD patterning processes.
Loh, Ching Y.
Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.
Barry, Johanna G.; Blamey, Peter J.
This paper reports on a methodology for acoustically analyzing tone production in Cantonese. F0 offset versus F0 onset are plotted for a series of tokens for each of the six tones in the language. These are grouped according to tone type into a set of six ellipses. Qualitative visual observations regarding the degree of differentiation of the ellipses within the tonal space are summarized numerically using two indices, referred to here as Index 1 and Index 2. Index 1 is a ratio of the area of the speaker's tonal space and the average of the areas of the ellipses of the three target tones making up the tonal space. Index 2 is a ratio of the average distance between all six tonal ellipses and the average of the sum of the two axes for all six tone ellipses. Using this methodology, tonal differentiation is compared for three groups of speakers; normally hearing adults; normally hearing children aged from 4-6 years; and, prelinguistically deafened cochlear implant users aged from 4-11 years. A potential conundrum regarding how tone production abilities can outstrip tone perception abilities is explained using the data from the acoustic analyses. It is suggested that young children of the age range tested are still learning to normalize for pitch level differences in tone production. Acoustic analysis of the data thus supports results from tone perception studies and suggests that the methodology is suitable for use in studies investigating tone production in both clinical and research contexts.
Keefe, D H; Laden, B
A multiphonic is a regime of oscillation of woodwind musical instruments that is perceived as two or more simultaneously sounding pitches. The frequencies fl,m of the line spectral components of a measured woodwind multiphonic tone fit a biperiodic spectrum at low- to mid-playing levels. For the saxophone and clarinet multiphonics investigated, the two basis frequencies of the biperiodic spectrum are phase locked, that is, their ratio is equal to a ratio of small integers. A broadband spectrum is present in multiphonic spectra that exceeds instrumentation noise and window leakage associated with signal processing. The correlation dimension D of P. Grassberger and I. Procaccia [Physica D 9, 189-208 (1983)] is measured by embedding a single measured time series in higher-dimensional space, so as to reconstruct the phase space of the dynamical system. The time delay used in the dimensional reconstruction is chosen using information theory. For the particular multiphonics analyzed, the correlation dimension ranges from 2.5 to 2.9 for the saxophone and from 1.3 to 2.2 for the clarinet. One clarinet multiphonic shows possible additional dynamical complexity at small length scales in the embedding space, with a correlation dimension of 3.3. These results give quantitative evidence that some, but not all, multiphonic tones possess a strange attractor.
Batra, Vijay; Batra, Meenakshi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sharma, Vijai Prakash; Agarwal, Girdhar Gopal
Objective To compare the efficacy of a Neurofacilitation of Developmental Reaction (NFDR) approach with that of a Conventional approach in the modulation of tone in children with neurodevelopmental delay. Methods Experimental control design. A total of 30 spastic children ranging in age from 4 to 7 years with neurodevelopmental delay were included. Baseline evaluations of muscle tone and gross motor functional performance abilities were performed. The children were allocated into two intervention groups of 15 subjects each. In groups A and B, the NFDR and conventional approaches were applied, respectively, for 3 months and were followed by subsequent re-evaluations. Results Between group analyses were performed using independent t test for tone and primitive reflex intensity and a Mann-Whitney U test for gross motor functional ability. For the within-group analyses, paired t tests were used for tone and primitive reflex intensity, and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for gross motor functional ability. Conclusion The NFDR approach/technique prepares the muscle to undergo tonal modulation and thereby enhances motor development and improves the motor functional performance abilities of the children with neurodevelopmental delay. PMID:28239268
Davarian, Faramaz (Inventor)
A transmitter for digital radio communication creates a null by balanced encoding of data modulated on an RF carrier, and inserts a calibration tone within the null. This is accomplished by having the calibration tone coincide in phase and frequency with the transmitted radio frequency output, for coherent demodulation of data at the receiver where the tone calibration signal is extracted and used for multipath fading compensation.
Bokulic, Robert Steven (Inventor); Jensen, James Robert (Inventor)
This disclosure presents a communication receiver system for spacecraft that includes an open loop receiver adapted to receive a communication signal. An ultrastable oscillator (USO) and a tone detector are connected to the open loop receiver. The open loop receiver translates the communication signal to an intermediate frequency signal using a highly stable reference frequency from the USO. The tone detector extracts commands from the communication signal by evaluating the difference between tones of the communication signal.
Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J
Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening.
Nishida, Naoya; Taguchi, Aki; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Desaki, Junzo
We compared age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of aged and young adult rats by determining the number and diameter of muscle fibers, contractile muscle protein (myosin heavy chain isoforms, MHC) composition, and the morphology of the subneural apparatuses. In aged rats, both the numbers and the diameters of muscle fibers decreased in the cricothyroid (CT) muscle. The number of fibers, but not diameter, decreased in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. In the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle, neither the number nor the diameter of fibers changed significantly. Aging was associated with a decrease in type IIB and an increase in type IIA MHC isoform levels in CT muscle, but no such changes were observed in the TA or PCA muscles. Morphological examination of primary synaptic clefts of the subneural apparatus revealed that aging resulted in decreased labyrinthine and increased depression types in only the CT muscle. In the aged group, morphologically immature subneural apparatuses were found infrequently in the CT muscle, indicating continued tissue remodeling. We suggest, therefore, that age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles primarily involve the CT muscle, whereas the structures of the TA and PCA muscles may better resist aging processes and therefore are less vulnerable to functional impairment. This may reflect differences in their roles; the CT muscle controls the tone of the vocal folds, while the TA and PCA muscles play an essential role in vital activities such as respiration and swallowing.
Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M
Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.
Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.
Kim, Sung-Joong; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi
This study was designed to investigate the effects of manual lymph drainage on the cardiac autonomic tone. Thirty-two healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to manual lymph drainage (MLD) (experimental) and rest (control) groups. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were recorded with bipolar electrocardiography using standard limb lead positions. The pressure-pain threshold (PPT) was quantitatively measured using an algometer. Heart rate variability differed significantly between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05), but the PPT in the upper trapezius muscle did not (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the application of MLD was effective in reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
Baghele, Om N.
Anatomical aberrations and abnormalities are frequently associated with functional, psychosocial, and emotional problems. One such aberration is crestal attachment of frenum or muscle on the alveolar processes of the jaws. Crestal attachment of buccinator muscle is a rare phenomenon, which may pose various problems in routine oral exercises/functions or restoring the edentulous area. A case of abnormal buccinator muscle attachment is presented here, which was relocated apically by surgical means using an acrylic stent. The healing was uneventful and significant apical repositioning was observed. A fixed bridge was fabricated and the long-term results of the restorative therapy were assured because the patient could maintain the oral hygiene well after the muscle repositioning operation. PMID:23162347
El-Rahman, Rasha R. Abd; Harraz, Osama F.; Brett, Suzanne E.; Anfinogenova, Yana; Mufti, Rania E.; Goldman, Daniel
L-type Ca2+ channels are broadly expressed in arterial smooth muscle cells, and their voltage-dependent properties are important in tone development. Recent studies have noted that these Ca2+ channels are not singularly expressed in vascular tissue and that other subtypes are likely present. In this study, we ascertained which voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are expressed in rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle and determined their contribution to the myogenic response. mRNA analysis revealed that the α1-subunit of L-type (Cav1.2) and T-type (Cav3.1 and Cav3.2) Ca2+ channels are present in isolated smooth muscle cells. Western blot analysis subsequently confirmed protein expression in whole arteries. With the use of patch clamp electrophysiology, nifedipine-sensitive and -insensitive Ba2+ currents were isolated and each were shown to retain electrical characteristics consistent with L- and T-type Ca2+ channels. The nifedipine-insensitive Ba2+ current was blocked by mibefradil, kurtoxin, and efonidpine, T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors. Pressure myography revealed that L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition reduced tone at 20 and 80 mmHg, with the greatest effect at high pressure when the vessel is depolarized. In comparison, the effect of T-type Ca2+ channel blockade on myogenic tone was more limited, with their greatest effect at low pressure where vessels are hyperpolarized. Blood flow modeling revealed that the vasomotor responses induced by T-type Ca2+ blockade could alter arterial flow by ∼20–50%. Overall, our findings indicate that L- and T-type Ca2+ channels are expressed in cerebral arterial smooth muscle and can be electrically isolated from one another. Both conductances contribute to myogenic tone, although their overall contribution is unequal. PMID:23103495
Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.
Farmer, David G.S.; Dutschmann, Mathias; Paton, Julian F.R.; Pickering, Anthony E.
Key points Cardiac vagal tone is a strong predictor of health, although its central origins are unknown.Respiratory‐linked fluctuations in cardiac vagal tone give rise to respiratory sinus arryhthmia (RSA), with maximum tone in the post‐inspiratory phase of respiration.In the present study, we investigated whether respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone is intrinsically linked to post‐inspiratory respiratory control using the unanaesthetized working heart‐brainstem preparation of the rat.Abolition of post‐inspiration, achieved by inhibition of the pontine Kolliker‐Fuse nucleus, removed post‐inspiratory peaks in efferent cardiac vagal activity and suppressed RSA, whereas substantial cardiac vagal tone persisted. After transection of the caudal pons, part of the remaining tone was removed by inhibition of nucleus of the solitary tract.We conclude that cardiac vagal tone depends upon at least 3 sites of the pontomedullary brainstem and that a significant proportion arises independently of RSA. Abstract Cardiac vagal tone is a strong predictor of health, although its central origins are unknown. The rat working heart‐brainstem preparation shows strong cardiac vagal tone and pronounced respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this preparation, recordings from the cut left cardiac vagal branch showed efferent activity that peaked in post‐inspiration, ∼0.5 s before the cyclic minimum in heart rate (HR). We hypothesized that respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone and HR is intrinsically linked to the generation of post‐inspiration. Neurons in the pontine Kölliker‐Fuse nucleus (KF) were inhibited with bilateral microinjections of isoguvacine (50–70 nl, 10 mm) to remove the post‐inspiratory phase of respiration. This also abolished the post‐inspiratory peak of cardiac vagal discharge (and cyclical HR modulation), although a substantial level of activity remained. In separate preparations with intact cardiac vagal branches but
Guerrero, Douglas J.; Krishnamurthy, Vandana; Sullivan, Daniel M.
The main properties controlling a successful negative-tone development (NTD) process include surface energy of the BARC or silicon hardmask, reflectivity control, and type of spin-on carbon (SOC) layer utilized. In this paper, we studied the BARC and silicon-containing hardmask properties needed to achieve successful NTD of a conventional positive-tone photoresist. The surface energy mismatch between BARC and silicon-containing hardmask poses challenges for patterning dense structures. Interaction of the SOC layer and the photoresist was observed, even with the silicon hardmask film present in between these two layers. Strict reflectivity elimination does not guarantee a successful outcome, rather precise control of reflectivity is required to enhance the overall lithographic process.
Mandarin Chinese and many other tonal languages use tones that are defined as specific pitch patterns to distinguish syllables otherwise ambiguous. It had been shown that tones carry at least as much information as vowels in Mandarin Chinese [Surendran et al., 2005]. Surprisingly, though, many speech recognition systems for Mandarin Chinese have…
This dissertation studies the realization of the rhythm of Taiwan Mandarin and focuses on the quality of its unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables. Taiwan Mandarin (TM) is often described as more syllable-timed than Standard Mandarin (SM). In TM, the unstressed syllables occur less frequently. The quality of the unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables…
Harvey, Richard D.; LaBeach, Nicole; Pridgen, Ellie; Gocial, Tammy M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which racial contexts moderate the importance and function of intragroup skin-tone stigma among Black Americans. One hundred and thirty-two Black students were recruited from both a predominantly Black university and a predominantly White university and completed measures on skin tone,…
This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…
Shaw, Jason A.; Chen, Wei-rong; Proctor, Michael I.; Derrick, Donald
Purpose: Models of speech production often abstract away from shared physiology in pitch control and lingual articulation, positing independent control of tone and vowel units. We assess the validity of this assumption in Mandarin Chinese by evaluating the stability of lingual articulation for vowels across variation in tone. Method:…
Walker, Stephen P.
An autosegmental analysis of Kagate tone is presented. The focus is on tonal instability, which occurs as the result of a compensatory lengthening process. To account for facts of tonal stability, previously hypothesized, and tonal instability, it is proposed that the location of tone within the overall geometry is subject to parametric variation,…
Sinex, Donal G; Li, Hongzhe
The auditory system can segregate sounds that overlap in time and frequency, if the sounds differ in acoustic properties such as fundamental frequency (f0). However, the neural mechanisms that underlie this ability are poorly understood. Responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the anesthetized chinchilla were measured. The stimuli were harmonic tones, presented alone (single harmonic tones) and in the presence of a second harmonic tone with a different f0 (double harmonic tones). Responses to single harmonic tones exhibited no stimulus-related temporal pattern, or in some cases, a simple envelope modulated at f0. Responses to double harmonic tones exhibited complex slowly modulated discharge patterns. The discharge pattern varied with the difference in f0 and with characteristic frequency. The discharge pattern also varied with the relative levels of the two tones; complex temporal patterns were observed when levels were equal, but as the level difference increased, the discharge pattern reverted to that associated with single harmonic tones. The results indicated that IC neurons convey information about simultaneous sounds in their temporal discharge patterns and that the patterns are produced by interactions between adjacent components in the spectrum. The representation is "low-resolution," in that it does not convey information about single resolved components from either individual sound.
Han, Mieko S.
An acoustic-phonetic study of six Vietnamese tones was carried out on approximately 3000 sound spectrograms of four native speakers of the Hanoi dialect. Three temporal segments, four pitch levels, and glottalization were identified as important cues for tone recognition. (Author/FWB)
Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.
Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children's baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic…
This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...
Couvillon, L. A.
Pressure of a button on a crystal-controlled transmitter causes generation of a tone. The tone modulates the FM transmitter which in turn radiates by way of the enclosed loop antenna, through the radio-frequency-transparent wall of the transmitters case to the receiver.
Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.
Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.
Chen, Ao; Kager, René
In the current study, we examined the developmental course of the perception of non-native tonal contrast. We tested 4, 6 and 12-month-old Dutch infants on their discrimination of Chinese low-rising tone and low-dipping tone using the visual fixation paradigm. The infants were tested in two conditions that differed in terms of degree of…
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...
This dissertation examines floating tones and tone gesture deactivation in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (SJZ), and provides an Optimality Theoretic account of tonal spreading and placement using insights from Articulatory Phonology. While the data portion of the dissertation is drawn from SJZ, the approach has broader implications for theories of tonal…
Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.
Mora, Emanuel C; Fernández, Yohami; Hechavarría, Julio; Pérez, Martha
Frequency alternation in the echolocation of insectivorous bats has been interpreted in relation to ranging and duty cycle, i.e. advantages for echolocation. The shifts in frequency of the calls of these so-called two-tone bats, however, may also play its role in the success of their hunting behavior for a preferred prey, the tympanate moth. How the auditory receptors (e.g. the A1 and A2 cells) in the moth's ear detect such frequency shifts is currently unknown. Here, we measured the auditory responses of the A1 cell in the noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda to the echolocation hunting sequence of Molossus molossus, a two-tone bat. We also manipulated the bat calls to control for the frequency shifts by lowering the frequency band of the search and approach calls. The firing response of the A1 receptor cell significantly decreases with the shift to higher frequencies during the search and approach phases of the hunting sequence of M. molossus; this could be explained by the receptor's threshold curve. The frequency dependence of the decrease in the receptor's response is supported by the results attained with the manipulated sequence: search and approach calls with the same minimum frequency are detected by the moth at the same threshold intensity. The two-tone bat M. molossus shows a call frequency alternation behavior that may enable it to overcome moth audition even in the mid-frequency range (i.e. 20-50 kHz) where moths hear best.
Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.
This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…
... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...
Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.
An experimental study of the application of discrete-time, linear quadratic control design methods to the cavity tone problem is described. State space models of the dynamics from a synthetic jet actuator at the leading edge of the cavity to two pressure sensors in the cavity were computed from experimental data. Variations in model order, control order, control bandwidth, and properties of a Kalman state estimator were studied. Feedback control reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. Closed loop performance was often limited by excitation of sidebands of cavity tones, and creation of new tones in the spectrum. State space models were useful for explaining some of these limitations, but were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.
In this session, Session JA3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Changes in Calf Muscle Performance, Energy Metabolism, and Muscle Volume Caused by Long Term Stay on Space Station MIR; Vibrografic Signs of Autonomous Muscle Tone Studied in Long Term Space Missions; Reduction of Muscle Strength After Long Duration Space Flights is Associated Primarily with Changes in Neuromuscular Function; The Effects of a 115-Day Spaceflight on Neuromuscular Function in Crewman; Effects of 17-Day Spaceflight on Human Triceps Surae Electrically-Evoked Contractions; Effects of Muscle Unloading on EMG Spectral Parameters; and Myofiber Wound-Mediated FGF Release and Muscle Atrophy During Bedrest.
... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...
Chen, Shixiong; Deng, Jun; Bian, Lin; Li, Guanglin
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are soft sounds generated by the cochlea and the measurements of OAEs are useful in detecting cochlear damages. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are evoked by one single tone and they are the most frequency specific in probing functional status of the cochlea than other types of OAEs. However, SFOAEs are currently restricted to research only because of the difficulty and low efficiency of their measurements. To solve these problems, an efficient method of using swept tones to measure SFOAEs was proposed in this study. The swept tones had time-varying frequencies and therefore could efficiently measure SFOAEs over a wide frequency range with a resolution dependent on the sweep rate. A three-interval paradigm and a tracking filter were used to separate the swept-tone SFOAEs from background noises. The reliability of the swept-tone SFOAEs was examined by a repeated-measure design, and the accuracy was evaluated by the comparison with a standard method using pure tones as the stimuli. The pilot results of this study showed that SFOAEs could be measured successfully using swept tones in human ears with normal hearing. The amplitude and phase of the swept-tone SFOAEs were highly reproducible in the repeated measures, and were nearly equivalent to SFOAEs evoked by pure tones under various signal conditions. These findings suggest that the proposed swept-tone SFOAEs could be a useful method in estimating the cochlear functions and developing an efficient approach of OAE measurements to help with accurate hearing diagnoses in the clinic.
Force, Rachel B.; Venables, Noah C.; Sponheim, Scott R.
Abnormal brain activity during the processing of simple sounds is evident in individuals with increased genetic liability for schizophrenia; however, the diagnostic specificity of these abnormalities has yet to be fully examined. Because recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology the present study was conducted to determine whether individuals with heightened genetic liability for each disorder manifested distinct neural abnormalities during auditory processing. Utilizing a dichotic listening paradigm, we assessed target tone discrimination and electrophysiological responses in schizophrenia patients, first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, bipolar disorder patients, first-degree biological relatives of bipolar patients and nonpsychiatric control participants. Schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients demonstrated reductions in an early neural response (i.e. N1) suggestive of deficient sensory registration of auditory stimuli. Bipolar patients and relatives of bipolar patients demonstrated no such abnormality. Both schizophrenia and bipolar patients failed to significantly augment N1 amplitude with attention. Schizophrenia patients also failed to show sensitivity of longer-latency neural processes (N2) to stimulus frequency suggesting a disorder specific deficit in stimulus classification. Only schizophrenia patients exhibited reduced target tone discrimination accuracy. Reduced N1 responses reflective of early auditory processing abnormalities are suggestive of a marker of genetic liability for schizophrenia and may serve as an endophenotype for the disorder. PMID:18571375
Cabon, Quentin; Bolliger, Christian
The iliopsoas muscle is formed by the psoas major and iliacus muscles. Due to its length and diameter, the iliopsoas muscle is an important flexor and stabilizer of the hip joint and the vertebral column. Traumatic acute and chronic myopathies of the iliopsoas muscle are commonly diagnosed by digital palpation during the orthopedic examination. Clinical presentations range from gait abnormalities, lameness, and decreased hip joint extension to irreversible fibrotic contracture of the muscle. Rehabilitation of canine patients has to take into account the inciting cause, the severity of pathology and the presence of muscular imbalances.
Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E
Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P < 0.01), and VSM calcium was 200 ± 20 nmol/l in PAs vs. 104 ± 15 nmol/l in MCAs (P < 0.01). In vessels permeabilized with Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, PAs were not more sensitive to calcium, suggesting calcium sensitization was not at the level of the contractile apparatus. PAs were 30-fold more sensitive to the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P < 0.01); however, electrophysiological properties of the VDCC were not different in VSM. PAs had little to no response to the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.
Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel endogenous gaseous signal transducer (gasotransmittor). Its emerging role in multiple facets of inter- and intra-cellular signaling as a metabolic, inflammatory, neuro and vascular modulator has been increasingly realized. Although H2S is known for its effects as an anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant molecule, the relevance of these effects in skeletal muscle biology during health and during metabolic syndromes is unclear. H2S has been implicated in vascular relaxation and vessel tone enhancement, which might lead to mitigation of vascular complications caused by the metabolic syndromes. Metabolic complications may also lead to mitochondrial remodeling by interfering with fusion and fission, therefore, leading to mitochondrial mitophagy and skeletal muscle myopathy. Mitochondrial protection by H2S enhancing treatments may mitigate deterioration of muscle function during metabolic syndromes. In addition, H2S might upregulate uncoupling proteins and might also cause browning of white fat, resulting in suppression of imbalanced cytokine signaling caused by abnormal fat accumulation. Likewise, as a source for H+ ions, it has the potential to augment anaerobic ATP synthesis. However, there is a need for studies to test these putative H2S benefits in different patho-physiological scenarios before its full-fledged usage as a therapeutic molecule. The present review highlights current knowledge with regard to exogenous and endogenous H2S roles in skeletal muscle biology, metabolism, exercise physiology and related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and also provides future directions. PMID:25461301
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory function and pressure among three groups of children with cerebral palsy as a predominant abnormal movement which included spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three children with cerebral palsy of 5–13 years of age in I–III levels according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the study subjects were divided by stratified random sampling into three groups of spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type. For reliability of the measurement results, respiratory function and pressure of the children with cerebral palsy were measured by the same inspector using Spirometer Pony FX (Cosmed Ltd., Italy) equipment, and the subject’s guardians (legal representative) was always made to observe. [Results] In the respiratory function, there were significant differences among three groups in all of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and peak expiratory flow. For respiratory pressure, the maximal inspiratory pressure had significant differences among three groups, although the maximal expiratory pressure had no significant difference. [Conclusion] Therefore, pediatric physical therapists could be provided with important clinical information in understanding the differences in respiratory function and pressure for the children with cerebral palsy showing predominantly abnormal movement as a diverse qualitative characteristics of the muscle tone and movement patterns, and in planning intervention programs for improvement of respiratory capacity. PMID:28265153
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory function and pressure among three groups of children with cerebral palsy as a predominant abnormal movement which included spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three children with cerebral palsy of 5-13 years of age in I-III levels according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the study subjects were divided by stratified random sampling into three groups of spastic type, dyskinetic type, and ataxic type. For reliability of the measurement results, respiratory function and pressure of the children with cerebral palsy were measured by the same inspector using Spirometer Pony FX (Cosmed Ltd., Italy) equipment, and the subject's guardians (legal representative) was always made to observe. [Results] In the respiratory function, there were significant differences among three groups in all of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and peak expiratory flow. For respiratory pressure, the maximal inspiratory pressure had significant differences among three groups, although the maximal expiratory pressure had no significant difference. [Conclusion] Therefore, pediatric physical therapists could be provided with important clinical information in understanding the differences in respiratory function and pressure for the children with cerebral palsy showing predominantly abnormal movement as a diverse qualitative characteristics of the muscle tone and movement patterns, and in planning intervention programs for improvement of respiratory capacity.
Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.
For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.
Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.
In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.
Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L
In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5 degrees from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3 degrees to 15 degrees and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5 degrees ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.
Zicari, Massimo; MacRitchie, Jennifer; Ghirlanda, Lorenzo; Vanchieri, Alberto; Montorfano, Davide; Barbato, Maurizio C; Soldini, Emiliano
This article investigates the relationship between the shape of the mouthpiece and its acoustical properties in brass instruments. The hypothesis is that not only different volumes but also particular cup shapes affect the embouchure and the tone quality in both a physical and perceivable way. Three professional trumpet players were involved, and two different internal cup contours characterized by a "U" and a "V" shape with two types of throat junction (round and sharp) were chosen, based on a Vincent Bach 1 [1/2] C medium mouthpiece. A third intermediate contour was designed as a combination of these. Over 600 sound samples were produced under controlled conditions, the study involving four different stages: (1) Simulation of air-flow, (2) analysis of the sound spectra, (3) study of the players' subjective responses, and (4) perceptual analysis of their timbral differences. Results confirm the U shape is characterized by a stronger air recirculation and produces stronger spectral components above 8 kHz, compared to the V shape. A round throat junction may also be preferable to a sharp one in terms of playability. There is moderate agreement on the aural perception of these differences although the verbal attributes used to qualify these are not shared.
So, Connie K.
Studies show that auditory-training improves non-native listeners' tonal identification; however, persistently perceptual confusion of several tone pairs is still observed. This may imply that learners have not yet mastered/acquired the lexical tones. Their confusion may be reduced further if the essential acoustic information of tones (e.g., duration and pitch contour) could be implemented and emphasized during training. To verify the assumption, the present study examines the impact of employing acoustic information of lexical tones as feedback on non-native listeners' performance during a computer-based perception training of Mandarin tones. Non-native speakers of Mandarin were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Listeners in the control group were merely shown that the answer was right or wrong. In contrast, those in the experimental group received acoustic information by means of both visual and auditory feedback when the response was incorrect (i.e., showing pitch graphs and presenting the audio files for the contrastive tonal pairs). Results indicated a significant improvement in the tonal identifications for listeners who received detailed acoustic information during training. This suggests that training with acoustic information of lexical tones assists non-native listeners in distinguishing the tone pairs more effectively. [Work supported by SSHRC.
Guthier, Benjamin; Kopf, Stephan; Eble, Marc; Effelsberg, Wolfgang
In order to display a high dynamic range (HDR) video on a regular low dynamic range (LDR) screen, it needs to be tone mapped. A great number of tone mapping (TM) operators exist - most of them designed to tone map one image at a time. Using them on each frame of an HDR video individually leads to flicker in the resulting sequence. In our work, we analyze three tone mapping operators with respect to flicker. We propose a criterion for the automatic detection of image flicker by analyzing the log average pixel brightness of the tone mapped frame. Flicker is detected if the difference between the averages of two consecutive frames is larger than a threshold derived from Stevens' power law. Fine-tuning of the threshold is done in a subjective study. Additionally, we propose a generic method to reduce flicker as a post processing step. It is applicable to all tone mapping operators. We begin by tone mapping a frame with the chosen operator. If the flicker detection reports a visible variation in the frame's brightness, its brightness is adjusted. As a result, the brightness variation is smoothed over several frames, becoming less disturbing.
Chang, Claire H. C.; Kuo, Wen-Jui
This study examined the neural substrates underlying the implementation of phonological rule in lexical tone by the Tone 3 sandhi phenomenon in Mandarin Chinese. Tone 3 sandhi is traditionally described as the substitution of Tone 3 with Tone 2 when followed by another Tone 3 (33 →23) during speech production. Tone 3 sandhi enables the examination of tone processing in the phonological level with the least involvement of segments. Using the fMRI technique, we measured brain activations corresponding to the monosyllable and disyllable sequences of the four Chinese lexical tones, while manipulating the requirement on overt oral response. The application of Tone 3 sandhi to disyllable sequence of Tone 3 was confirmed by our behavioral results. Larger brain responses to overtly produced disyllable Tone 3 (33 > 11, 22, and 44) were found in right posterior IFG by both whole-brain and ROI analyses. We suggest that the right IFG was responsible for the processing of Tone 3 sandhi. Intense temporo-frontal interaction is needed in speech production for self-monitoring. The involvement of the right IFG in tone production might result from its interaction with the right auditory cortex, which is known to specialize in pitch. Future studies using tools with better temporal resolutions are needed to illuminate the dynamic interaction between the right inferior frontal regions and the left-lateralized language network in tone languages. PMID:27455078
Schellenberg, E G; Trehub, S E
We quantified the relative simplicity of frequency ratios and reanalyzed data from several studies on the perception of simultaneous and sequential tones. Simplicity of frequency ratios accounted for judgments of consonance and dissonance and for judgments of similarity across a wide range of tasks and listeners. It also accounted for the relative ease of discriminating tone patterns by musically experienced and inexperienced listeners. These findings confirm the generality of previous suggestions of perceptual processing advantages for pairs of tones related by simple frequency ratios.
Porges, Stephen W.
The utility of monitoring oscillations in the heart rate pattern as a window to the brain is discussed as an index of general central nervous system status. Quantification of the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia provides an accurate index of cardiac vagal tone. A number of studies have demonstrated the validity of this measure; the relationship between flight performance and vagal tone has also been studied. In general, the vagal tone index appears to monitor global states of the central nervous system and may be useful in screening the general state of pilots.
This paper proposes a novel algorithmic approach of image enhancement via optimal contrast-tone mapping. In a fundamental departure from the current practice of histogram equalization for contrast enhancement, the proposed approach maximizes expected contrast gain subject to an upper limit on tone distortion and optionally to other constraints that suppress artifacts. The underlying contrast-tone optimization problem can be solved efficiently by linear programming. This new constrained optimization approach for image enhancement is general, and the user can add and fine tune the constraints to achieve desired visual effects. Experimental results demonstrate clearly superior performance of the new approach over histogram equalization and its variants.
Franosch, Jan-Moritz P.; Kempter, Richard; Fastl, Hugo; van Hemmen, J. Leo
The Zwicker tone is an auditory aftereffect. For instance, after switching off a broadband noise with a spectral gap, one perceives it as a lingering pure tone with the pitch in the gap. It is a unique illusion in that it cannot be explained by known properties of the auditory periphery alone. Here we introduce a neuronal model explaining the Zwicker tone. We show that a neuronal noise-reduction mechanism in conjunction with dominantly unilateral inhibition explains the effect. A pure tone’s “hole burning” in noisy surroundings is given as an illustration.
Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...
Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...
... of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal Muscle Now, let's talk about the kind of muscle ... soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle ...
Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying
Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that
Rabinowitz, W M; Bilger, R C; Trahiotis, C; Nuetzel, J
Psychophysical measurements of two-tone masking [E. Zwicker, Acustica 4, 415-420 (1954)] were made at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz utilizing a masker level of 62 dB SPL/tone. Fifty-eight "untrained" subjects were tested using a single run of a 4IFC adaptive procedure for each condition. Individual data were highly variable. Average data were systematic; they were analyzed using a two-line-regression procedure and the obtained critical-bandwidth estimates approximated normative values. Analysis of the literature revealed that a substantial increase of estimated critical bandwidth versus masker level occurs in two-tone masking. A portion of this increase appears artificial and stems from the relative effectiveness of the higher frequency masker tone at high masker levels. An alternative masker-frequency spacing is suggested to reduce level effects. Implications for an underlying critical-band mechanism are discussed.
Simon, M. K.; Shihabi, M. M.; Moon, T.
The performance of a scheme proposed for automated routine monitoring of deep-space missions is presented. The scheme uses four different tones (sinusoids) transmitted from the spacecraft (S/C) to a ground station with the positive identification of each of them used to indicate different states of the S/C. Performance is measured in terms of detection probability versus false alarm probability with detection signal-to-noise ratio as a parameter. The cases where the phase of the received tone is unknown and where both the phase and frequency of the received tone are unknown are treated separately. The decision rules proposed for detecting the tones are formulated from average-likelihood ratio and maximum-likelihood ratio tests, the former resulting in optimum receiver structures.
Hoskins, S.; McCallion, P.
Current research at the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) at the University of the West of England, Bristol, is exploring the potential of creating coloured pictorial imagery from a continuous tone relief surface. To create the printing matrices the research team have been using CNC milled images where the height of the relief image is dictated by creating a tone curve and then milling this curve into a series of relief blocks from which the image is cast in a silicone ink. A translucent image is cast from each of the colour matrices and each colour is assembled - one on top of another - resulting is a colour continuous tone print, where colour tone is created by physical depth of colour. This process is a contemporary method of continuous tone colour printing based upon the Nineteenth Century black and white printing process of Woodburytype as developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury in 1865. Woodburytype is the only true continuous tone printing process invented, and although its delicate and subtle surfaces surpassed all other printing methods at the time. The process died out in the late nineteenth century as more expedient and cost effective methods of printing prevailed. New research at CFPR builds upon previous research that combines 19th Century Photomechanical techniques with digital technology to reappraise the potential of these processes.
Beckers, Gabriël J L; Suthers, Roderick A; ten Cate, Carel
Pure-tone song is a common and widespread phenomenon in birds. The mechanistic origin of this type of phonation has been the subject of long-standing discussion. Currently, there are three hypotheses. (i) A vibrating valve in the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, generates a multifrequency harmonic source sound, which is filtered to a pure tone by a vocal tract filter ("source-filter" model, analogous to human speech production). (ii) Vocal tract resonances couple with a vibrating valve source, suppressing the normal production of harmonic overtones at this source ("soprano" model, analogous to human soprano singing). (iii) Pure-tone sound is produced as such by a sound-generating mechanism that is fundamentally different from a vibrating valve. Here we present direct evidence of a source-filter mechanism in the production of pure-tone birdsong. Using tracheal thermistors and air sac pressure cannulae, we recorded sound signals close to the syringeal sound source during spontaneous, pure-tone vocalizations of two species of turtledove. The results show that pure-tone dove vocalizations originate through filtering of a multifrequency harmonic sound source.
Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark
This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951
Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao
To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.
Hu, Jiehui; Gao, Shan; Ma, Weiyi; Yao, Dezhong
Using event-related potentials, this study measured the access of suprasegmental (tone) and segmental (vowel) information in spoken word recognition with Mandarin idioms. Participants performed a delayed-response acceptability task, in which they judged the correctness of the last word of each idiom, which might deviate from the correct word in either tone or vowel. Results showed that, compared with the correct idioms, a larger early negativity appeared only for vowel violation. Additionally, a larger N400 effect was observed for vowel mismatch than tone mismatch. A control experiment revealed that these differences were not due to low-level physical differences across conditions; instead, they represented the greater constraining power of vowels than tones in the lexical selection and semantic integration of the spoken words. Furthermore, tone violation elicited a more robust late positive component than vowel violation, suggesting different reanalyses of the two types of information. In summary, the current results support a functional dissociation of tone and vowel processing in spoken word recognition.
Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.
Discrete-time, linear quadratic methods were used to design feedback controllers for reducing tones generated by flow over a cavity. The dynamics of a synthetic jet actuator mounted at the leading edge of the cavity as observed by two microphones in the cavity were modeled over a broad frequency range using state space models computed from experimental data. Variations in closed loop performance as a function of model order, control order, control bandwidth, and state estimator design were studied using a cavity in the Probe Calibration Tunnel at NASA Langley. The controller successfully reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at the tested flow speeds of Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. In some cases, the closed loop results were limited by excitation of sidebands of the cavity tones, or the creation of new tones at frequencies away from the cavity tones. Nonetheless, the results validate the combination of optimal control and experimentally-generated state space models, and suggest this approach may be useful for other flow control problems. The models were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.
Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.
Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.
Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.
Manion, Patrick J.
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan
The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.
Bruno, R L
Nearly two-thirds of polio survivors report abnormal movements in sleep, with 52% reporting that their sleep is disturbed by these movements. Sleep studies were performed in seven polio survivors to document objectively abnormal movements in sleep. Two patients demonstrated generalized random myoclonus, with brief contractions and even ballistic movements of the arms and legs, slow repeated grasping movements of the hands, slow flexion of the arms, and contraction of the shoulder and pectoral muscles. Two other patients demonstrated periodic movements in sleep with muscle contractions and ballistic movements of the legs, two had periodic movements in sleep plus restless legs syndrome, and one had sleep starts involving only contraction of the arm muscles. Abnormal movements in sleep occurred in Stage II sleep in all patients, in Stage I in some patients, and could significantly disturb sleep architecture even though patients were totally unaware of muscle contractions. Poliovirus-induced damage to the spinal cord and brain is presented as a possible cause of abnormal movements in sleep. The diagnosis of post-polio fatigue, evaluation of abnormal movements in sleep, and management of abnormal movements in sleep using benzodiazepines or dopamimetic agents are described.
Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther
Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... Attention Signal decoder will no longer be required and the two-tone Attention Signal will be used...
Echeruo, Michael J. C.
Tone-based classification rules for Igbo nouns need modification because: (1) class 1 nouns (monosyllables with high tones) do not, as claimed, operate differently from other terminal high-tone nouns; and (2) class 6 nouns (di-syllabic with downstep tones) can be accounted for within class 2 and class 3 nouns known as HH and LH nouns). The proper…
Zhou, Shu-Zhi; Li, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Xue-Ru; Zhou, Jun; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Yang, Yan; Wei, Ji-Cheng
Background Studies in vivo have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect the myocardium and modulate the coronary blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the direct and concentration-dependent effects of DEX on the tone of porcine coronary artery in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Material/Methods Distal branches of the porcine anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected and cut into 3–5 mm rings. The tones of coronary rings in response to cumulative DEX were measured using the PowerLab system. Coronary rings were divided into three groups: 1) endothelium-intact coronary rings without drug pretreatment (control); 2) endothelium-intact coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine, tetraethylamine (TEA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); and 3) endothelium-denuded coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine or TEA. Results DEX induced coronary ring relaxation at lower concentrations (10−9 to 10−7 M) followed by constriction at higher concentrations (10−6 to 10−5 M). The coronary constrictive effect of higher DEX (10−5 M) was greater in the endothelium-denuded rings than in the endothelium-intact rings. Yohimbine reduced the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations (10−6 to 10−5 M). TEA and L-NAME significantly reduced the coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations (10−9 to 10−7 M) in endothelium-intact rings. TEA attenuated the coronary relaxation induced by DEX in endothelium-denuded rings. Conclusions DEX exerts bidirectional effects on porcine coronary tone. The coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations is likely associated with endothelium integrity, NO synthesis and BKCa channel activation, while the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations is mediated by α2 adrenoceptors in the coronary smooth muscle cells. PMID:28369032
Zhou, Shu-Zhi; Li, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Xue-Ru; Zhou, Jun; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Yang, Yan; Wei, Ji-Cheng
BACKGROUND Studies in vivo have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect the myocardium and modulate the coronary blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the direct and concentration-dependent effects of DEX on the tone of porcine coronary artery in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Distal branches of the porcine anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected and cut into 3-5 mm rings. The tones of coronary rings in response to cumulative DEX were measured using the PowerLab system. Coronary rings were divided into three groups: 1) endothelium-intact coronary rings without drug pretreatment (control); 2) endothelium-intact coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine, tetraethylamine (TEA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); and 3) endothelium-denuded coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine or TEA. RESULTS DEX induced coronary ring relaxation at lower concentrations (10^-9 to 10^-7 M) followed by constriction at higher concentrations (10^-6 to 10^-5 M). The coronary constrictive effect of higher DEX (10^-5 M) was greater in the endothelium-denuded rings than in the endothelium-intact rings. Yohimbine reduced the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations (10^-6 to 10^-5 M). TEA and L-NAME significantly reduced the coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations (10^-9 to 10^-7 M) in endothelium-intact rings. TEA attenuated the coronary relaxation induced by DEX in endothelium-denuded rings. CONCLUSIONS DEX exerts bidirectional effects on porcine coronary tone. The coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations is likely associated with endothelium integrity, NO synthesis and BKCa channel activation, while the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations is mediated by a2 adrenoceptors in the coronary smooth muscle cells.
Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative computer-generated context spoken in a flat emotional tone was followed by a literally positive statement spoken in a sincere or sarcastic tone of voice. Participants indicated for each statement whether the intonation was sincere or sarcastic. In Experiment 1, a congruent context/tone of voice pairing (negative/sarcastic, positive/sincere) produced fast response times and proportions of sarcastic responses in the direction predicted by the tone of voice. Incongruent pairings produced mid-range proportions and slower response times. Experiment 2 introduced ambiguous contexts to determine whether a lower context/statements contrast would affect the proportion of sarcastic responses and response time. Results showed the expected findings for proportions (values between those obtained for congruent and incongruent pairings in the direction predicted by the tone of voice). However, response time failed to produce the predicted pattern, suggesting potential issues with the choice of stimuli. Experiments 3 and 4 extended the results of Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, to auditory stimuli based on written vignettes used in neuropsychological assessment. Results were exactly as predicted by contrast effects in both experiments. Taken together, the findings suggest that both context and tone influence how sarcasm is perceived while supporting the importance of contrast effects in sarcasm perception.
Genetic analysis has uncovered that familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is linked to germline mutations in BMP type II receptor (BMPRII). PAH is characterized by enhanced remodeling of pulmonary arteries due to arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. BMPRII mutations contribute to abnormal mitotic responses to BMP ligands in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Unbalanced Smad signaling induced by BMP and TGFbeta is functionally involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. BMPRII mutations also increase the susceptibility of endothelial cell apoptosis. The combination of increased endothelial injury and impaired suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation is critical for the cellular pathogenesis of PAH. However, the detailed molecular mechanism leading to severe vascular remodeling caused by BMPRII mutations has yet to be elucidated.
Uijtdehaage, S. H.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.
This study investigated the effect of food ingestion on motion sickness severity and its physiological mechanisms. Forty-six fasted subjects were assigned either to a meal group or to a no-meal group. Electrogastrographic (EGG) indices (normal 3 cpm activity and abnormal 4-9 cpm tachyarrhythmia) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured before and after a meal and during a subsequent exposure to a rotating drum in which illusory self-motion was induced. The results indicated that food intake enhanced cardiac parasympathetic tone (RSA) and increased gastric 3 cpm activity. Postprandial effects on motion sickness severity remain equivocal due to group differences in RSA baseline levels. During drum rotation, dysrhythmic activity of the stomach (tachyarrhythmia) and vagal withdrawal were observed. Furthermore, high levels of vagal tone prior to drum rotation predicted a low incidence of motion sickness symptoms, and were associated positively with gastric 3 cpm activity and negatively with tachyarrhythmia. These data suggest that enhanced levels of parasympathetic activity can alleviate motion sickness symptoms by suppressing, in part, its dysrhythmic gastric underpinnings.
Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.
After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.
There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...
Agapitov, Alexei Vasilievich; Correia, Marcelo Lima de Gusmão; Sinkey, Christine Ann; Haynes, William Geoffrey
Obesity increases the risk of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. This has been partly attributed to increased sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by microneurography and catecholamine assays. However, increased vasoconstriction in response to obesity-induced sympathoactivation has not been unequivocally demonstrated in obese subjects without hypertension. We evaluated sympathetic alpha-adrenergic vascular tone in the forearm by brachial arterial infusion of the alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonist phentolamine (120 microg/min) in normotensive obese (daytime ambulatory arterial pressure: 123+/-1/77+/-1 mm Hg; body mass index: 35+/-1 kg/m(2)) and lean (daytime ambulatory arterial pressure: 123+/-2/77+/-2 mm Hg; body mass index: 22+/-1 kg/m(2)) subjects (n=25 per group) matched by blood pressure, age, and gender. Microneurographic sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle was significantly higher in obese subjects (30+/-3 versus 22+/-1 bursts per minute; P=0.02). Surprisingly, complete alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine (at concentrations sufficient to completely inhibit norepinephrine and phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction) caused equivalent vasodilatation in obese (-57+/-2%) and lean subjects (-57+/-3%; P=0.9). In conclusion, sympathetic vascular tone in the forearm circulation is not increased in obese normotensive subjects despite increased sympathetic outflow. Vasodilator factors or mechanisms occurring in obese normotensive subjects could oppose the vasoconstrictor actions of increased sympathoactivation. Our findings may help to explain why some obese subjects are protected from the development of hypertension.
Le Dauphin, Agnès.; Boitard, Ronan; Thoreau, Dominique; Olivier, Yannick; Francois, Edouard; LeLéannec, Fabrice
Tone Mapping Operators (TMOs) compress High Dynamic Range (HDR) content to address Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. However, before reaching the end-user, this tone mapped content is usually compressed for broadcasting or storage purposes. Any TMO includes a quantization step to convert floating point values to integer ones. In this work, we propose to adapt this quantization, in the loop of an encoder, to reduce the entropy of the tone mapped video content. Our technique provides an appropriate quantization for each mode of both the Intra and Inter-prediction that is performed in the loop of a block-based encoder. The mode that minimizes a rate-distortion criterion uses its associated quantization to provide integer values for the rest of the encoding process. The method has been implemented in HEVC and was tested over two different scenarios: the compression of tone mapped LDR video content (using the HM10.0) and the compression of perceptually encoded HDR content (HM14.0). Results show an average bit-rate reduction under the same PSNR for all the sequences and TMO considered of 20.3% and 27.3% for tone mapped content and 2.4% and 2.7% for HDR content.
Werner, Lynne A.; Parrish, Heather K.
Backward masked thresholds appear to have a prolonged developmental course compared to other measures of auditory capacity, but backward masking has not been studied in infant listeners. The present study examined 7-9-month-old infants' detection of 20-ms, 1-kHz pure tones masked by a 50-ms, 2.5-kHz-lowpass noise. The interval between the offset of the tone and the onset of the masker was 0 ms. Both stimuli had 5-ms rise and fall times. The spectrum level of the masker was 30-dB SPL. Thresholds for the backward masked tone were determined adaptively for 6 young adults using a rule that converges on the 71% correct point on the psychometric function. The average threshold was 50-dB SPL (SD=12 dB). Thirteen infants were trained to respond to a backward masked 95-dB SPL tone, but not to the masker alone. These infants then completed 30 single-interval test trials, with 15 no-signal trials and 15 signal trials with the tone fixed at 85-dB SPL and the same backward masker. Infants achieved a p(C)max of about 0.7 (SD=0.05) in this task. These results suggest that at this age infants' backward masked threshold is about 35 dB higher than the adults'.
McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.
Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.
Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S
This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy.
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi
The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech.
While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Also, it was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the distension of the airways from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity at both baseline (r = −0.49, P = 0.03) and after maximum bronchodilation (r = −0.51, P = 0.02) in the asthma, but not the healthy group. However, we did not find any relationship between intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma. PMID:27103654
Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.
Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.
Brasseur, James G; Nicosia, Mark A; Pal, Anupam; Miller, Larry S
We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest. However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology. PMID:17457963
... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...
Kamiya, N.; Zhou, X.; Azuma, K.; Muramatsu, C.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H.
The iliac muscle is an important skeletal muscle related to ambulatory function. The muscles related to ambulatory function are the psoas major and iliac muscles, collectively defined as the iliopsoas muscle. We have proposed an automated recognition method of the iliac muscle. Muscle fibers of the iliac muscle have a characteristic running pattern. Therefore, we used 20 cases from a training database to model the movement of the muscle fibers of the iliac muscle. In the recognition process, the existing position of the iliac muscle was estimated by applying the muscle fiber model. To generate an approximation mask by using a muscle fiber model, a candidate region of the iliac muscle was obtained. Finally, the muscle region was identified by using values from the gray value and boundary information. The experiments were performed by using the 20 cases without abnormalities in the skeletal muscle for modeling. The recognition result in five cases obtained a 76.9% average concordance rate. In the visual evaluation, overextraction of other organs was not observed in 85% of the cases. Therefore, the proposed method is considered to be effective in the recognition of the initial region of the iliac muscle. In the future, we will integrate the recognition method of the psoas major muscle in developing an analytical technique for the iliopsoas area. Furthermore, development of a sophisticated muscle function analysis method is necessary.
Schepelmann, M.; Yarova, P. L.; Lopez-Fernandez, I.; Davies, T. S.; Brennan, S. C.; Edwards, P. J.; Aggarwal, A.; Graça, J.; Rietdorf, K.; Matchkov, V.; Fenton, R. A.; Chang, W.; Krssak, M.; Stewart, A.; Broadley, K. J.; Ward, D. T.; Price, S. A.; Edwards, D. H.; Kemp, P. J.
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive SM22αCaSRΔflox/Δflox [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations (1–5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR. PMID:26538090
Brochet, Didier X P; Langton, Philip D
A slight increase in extracellular concentration of potassium ([K(+)](o)) can act as a vasodilator in rat mesenteric vascular bed. However, in recent years, several groups have failed to consistently observe relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in these conditions. The aim of the present study was to provide a mechanistic understanding of this discrepancy. In rat small mesenteric arteries, 37 of 40 arteries mounted for measurement of isometric force and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) did not relax when ([K(+)](o) was raised from 5.9 mM (control ([K(+)](o) to 11.2 or 21.2 mM. However, when ([K(+)](o) was briefly lowered to 1.2 mM, increasing ([K(+)](o) to between 5.9 and 41.2 mM evoked relaxation. This relaxation was not reduced by barium or by removal of the endothelium, but was abolished by 0.1 mM ouabain. Raising ([K(+)](o) from concentrations between 0 and 5.9 mM to 13.8 mM elicited a relaxation of PE-induced tone that was inversely proportional to initial ([K(+)](o). Relaxation was associated with a ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells. In arteries exposed to dihydroouabain (DHO), raising ([K(+)](o) from 5.9 to 13.8 mM and simultaneously washing out DHO resulted in relaxation of PE-induced force. These results suggest that only when the initial ([K(+)](o) is less than approximately 5 mM do small elevations in ([K(+)](o) evoke smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation via activation of Na,K-ATPase, and not inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Therefore, small differences in the initial ([K(+)](o) (4.6 vs 5.9 mM) can strongly influence the variations of vascular tone to increases in ([K(+)](o).
Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J; Brosius, F C; Briggs, J P; Furspan, P B
Studies were performed to assess whether ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on rabbit preglomerular vessels can influence afferent arteriolar (AA) tone. K+ channels with a slope conductance of 258 +/- 13 (n = 7) pS and pronounced voltage dependence were demonstrated in excised patches from vascular smooth muscle cells of microdissected preglomerular segments. Channel activity was markedly reduced by 1 mM ATP and in a dose-dependent fashion by glibenclamide (10(-9) M to 10(-6) M), a specific antagonist of KATP channels. 10(-5) M diazoxide, a K+ channel opener, activated these channels in the presence of ATP, and this effect was also blocked by glibenclamide. To determine the role of these KATP channels in the control of vascular tone, diazoxide was tested on isolated perfused AA. After preconstriction from a control diameter of 13.1 +/- 1.1 to 3.5 +/- 2.1 microns with phenylephrine (PE), addition of 10(-5) M diazoxide dilated vessels to 11.2 +/- 0.7 microns, which was not different from control. Further addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide reconstricted the vessels to 5.8 +/- 1.5 microns (n = 5; P less than 0.03). In support of its specificity for KATP channels, glibenclamide did not reverse verapamil induced dilation in a separate series of experiments. To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can effect AA tone, studies were conducted to test the effect of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After preconstriction from 13.4 +/- 3.2 to 7.7 +/- 1.3 microns with PE, bath glucose was replaced with 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Within 10 min, the arteriole dilated to a mean value of 11.8 +/- 1.4 microns (n = 6; NS compared to control). Subsequent addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide significantly reconstricted the vessels to a diameter of 8.6 +/- 0.5 micron (P less than 0.04). These data demonstrate that KATP channels are present on the preglomerular vasculature and that changes in intracellular ATP can directly influence afferent arteriolar tone via these channels
Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Sussman, Elyse S
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination.
Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Sussman, Elyse S.
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination. PMID:28321179
Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra
Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint
Klein-Hennig, Martin; Dietz, Mathias; Klinge-Strahl, Astrid; Klump, Georg; Hohmann, Volker
The human auditory system is sensitive in detecting “mistuned” components in a harmonic complex, which do not match the frequency pattern defined by the fundamental frequency of the complex. Depending on the frequency configuration, the mistuned component may be perceptually segregated from the complex and may be heard as a separate tone. In the context of a masking experiment, mistuning a single component decreases its masked threshold. In this study we propose to quantify the ability to detect a single component for fixed amounts of mistuning by adaptively varying its level. This method produces masking release by mistuning that can be compared to other masking release effects. Detection thresholds were obtained for various frequency configurations where the target component was resolved or unresolved in the auditory system. The results from 6 normal-hearing listeners show a significant decrease of masked thresholds between harmonic and mistuned conditions in all configurations and provide evidence for the employment of different detection strategies for resolved and unresolved components. The data suggest that across-frequency processing is involved in the release from masking. The results emphasize the ability of this method to assess integrative aspects of pitch and harmonicity perception. PMID:23139782
Mcchesney, J. R.; Lerner, T.; Fitch, E. J. (Inventor)
Tones and binary information are transmitted as phase variations on a carrier wave of constant amplitude and frequency. The carrier and tones are applied to a balanced modulator for deriving an output signal including a pair of sidebands relative to the carrier. The carrier is phase modulated by a digital signal so that it is + or - 90 deg out of phase with the predetermined phase of the carrier. The carrier is combined in an algebraic summing device with the phase modulated signal and the balanced modulator output signal. The output of the algebraic summing device is hard limited to derive a constant amplitude and frequency signal having very narrow bandwidth requirements. At a receiver, the tones and binary data are detected with a phase locked loop having a voltage controlled oscillator driving a pair of orthogonal detection channels.
Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit
Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640
Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kim, Je Ho; Heo, Jae Won; Uhm, Yo Han; Yoon, Jong Hyuk
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare and analyze the mechanical properties of the upper cervical muscles in patients with cervicogenic headache to identify efficient methods of treatment and diagnosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 subjects including 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with cervicogenic headache were selected. A MyotonPRO device was used to measure the tone (Hz), stiffness (N/m), and elasticity (log decrement) of the suboccipital muscles and upper trapezius of the subjects. [Results] There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the elasticity of the suboccipital muscles and upper trapezius. However, there was a statistically significant difference in tone and stiffness. [Conclusion] This study showed that the tone and stiffness of the suboccipital muscles and upper trapezius in patients with cervicogenic headache had increased compared to healthy subjects. PMID:28265168
Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Cuddy, Lola L.
We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge. PMID:27635355
Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.
Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.
Wynne, Dwight P.; George, Sahara E.; Zeng, Fan-Gang
Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180 s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100 Hz), and additionally varied in modulation depth from 0% to 100% at the 4-Hz frequency only. Every 30 s, normal-hearing subjects estimated the loudness of one of the stimuli played at 15 dB above threshold in random order. Without any amplitude modulation, the loudness of the unmodulated tone after 180 s was only 20% of the loudness at the onset of the stimulus. Amplitude modulation systematically reduced the amount of loudness adaptation, with the 100%-modulated stimuli, regardless of modulation frequency, maintaining on average 55%–80% of the loudness at onset after 180 s. Because the present low-frequency amplitude modulation produced minimal changes in long-term spectral cues affecting the spatial distribution of excitation produced by a 12-kHz pure tone, the present result indicates that neural synchronization is critical to maintaining loudness perception over time. PMID:26233027
Creel, Sarah C.; Newport, Elissa L.; Aslin, Richard N.
Human listeners can keep track of statistical regularities among temporally adjacent elements in both speech and musical streams. However, for speech streams, when statistical regularities occur among nonadjacent elements, only certain types of patterns are acquired. Here, using musical tone sequences, the authors investigate nonadjacent learning.…
Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…
Kenman, Leon F.
The importance of tone and style to communication is attested by the longevity of the popularity of "Elements of Style," published originally in 1918, with the fourth edition published in 2000 (Strunk, 1918; Strunk & White, 2000). Communicators in business and academia at all levels need to send messages that are understood pleasantly and…
Belachew, Abinet Y.
Never is the "tone at the top" more important than during times of economic distress. With an unprecedented number of state and local governments struggling to balance the budget, facing staggering operational cost increases, and even laying off employees, executive management and boards throughout the country are challenged to foster a positive,…
Mattock, Karen; Burnham, Denis
Over half the world's population speaks a tone language, yet infant speech perception research has typically focused on consonants and vowels. Very young infants can discriminate a wide range of native and nonnative consonants and vowels, and then in a process of "perceptual reorganization" over the 1st year, discrimination of most…
Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…
Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…
Appleyard, David L.
The morphological function of tone/accent is examined in a number of Cushitic languages, with the objective of determining whether any comparative statement can be made validly at the group level. Three languages, the Somali dialect cluster, Afar, and Oromo, are the basis for the study. Patterns in case, gender, and the jussive form are analyzed.…
Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables. As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar. The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese…
We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given tau greater than 0, the free plate eigenvalues omega and eigenfunctions upsilon are determined by the equation Delta Delta upsilon - tau Delta upsilon = omega upsilon together with…
Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.
Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…
Li, Bin; Shao, Jing; Bao, Mingzhen
Tonal languages differ in how they use phonetic correlates, e.g. average pitch height and pitch direction, for tonal contrasts. Thus, native speakers of a tonal language may need to adjust their attention to familiar or unfamiliar phonetic cues when perceiving non-native tones. On the other hand, speakers of a non-tonal language may need to…
Keefe, Douglas Howard
This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are
Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K
The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.
Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.
Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.
Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.
This study used the same methodology in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to examine the perceived accuracy of monosyllabic Mandarin tones produced by 4- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and combined the findings with those of 3-year-olds reported in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to track the development of monosyllabic tone production in preschool children. Tone productions of adults and children were collected in a picture naming task and low-pass filtered to remove lexical information and reserve tone information. Five native-speakers categorized the target tones in the filtered productions. Children's tone accuracy was compared to adults' to determine mastery and developmental changes. The results showed that preschool children in Taiwan have not fully mastered the production of monosyllabic Mandarin tones. None of the tones produced by the children in the three age groups reached adult-like accuracy. Little developmental change was found in children's tone accuracy during the preschool years. A similar order of accuracy of the tones was observed across the three age groups and the order appeared to follow the order of articulatory complexity in producing the tones. The findings suggest a protracted course of development in children's acquisition of Mandarin tones and that tone development may be constrained by physiological factors.
Fishman, Yonatan I; Arezzo, Joseph C; Steinschneider, Mitchell
Auditory stream segregation refers to the organization of sequential sounds into "perceptual streams" reflecting individual environmental sound sources. In the present study, sequences of alternating high and low tones, "...ABAB...," similar to those used in psychoacoustic experiments on stream segregation, were presented to awake monkeys while neural activity was recorded in primary auditory cortex (A1). Tone frequency separation (AF), tone presentation rate (PR), and tone duration (TD) were systematically varied to examine whether neural responses correlate with effects of these variables on perceptual stream segregation. "A" tones were fixed at the best frequency of the recording site, while "B" tones were displaced in frequency from "A" tones by an amount = delta F. As PR increased, "B" tone responses decreased in amplitude to a greater extent than "A" tone responses, yielding neural response patterns dominated by "A" tone responses occurring at half the alternation rate. Increasing TD facilitated the differential attenuation of "B" tone responses. These findings parallel psychoacoustic data and suggest a physiological model of stream segregation whereby increasing delta F, PR, or TD enhances spatial differentiation of "A" tone and "B" tone responses along the tonotopic map in A1.
Fishman, Yonatan I.; Arezzo, Joseph C.; Steinschneider, Mitchell
Auditory stream segregation refers to the organization of sequential sounds into ``perceptual streams'' reflecting individual environmental sound sources. In the present study, sequences of alternating high and low tones, ``...ABAB...,'' similar to those used in psychoacoustic experiments on stream segregation, were presented to awake monkeys while neural activity was recorded in primary auditory cortex (A1). Tone frequency separation (ΔF), tone presentation rate (PR), and tone duration (TD) were systematically varied to examine whether neural responses correlate with effects of these variables on perceptual stream segregation. ``A'' tones were fixed at the best frequency of the recording site, while ``B'' tones were displaced in frequency from ``A'' tones by an amount=ΔF. As PR increased, ``B'' tone responses decreased in amplitude to a greater extent than ``A'' tone responses, yielding neural response patterns dominated by ``A'' tone responses occurring at half the alternation rate. Increasing TD facilitated the differential attenuation of ``B'' tone responses. These findings parallel psychoacoustic data and suggest a physiological model of stream segregation whereby increasing ΔF, PR, or TD enhances spatial differentiation of ``A'' tone and ``B'' tone responses along the tonotopic map in A1.
In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.
Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T
Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.
Sztriha, L; Al-Gazali, L I; Várady, E; Goebel, H H; Nork, M
The clinical courses, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy findings of two infants born to an inbred Arab family are described. They had a syndrome of micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelin formation and arthrogryposis. Increased variation of fiber size was seen in the muscle biopsy, creatine kinase, however was normal. Large areas of muscle were replaced by adipofibrous tissue. The infants had dysmorphic features consistent with the fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence. The abnormalities were suggestive of microlissencephaly probably associated with a dysgenetic process in the muscles. The syndrome showed an autosomal recessive inheritance.
Nishihara, Noriko; Hidaka, Takayuki
Objective acoustical parameters for halls are often measured in 1-octave bands with mid-frequencies from 125 to 4000 Hz. In reality, the frequency range of musical instruments is much wider than that, and the fundamentals of the lower notes of bass instruments are contained in 31.5 or 63 Hz bands. Overtones of fundamentals in these bands fall in 125 Hz band. This report presents subjective experiments designed to determine to what extent the overtones in 125 Hz band and higher bands influence the loudness sensation of the components in 63 Hz band. In the experiments, the 125 Hz and higher components of the musical tone are used to act as a masker against the lower component used as a maskee. The threshold of the difference between G(125 Hz) and G(lower band) that just enables one to hear the fundamental tones in the lower band is determined. Masked loudness of 63 Hz sinusoidal tone caused by partial masking noise with higher frequencies was determined based on a similar procedure to the masked loudness-matching function. The result indicates that the difference in loudness of low tone will not be noticeable even if G changed by ±2.5 to ±3 dB, at least when there are other accompanying instruments.
Greenwood, D D
In Greenwood [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 484-502 (1961a)] the ratio of masked signal threshold to masker level (S/M) decreased about 4 dB at a masker level of about 50 dB SL, the 'transition' level, when noise bands were subcritical but not when supercritical. Schlauch et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, S73 (1982)] report a related result. A pilot study [Greenwood, Harvard Psychoacoustic Lab. Status Report 37, 8-9 (1961)] in which pure tones masked identical tones in-phase showed a larger change in S/M. Detailed tone-tone growth-of-masking curves from over a dozen subjects in 1967-69, and in 1960, are reported here. A transition in slope, of variable abruptness, often begins to occur at about 50 dB SL, dropping S/M ratio by 6 to 8 dB or more [Rabinowitz et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1053 (1976)]; the curves sometimes possess two segments, sometimes are simply convex. All have overall slopes less than 1.0, known also as the 'near miss'. Consistent with other results [Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-396 (1956); Viemeister, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1265-1296 (1972); Moore and Raab, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 1049-1060 (1974)], addition of low-level wide-band and high-pass noise was found to counteract the change in S/M, i.e., to raise the high-level section of the growth-of-masking curve. However, the ability of narrow 'band-pass' noise to exert this effect was greatest when added at a frequency ratio (band/masking-tone) of 1.3 to 1.5, which seems more closely to link the effects of added noise to the effects of increasing a masking band from sub- to supercritical width (above). Interpretation of the decrease in DL with level begins by noting that the 'transition' level correlates approximately with the level at which a primary unit population excited by a given pure tone begins rapidly to expand basally. Underlying this, the basalward shift of a tone's displacement envelope peak accelerates at about the same level [Rhode, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1218-1231 (1971); Sellick et al., J
Lu, Shuang; Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith
The present study recorded both behavioral data and event-related brain potentials to examine the effectiveness of a perception-only training and a perception-plus-production training procedure on the intentional and unintentional perception of lexical tone by native English listeners. In the behavioral task, both the perception-only and the perception-plus-production groups improved on the tone discrimination abilities after the training session. Moreover, the participants in both groups generalized the improvements gained through the trained stimuli to the untrained stimuli. In the ERP task, the Mismatch Negativity was smaller in the post-training task than in the pre-training task. However, the two training groups did not differ in tone processing at the intentional or unintentional level after training. These results suggest that the employment of the motor system does not specifically benefit the tone perceptual skills. Furthermore, the present study investigated whether some tone pairs are more easily confused than others by native English listeners, and whether the order of tone presentation influences non-native tone discrimination. In the behavioral task, Tone2-Tone1 (rising-level) and Tone2-Tone4 (rising-falling) were the most difficult tone pairs, while Tone1-Tone2 and Tone4-Tone2 were the easiest tone pairs, even though they involved the same tone contrasts respectively. In the ERP task, the native English listeners had good discrimination when Tone2 and Tone4 were embedded in strings of Tone1, while poor discrimination when Tone1 was inserted in the context of Tone2 or Tone4. These asymmetries in tone perception might be attributed to the interference of native intonation system and can be altered by training.
Maddison, P.; Newsom-Davis, J.; Mills, K.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the distribution of electrophysiological abnormality in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) to identify the most sensitive muscle to use in routine examination. METHODS—Surface recorded compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were made from abductor digiti minimi, abductor pollicis brevis, anconeus, biceps brachii, and trapezius in 10 patients with LEMS. The effect of 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) was recorded in each muscle in nine patients. CMAP amplitudes were measured at rest and immediately after 10 seconds maximal voluntary contraction in each muscle. Values were compared with results obtained from 12 healthy controls. RESULTS—Resting CMAP amplitudes were reduced in at least one muscle in all patients compared with controls, most markedly in abductor digiti minimi and anconeus. The administration of 3,4-DAP resulted in significantly improved resting CMAP amplitudes in trapezius only. After maximal voluntary muscle contraction, characteristic increments in CMAP amplitude of over 100% above resting values were seen in abductor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis brevis in seven patients, anconeus and biceps brachii in five patients. No patient had this level of increment in trapezius. CONCLUSION—Despite predominantly proximal limb weakness seen clinically in patients with LEMS, the most sensitive muscles for detecting characteristic electrophysiological abnormalities of low resting CMAP amplitude and increment of over 100% after 10 seconds maximal voluntary contraction are abductor digiti minimi, abductor pollicis brevis, and anconeus. PMID:9703174
Bagher, Pooneh; Beleznai, Timea; Kansui, Yasuo; Mitchell, Ray; Garland, Christopher J.; Dora, Kim A.
Endothelial cell (EC) Ca2+-activated K channels (SKCa and IKCa channels) generate hyperpolarization that passes to the adjacent smooth muscle cells causing vasodilation. IKCa channels focused within EC projections toward the smooth muscle cells are activated by spontaneous Ca2+ events (Ca2+ puffs/pulsars). We now show that transient receptor potential, vanilloid 4 channels (TRPV4 channels) also cluster within this microdomain and are selectively activated at low intravascular pressure. In arterioles pressurized to 80 mmHg, ECs generated low-frequency (∼2 min−1) inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-based Ca2+ events. Decreasing intraluminal pressure below 50 mmHg increased the frequency of EC Ca2+ events twofold to threefold, an effect blocked with the TRPV4 antagonist RN1734. These discrete events represent both TRPV4-sparklet- and nonsparklet-evoked Ca2+ increases, which on occasion led to intracellular Ca2+ waves. The concurrent vasodilation associated with increases in Ca2+ event frequency was inhibited, and basal myogenic tone was increased, by either RN1734 or TRAM-34 (IKCa channel blocker), but not by apamin (SKCa channel blocker). These data show that intraluminal pressure influences an endothelial microdomain inversely to alter Ca2+ event frequency; at low pressures the consequence is activation of EC IKCa channels and vasodilation, reducing the myogenic tone that underpins tissue blood-flow autoregulation. PMID:23071308
Swami, Viren; Henry, Amy; Peacock, Nicola; Roberts-Dunn, Ahkin; Porter, Alan
This study examined skin tone dissatisfaction, measured using a skin tone chart, among a multiethnic sample of British adults. A total of 648 British White individuals, 292 British South Asians, and 260 British African Caribbean participants completed a visual task in which they were asked to indicate their actual and ideal skin tones. They also completed measures of body appreciation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity attachment. Results showed that Asians had a lighter skin tone ideal than White and African Caribbean participants. Conversely, White participants had higher skin tone dissatisfaction (preferring a darker skin tone) than Asian and African Caribbean participants, who preferred a lighter skin tone. Results also showed that skin tone dissatisfaction predicted body appreciation once the effects of participant ethnicity, age, ethnic identity attachment, and self-esteem had been accounted for. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Régent, Alexis; Ly, Kim Heang; Lofek, Sébastien; Clary, Guilhem; Tamby, Mathieu; Tamas, Nicolas; Federici, Christian; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric; Mouthon, Luc
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are highly specialized cells that regulate vascular tone and participate in vessel remodeling in physiological and pathological conditions. It is unclear why certain vascular pathologies involve one type of vessel and spare others. Our objective was to compare the proteomes of normal human VSMC from aorta (human aortic smooth muscle cells, HAoSMC), umbilical artery (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells, HUASMC), pulmonary artery (HPASMC), or pulmonary artery VSMC from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-SMC). Proteomes of VSMC were compared by 2D DIGE and MS. Only 19 proteins were differentially expressed between HAoSMC and HPASMC while 132 and 124 were differentially expressed between HUASMC and HAoSMC or HPASMC, respectively (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). As much as 336 proteins were differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). HUASMC expressed increased amount of α-smooth muscle actin compared to either HPASMC or HAoSMC (although not statistically significant). In addition, PAH-SMC expressed decreased amount of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and proliferation rate was increased compared to HPASMC thus supporting that PAH-SMC have a more synthetic phenotype. Analysis with Ingenuity identified paxillin and (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, drosophila) like 1 (ELAVL1) as molecules linked with a lot of proteins differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC. There was a trend toward reduced proliferation of PAH-SMC with paxillin-si-RNA and increased proliferation with ELAVL1-siRNA. Thus, VSMCs have very diverse protein content depending on their origin and this is in link with phenotypic differentiation. Paxillin targeting may be a promising treatment of PAH. ELAVL1 also participate in the regulation of PAH-SMC proliferation.
Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato
We investigated how the statistical learning of auditory sequences is reflected in neuromagnetic responses in implicit and explicit learning conditions. Complex tones with fundamental frequencies (F0s) in a five-tone equal temperament were generated by a formant synthesizer. The tones were subsequently ordered with the constraint that the probability of the forthcoming tone was statistically defined (80% for one tone; 5% for the other four) by the latest two successive tones (second-order Markov chains). The tone sequence consisted of 500 tones and 250 successive tones with a relative shift of F0s based on the same Markov transitional matrix. In explicit and implicit learning conditions, neuromagnetic responses to the tone sequence were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. The temporal profiles of the N1m responses to the tones with higher and lower transitional probabilities were compared. In the explicit learning condition, the N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased compared with responses to tones with lower transitional probability in the latter half of the 500-tone sequence. Furthermore, this difference was retained even after the F0s were relatively shifted. In the implicit learning condition, N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased only for the 250 tones following the relative shift of F0s. The delayed detection of learning effects across the sound-spectral shift in the implicit condition may imply that learning may progress earlier in explicit learning conditions than in implicit learning conditions. The finding that the learning effects were retained across spectral shifts regardless of the learning modality indicates that relative pitch processing may be an essential ability for humans.
Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S
The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.
Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James
Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.
This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…
Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.
Investigated the role of physiological self-regulation (cardiac vagal tone) in information processing (habituation) in infants. Found that decreases in vagal tone consistently related to habituation efficiency at 2 and 5 months. Within- and between- age suppression of vagal tone predicted accumulated looking time (ALT), but ALT did not predict…
Huffman, Lynne C.; And Others
Explored relation between temperament and cardiac vagal tone in 12-week olds. Found that infants with higher baseline vagal tone showed fewer negative behaviors in the laboratory and were less disrupted by experimental procedures than infants with lower baselines. Infants who decreased cardiac vagal tone during assessments were rated by mothers as…
Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming
The neural mechanisms used in tone rises and falls in Mandarin were investigated. Nine participants were scanned while they named one-character pictures that required rising or falling tone responses in Mandarin: the left insula and right putamen showed stronger activation between rising and falling tones; the left brainstem showed weaker…
Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…
Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of…
Liu, Siyun; Samuel, Arthur G.
In tone languages, the identity of a word depends on its tone pattern as well as its phonetic structure. The primary cue to tone identity is the fundamental frequency (F0) contour. Two experiments explore how listeners perceive Mandarin monosyllables in which all or part of the F0 information has been neutralized. In Experiment 1, supposedly…
Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…
Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian
Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…
The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The…
van den Hout, Marcel A; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; Hornsveld, Hellen; Toffolo, Marieke J B; Cath, Danielle C
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, patients make eye movements (EMs) while recalling traumatic memories, but recently therapists have replaced EMs by alternating beep tones. There are no outcome studies on the effects of tones. In an earlier analogue study, tones were inferior to EMs in the reduction of vividness of aversive memories. In a first EMDR session, 12 PTSD patients recalled trauma memories in three conditions: recall only, recall + tones, and recall + EMs. Three competing hypotheses were tested: 1) EMs are as effective as tones and better than recall only, 2) EMs are better than tones and tones are as effective as recall only, and 3) EMs are better than tones and tones are better than recall only. The order of conditions was balanced, each condition was delivered twice, and decline in memory vividness and emotionality served as outcome measures. The data strongly support hypothesis 2 and 3 over 1: EMs outperformed tones while it remained unclear if tones add to recall only. The findings add to earlier considerations and earlier analogue findings suggesting that EMs are superior to tones and that replacing the former by the latter was premature.
Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P
The selectivity of neurons in sensory cortex can be modified by pairing neuromodulator release with sensory stimulation. Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis, for example, induces input specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Pairing nucleus basalis stimulation (NBS) with a tone increases the number of A1 neurons that respond to the paired tone frequency. Pairing NBS with fast or slow tone trains can respectively increase or decrease the ability of A1 neurons to respond to rapidly presented tones. Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a single tone alters spectral tuning in the same way as NBS-tone pairing without the need for brain surgery. In this study, we tested whether pairing VNS with tone trains can change the temporal response properties of A1 neurons. In naïve rats, A1 neurons respond strongly to tones repeated at rates up to 10 pulses per second (pps). Repeatedly pairing VNS with 15 pps tone trains increased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons and repeatedly pairing VNS with 5 pps tone trains decreased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons. Pairing VNS with tone trains did not alter the frequency selectivity or tonotopic organization of auditory cortex neurons. Since VNS is well tolerated by patients, VNS-tone train pairing represents a viable method to direct temporal plasticity in a variety of human conditions associated with temporal processing deficits.
Moore, A B M
A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.
Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan
Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.
Danthuluri, N R; Deth, R C
To evaluate the influence of intracellular alkalinization on basal and agonist-induced vascular tone, we studied the effect of NH4Cl on rat aorta. NH4Cl induced a gradually developing contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Although the contractile response to 20 mM NH4Cl was associated with a latent period (LP) of 23.4 +/- 2.8 min, intracellular pH (pHi) measurements in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells showed that NH4Cl-induced intracellular alkalinization was immediate and transient, returning to basal pHi levels in about 30-35 min. Agents that elevate Ca2+, such as A23187 and high KCl, significantly reduced the LP associated with 20 mM NH4Cl-induced contraction. NH4Cl-induced contractions were sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal and to the addition of forskolin (1 microM); however, NH4Cl by itself did not cause Ca2+-influx as shown by 45Ca-uptake studies. Addition of 20 mM NH4Cl to precontracted tissues resulted in a transient relaxation, which was complete in approximately 10 min, followed by a contraction above the original level of tone. NH4Cl pretreatment caused time-dependent alterations in both the rapid and slow phases of phenylephrine and angiotensin II contractions. Rapid-phase of phenylephrine and angiotensin II contractions. Rapid-phase responses were diminished at shorter NH4Cl incubation times (10 min), whereas slow-phase response was augmented after a longer incubation (20 min). Overall, the vasorelaxant and vasoconstrictor effects induced by NH4Cl suggest a complex relationship between intracellular alkalinization and arterial contractility.
Brault, Véronique; Duchon, Arnaud; Romestaing, Caroline; Sahun, Ignasi; Pothion, Stéphanie; Karout, Mona; Borel, Christelle; Dembele, Doulaye; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Messaddeq, Nadia; Sharp, Andrew J.; Roussel, Damien; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Dierssen, Mara; Hérault, Yann
The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), which causes Down syndrome (DS), is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21) of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function. PMID:25803843
Fujimori, Toru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Itani, Toshiro
This study describes the recent progress of negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure (EUV-NTI) compared with positive-tone development (PTD). NTI uses organic solvent-based developer to provide low swelling and smooth-dissolving behavior. Therefore, EUV-NTI is expected to offer several advantages in terms of performance, especially for improving line-width roughness (LWR), which is expected to resolve the resolution, LWR, and sensitivity (RLS) tradeoff. Herein, novel chemical amplified resist materials for EUV-NTI are investigated to improve LWR and sensitivity. Results indicate that the EUV-NTI has better performance than PTD, with `single digit mJ/cm2,while maintaining the LWR performance. Furthermore, EUV-NTI processing such as the pre-applied bake (PAB) temperature, post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature, development procedure, and rinse procedure are very effective for improving the lithographic performance. In addition, the lithographic performance with NXE3100 scanner is also reported.
Dittmar, James H.
As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.
Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Nallasamy, M.
The directivity of fan tone noise is generally measured and plotted in the sideline or flyover plane and it is assumed that this curve is the same for all azimuthal angles. When two or more circumferential (m-order) modes of the same tone are present in the fan duct, an interference pattern develops in the azimuthal direction both in the duct and in the farfield. In this investigation two m-order modes of similar power were generated in a large low speed fan. Farfield measurements and a finite element propagation code both show substantial variations in the azimuthal direction. Induct mode measurement were made and used as input to the code. Although these tests may represent a worst case scenario, the validity of the current practice of assuming axisymmetry should be questioned.
... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
The absence of timbre and Musical structure, as well as the short-duration of the tones in the current experiment certainly contribute to the absence...contextual constraints top-down processing 20. ABSTRACT (Continua a evee side Of nooeceep muW Identify S b eaki nobo) ---->Six musically and six non- musically ...patterns in the structured condition were arranged to reflect structural rules. Musical training made no difference, but magnitude of the frequency
Sundberg, Linda K.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Bozano, Luisa D.; Truong, Hoa D.; Sanchez, Martha I.; Goldfarb, Dario L.; Petrillo, Karen E.; Hinsberg, William D.
The use of organic solvents in the development of chemically amplified (CA) resists has been known since the introduction of DUV lithography into manufacturing over twenty years ago [1,2]. In this approach a negative tone image is produced using an aqueous base developable positive tone resist developed in an organic solvent. Recently there has been an increased interest in negative tone imaging due to superior performance for specific masking levels such as narrow trenches and contact holes . Negative tone imaging of this type is based on differences in the polarity between the exposed and unexposed regions of the resist film. The dissolution contrast can be optimized by selecting a solvent with the proper match of solubility parameters (polarity, hydrogen bonding and dispersion) to attain good solubility of the relatively nonpolar unexposed resist and poor solubility of the deprotected acidic exposed film. Another approach is to tune the properties of the resist polymer for a given solvent, creating a new optimized resist. We have explored a third methodology to achieve a high contrast solvent developable system without a need to modify resist or solvent. In this report we describe a process that exploits the differences in solubility between ionic and organic materials. In this method an ionic species is introduced into the resist film following post-exposure bake to alter the polarity in such way that the resist contrast can be improved in organic solvent development. We describe processes using pre-rinses and developers containing salts. Lithographic response, characterized using contrast curves and imaging, is presented for a variety of resist platforms. We show evidence for ionic incorporation into the resist film using SIMS, XPS, QCM and FTIR characterization. We demonstrate the practical applicability of this method to 248nm, 193nm, e-beam and EUV exposures.
Landau, L I; Morgan, W; McCoy, K S; Taussig, L M
The effects of gender, volume history, and inhaled atropine and isoproterenol on lung mechanics were assessed in 16 normal boys and 14 normal girls using lung volumes, flow-volume curves, and oscillatory resistances. Flows were measured from full and partial forced expiratory flow-volume curves. Six girls and 6 boys were studied before and after inhaled atropine, and 10 boys and 8 girls before and after inhaled isoproterenol. Girls demonstrated a significant increase in flows on full and partial curves with a deep inspiration [Vmax-partial 0.73 +/- 0.34 (SD) to Vmax-full 0.80 +/- 0.37 and 0.83 +/- 0.20 to 1.06 +/- 0.29 TLC/s in each group] and following inhalation of isoproterenol on the partial curves only (0.73 +/- 0.34 to 0.93 +/- 0.40 TLC/s). Boys showed a small but significant increase in Vmax with isoproterenol on full curves but not on partial curves. Following atropine, boys demonstrated a significant increase in Vmax on partial flow-volume curves (0.78 +/- 0.28 to 1.00 +/- 0.35 TLC/s) and a significant decrease in specific respiratory resistance (7.6 +/- 2.7 to 5.1 +/- 0.9 cmH2O/s), whereas girls had no such changes. These data suggest that boys have greater resting airway tone than girls and that this tone is less responsive to deep inspiration and isoproterenol independently, although a combination of isoproterenol and a deep inspiration will produce increased flows in boys. Atropine reduces airway tone predominantly in boys, suggesting that the increased resting airway tone in boys is partially mediated via the vagus nerve.
Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C
Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.
Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities
Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash N.; Schmid, Kendra K.
Subjects with normal hearing (NH) and with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of six-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. The level of each tone was selected from a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 5 dB, and subjects judged which of two complexes was louder. Overall level varied across conditions. In the “loudness” task, there was no difference in mean level across the two stimuli. In the “sample discrimination” task, the two complexes differed by an average of 5 dB. For both tasks, perceptual weights were derived by correlating the differences in level between matched-frequency tones in the complexes and the loudness decision on each trial. Weights obtained in the two tasks showed similar shifts from low to high frequency components with increasing overall level. Simulation of these experiments using a model of loudness perception [Moore and Glasberg (2004), Hear Res. 188, 70–88] yielded predicted weights for these stimuli that were highly correlated with predicted specific loudness, but not with the observed weights. PMID:25096107
Koch, L. Danielle
The tone noise generated when a fan ingests circumferentially distorted flow was studied by an experiment conducted with the Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The inflow was distorted by inserting cylindrical rods radially into the duct. The rods were arranged in circumferentially irregular patterns in three of the five configurations tested. Rods were held in place using a mounting ring with 30 equally spaced holes placed at an axial location one rotor chordlength upstream of the fan. Acoustic pressure was measured in the inlet and exhaust duct of the fan using the Rotating Rake fan tone measurement system. Sound power levels, calculated from the measured data, were plotted as a function of circumferential mode. An analytic description of the unsteady pressure distribution at the interaction plane between the stationary rods and the fan rotor is presented in a form suitable for representing the circumferentially irregularly placed rods. Terms in the analytical description for sound power were proven to be useful in determining the dominant circumferential modes measured in the experiment and the differences in mode power level between the configurations tested. Insight gained through this work will be useful in the development of tools to compute fan inflow distortion tone noise.
Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Gordon-Salant, Sandra
This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068
Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.
Detection of the fetal heart tone by auscultation is sometimes easy, other times very difficult. In the model proposed here, the level of difficulty depends upon the position of the fetus within the maternal abdomen. If the fetus lies in the classical left/right occiput anterior position (head down, back against the maternal abdominal wall), detection by a sensor or stethoscope on the maternal abdominal surface is easy. In this mode, named here the ``direct contact'' mode, the heartbeat pushes the fetus against the detecting sensor. The motion generates pressure by impact and does not involve acoustic propagation at all. If the fetus lies in a persistent occiput posterior position (spine-to-spine, fetus facing forward), detection is difficult. In this, the ``fluid propagation'' mode, sound generated by the fetal heart and propagating across the amniotic fluid produces extremely weak signals at the maternal surface, typically 30 dB lower than those of the direct contact mode. This reduction in tone level can be compensated by judicious selection of detection frequency band and by exploiting the difference between the background noise levels of the two modes. Experimental clinical results, demonstrating the tones associated with the two respective modes, will be presented.
Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah
Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…
Fernald, Charles D.
Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…
Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor
The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.
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Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.
The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412
Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M
We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.
Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.
We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377
Weintraub, David M; Metzger, Brian A; Snyder, Joel S
This study determined whether facilitation of auditory stream segregation could occur when facilitating context tones are accompanied by other sounds. Facilitation was measured as the likelihood of a repeated context tone that could match the low (A) or high (B) frequency of a repeating ABA test to increase the likelihood of hearing the test as segregated. We observed this type of facilitation when matching tones were alone, or with simultaneous bandpass noises or continuous speech, neither of which masked the tones. However, participants showed no streaming facilitation when a harmonic complex masked the context tones. Mistuning or desynchronizing the context tone relative to the rest of the complex did not facilitate streaming, despite the fact that the context tone was accessible to awareness and attention. Even presenting the context tone in a separate ear from the rest of the harmonic complex did not facilitate streaming, ruling out peripheral interference. Presenting the test as mistuned or desynchronized tones relative to complex tones eliminated the possibility that timbre changes from context to test interfered with facilitation resulting from the context. These results demonstrate the fragility of streaming facilitation and show that awareness of and attention to the context tones are not sufficient to overcome interference.
Nieder, Bärbel; Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Scharf, Bertram
A tone usually declines in loudness when preceded by a more intense inducer tone. This phenomenon is called ``loudness recalibration'' or ``induced loudness reduction'' (ILR). The present study investigates how ILR depends on level, loudness, and duration. A 2AFC procedure was used to obtain loudness matches between 2500-Hz comparison tones and 500-Hz test tones at 60 and 70 dB SPL, presented with and without preceding 500-Hz inducer tones. For 200-ms test and comparison tones, the amount of ILR did not depend on inducer level (set at 80 dB SPL and above), but ILR was greater with 200- than with 5-ms inducers, even when both were equally loud. For 5-ms tones, ILR was as great with 5- as with 200-ms inducers and about as great as when test and inducer tones both lasted 200 ms. These results suggest that (1) neither the loudness nor the SPL of the inducer alone governs ILR, and (2) inducer duration must equal or exceed test-tone duration to yield maximal amounts of ILR. Further analysis indicates that the efferent system may be partly responsible for ILR of 200-ms test tones, but is unlikely to account for ILR of 5-ms tones.
Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker
Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.
Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626
Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Field, Tiffany; Largie, Shay; Mora, Dana; Bornstein, Joan; Waldman, Ronnie
Twenty-one moderate to high functioning young children (mean age, two years) with Down syndrome receiving early intervention (physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy) were randomly assigned to additionally receive two 0.5-hour massage therapy or reading sessions (control group) per week for two months. On the first and last day…
Studies of external eye muscle morphology and physiology are reviewed, with respect to both motor and sensory functions in concomitant strabismus. The eye muscles have a more complex fibre composition than other striated muscle, and they are among the fastest and most fatigue-resistant muscles in the body. However, it is not generally believed that concomitant strabismus is due to a primary abnormality of the eye muscles or the ocular motor system. The gross anatomy of eye muscles, including the shape and position of the eye muscle pulleys, was not changed in strabismus. The histology of the eye muscle fibres was also basically the same, but changes have been observed in the cellular and biochemical machinery of the fibres, most notably in the singly innervated orbital fibres. Functionally, this was seen as slower contractions and reduced fatigue resistance of eye muscles in animals with strabismus and defects of binocular vision. Most likely the changes represented an adaptation to modified visual demands on the ocular motor control, because of the defects of binocular vision in strabismus from an early age. Adaptation of eye muscle function to visual demands could be seen also in the adult human ocular motor system, but here the effects could be reversed with treatment in some conditions. External eye muscles in the human have sensory organs, muscle spindles and tendon organs, responding to changes in muscle force and length. It is not known how these proprioceptors are used more specifically in ocular motor control, and there is no stretch reflex in the external eye muscles. However, a clear influence on space localization and eye position can be demonstrated with vibratory stimulation of the eye muscles, presumably activating muscle spindles. Different effects were observed in normal subjects and in adult patients with strabismus, which would indicate that the proprioceptive input from one eye of strabismic patients could be suppressed by the other eye, similar
Brenton, D. P.
The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963
Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.
Liu, Min; Chen, Yiya; Schiller, Niels O
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the online processing of tone and intonation in Mandarin at the attentive stage. We examined the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of native Mandarin listeners to Mandarin sentences, which contrast in final tones (rising Tone2 or falling Tone4) and intonations (Question or Statement). A clear P300 effect was observed for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone4, but no ERP effect was found for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone2. Our results provide ERP evidence for the interaction of tone and intonation in Mandarin, confirming the findings with behavioral metalinguistic data that native Mandarin listeners can distinguish between question intonation and statement intonation when the intonation is associated with a final Tone4, but fail to do so when the intonation is associated with a final Tone2. Our study extended the understanding of online processing of tone and intonation (1) from the pre-attentive stage to the attentive stage and (2) within a larger domain (i.e. multi-word utterances) than a single word utterance.
Gonzalez, Carmen; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Jurado-manzano, Brenda; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel Alejandro; Salazar-Garcia, Samuel; Martinez-Cuevas, Pedro Pablo; Velarde-salcedo, Aída Jimena; Morales-Loredo, Humberto; Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; Ali, Syed F; Rubio, Rafael
Aim: Prolactin family hormones include growth hormone, placental lactogen and prolactin, which are able to regulate angiogenesis via NO and prostaglandins. However, their effects on vascular tone are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolactin family hormones on rat vascular tone in vitro. Methods: Aortic rings were prepared from adult male rats and precontracted with phenylephrine, then treated with the hormones and drugs. The tension was measured with isometric force displacement transducer connected to a polygraph. NO production and prostacyclin release in physiological solution was determined. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were treated with the hormones and drugs, and the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177 was assessed using Western bolt analysis. Results: Administration of growth hormone or placental lactogen (0.01–100 nmol/L) induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Both the hormones significantly increased the phosphorylation of eNOS in RAECs and NO level in physiological solution. Preincubation with L-NAME blocked growth hormone- or placental lactogen-induced vasodilation and NO production. Preincubation with an antibody against growth hormone receptors blocked growth hormone- and placental lactogen-induced vasodilation. Addition of a single dose of prolactin (0.01 nmol/L) induced sustained vessel relaxation, whereas multiple doses of prolactin induced a biphasic contraction-relaxation effect. The vascular effects of prolactin depended on endothelium. Prolactin significantly increased the level of prostacyclin I2 in physiological solution. Preincubation with indomethacin or an antibody against prolactin receptors blocked prolactin-induced vasodilation. Conclusion: The prolactin family hormones regulate rat vascular tone, selectively promoting either relaxation or contraction of vascular smooth muscle via activation of either growth hormone receptors or prolactin receptors within the
Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.
An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high-intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during an acoustic resonance at Strouhal numbers, which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1-m distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 70 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several kilohertz can be generated aeroacoustically. A simple analytical model has been developed to explain the experimental observations.
Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
Three benchmark problems from the current and previous CAA workshops involving tone noise generated in viscous flows are investigated using the CE/SE finite volume method. The CE/SE method is first briefly reviewed. Then, the benchmark problems, namely, flow past a single cylinder (CAA Workshop II problem), flow past twin cylinders (from the current CAA Workshop IV, Category 5, Problem 1) and flow past a deep cavity with overhang (CAA Workshop III problem) are investigated. Generally good results are obtained in comparison with the experimental data.
Elphick, M R; Melarange, R
neuropeptides that influence muscle tone have been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus using body wall muscle as a bioassay, but at present SALMFamide peptides are the only ones that have been found to have a direct relaxing action on echinoderm muscle. One of the Stichopus japonicus peptides (holothurin 1), however, causes a reduction in the magnitude of electrically evoked muscle contraction in Stichopus japonicus and also causes 'softening' of the body wall dermis, a 'mutable connective tissue'. It seems most likely that this effect of holothurin 1 on body wall dermis is mediated by constituent muscle cells, and the concept of 'mutable connective tissue' in echinoderms may therefore need to be re-evaluated to incorporate the involvement of muscle, as proposed recently for the spine ligament in sea urchins.
Kauffenstein, Gilles; Tamareille, Sophie; Prunier, Fabrice; Roy, Charlotte; Ayer, Audrey; Toutain, Bertrand; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.; Grimaud, Linda; Loufrani, Laurent; Rousseau, Pascal; Abraham, Pierre; Procaccio, Vincent; Monyer, Hannah; de Wit, Cor; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Robaye, Bernard; Kwak, Brenda R.; Henrion, Daniel
Objective Myogenic tone (MT) of resistance arteries ensures autoregulation of blood flow in organs and relies on the intrinsic property of smooth muscle to contract in response to stretch. Nucleotides released by mechanical strain on cells are responsible for pleiotropic vascular effects, including vasoconstriction. Here, we evaluated the contribution of extracellular nucleotides to MT. Approach and Results We measured MT and the associated pathway in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries using arteriography for small arteries and molecular biology. Of the P2 receptors in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries, mRNA expression of P2X1 and P2Y6 was dominant. P2Y6 fully sustained UDP/UTP-induced contraction (abrogated in P2ry6−/− arteries). Preventing nucleotide hydrolysis with the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 enhanced pressure-induced MT by 20%, whereas P2Y6 receptor blockade blunted MT in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries and human subcutaneous arteries. Despite normal hemodynamic parameters, P2ry6−/− mice were protected against MT elevation in myocardial infarction–induced heart failure. Although both P2Y6 and P2Y2 receptors contributed to calcium mobilization, P2Y6 activation was mandatory for RhoA–GTP binding, myosin light chain, P42–P44, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in arterial smooth muscle cells. In accordance with the opening of a nucleotide conduit in pressurized arteries, MT was altered by hemichannel pharmacological inhibitors and impaired in Cx43+/− and P2rx7−/− mesenteric resistance arteries. Conclusions Signaling through P2 nucleotide receptors contributes to MT. This mechanism encompasses the release of nucleotides coupled to specific autocrine/paracrine activation of the uracil nucleotide P2Y6 receptor and may contribute to impaired tissue perfusion in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27255725
Sanae, Fujiko; Miyaichi, Yukinori; Kizu, Haruhisa; Hayashi, Hisao
The effects of eight catechin derivatives on vascular tone in rat thoracic aorta were examined. Catechin derivatives (10 microM) potentiated the contractile response to phenylephrine in endothelium-intact arteries. The potentiations produced by EGCg and EGC were almost absent in endothelium-denuded arteries and abolished by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. The catechin derivatives also inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine. The order of catechin derivatives ranked in terms of both increasing vascular reactivity and impairing endothelium-dependent relaxation was similar; (-)-gallocatechin (GC) >or= (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) >or= (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCg) >or= (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) >or= (-)-catechin (C) >or= (-)-epicatechin (EC) >or= (-)-catechin gallate (Cg) >or= (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg). In addition, EGC inhibited the endothelium-independent relaxation evoked by both sodium nitroprusside and NOC-7, a spontanous NO releaser, but EGCg inhibited only that by NOC-7. These findings indicate that catechin derivatives produce a potentiation of the contractile response and an inhibition of the vasorelaxant response, probably through inactivation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), and that the hydroxyl on C-5 of the B ring together with the stereoscopic structure between the C-3 group and the B ring of flavanols was of importance in mediating the above effects and that the substitution of a gallate group of C-3 attenuated the effects, probably due to a decreased response to solube guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle cells.
This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of
Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Michalewski, Henry J.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold
Objective We examined auditory cortical potentials in normal hearing subjects to spectral changes in continuous low and high frequency pure tones. Methods Cortical potentials were recorded to increments of frequency from continuous 250 Hz or 4000 Hz tones. The magnitude of change was random and varied from 0% to 50% above the base frequency. Results Potentials consisted of N100, P200 and a slow negative wave (SN). N100 amplitude, latency and dipole magnitude with frequency increments were significantly greater for low compared to high frequencies. Dipole amplitudes were greater in the right than left hemisphere for both base frequencies. The SN amplitude to frequency changes between 4 to 50% was not significantly related to the magnitude of spectral change. Conclusions Modulation of N100 amplitude and latency elicited by spectral change is more pronounced with low compared to high frequencies. Significance These data provide electrophysiological evidence that central processing of spectral changes in the cortex differs for low and high frequencies. Some of these differences may be related to both temporal- and spectral-based coding at the auditory periphery. Central representation of frequency change may be related to the different temporal windows of integration across frequencies. PMID:18635394
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.
The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is used to solve the conservation law form of the compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are time marched to predict the unsteady flow and the near-field screech tone noise issuing from an underexpanded circular jet. The CE/SE method uses an unstructured grid based data structure. The unstructured grids for these calculations are generated based on the method of Delaunay triangulation. The purpose of this paper is to show that an acoustics solution with a feedback loop can be obtained using truly unstructured grid technology. Numerical results are presented for two different nozzle geometries. The first is considered to have a thin nozzle lip and the second has a thick nozzle lip. Comparisons with available experimental data are shown for flows corresponding to several different jet Mach numbers. Generally good agreement is obtained in terms of flow physics, screech tone frequency, and sound pressure level.
Wang, Jian; Baer, Thomas; Glasberg, Brian R; Stone, Michael A; Ye, Datian; Moore, Brian C J
Fundamental frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were measured for a target harmonic complex tone with nominal fundamental frequency (F0) of 200 Hz, in the presence and absence of a harmonic masker with overlapping spectrum. The F0 of the masker was 0, ± 3, or ± 6 semitones relative to 200 Hz. The stimuli were bandpass filtered into three regions: 0-1000 Hz (low, L), 1600-2400 Hz (medium, M), and 2800-3600 Hz (high, H), and a background noise was used to mask combination tones and to limit the audibility of components falling on the filter skirts. The components of the target or masker started either in cosine or random phase. Generally, the effect of F0 difference between target and masker was small. For the target alone, F0DLs were larger for random than cosine phase for region H. For the target plus masker, F0DLs were larger when the target had random phase than cosine phase for regions M and H. F0DLs increased with increasing center frequency of the bandpass filter. Modeling using excitation patterns and "summary autocorrelation" and "stabilized auditory image" models suggested that use of temporal fine structure information can account for the small F0DLs obtained when harmonics are barely, if at all, resolved.
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.
The purpose of this paper is to show that computations with an aeroacoustic feedback loop, the jet screech noise, can be obtained using truly unstructured grid technology. Numerical results are presented for a nozzle with two different lip thicknesses which will be referred to in this paper as a thin and a thick lip nozzle respectively. The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is used to solve the conservation laws of the compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are time marched to predict the unsteady flow and the near-field screech tone noise issuing from an underexpanded circular jet. The CE/SE method uses an unstructured grid based data structure. The unstructured grids for these calculations are generated based on the method of Delaunay triangulation. Comparisons of numerical results with available experimental data are shown for flows corresponding to several different jet Mach numbers. Generally good agreement is obtained in terms of flow physics, screech tone frequency, and sound pressure level.
Caruso, Eugene M; Mead, Nicole L; Balcetis, Emily
People tend to view members of their own political group more positively than members of a competing political group. In this article, we demonstrate that political partisanship influences people's visual representations of a biracial political candidate's skin tone. In three studies, participants rated the representativeness of photographs of a hypothetical (Study 1) or real (Barack Obama; Studies 2 and 3) biracial political candidate. Unbeknownst to participants, some of the photographs had been altered to make the candidate's skin tone either lighter or darker than it was in the original photograph. Participants whose partisanship matched that of the candidate they were evaluating consistently rated the lightened photographs as more representative of the candidate than the darkened photographs, whereas participants whose partisanship did not match that of the candidate showed the opposite pattern. For evaluations of Barack Obama, the extent to which people rated lightened photographs as representative of him was positively correlated with their stated voting intentions and reported voting behavior in the 2008 Presidential election. This effect persisted when controlling for political ideology and racial attitudes. These results suggest that people's visual representations of others are related to their own preexisting beliefs and to the decisions they make in a consequential context.
Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît
Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers.
Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun
The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones.
INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES AND FREEDROP TRAJECTORIES THESIS Justin D. Merrick, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENY-14...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-14-M-36 INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENY-14-M-36 INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES AND FREEDROP TRAJECTORIES
Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of infants. For one group (Chinese learners), tone is phonemic in their native language, and for the second group (English learners), tone is non-phonemic and constituted suprasegmental variation. In Experiment 1, English learners were trained on novel word-object pairings and tested on their recognition of correct pronunciations, tone and vowel mispronunciations of these words at 18 and 24 months. In Experiment 2a, bilingual English-Chinese learners were tested on a similar task translated into Chinese at the same age intervals. Results demonstrate that non-tonal learners treated tonal and vowel substitutions alike as mispronunciations at 18 months but only treated vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at 24 months. Tonal learners treated both tonal and vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at both ages. In Experiment 2b, bilingual non-tone language learners were tested on the same set of tasks replicating a similar set of results as monolingual non-tone language learners (Experiment 1). Findings point to an early predisposition to treat tone as a defining characteristic of words regardless of its lexical relevance at 18 months. Between 18 and 24 months, learners appear to ascribe lexical relevance to tone in a language-specific manner. The current study identifies the influences of tone variation on memories for newly learned words and the time period during which lexical tone - a highly frequent constituent of human languages - actually becomes lexical for early learners. Findings are contextualized with prevailing models of the developing lexicon.
Reiss, Lina A J; Ito, Rindy A; Eggleston, Jessica L; Wozny, David R
Bimodal stimulation, or stimulation of a cochlear implant (CI) together with a contralateral hearing aid (HA), can improve speech perception in noise However, this benefit is variable, and some individuals even experience interference with bimodal stimulation. One contributing factor to this variability may be differences in binaural spectral integration (BSI) due to abnormal auditory experience. CI programming introduces interaural pitch mismatches, in which the frequencies allocated to the electrodes (and contralateral HA) differ from the electrically stimulated cochlear frequencies. Previous studies have shown that some, but not all, CI users adapt pitch perception to reduce this mismatch. The purpose of this study was to determine whether broadened BSI may also reduce the perception of mismatch. Interaural pitch mismatches and dichotic pitch fusion ranges were measured in 21 bimodal CI users. Seventeen subjects with wide fusion ranges also conducted a task to pitch match various fused electrode-tone pairs. All subjects showed abnormally wide dichotic fusion frequency ranges of 1-4 octaves. The fusion range size was weakly correlated with the interaural pitch mismatch, suggesting a link between broad binaural pitch fusion and large interaural pitch mismatch. Dichotic pitch averaging was also observed, in which a new binaural pitch resulted from the fusion of the original monaural pitches, even when the pitches differed by as much as 3-4 octaves. These findings suggest that abnormal BSI, indicated by broadened fusion ranges and spectral averaging between ears, may account for speech perception interference and nonoptimal integration observed with bimodal compared with monaural hearing device use.
Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F
Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.
Shen, Guannan; Froud, Karen
Whether native speakers of non-tonal languages can acquire categorical representations of lexical tones remains controversial. This study investigates the acquisition of lexical tone categories by native English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language by comparing the categorical perception (CP) of lexical tones between three groups of listeners: (1) native English speakers who had taken advanced Mandarin courses in colleges; (2) native English speakers with no knowledge of Mandarin Chinese; and (3) native Mandarin speakers. Two tonal continua derived from natural speech within carrier phrases were created through interpolation within two tonal contrasts (tone 1/tone 4, T1/T4; tone 2/tone 3, T2/T3). Results showed categorical-like perception of tones by native Mandarin speakers. The inexperienced English speakers performed near chance on discrimination tasks and showed significantly broader identification boundaries than the other two groups. The learners of Mandarin showed similar pattern of CP to native Mandarin speakers, but with higher overall discrimination scores. Findings suggest that CP of lexical tone may be available to advanced second language learners.
Yuen, Michelle M L; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee; Vlachos, Stephanie A
Complex tonal whistles are frequently produced by some odontocete species. However, no experimental evidence exists regarding the detection of complex tones or the discrimination of harmonic frequencies by a marine mammal. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the ability of a false killer whale to discriminate pure tones from complex tones and to determine the minimum intensity level of a harmonic tone required for the whale to make the discrimination. The study was conducted with a go/no-go modified staircase procedure. The different stimuli were complex tones with a fundamental frequency of 5 kHz with one to five harmonic frequencies. The results from this complex tone discrimination task demonstrated: (1) that the false killer whale was able to discriminate a 5 kHz pure tone from a complex tone with up to five harmonics, and (2) that discrimination thresholds or minimum intensity levels exist for each harmonic combination measured. These results indicate that both frequency level and harmonic content may have contributed to the false killer whale's discrimination of complex tones.
The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The experiment tested the perception of isolated synthetic stimuli, in which the crucial acoustic parameters (i.e., timing of F0 peak, initial F0, and syllable duration) were systematically manipulated. The results are generally consistent with the previous production data, showing that these acoustic cues contribute to the perception of two tones, a high tone and a rising tone. The stimulus tends to be identified as a rising tone if the F0 peak is late in the syllable, the initial F0 is low, and the syllable is long, while the stimulus tends to be identified as a high tone if the F0 peak is early in the syllable, the initial F0 is high, and the duration is short. Each of these three parameters, although necessary, did not contribute equally to the perception of tone contrast. Between-subject variation, according to the participant's gender and language background, is also discussed.
Henry, Leanne J; Shay, Thomas M; Hult, Dane W; Rowland, Ken B
Significant effects from heating occur in both single and two tone fiber amplifiers. Single tone 1064 nm amplifiers have highest efficiency when the external environment surrounding the gain fiber is cold while 1064 nm two tone amplifiers co-seeded with broadband 1040 nm have maximum efficiency when the gain fiber is hot. It is shown experimentally that changes in the temperature of the core of the gain fiber have dramatic effects on the 1064 nm/1040 nm power distribution in the output of two tone amplifiers. This has been attributed to temperature dependence of the absorption and emission cross-sections at the wavelengths of interest.
Muscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and neurophysiology of muscle cramp occurring during exercise. Disturbances at various levels of the central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cramp and may explain the diverse range of conditions in which cramp occurs. The activity of the motor neuron is subject to a multitude of influences including peripheral receptor sensory input, spinal reflexes, inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord, synaptic and neurotransmitter modulation and descending CNS input. The muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are fundamental to the control of muscle length and tone and the maintenance of posture. Disturbance in the activity of these receptors may occur through faulty posture, shortened muscle length, intense exercise and exercise to fatigue, resulting in increased motor neuron activity and motor unit recruitment. The relaxation phase of muscle contraction is prolonged in a fatigued muscle, raising the likelihood of fused summation of action potentials if motor neuron activity delivers a sustained high firing frequency. Treatment of cramp is directed at reducing muscle spindle and motor neuron activity by reflex inhibition and afferent stimulation. There are no proven strategies for the prevention of exercise-induced muscle cramp but regular muscle stretching using post-isometric relaxation techniques, correction of muscle balance and posture, adequate conditioning for the activity, mental preparation for competition and
Gea, Joaquim; Agustí, Alvar; Roca, Josep
Muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may involve both respiratory and locomotor (peripheral) muscles. The loss of strength and/or endurance in the former can lead to ventilatory insufficiency, whereas in the latter it limits exercise capacity and activities of daily life. Muscle dysfunction is the consequence of complex interactions between local and systemic factors, frequently coexisting in COPD patients. Pulmonary hyperinflation along with the increase in work of breathing that occur in COPD appear as the main contributing factors to respiratory muscle dysfunction. By contrast, deconditioning seems to play a key role in peripheral muscle dysfunction. However, additional systemic factors, including tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, exercise, exacerbations, nutritional and gas exchange abnormalities, anabolic insufficiency, comorbidities and drugs, can also influence the function of both respiratory and peripheral muscles, by inducing modifications in their local microenvironment. Under all these circumstances, protein metabolism imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammatory events, as well as muscle injury may occur, determining the final structure and modulating the function of different muscle groups. Respiratory muscles show signs of injury as well as an increase in several elements involved in aerobic metabolism (proportion of type I fibers, capillary density, and aerobic enzyme activity) whereas limb muscles exhibit a loss of the same elements, injury, and a reduction in fiber size. In the present review we examine the current state of the art of the pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.
Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun
Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia. PMID:27211239
Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun
Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia.
Gockel, Hedwig; Carlyon, Robert P.; Plack, Christopher J.
F0 discrimination of a 400-ms complex tone with only unresolved components (``target'') was investigated in the absence and presence of a synchronously gated resolved complex tone (``interferer''). The target and the interferer were bandpass filtered from 1375-15
Coirault, C; Blanc, F X; Chemla, D; Salmeron, S; Lecarpentier, Y
Mechanical studies of isolated muscle and analysis of molecular actomyosin interactions have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of airway smooth muscle. Mechanical properties of airway smooth muscle are similar to those of other smooth muscles. Airway smooth muscle exhibits spontaneous intrinsic tone and its maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) is 10-30 fold lower than in striated muscle. Smooth muscle myosin generates step size and elementary force per crossbridge interaction approximately similar to those of skeletal muscle myosin. Special slow cycling crossbridges, termed latch-bridges, have been attributed to myosin light chain dephosphorylation. From a mechanical point of view, it has been shown that airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increased Vmax and an increased shortening capacity, with no significant change in the force-generating capacity.
Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas
Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131
Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.
Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.
Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro
Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648
Dahl, Audun; Tran, Amy Q
Vocal reactions to child transgressions convey information about the nature of those transgressions. The current research investigated children's ability to make use of such vocal reactions. Study 1 investigated infants' compliance with a vocal prohibition telling them to stay away from a toy. Compared to younger infants, older infants showed greater compliance with prohibitions elicited by moral (interpersonal harm) transgressions but not with prohibitions elicited by pragmatic (inconvenience) transgressions. Study 2 investigated preschoolers' use of firm-stern vocalizations (associated with moral transgressions) and positive vocalizations (associated with pragmatic transgressions). Most children guessed that the firm-stern vocalizations were uttered in response to a moral transgression and the positive vocalizations were uttered in response to a pragmatic transgression. These two studies suggest that children use vocal tones, along with other experiences, to guide their compliance with and interpretation of prohibitions.
Residual carrier modulation is conventionally used in a communication link to assist the receiver with signal demodulation and detection. Although suppressed carrier modulation has a slight power advantage over the residual carrier approach in systems enjoying a high level of stability, it lacks sufficient robustness to be used in channels severely contaminated by noise, interference and propagation effects. In mobile links, in particular, the vehicle motion and multipath waveform propagation affect the received carrier in an adverse fashion. A residual carrier scheme that uses a pilot carrier to calibrate a mobile channel against multipath fading anomalies is described. The benefits of this scheme, known as tone calibration technique, are described. A brief study of the system performance in the presence of implementation anomalies is also given.
2004-01-01This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover's panoramic camera on sol 91 (April 5, 2004) shows the rover's ultimate destination - the eastern-lying 'Columbia Hills.' The rover will head toward the hills in coming sols, while stopping to investigate rocks and soils along the way. Of particular interest is the light-toned coating seen here on the low-lying rocks. Scientists intend to find out if this coating is the same as that observed on the well-studied rock dubbed 'Mazatzal.' They believe Mazatzal's coating may have formed by cementation of airborne dust, perhaps in a slightly wetter, past environment. The scientists also plan to determine if the soil here is the same as the somewhat cohesive soil seen near the rover's lander. Like the coatings, this soil may have formed in past moist environments. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's infrared (750 nanometer) filter.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Valles Marineris a system of troughs, chasms, and pit chains that stretches more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles) across the martian western hemisphere. Outcrops of layered material found in mounds and mesas within the chasms of the Valles Marineris were known from the pictures taken by Mariner 9 in 1972 and the Viking orbiters of 1976-1980. One example of the those known previously is the mesa labeled 'Candor Mensa' in the context image (above); another example is the mound in the center of Ganges Chasma. For several decades, it has been widely speculated among Mars scientists that the light- and dark-toned layered materials in the Valles Marineris might have formed in lakes that had once filled the chasms during the most recent epoch of martian history; others thought they might result from volcanic ash deposited in the chasms. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have confirmed the presence of light- and dark-toned layered sedimentary rock outcrops in the Valles Marineris, but they have also revealed many more than were previously known and they have shown several good examples that these materials are coming out of the walls of the Valles Marineris chasms. The fact that these materials come out of the chasm walls means that the layers do not represent lakes (or volcanic debris) that formed in the Valles Marineris. Instead, they represent materials deposited and buried long before there ever was a Valles Marineris. They are seen now because of the faulting and erosion that opened up and widened the Valles Marineris troughs. The context image is a mosaic of Viking 1 orbiter images taken in 1976 showing a portion of the wall that separates western Ophir Chasma from western Candor Chasma in the Valles Marineris. This area is located around 5oS, 74oW. The white box labeled 'M17-00467' shows the location of a subframe of MOC image M17-00467 that was acquired in July 2000 to allow scientists to
Luo, Xin; Chang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chun-Yi; Chang, Ronald Y
Native Mandarin normal-hearing (NH) listeners can easily perceive lexical tones even under conditions of great voice pitch variations across speakers by using the pitch contrast between context and target stimuli. It is however unclear whether cochlear implant (CI) users with limited access to pitch cues can make similar use of context pitch cues for tone normalization. In this study, native Mandarin NH listeners and pre-lingually deafened unilaterally implanted CI users were asked to recognize a series of Mandarin tones varying from Tone 1 (high-flat) to Tone 2 (mid-rising) with or without a preceding sentence context. Most of the CI subjects used a hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear (i.e., bimodal users) and were tested both with CI alone and CI + HA. In the test without context, typical S-shaped tone recognition functions were observed for most CI subjects and the function slopes and perceptual boundaries were similar with either CI alone or CI + HA. Compared to NH subjects, CI subjects were less sensitive to the pitch changes in target tones. In the test with context, NH subjects had more (resp. fewer) Tone-2 responses in a context with high (resp. low) fundamental frequencies, known as the contrastive context effect. For CI subjects, a similar contrastive context effect was found statistically significant for tone recognition with CI + HA but not with CI alone. The results suggest that the pitch cues from CIs may not be sufficient to consistently support the pitch contrast processing for tone normalization. The additional pitch cues from aided residual acoustic hearing can however provide CI users with a similar tone normalization capability as NH listeners.
Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing
Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with
Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan
In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experiments investigating how detection is modified when both signal and noise were amplitude-modulated. Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to detect amplitude-modulated tones in continuous, amplitude-modulated broadband noise. When the phase difference of otherwise similarly amplitude-modulated tones and noise were varied, detection thresholds were highest when the modulations were in phase and lowest when the modulations were anti-phase. When the depth of the modulation of tones or noise was varied, detection thresholds decreased if the modulations were anti-phase. When the modulations were in phase, increasing the depth of tone modulation caused an increase in tone detection thresholds, but increasing depth of noise modulations did not affect tone detection thresholds. Changing the modulation frequency of tone or noise caused changes in threshold that saturated at modulation frequencies higher than 20 Hz; thresholds decreased when the tone and noise modulations were in phase and decreased when they were anti-phase. The relationship between reaction times and tone level were not modified by manipulations to the nature of temporal variations in the signal or noise. The changes in behavioral threshold were consistent with a model where the brain subtracted noise from signal. These results suggest that the parameters of the modulation of signals and maskers heavily influence detection in very predictable ways. These results are consistent with some results in humans and avians
Luo, Xin; Chang, Yi-ping; Lin, Chun-yi; Chang, Ronald Y.
Native Mandarin normal-hearing (NH) listeners can easily perceive lexical tones even under conditions of great voice pitch variations across speakers by using the pitch contrast between context and target stimuli. It is however unclear whether cochlear implant (CI) users with limited access to pitch cues can make similar use of context pitch cues for tone normalization. In this study, native Mandarin NH listeners and pre-lingually deafened unilaterally implanted CI users were asked to recognize a series of Mandarin tones varying from Tone 1 (high-flat) to Tone 2 (mid-rising) with or without a preceding sentence context. Most of the CI subjects used a hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear (i.e., bimodal users) and were tested both with CI alone and CI+HA. In the test without context, typical S-shaped tone recognition functions were observed for most CI subjects and the function slopes and perceptual boundaries were similar with either CI alone or CI+HA. Compared to NH subjects, CI subjects were less sensitive to the pitch changes in target tones. In the test with context, NH subjects had more (resp. fewer) Tone-2 responses in a context with high (resp. low) fundamental frequencies, known as the contrastive context effect. For CI subjects, a similar contrastive context effect was found statistically significant for tone recognition with CI+HA but not with CI alone. The results suggest that the pitch cues from CIs may not be sufficient to consistently support the pitch contrast processing for tone normalization. The additional pitch cues from aided residual acoustic hearing can however provide CI users with a similar tone normalization capability as NH listeners. PMID:24576834
Dong, Qiujie; Jenkins, Michael V.; Bernadas, Salvador R.
A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal.
Dong, Q.; Jenkins, M.V.; Bernadas, S.R.
A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal. 17 figs.
Wang, Kai; Ma, Jianfa; Pang, Yusheng; Lao, Jinquan; Pan, Xuanren; Tang, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Feng; Su, Danyan; Qin, Suyuan; Shrestha, Arnav Prasad
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play a vital role in regulating pulmonary artery tone during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high blood flow. The role of CaCCs inhibitor niflumic acid (NFA) in vivo during this process requires further investigation. We established the PAH model by abdominal shunt surgery and treated with NFA in vivo. Fifty rats were randomly divided into normal, sham, shunt, NFA group 1 (0.2 mg/kg), and NFA group 2 (0.4 mg/kg). Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index, arterial wall area/vessel area, and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter were analyzed. Then contraction reactions of pulmonary arteries were measured. Finally, the electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells were investigated using patch-clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH developed, accompanied with increased right ventricle hypertrophy index, arterial wall area/vessel area, and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter. In the NFA treatment groups, the pressure and pathological changes were alleviated. The pulmonary artery tone in the shunt group increased, whereas it decreased after NFA treatment. The current density of CaCC was higher in the shunt group, and it was decreased in the NFA treatment groups. In conclusion, NFA attenuated pulmonary artery tone and structural remodeling in PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow in vivo. CaCCs were involved and the augmented current density was alleviated by NFA treatment.
Dorner, Guido T; Garhofer, Gerhard; Kiss, Barbara; Polska, Elzbieta; Polak, Kaija; Riva, Charles E; Schmetterer, Leopold
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of basal nitric oxide (NO) on retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, we set out to elucidate the role of NO in flicker-induced retinal vasodilation in humans. Twelve healthy young subjects were studied in a three-way crossover design. Subjects received an intravenous infusion of either placebo or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 3 or 6 mg/kg over 5 min), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Thereafter, diffuse luminance flicker was consecutively performed for 16, 32, and 64 s at a frequency of 8 Hz. The effect of L-NMMA on retinal arterial and venous diameter was assessed under resting conditions and during the hyperemic flicker response. Retinal vessel diameter was measured with a Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. L-NMMA significantly reduced arterial diameter (3 mg/kg: -2%; 6 mg/kg: -4%, P < 0.001) and venous diameter (3 mg/kg: -5%; 6 mg/kg: -8%, P < 0.001). After placebo infusion, flicker induced a significant increase in retinal vessel diameter (P < 0.001). At a flicker duration of 64 s, arterial diameter increased by 4% and venous diameter increased by 3%. L-NMMA did not abolish these hyperemic responses but blunted venous vasodilation (P = 0.017) and arterial vasodilation (P = 0.02) in response to flicker stimulation. Our data indicate that NO contributes to basal retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, NO appears to play a role in flicker-induced vasodilation of the human retinal vasculature.
Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A
Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.
... seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and eye and vision abnormalities. Another condition called Elejalde disease has many of the ... Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies Jeffrey ...
Behan, W; Longman, C; Petty, R; Comeglio, P; Child, A; Boxer, M; Foskett, P; Harriman, D
Objective: To report a family with Marfan's syndrome in whom a myopathy was associated with respiratory failure; muscle biopsies from affected individuals were examined to determine whether there were abnormalities in fibrillin. Methods: 21 family members underwent detailed clinical examination, including neurological and pulmonary assessment. Muscle biopsies in the most severely affected cases were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies to specific fibrillin components. Genomic DNA from all 21 members was analysed for mutations in the fibrillin gene, FBN1, on 15q21. Results: 13 individuals had a C4621T base change in exon 37 of the FBN1 gene, which in four cases segregated with muscle weakness or evidence of respiratory muscle dysfunction or both. Their muscle biopsies revealed an abnormality in fibrillin immunoreactivity. Conclusions: Abnormalities in fibrillin can be detected in muscle biopsies from patients with Marfan's syndrome who have myopathy. This pedigree, with a point mutation in FBN1, also draws attention to the potential for respiratory failure associated with myopathy. PMID:12700307
Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional
Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia
Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.
... damage caused by injury, diabetes, toxins, or alcohol Polio ( poliomyelitis ) Spinal cord injury Although people can adapt to ... Guillain-Barré syndrome Hypotonia Muscle cramps Muscular dystrophy Polio Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Joseph ...
... muscular as a superhero or your favorite professional athlete? Well, the big muscles you're thinking about ... Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes are grownups, whose bodies are different from kids' ...
... patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Selcen D. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
Reimann, Katrin; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Wangemann, Philine
Cochlear blood flow regulation is important to prevent hearing loss caused by ischemia and oxidative stress. Cochlear blood supply is provided by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA). The myogenic tone of the SMA is enhanced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker L-N(G)-nitro-arginine (LNNA) in males, but not in females. Here, we investigated whether this gender difference is based on differences in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments. Vascular diameter, myogenic tone, cytosolic Ca(2+), and Ca(2+) sensitivity were evaluated in pressurized SMA segments isolated from male and female gerbils using laser-scanning microscopy and microfluorometry. The gender difference of the LNNA-induced tone was compared, in the same vessel segments, to tone induced by 150 mM K(+) and endothelin-1, neither of which showed an apparent gender-difference. Interestingly, LNNA-induced tone in male SMAs was observed in protocols that included changes in intramural pressure, but not when the intramural pressure was held constant. LNNA in male SMAs did not increase the global Ca(2+) concentration in smooth muscle cells but increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity. This increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity was abolished in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ or by extrinsic application of either the nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEA-NONOate or the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP. The rho-kinase blocker Y27632 decreased the basal Ca(2+) sensitivity and abolished the LNNA-induced increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity in male SMAs. Neither LNNA nor Y27632 changed the Ca(2+) sensitivity in female SMAs. The data suggest that the gender difference in LNNA-induced tone is based on a gender difference in the regulation of rho-kinase mediated Ca(2+) sensitivity. Rho-kinase and NO thus emerge as critical factors in the regulation of cochlear blood flow. The larger role of NO-dependent mechanisms in male SMAs predicts greater restrictions on cochlear blood flow under
Kondo, E; Aoba, T J
Abnormal cervical muscle function can cause abnormal head posture, adversely affecting the development and morphology of the cervical spine and maxillofacial skeleton, which in turn leads to facial asymmetry and occlusal abnormality. There can be morphologic abnormalities of the mandibular fossa, condyle, ramus, and disk accompanying the imbalance of the cervical and masticatory muscles activities. Two normally growing Japanese female patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion presented with TMJ symptoms and poor head posture as a result of abnormal sternocleidomastoid and trapezius cervical muscle activities. One patient underwent tenotomy of the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the other patient did not. In addition to orthodontics, the 2 patients received physiotherapy of the cervical muscles during treatment. Both were treated with a functional appliance as a first step, followed by full multi-bracketed treatment to establish a stable form of occlusion and to improve facial esthetics with no head gear. This interdisciplinary treatment approach resulted in normalization of stomatognathic function, elimination of TMJ symptoms, and improvement of facial esthetics. In the growing patients, the significant response of the fossa, condyle, and ramus on the affected side during and after occlusal correction contributed to the improvement of cervical muscle activity. Based on the result, early occlusal improvement, combined with orthopedic surgery of the neck muscles or physiotherapy to achieve muscular balance of the neck and masticatory muscles, was found to be effective. Two patients illustrate the potential for promoting symmetric formation of the TMJ structures and normal jaw function, with favorable effects on posttreatment growth of the entire maxillofacial skeleton.
MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J
Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.
The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.
Goydke, Katja N; Altenmüller, Eckart; Möller, Jürn; Münte, Thomas F
The present study examined whether or not the brain is capable to preattentively discriminate tones differing in emotional expression or instrumental timbre. In two event-related potential (ERP) experiments single tones (600 ms) were presented which had been rated as happy or sad in a pretest. In experiment 1, 12 non-musicians passively listened to tone series comprising a frequent (standard) single musical tone played by a violin in a certain pitch and with a certain emotional connotation (happy or sad). Among these standard tones deviant tones differing in emotional valence, either in instrumental timbre or in pitch were presented. All deviants generated mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The MMN scalp topography was similar for all of the three deviants but latency was shorter for pitch deviants than for the other two conditions. The topography of the mismatch responses was indistinguishable. In a second experiment, subjects actively detected the deviant tones by button press. All detected deviants generated P3b waves at parietal leads. These results indicate that the brain is not only able to use simple physical differences such as pitch for rapid preattentive categorization but can also perform similar operations on the basis of more complex differences between tones of the same pitch such as instrumental timbre and the subtle timbral differences associated with different emotional expression. This rapid categorization may serve as a basis for the further fine-grained analysis of musical (and other) sounds with regard to their emotional content.
Lee, Chao-Yang; Lekich, Allison; Zhang, Yu
The purpose of this study was to explore the music-speech relationship by examining pitch height perception in lexical and musical tones. English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians identified multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without typical cues for speaker normalization. The musicians also identified note names of piano, viola, and pure tones without a reference pitch. In the Taiwanese task, both the musicians and nonmusicians were able to identify tone height above chance, but only for tones at the extremes of the speakers' overall vocal range. The musicians only had a slight advantage over the nonmusicians. In the music task, none of the musicians met the criterion for absolute pitch. Timbre did not affect how accurately the musical tones were identified. No correlations were found between performance in the Taiwanese task and that in the music task. It was concluded that musicians' advantage in lexical tone perception arose from the ability to track F0 contours. The ability to identify pitch height in lexical tones appears to involve calibrating acoustic input according to gender-specific, internally stored pitch templates.
Peng, Gang; Zhang, Caicai; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Minett, James W.; Wang, William S.-Y.
Purpose: This study investigates the impact of intertalker variations on the process of mapping acoustic variations on tone categories in two different tone languages. Method: Pitch stimuli manipulated from four voice ranges were presented in isolation through a blocked-talker design. Listeners were instructed to identify the stimuli that they…
Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.
Generation of extremely/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) chorus waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere has received increased attention recently because of their significance for radiation belt dynamics. Though past theoretical and numerical models have demonstrated how rising-tone chorus elements are produced, falling-tone chorus element generation has yet to be explained. Our new model proposes that weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus elements can be generated by magnetospheric reflection of rising-tone elements. Using ray tracing in a realistic plasma model of the inner magnetosphere, we demonstrate that rising-tone elements originating at the magnetic equator propagate to higher latitudes. Upon reflection there, they propagate to lower L-shells and turn into oblique falling tones of reduced power, frequency, and bandwidth relative to their progenitor rising tones. Our results are in good agreement with comprehensive statistical studies of such waves, notably using magnetic field measurements from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft. Thus, we conclude that the proposed mechanism can be responsible for the generation of weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus emissions.
Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.
Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…
Hellman, R. P.
An investigation of the perceived effects of tonal components was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quantification and prediction of annoyance of sounds containing added tones. The current study was concerned with two-tone-noise complexes. The stimuli were tone pairs added to a low-pass noise that was attenuated by 5 dB/oct above 600 Hz. Overall perceived magnitude is shown to be a function of the frequency separation (Delta F) between the tonal components, tone-to-noise ratio, and the overall SPL of the noise-tone complex. Results obtained with two tones are compared to those obtained in an earlier study by Hellman (1984) with single tones. The observed effects appear relevant to the rules governing loudness summation across frequency, to measurements of psychoacoustic consonance and roughness, and to the issue of mutual masking among the component stimuli. The implications of the findings in relation to proposed tone-correction procedures are also discussed.
Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Shuntarou
The gap transfer illusion is an auditory illusion where a temporal gap inserted in a longer glide tone is perceived as if it were in a crossing shorter glide tone. Psychophysical and phenomenological experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sound-pressure-level (SPL) differences between crossing glides on the occurrence of the gap…
Patel, Aniruddh D.; Foxton, Jessica M.; Griffiths, Timothy D.
Musically tone-deaf individuals have psychophysical deficits in detecting pitch changes, yet their discrimination of intonation contours in speech appears to be normal. One hypothesis for this dissociation is that intonation contours use coarse pitch contrasts which exceed the pitch-change detection thresholds of tone-deaf individuals (Peretz &…
Yeung, H. Henny; Chen, Ke Heng; Werker, Janet F.
Previous studies have suggested that the perception of vowels and consonants changes from language-universal to language-specific between 6 and 12 months of age. This report suggests that language-specific perception emerges even earlier for lexical tones. Experiment 1 tested English-learners' perception of Cantonese tones, replicating declines in…
Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming
Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…
Porter, Fran Lang; And Others
The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)
Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.
This study examined the role of auditory stream segregation in the selective attention to target tones in infancy. Using a task adapted from Bregman and Rudnicky's 1975 study and implemented in a conditioned head-turn procedure, infant and adult listeners had to discriminate the temporal order of 2,200 and 2,400 Hz target tones presented alone,…
Miller, Julia Colleen
This dissertation is an investigation of acoustic properties of lexical tone in two dialects of Dane-zaa (Athabaskan). The noteworthy mirror-image tone systems of the H-marked Doig and L-marked Halfway dialects provide a unique opportunity to explore intrinsic differences in how pitch manifests in specific environments. The dissertation has three…
Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L.; Yau, Teresa S.-K.
In tonal languages, syllabic fundamental frequency (F0) patterns (``lexical tones'') convey lexical meaning. Listeners need to relate such pitch patterns to the pitch range of a speaker (``tone normalization'') to accurately identify lexical tones. This study investigated the amount of tonal information required to perform tone normalization. A target CV syllable, perceived as either a high level, a low level, or a mid level Cantonese tone, was preceded by a four-syllable carrier sentence whose F0 was shifted (1 semitone), or not shifted. Four conditions were obtained by gating one, two, three, or four syllables from the onset of the target. Presentation rate (normal versus fast) was set such that the duration of the one, two, and three syllable conditions (normal carrier) was equal to that of the two, three, and four syllable conditions (fast carrier). Results suggest that tone normalization is largely accomplished within 250 ms or so prior to target onset, independent of the number of syllables; additional tonal information produces a relatively small increase in tone normalization. Implications for models of lexical tone normalization will be discussed. [Work supported by the RGC of the Hong Kong SAR, Project No. HKU 7193/00H.
Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…
Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus
Right-edge boundary tones have earlier been found to restrict syntactic processing by closing a clause for further integration of incoming words. The role of left-edge intonation, however, has received little attention to date. We show that Swedish left-edge boundary tones selectively facilitate the on-line processing of main clauses, the…
The current study lays the groundwork for a model of Mandarin tones based on both native speakers' and non-native speakers' perception and production. It demonstrates that there is variability in non-native speakers' tone productions and that there are differences in the perceptual boundaries in native speakers and non-native speakers. There…
Vihla, Minna; Salmelin, Riitta
We compared cortical processing of attended and non-attended vowels and complex tones, using a whole-head neuromagnetometer, to test for possible hemispheric differences. Stimuli included vowels [a] and [i], spoken by two female Finnish speakers, and two complex tones, each with two pure tone components corresponding to the first and second formant frequencies (F1-F2) of the vowels spoken by speaker 1. Sequences including both vowels and complex tones were presented to eight Finnish males during passive and active (phoneme/speaker/complex tone identification) listening. Sequences including only vowels were presented to five of the subjects during passive listening and during a phoneme identification task. The vowel [i] spoken by speaker 1 and the corresponding complex tone were frequent, non-target stimuli. Responses evoked by these frequent stimuli were analyzed. Cortical activation at approximately 100 ms was stronger for the complex tone than the vowel in the right hemisphere (RH). Responses were similar during active and passive listening. Hemispheric balance remained the same when the vowel was presented in sequences including only vowels. The reduction of RH activation for vowels as compared with complex tones indicates a relative increase of left hemisphere involvement, possibly reflecting a shift towards more language-specific processing.
Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.
A near-ultrasonic pure tone of 15,570 Herz generated by flyback transformers in computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors may cause severe non-specific irritation or stress disease in operators. Women hear higher frequency sounds than men and are twice as sensitive to "too loud" noise. Pure tones at high frequencies are more…
Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y
Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can
Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan
To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.
Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C
Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Bird, J. S.
This paper presents a general solution to the problem of calculating the error performance of binary NCFSK systems in the presence of multiple tone interference and system noise. The development uses the concepts of circularly symmetric signals and expresses the results in terms of a Bessel integral. This integral is then evaluated using a rapidly converging Fourier-Bessel series. The error in this approximation to the integral is controlled by two parameters which may be adjusted so that the desired accuracy is attained. It is determined that, in the useful probability-of-error range and when the total tone power is constrained, the error rate increases for an increase in the number of interfering tones. In addition, for equal amplitude tones, the performance is independent of the distribution of the tones within the channel. The technique used is also applicable to other detection problems where the threshold is a random variable.
Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi
Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.
Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Suresh, Chandan H.
The aim is to evaluate how language experience (Chinese, English) shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch response components. Responses were elicited from three dynamic, curvilinear, nonspeech stimuli varying in pitch direction and location of peak acceleration: Mandarin lexical Tone2 (rising) and Tone4 (falling); and a flipped variant of Tone2, Tone2′ (nonnative). At temporal sites (T7/T8), Chinese Na-Pb response amplitude to Tones 2 & 4 was greater than English in the right hemisphere only; a rightward asymmetry for Tones 2 & 4 was restricted to the Chinese group. In common to both Fz-to-linked T7/T8 and T7/T8 electrode sites, the stimulus pattern (Tones 2 & 4 > Tone2′) was found in the Chinese group only. As reflected by Pb-Nb at Fz, Chinese amplitude was larger than English in response to Tones 2 & 4; and Tones 2 & 4 were larger than Tone2′; whereas for English, Tone2 was larger than Tone2′ and Tone4. At frontal electrode sites (F3/F4), regardless of component or hemisphere, Chinese responses were larger in amplitude than English across stimuli. For either group, responses to Tones 2 & 4 were larger than Tone2′. No hemispheric asymmetry was observed at the frontal electrode sites. These findings highlight that cortical pitch response components are differentially modulated by experience-dependent, temporally distinct but functionally overlapping weighting of sensory and extrasensory effects on pitch processing of lexical tones in the right temporal lobe and, more broadly, are consistent with a distributed hierarchical predictive coding process. PMID:25943576
Bajaj, Gitanjali; Nicholas, Richard; Pandey, Tarun; Montgomery, Corey; Jambhekar, Kedar; Ram, Roopa
Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, often unrecognized complication seen in patients with poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus. The diagnosis is often missed and leads to unnecessary invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. The patients usually present with unilateral thigh pain and swelling. MRI typically demonstrates diffuse swelling and increased T2 signal intensity within the affected muscles. The condition is self-limiting and is treated conservatively with bed rest and analgesics. Recurrences have been reported in the same or contralateral limb. We report a case of diabetic muscle infarction with spontaneous resolution of symptoms and imaging abnormality with recurrence on the contralateral side.
Seller, M J
The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.
Schwellnus, M P; Derman, E W; Noakes, T D
The aetiology of exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC), defined as 'painful, spasmodic, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle during or immediately after physical exercise', has not been well investigated and is therefore not well understood. This review focuses on the physiological basis for skeletal muscle relaxation, a historical perspective and analysis of the commonly postulated causes of EAMC, and known facts about EAMC from recent clinical studies. Historically, the causes of EAMC have been proposed as (1) inherited abnormalities of substrate metabolism ('metabolic theory') (2) abnormalities of fluid balance ('dehydration theory'), (3) abnormalities of serum electrolyte concentrations ('electrolyte theory') and (4) extreme environmental conditions of heat or cold ('environmental theory'). Detailed analyses of the available scientific literature including data from recent studies do not support these hypothesis for the causes of EAMC. In a recent study, electromyographic (EMG) data obtained from runners during EAMC revealed that baseline activity is increased (between spasms of cramping) and that a reduction in the baseline EMG activity correlates well with clinical recovery. Furthermore, during acute EAMC the EMG activity is high, and passive stretching is effective in reducing EMG activity. This relieves the cramp probably by invoking the inverse stretch reflex. In two animal studies, abnormal reflex activity of the muscle spindle (increased activity) and the Golgi tendon organ (decreased activity) has been observed in fatigued muscle. We hypothesize that EAMC is caused by sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity which appears to be secondary to muscle fatigue. Local muscle fatigue is therefore responsible for increased muscle spindle afferent and decreased Golgi tendon organ afferent activity. Muscles which cross two joints can more easily be placed in shortened positions during exercise and would therefore decrease the Golgi tendon organ
Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa; Motalebi, Hassan
We report a recurrent Piriformisc muscle syndrome after surgical release. After the primary neurolysis, a second operation was performed to release adhesions. This case shows a different type of sciatic nerve entrapment by an abnormal thin muscle slip. Results of the revision surgery guide us to the point that revision surgery for Piriformis muscle syndrome should be meticulously selected, and after considering medical and interventional therapies.
Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa; Motalebi, Hassan
We report a recurrent Piriformisc muscle syndrome after surgical release. After the primary neurolysis, a second operation was performed to release adhesions. This case shows a different type of sciatic nerve entrapment by an abnormal thin muscle slip. Results of the revision surgery guide us to the point that revision surgery for Piriformis muscle syndrome should be meticulously selected, and after considering medical and interventional therapies. PMID:26286539
2006-01-01Stretching along 'Low Ridge' in front of the winter haven for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are several continuous rock layers that make up the ridge. Some of these layers form fins that stick out from the other rocks in a way that suggests that they are resistant to erosion. Spirit is currently straddling one of these fin-like layers and can reach a small bit of light-toned material that might be a broken bit of it. Informally named 'Halley,' this rock was broken by Spirit's wheels when the rover drove over it. The first analyses of Halley showed it to be unusual in composition, containing a lot of the minor element zinc relative to the soil around it and having much of its iron tied up in the mineral hematite. When scientists again placed the scientific instruments on Spirit's robotic arm on a particularly bright-looking part of Halley, they found that the chemical composition of the bright spots was suggestive of a calcium sulfate mineral. Bright soils that Spirit has examined earlier in the mission contain iron sulfate. This discovery raises new questions for the science team: Why is the sulfate mineralogy here different? Did Halley and the fin material form by water percolating through the layered rocks of Low Ridge? When did the chemical alteration of this rock occur? Spirit will continue to work on Halley and other light-toned materials along Low Ridge in the coming months to try to answer these questions. Spirit took this red-green-blue composite image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 820th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 24, 2006). The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil. It combines frames taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 430-nanometer filters. The middle of the imaged area has dark basaltic sand. Spirit's wheel track is at the left edge of the frame. Just to the right of the wheel track in the lower left are two types
Eckman, Delrae M; Gupta, Ridhima; Rosenfeld, Charles R; Morgan, Timothy M; Charles, Shelton M; Mertz, Heather; Moore, Lorna G
Myogenic tone (MT) is a primary modulator of blood flow in the resistance vasculature of the brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, and perhaps in other high-flow organs such as the pregnant uterus. MT is known to be regulated by endothelium-derived factors, including products of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. We asked whether pregnancy influenced MT in myometrial arteries (MA), and if so, whether such an effect could be attributed to alterations in NOS and/or COX. MA (200-300 μm internal diameter, 2-3 mm length) were isolated from 10 nonpregnant and 12 pregnant women undergoing elective hysterectomy or cesarean section, respectively. In the absence of NOS and/or COX inhibition, pregnancy was associated with increased MT in endothelium-intact MA compared with MA from nonpregnant women (P < 0.01). The increase in MT was not due to increased Ca(2+) entry via voltage-dependent channels since both groups of MA exhibited similar levels of constriction when exposed to 50 mM KCl. NOS inhibition (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME) or combined NOS/COX inhibition (L-NAME/indomethacin) increased MT in MA from pregnant women (P = 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively) but was without effect in arteries from nonpregnant women. Indomethacin alone was without effect on MT in MA from either nonpregnant or pregnant women. We concluded that MT increases in MA during human pregnancy and that this effect was partially opposed by enhanced NOS activity.
Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G
Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems.
Avdić, Dijana; Skrbo, Armin
Muscular spasm is type of the increased muscle tone which is common in the upper motor neuron lesion and it can be developed due to disease (stroke, MS, tumors, infection, intoxication) and trauma. This research included 30 patients with muscular spasm after upper motor neuron lesion. All of the patients were treated by passive exercises and stretching of agonists and antagonists. All patients were males, with age between 25 and 45 years (average 26.9 years). Applying t-test, in testing significant differences in changing muscular spasm, in relationship to the length of the kinesitherapy treatment, there were no significant differences between 1st and 15th day of treatment. Significant difference in spasm grades was after 30th day of treatment compare to 1st and 15th day. This research showed that decreasing muscle spasm we could be expected by applying the kinesitherapy procedures for a longer time.
Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Ranpuria, Reena; Hall, Martica; Hotchkiss, John R.; Chan, Chris T.; Unruh, Mark L.; Argyropoulos, Christos
Background. Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patients as compared to patients with CKD. Methods. In-home polysomnography was performed in 95 patients with stages 4–5 CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HRV was measured using fast Fourier transform of interbeat intervals during wakefulness and sleep. Low-frequency (LF) and HF intervals were generated. Natural logarithm HF (LNHF) and the logarithm LF/HF ratio (sympathovagal tone) were analysed by multivariable quantile regression and generalized estimating equations. Results. Of the 95 patients, 63.2% (n = 60) was male, 35.8% (n = 34) was African American and 20.4% (n = 19) was diabetic. Average age was 51.6 ± 15.1 (range 19–82). HRV variables were significantly associated with diabetic status, higher periodic limb movement indices and lower bicarbonate levels. Patients with advanced CKD did not differ from dialysis patients in their inability to increase vagal tone during sleep. During wakefulness, female gender (P = 0.05) was associated with the increases in the vagal tone. Conclusions. Patients with CKD/ESRD exhibit dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system tone manifesting as a failure to increase HRV during wakefulness and sleep. Different patient characteristics are associated with changes in HRV at different sleep stages. PMID:20466675
Gerhold, Carl H.
This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.
Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A
Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states.
Tseng, Philip; Yu, Jiaxin; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Hung, Daisy L.; Juan, Chi-Hung
The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s) would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Experiment 1: left or right side), pitch discrimination (Experiment 2: high, med, or low tone), and spatial-plus-pitch (Experiment 3: left or right; high, med, or low) discrimination task. In Experiment 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand's reaction time (RT). No effect of hand proximity was found in Experiments 2 or 3, where a choice RT task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results that the perceptual and attentional effect of hand proximity is not limited to one specific modality, but applicable to the entire “space” near the hands, including stimuli of different modality (at least visual and auditory) within that space. While these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. (2006), we also discuss the possibility of a dual mechanism hypothesis to reconcile findings from the multimodal and magno/parvocellular account. PMID:24966839
Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio
Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.
Shamina, N V
Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.
Shen, Hao; Tam, Christopher K. W.
An imperfectly expanded supersonic jet, invariably, radiates both broadband noise and discrete frequency sound called screech tones. Screech tones are known to be generated by a feedback loop driven by the large scale instability waves of the jet flow. Inside the jet plume is a quasi-periodic shock cell structure. The interaction of the instability waves and the shock cell structure, as the former propagates through the latter, is responsible for the generation of the tones. Presently, there are formulas that can predict the tone frequency fairly accurately. However, there is no known way to predict the screech tone intensity. In this work, the screech phenomenon of an axisymmetric jet at low supersonic Mach number is reproduced by numerical simulation. The computed mean velocity profiles and the shock cell pressure distribution of the jet are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The same is true with the simulated screech frequency. Calculated screech tone intensity and directivity at selected jet Mach number are reported in this paper. The present results demonstrate that numerical simulation using computational aeroacoustics methods offers not only a reliable way to determine the screech tone intensity and directivity but also an opportunity to study the physics and detailed mechanisms of the phenomenon by an entirely new approach.
Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian
In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.
Mandarin Chinese lexical tones pose difficulties for non-native speakers whose first languages contrast or do not contrast lexical tones. In this study, both tone language and non-tone language speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese were trained for three weeks to identify the four Mandarin lexical tones. One group took the production training with both visual and audio feedback using Kay Sona Speech II software. The target tones produced by native Mandarin speakers were played back through a pair of headphones and the pitch contours of the target tones were displayed on the computer screen on the top window to be compared with the trainees productions which appear in real time in the bottom window. Another group of participants took the perceptual training only with four-way forced choice identification tasks with immediate feedback. The same training tokens were used in both training modes. Pretest and post test data in perception and production were collected from both groups and were compared for effectiveness of training procedures.
Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Angelopoulos, Vassilis
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves with rising or falling frequency variations have been studied intensively because of their effects on energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere. We develop an automated classification method of EMIC events based on the characteristics of frequency variations. We report some basic statistical properties of frequency variations in EMIC waves observed over 5-10 RE by three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes from January 2012 to December 2014. We clarify whether rising tones or falling tones are observed in each chosen 20 min time segment. In the present analysis, we find that the occurrence rate of EMIC rising or falling tone events is more than 30% of the total EMIC wave events. The dayside magnetosphere is a preferential region for the EMIC frequency variations. The occurrence rate of rising tone events is slightly greater than that of falling tone events. We examine the relation between the frequency characteristics and the magnetospheric conditions. The solar wind pressure strongly controls the occurrence rates of frequency variations. We also calculate ranges of frequency variations. Large-amplitude EMIC waves tend to have wider frequency variations, and the range of frequency variation is largest around the prenoon region. In addition, rapid variations in wave amplitudes called "subpacket structures" are found in 70% of the EMIC rising or falling tone events in the dayside region. Subpacket structures appear mainly in large-amplitude EMIC rising or falling tones. These features are consistent with nonlinear wave growth theory.
Remels, A H V; Gosker, H R; Langen, R C J; Schols, A M W J
Pulmonary cachexia is a prevalent, debilitating, and well-recognized feature of COPD associated with increased mortality and loss of peripheral and respiratory muscle function. The exact cause and underlying mechanisms of cachexia in COPD are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence, however, shows that pathological changes in intracellular mechanisms of muscle mass maintenance (i.e., protein turnover and myonuclear turnover) are likely involved. Potential factors triggering alterations in these mechanisms in COPD include oxidative stress, myostatin, and inflammation. In addition to muscle wasting, peripheral muscle in COPD is characterized by a fiber-type shift toward a more type II, glycolytic phenotype and an impaired oxidative capacity (collectively referred to as an impaired oxidative phenotype). Atrophied diaphragm muscle in COPD, however, displays an enhanced oxidative phenotype. Interestingly, intrinsic abnormalities in (lower limb) peripheral muscle seem more pronounced in either cachectic patients or weight loss-susceptible emphysema patients, suggesting that muscle wasting and intrinsic changes in peripheral muscle's oxidative phenotype are somehow intertwined. In this manuscript, we will review alterations in mechanisms of muscle mass maintenance in COPD and discuss the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and myostatin as potential triggers of cachexia. Moreover, we postulate that an impaired muscle oxidative phenotype in COPD can accelerate the process of cachexia, as it renders muscle in COPD less energy efficient, thereby contributing to an energy deficit and weight loss when not dietary compensated. Furthermore, loss of peripheral muscle oxidative phenotype may increase the muscle's susceptibility to inflammation- and oxidative stress-induced muscle damage and wasting.
Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra
Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…
Bishop, D. V. M.; McArthur, G. M.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) to tone pairs and single tones were measured for 16 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls aged from 10 to 19 years. The tone pairs were separated by an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 20, 50 or 150 ms. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was computed for each participant…
Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric
The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…
Carpenter, M; Allum, J; Honegger, F; Adkin, A; Bloem, B
Objective: We investigated trunk control, protective arm movements, and electromyographic responses to multidirectional support-surface rotations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), aiming to better understand the pathophysiology underlying postural instability in PD, on and off antiparkinson medication. Methods: Ten patients with PD were compared with 11 age matched healthy controls. Seven patients were also tested without (OFF) antiparkinson medication. All subjects received rotational perturbations (7.5 deg amplitude) that were randomly delivered in six different directions. Results: The PD patients had decreased trunk rotation and ankle torque changes, consistent with a stiffening response. Stiffness appeared to be caused by the combined action of three factors: co-contraction that interfered in particular with the normal response asymmetry in trunk muscles; increased response amplitudes in agonist and antagonist muscles at both medium (∼80 ms) and balance correcting (∼120 ms) response latencies; and increased background activity in lower leg, hip, and trunk muscles. Although the patients had significantly earlier onset of deltoid muscle responses, this gave no functional protection because the arm movements were abnormally directed. Most instability in PD occurred for backward falls, with or without a roll component. Medication provided partial improvement in arm responses and trunk roll instability. Conclusions: Our results confirm previous findings in ankle muscles, and provide new information on balance impairments in hip, trunk, and arm responses in PD. PMID:15314109
Raman, Ganesh; Envia, Edmane; Bencic, Timothy J.
Cavity flow resonance can cause numerous problems in aerospace applications. While our long-term goal is to understand cavity flows well enough to devise effective cavity resonance suppression techniques, this paper describes a fundamental study of resonant tones produced by jet-cavity interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Our specific jet-cavity configuration can also be used as a test bed for evaluating active and passive flow resonance control concepts. Two significant findings emerge from this study. 1) Originally, we expected that tones produced by jet-cavity interaction would resemble cavity tones or jet tones or would involve some simple combinations of each. The experimental data do not support these expectations: instead, the jet cavity interaction produce a unique set of tones. We propose simple yet and physically insightful correlations for these tones. Although the pressure patterns on the cavity floor display very complex variations with the Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity, the tones correspond to the acoustic modes of the cavity-independent of flow. For a length/ depth = 3 cavity, however, a surprise emerges: the pressure patterns on the cavity floor are not so complex but the tones depend significantly on the flow. Additionally, we examine the role of external feedback unique to jet-cavity interaction. 2) Previous research led us to expect that traditional classifications (open, transitional, or closed) for cavities in an infinite flight stream would be insensitive to small changes in Mach number and would depend primarily on cavity length/depth ratios. Use of the novel high resolution photoluminescent pressure sensitive paint shows that the classifications are actually quite sensitive to jet Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity. However, these classifications provide no guidance whatsoever for tone amplitude or frequency. Detailed experimental data and insights presented here will assist researchers who are performing
Oliver, J A; Sciacca, R R
Renin is present in vascular smooth muscle cells and has been shown to coexist with angiotensins I (AI) and II (AII) in many cell types. Accordingly, we postulated that the renin-angiotensin system controls vascular tone, not by the action of circulating renal renin but rather, by the local generation of angiotensin by vascular renin. Isolated rat hindquarters were perfused in vitro with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 7% albumin, and flow-adjusted to obtain a perfusion pressure of approximately 90 mmHg. Infusion of 4.8 nmol X min-1 for 5 min of AII or AI markedly increased perfusion pressure. An identical dose of the synthetic tetradecaptide of renin substrate (TDCP-RS) increased pressure similarly to AI. The pressure increase evoked by TDCP-RS was markedly decreased by captopril and by two different peptides that inhibit renin. Renin activity in the perfusate, incubated with semipurified rat renin substrate, was 21 +/- 3 pg AI X ml-1 X h-1 (mean +/- SEM) at 15 min of perfusion and 47 +/- 4 pg AI X ml-1 X h-1 at 45 min (n = 9; P less than 0.01). When TDCP-RS was infused at 4.8 nmol X min-1 for 5 min in the presence of captopril, AI in the perfusate increased linearly at a rate of 16.5 pmol X min-1 for 10 min (n = 5). The results indicate that TDCP-RS constricted the vasculature by its conversion to AII and suggest that AII was generated from a two-step hydrolysis of TDCP-RS by renin and converting enzyme. The data thus suggest that the renin-angiotensin system controls vascular tone by the local generation of AII by renin and converting enzyme in the vasculature. PMID:6384268
Al-Hussaini, E. K.
Performance of the adaptive mean-level constant false alarm rate detector is derived in the presence of multiple-tone interference plus Gaussian noise. Such signals may result from jamming, interference, or multipath propagation. A square-law envelope detector is employed and a single sweep or hit is processed. The target signal envelope fluctuates according to a Rayleigh probability density function. The results show that the probability of a false alarm decreases monotonically with increasing interfering tonal SNR per pulse for one tone. The probability is unaffected when there is an infinite number of tones.
Sigman, E.; Parks, G. S.
A digital tone extractor which monitors the phase integrity of a VLBI recording system in real time was developed. The digital tone extractor monitors phase calibrator tones injected at the antenna and tracks their phase as a function of time. It is capable of maintaining 0.001 cycle phase accuracy over the course of a VLBI experiment in accordance with the accuracy requirements of centimeter VLBI work. This real time VLBI system monitor is a safeguard against most instrumental breakdowns and operator errors.
Sofrin, T. G.; Pickett, G. F.
The existence of clusters of pure tones at integral multiples of shaft speed has been noted for supersonic-tip-speed operation of fans and compressors. A continuing program to explore this phenomenon, often called combination-tone noise, has been in effect for several years. This paper reviews the research program, which involves a wide range of engines, compressor rigs, and special apparatus. Elements of the aerodynamics of the blade-associated shock waves are outlined and causes of blade-to-blade shock inequalities, responsible for the multiple tones, are described.
Saulnier, Gary J.; Millar, Gilbert M.; Depaolo, Anthony D.
Tone-aided modulation is one way of combatting the effects of multipath fading and Doppler frequency shifts. A new tone-aided modulation format for M-ary phase-shift keyed signals (MPSK) is discussed. A spectral null for the placement of the tone is created in the center of the MPSK signal by translating the upper sideband upwards in frequency by the same amount. The key element of the system is the algorithm for recombining the data sidebands in the receiver, a function that is performed by a specialized phase-locked loop (PLL). The system structure is discussed and simulation results showing the PLL acquisition performance are presented.
Howes, W. L.
Both the physiological and psychological responses to pure-tone sound stimuli are used to derive formulas which: (1) relate the loudness, loudness level, and sound-pressure level of pure tones; (2) apply continuously over most of the acoustic regime, including the loudness threshold; and (3) contain no undetermined coefficients. Some of the formulas are fundamental for calculating the loudness of any sound. Power-law formulas relating the pure-tone sound stimulus, neural activity, and loudness are derived from published data.
A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...
Proctor, C A
Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon
Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Jackson, Malcolm J
The ability of muscles to regenerate successfully following damage diminishes with age and this appears to be a major contributor to the development of muscle weakness and physical frailty. Successful muscle regeneration is dependent on appropriate reinnervation of regenerating muscle. Age-related changes in the interactions between nerve and muscle are poorly understood but may play a major role in the defective regeneration. During aging there is defective redox homeostasis and an accumulation of oxidative damage in nerve and muscle that may contribute to defective regeneration. The aim of this review is to summarise the evidence that abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in nerve and/or muscle may be responsible for the defective regeneration that contributes to the degeneration of skeletal muscle observed during aging. Identifying the importance of ROS generation in skeletal muscle during aging could have fundamental implications for interventions to prevent muscle degeneration and treatments to reverse the age-related decline in muscle mass and function.
Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M
Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758
Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W
Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.
Rinker, Tanja; Kohls, Gregor; Richter, Cathrin; Maas, Verena; Schulz, Eberhard; Schecker, Michael
For several decades, the aetiology of specific language impairment (SLI) has been associated with a central auditory processing deficit disrupting the normal language development of affected children. One important aspect for language acquisition is the discrimination of different acoustic features, such as frequency information. Concerning SLI, studies to date that examined frequency discrimination abilities have been contradictory. We hypothesized that an auditory processing deficit in children with SLI depends on the frequency range and the difference between the tones used. Using a passive mismatch negativity (MMN)-design, 13 boys with SLI and 13 age- and IQ-matched controls (7-11 years) were tested with two sine tones of different frequency (700Hz versus 750Hz). Reversed hemispheric activity between groups indicated abnormal processing in SLI. In a second time window, MMN2 was absent for the children with SLI. It can therefore be assumed that a frequency discrimination deficit in children with SLI becomes particularly apparent for tones below 750Hz and for a frequency difference of 50Hz. This finding may have important implications for future research and integration of various research approaches.
Dunn, William R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Ralevic, Vera; Roberts, Richard E
In recent years, it has become apparent that the gaseous pollutant, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be synthesised in the body and has a multitude of biological actions. This review summarizes some of the actions of this 'gasotransmitter' in influencing the smooth muscle that is responsible for controlling muscular activity of hollow organs. In the vasculature, while H2S can cause vasoconstriction by complex interactions with other biologically important gases, such as nitric oxide, the prevailing response is vasorelaxation. While most vasorelaxation responses occur by a direct action of H2S on smooth muscle cells, it has recently been proposed to be an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S also promotes relaxation in other smooth muscle preparations including bronchioles, the bladder, gastrointestinal tract and myometrium, opening up the opportunity of exploiting the pharmacology of H2S in the treatment of conditions where smooth muscle tone is excessive. The original concept, that H2S caused smooth muscle relaxation by activating ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, has been supplemented with observations that H2S can also modify the activity of other potassium channels, intracellular pH, phosphodiesterase activity and transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves. While the enzymes responsible for generating endogenous H2S are widely expressed in smooth muscle preparations, it is much less clear what the physiological role of H2S is in determining smooth muscle contractility. Clarification of this requires the development of potent and selective inhibitors of H2S-generating enzymes.
Denson, Thomas F.; Lickel, Brian; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Nandy, Anirvan; Maddox, Keith B.
Previous work has shown differential amygdala response to African-American faces by Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, behavioral studies have demonstrated the existence of skin tone bias, the tendency to prefer light skin to dark skin. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether skin tone bias moderates differential race-related amygdala activity. Eleven White participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces with varied skin tone (light, dark). Replicating past research, greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White faces. Furthermore, dark-skinned targets elicited more amygdala activity than light-skinned targets. However, these results were qualified by a significant interaction between race and skin tone, such that amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-skinned White targets. PMID:18985117
Chen, Ao; Stevens, Catherine J.; Kager, René
Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains namely music. Using a visual fixation paradigm, 100 and one 4- and 12-month-old Dutch infants were tested on their discrimination of Chinese rising and dipping lexical tones as well as comparable three-note musical pitch contours. The 4-month-old infants failed to show a discrimination effect in either condition, whereas the 12-month-old infants succeeded in both conditions. These results suggest that lexical tone perception may reflect and relate to general pitch perception abilities, which may serve as a basis for developing more complex language and musical skills. PMID:28337157
Broadwater, Margaret A; Spear, Linda P
We have shown that adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence exhibit a deficit in the retention of context fear, reminiscent of that normally seen in preweanling rats. However, preweanlings have been reported to exhibit a potentiation of context fear when they are conditioned in the presence of a tone. Therefore, this study examined context retention 24 hr after tone or context conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intragastrically to 4 g/kg ethanol or water every 48 hr (total of 11 exposures) during adolescence [Postnatal day (P) 28-48] or adulthood (P70-90). Approximately 3 weeks following exposure, retention of fear to the context in animals exposed to ethanol during adolescence was attenuated after context conditioning, but enhanced after tone conditioning. Comparable adult ethanol exposure groups showed typical overshadowing of context fear retention after tone conditioning. These data suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure may induce an immature pattern of cognitive processing.
Brogdon, W G
Through digital sampling and resampling at 5,000 and 20,000 Hz of amplified mosquito flight sound, baseline separation was observed for flight tone frequency distributions of male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. arabiensis Patton, An. merus Donitz, and An. melas Theobald. Males of the 4 species showed flight tones considerably higher than females. Up to 7 harmonics were measured for each species. Close correspondence for each individual mosquito of the means of the flight tone harmonics (corrected for harmonic number) demonstrated the accuracy and precision of the method. These data indicate that flight tone differences have been subjected to selection and may act as an isolating mechanism for mating or serve some other behavioral purpose in these mosquitoes. Individuals and swarms of sympatric species were distinguished from each other for both males and females, but the allopatric species, An. merus and An. melas, were indistinguishable.
Hall, M D; Pastore, R E
In a variant of duplex perception with speech, phoneme perception is maintained when distinguishing components are presented below intensities required for separate detection, forming the basis for the claim that a phonetic module takes precedence over nonspeech processing. This finding is replicated with music chords (C major and minor) created by mixing a piano fifth with a sinusoidal distinguishing tone (E or E flat). Individual threshold intensities for detecting E or E flat in the context of the fixed piano tones are established. Chord discrimination thresholds defined by distinguishing tone intensity were determined. Experiment 2 verified masked detection thresholds and subliminal chord identification for experienced musicians. Accurate chord perception was maintained at distinguishing tone intensities nearly 20 dB below the threshold for separate detection. Speech and music findings are argued to demonstrate general perceptual principles.
Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon
Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913
Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.
Reports the results of a study that investigated patterns of judgmental discriminations and preferences with regard to tone quality versus intonation of accompanied flute and oboe duet performances of simple melodies among music and nonmusic graduate and undergraduate students. (AM)
Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.
Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.
Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.
OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345
White, Louise J.; Plack, Christopher J.
Previous research has shown that fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds for complex tones containing unresolved harmonics decrease as the duration of the tone increases [White and Plack, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2051-2063 (1998)]. In this paper F0 discrimination was measured as a function of duration for complexes with F0s of 62.5, 125, and 250 Hz, bandpass filtered into two spectral regions (2750-3750 and 5500-7500 Hz). The harmonics were summed either in sine phase (SINE) or with alternating sine-cosine phase (ALT), which affects the envelope of the waveform and the pitch of the complex. Tone duration was 20, 40, 80, and 160 ms. The improvement in F0 discrimination with duration increased with decreasing F0. When harmonics where spectrally filtered between 2750 and 3750 Hz, for complexes with an F0 of 62.5 Hz, F0 discrimination thresholds decreased from approximately 30% for a 20-ms tone to approximately 3% for a 160-ms tone. For complexes with an F0 of 250 Hz, thresholds decreased from 3% for a 20-ms tone to 1% for a 160-ms tone: a lower envelope repetition rate led to a larger change in performance with increasing duration. The phase manipulation also affected the size of the duration effect, in that the effect was less for an ALT complex compared to a SINE complex with the same F0, consistent with the change in envelope repetition rate. Overall, the results suggest that for unresolved complex tones it is primarily envelope repetition rate, not spectral region, that determines both the F0 discrimination threshold and the size of the duration effect.
Koopmann, G. H.; Fox, D. J.; Neise, W.
An active source method is shown to effectively cancel the blade tone fundamental and harmonics in centrifugal fans for a variety of fan loading conditions and duct terminations. The special case is considered where the frequency of the blade tone harmonics lies just above the cut-on frequency of the first higher order mode of the fan ducting. The results suggest that the present active control mechanism involves a local alteration of the aerodynamic source pressures.