Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal nuclear morphology

  1. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  2. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  3. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B.; Navara, Christopher S.; Schatten, Gerald P.

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  4. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B; Navara, Christopher S; Schatten, Gerald P

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  5. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  6. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  7. Role of Abnormal Sperm Morphology in Predicting Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shabtaie, Samuel A; Gerkowicz, Sabrina A; Kohn, Taylor P; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of strict morphology for predicting successful pregnancy has been controversial, nevertheless remains an essential component of semen analysis. Patients with teratozoospermia (abnormal strict morphology) have traditionally been counseled to undergo assisted reproduction. However, recent studies suggest that patients with abnormal sperm morphology alone should not be precluded from attempting natural conception before undergoing assisted reproduction. The goal of this review is to provide an update on the evaluation of sperm morphology for prognosis in assisted reproductive techniques such as intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Additionally, we propose a logical approach to the evaluation of a patient with teratozoospermia seeking fertility treatment. PMID:27469478

  8. Morphology of nuclear transcription.

    PubMed

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Gene expression control is a fundamental determinant of cellular life with transcription being the most important step. The spatial nuclear arrangement of the transcription process driven by RNA polymerases II and III is nonrandomly organized in foci, which is believed to add another regulatory layer on gene expression control. RNA polymerase I transcription takes place within a specialized organelle, the nucleolus. Transcription of ribosomal RNA directly responds to metabolic requirements, which in turn is reflected in the architecture of nucleoli. It differs from that of the other polymerases with respect to the gene template organization, transcription rate, and epigenetic expression control, whereas other features are shared like the formation of DNA loops bringing genes and components of the transcription machinery in close proximity. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the understanding of the structural prerequisites of nuclear transcription, of the arrangement in the nuclear volume, and of the dynamics of these entities. Here, we compare ribosomal RNA and mRNA transcription side by side and review the current understanding focusing on structural aspects of transcription foci, of their constituents, and of the dynamical behavior of these components with respect to foci formation, disassembly, and cell cycle. PMID:26847177

  9. Nuclear abnormalities of marine fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Strunjak-Perovic, I; Topic Popovic, N; Coz-Rakovac, R; Jadan, M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (NA) including micronuclei (MN) in cultured and wild sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and wild mullet Mugil spp. Seasonal sampling was performed at seven locations along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The frequency of NA and MN was positively correlated to temperature (NA: P < 0.05, r = 0.11; MN P < 0.05, r = 0.10), and there was also a positive correlation between NA and MN frequency (P < 0.001, r = 0.43). The lowest NA and MN values for both fish species were recorded in spring, while the highest were recorded in autumn. Significantly higher frequency of NA was seen in D. labrax compared to Mugil spp., while MN frequency was low in both species and not significantly different. There was no significant difference in NA and MN frequency between cultured and wild D. labrax sampled in the same month, and there was no difference between wild Mugil spp. sampled near or far from fish farms. In view of sampling sites, the highest values were detected in fishes from the Limski Channel, the lowest from the Janjina location.

  10. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  11. CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

  12. A morphologic study of unfertilized oocytes and abnormal embryos in human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bałakier, H; Casper, R F

    1991-04-01

    The morphology of human, unfertilized oocytes and abnormal embryos cultured in vitro for 48-72 hr was examined in an attempt to learn more about oocyte maturation and reproductive failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF). About 21% of the unfertilized oocytes were totally degenerated. The majority (56%) of the remaining oocytes was arrested at the metaphase II stage. They contained coherent chromosomal plates and had extruded the first polar body with nuclear material. About 13% of oocytes underwent spontaneous activation. In most of these cases the second polar body was retained and many subnuclei or one big nucleus was formed. Five percent of metaphase II oocytes penetrated by sperm were not activated, likely as a result of oocyte immaturity. The developmental ability of abnormal embryos was poor. Several one-cell-stage zygotes were arrested at the pronuclear stage or at mitosis of the first mitotic division. Polyspermic embryos, especially those which contained four or more pronuclei, did not divide or formed uneven, multinucleated blastomeres. However, some triploid and tetraploid embryos often appeared normal morphologically despite their lethal chromosomal abnormalities.

  13. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  14. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. PMID:26384603

  15. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0-5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population.

  16. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  17. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage.

    PubMed

    Masse, P G; Colombo, V E; Gerber, F; Howell, D S; Weiser, H

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of vitamin B6 would produce morphological characteristics of osteochondral lathyrism. To accomplish this goal, morphological characteristics of chick cartilage in which lathyrism was produced by two separate dietary regimens was compared to morphological changes encountered in vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 deficiency should reduce activity of lysyloxidase needed for producing intermolecular cross-links. The question to be addressed was: would this latter deficiency impair collagen morphological features and secondarily other structures indirectly by reducing collagen molecular assembly? Failure of cross-linking of collagen in the positive controls was related to a lack of functional aldehyde cross-link intermediates which are blocked by homocysteine and aminoacetonitrile. Day-old-male Lohmann chicks were fed adequate (6 mg/kg) or vitamin B6-deficient diets. Cross-link defects were induced by homocysteine-rich diets (0.6% w/w) or a diet containing aminoacetonitrile (0.1% w/w). Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age and Ossa tarsalia articular cartilage specimens, as well as the proximal end of tarsometatarsus were dissected from the tibial metatarsal joint, a major weight-bearing site. Light microscopic observations revealed reduction of subarticular trabecular bone formation, concurrent with overexpansion of the hypertrophic cell zone. Ultrastructural electron microscopy observation of articular fibro-cartilage indicated significant thickening of collagen fibers in vitamin B6 deficient birds, as well as the positive controls in comparison to that of cage-matched control birds. It was concluded that vitamin B6 deficient cross-linking may be responsible for the observed delay in bone development and aforementioned cartilage histological alterations.

  18. Abnormal aortic arch morphology in Turner syndrome patients is a risk factor for hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Devos, Daniël; Van Herck, Koen; Demulier, Laurent; Buysse, Wesley; De Schepper, Jean; De Wolf, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.

  19. Abnormal morphology of myelin and axon pathology in murine models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bando, Yoshio; Nomura, Taichi; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Murakami, Koichi; Tanaka, Tatsuhide; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigetaka

    2015-02-01

    Demyelination and axonal damage are responsible for neurological deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. However, the pathology of axonal damage in MS is not fully understood. In this study, histological analysis of morphological changes of axonal organelles during demyelination in murine models was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using an osmium-maceration method. In cuprizone-induced demyelination, SEM showed typical morphology of demyelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain. In contrast, SEM displayed variations in ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin structures and axonal organelles in spinal cord white matter of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an animal model of MS. Myelin detachment and excessive myelin formation were observed as typical morphological myelin abnormalities in EAE. In addition, well-developed axoplasmic reticulum-like structures and accumulated mitochondria were observed in tortuous degenerating/degenerated axons and the length of mitochondria in axons of EAE spinal cord was shorter compared with naïve spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry also revealed dysfunction of mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery in EAE spinal cord axons. Moreover, the number of Y-shaped mitochondria was significantly increased in axons of the EAE spinal cord. Axonal morphologies in myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice were similar to those in EAE. However, shiverer mice had "tortuous" (S-curve shaped mitochondria) and larger mitochondria compared with wild-type and EAE mice. Lastly, analysis of human MS patient autopsied brains also demonstrated abnormal myelin structures in demyelinating lesions. These results indicate that morphological abnormalities of myelin and axonal organelles play important role on the pathogenesis of axonal injury in demyelinating diseases.

  20. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexia; Östlund, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and “blinded” electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials. PMID:21326826

  1. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  2. Experience Rate of Elbow Pain and Morphological Abnormality of Humeral Medial Epicondyle among Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kida, Yoshikazu; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Kabuto, Yukichi; MInami, Masataka; Onishi, Okihiro; Tsujihara, Takashi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the experience rate of elbow pain and to clarify the relationship between morphological abnormality of the humeral medial epicondyle and positions among baseball players in elementary school (ES), junior high school (JHS) and high school (HS). Methods: In this study, 4353 baseball players who participated in our medical screening (2008-2015) were enrolled. There were 1545 players from ES, 1934 players from JHS, and 874 players from HS. We asked them to answer the questionnaire to investigate the experience of elbow pain, and the position they played. Ultrasonography of the humeral medial epicondyle was examined and irregularity, fragmentation, and malunion of the humeral medial epicondyle. The results were analyzed statistically. P < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results: The experience rates of elbow pain among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 26.0%, 27.0%, and 68.3%. The rates of abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 18.2%, 36.3%, and 39.9% (Table 1). The experience rate of elbow pain among pitchers and catchers was significantly higher than the fielders in ES (Table 2), however, there were no significant differences between positions in JHS and HS (Table 3,4). According to the rate of morphological abnormalities of humeral medial epicondyle, pitchers and catchers were significantly higher than fielders in ES, while only pitchers were significantly higher than the fielders in JHS and HS (Table 2,3,4). Conclusion: The experience rate of elbow pain among baseball players rose as the age increased, and the rate in HS was almost 70%. The rates of morphological abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among pitchers and catchers were high and the tendency was observed from a young age. The primary prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball players of all ages should be considered.

  3. Abnormalities of sperm morphology in cases of persistent infertility after vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, R J; Overstreet, J W; Lewis, E L

    1982-07-01

    Persistent infertility after vasectomy reversal by vasovasostomy may be due to irreversible changes in epididymal physiology, producing morphologic abnormalities of the sperm tail. Specimens from 29 men with persistent infertility following vasectomy reversal were analyzed and sperm motility and morphology were evaluated. the percentage of motile sperm was below normal in 23 specimens. Swimming speed evaluation on 20 specimens showed only 4 were below the normal range. In 19 of the 29 specimens, 10% or more of the sperm cells examined were characterized by a normal head and a coiled or shortened tail. Within this group, the percentage of sperm with tail abnormalities ranged from 2-64%, with a mean of 18.1%. The appearance of sperm tail abnormalities in conjunction with normal or high sperm concentrations suggests a disturbance of epididymal physiology. The epididymal environment is required for the final maturation of spermatazoa and the acquisition of normal motility and fertilizing ability. The study results suggest that these epididymal functions may be impaired in some men after vasectomy. A case report of a 32 year old man who had a vasectomy 7 years prior to referral to the evaluation group, and a successful vasovasostomy 2 years prior, revealed only 20% of the sperm evaluated in the initial specimen had the normal head and tail shape. His semen volume was 3.5 ml with a sperm concentration of 250 million/ml. 25% of the sperm were motile. Reexamination of the semen 8 times during the next year showed no significant changes. The cervical mucus penetration test showed no abnormalities of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction. When the motile sperm were spearated from the immotile cells and incubated with zona-free hamster eggs, all of the eggs were penetrated. Attempts were unsuccessful to isolate sufficient numbers of motile cells for artificial insemination, however, a normal pregnancy was conceived 1 year after the initial evaluation without additional therapy

  4. The limitations of in vitro fertilization from males with severe oligospermia and abnormal sperm morphology.

    PubMed

    Yovich, J L; Stanger, J D

    1984-09-01

    Thirty-one patients whose infertility was attributed to oligospermia were included for treatment by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Three subgroups were defined: severe oligospermia (less than or equal to 5 million motile sperm/ml), moderate oligospermia (6 to less than 12 million motile sperm/ml), and abnormal sperm morphology (greater than 60% atypical). The fertilization rates were compared to those of a normospermic group managed concurrently. A modified overlay technique of sperm preparation is described for oligospermic samples so that the number of motile spermatozoa inseminated into each tube or culture dish containing a mature preovulatory oocyte was similar in each category, within the range 0.5 to 2 X 10(5)/ml. Significantly fewer oocytes were fertilized in the severe oligospermic group (P less than 0.001), suggesting a reduced capacity for fertilization by spermatozoa from severely oligospermic males. The fertilization rate of oocytes was normal in the moderate oligospermic group and those with abnormal morphology, although in the latter there was a significant delay noted in reaching the pronuclear stage (P less than 0.001), and the embryos were at a less advanced stage of cleavage at the time of transfer (0.001 less than P less than 0.01). Pregnancies were achieved in both the severe and the moderate oligospermic groups, with healthy infants delivered from each.

  5. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. PMID:20708230

  6. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  7. Abnormal surface morphology of the central sulcus in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Wang, Shaoyi; Li, Xinwei; Li, Qiongling; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the primary motor and somatosensory areas, and its three-dimensional (3D) anatomy reveals the structural changes of the sensorimotor regions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with sensorimotor and executive function deficits. However, it is largely unknown whether the morphology of the CS alters due to inappropriate development in the ADHD brain. Here, we employed the sulcus-based morphometry approach to investigate the 3D morphology of the CS in 42 children whose ages spanned from 8.8 to 13.5 years (21 with ADHD and 21 controls). After automatic labeling of each CS, we computed seven regional shape metrics for each CS, including the global average length, average depth, maximum depth, average span, surface area, average cortical thickness, and local sulcal profile. We found that the average depth and maximum depth of the left CS as well as the average cortical thickness of bilateral CS in the ADHD group were significantly larger than those in the healthy children. Moreover, significant between-group differences in the sulcal profile had been found in middle sections of the CSs bilaterally, and these changes were positively correlated with the hyperactivity-impulsivity scores in the children with ADHD. Altogether, our results provide evidence for the abnormity of the CS anatomical morphology in children with ADHD due to the structural changes in the motor cortex, which significantly contribute to the clinical symptomatology of the disorder.

  8. Considerations on morphological abnormalities of permanent teeth in children with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Răducanu, Anca Maria; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Feraru, Ion Victor; Dumitrache, Mihaela Adina; Hănţoiu, Tudor Alexandru; Ionescu, Ecaterina

    2015-01-01

    Oral clefts are commonly associated with dental anomalies of number, size, shape, structure, position and eruption affecting both dentitions. Dental malformations may affect the development, growth and functions of the dento-maxillary apparatus (chewing, aesthetics, speech). The purpose of this paper was to assess the dental morphological variations in a group of patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), as compared with a group of healthy subjects. The study sample included 48 patients with various types of CLP (15 girls and 33 boys) aged between 12.6 years and 17.3 years. The control group (without CLP) consisted of 1447 patients (545 girls and 903 boys). The proportion of patients with dental shape anomalies in the control group was 8.6%, while the proportion of patients with dental shape anomalies in the CLP group was 56.3% (p<0.01). With this regards, the frontal area was more affected in CLP group than controls. The most common morphological abnormality in the control group was supplementary cusp, while in the CLP sample it was dilaceration. Teeth from the dental hemiarch affected by CLP were most affected in their morphology.

  9. Abnormal surface morphology of the central sulcus in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuyu; Wang, Shaoyi; Li, Xinwei; Li, Qiongling; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the primary motor and somatosensory areas, and its three-dimensional (3D) anatomy reveals the structural changes of the sensorimotor regions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with sensorimotor and executive function deficits. However, it is largely unknown whether the morphology of the CS alters due to inappropriate development in the ADHD brain. Here, we employed the sulcus-based morphometry approach to investigate the 3D morphology of the CS in 42 children whose ages spanned from 8.8 to 13.5 years (21 with ADHD and 21 controls). After automatic labeling of each CS, we computed seven regional shape metrics for each CS, including the global average length, average depth, maximum depth, average span, surface area, average cortical thickness, and local sulcal profile. We found that the average depth and maximum depth of the left CS as well as the average cortical thickness of bilateral CS in the ADHD group were significantly larger than those in the healthy children. Moreover, significant between-group differences in the sulcal profile had been found in middle sections of the CSs bilaterally, and these changes were positively correlated with the hyperactivity-impulsivity scores in the children with ADHD. Altogether, our results provide evidence for the abnormity of the CS anatomical morphology in children with ADHD due to the structural changes in the motor cortex, which significantly contribute to the clinical symptomatology of the disorder. PMID:26379511

  10. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

  11. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  12. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

  13. Abnormal Morphology of Fibrillin Microfibrils in Fibroblast Cultures from Patients with Neonatal Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Maurice; Raghunath, Michael; Cisler, Jason; Bevins, Charles L.; DePaepe, Anne; Di Rocco, Maja; Gregoritch, Jane; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Kaplan, Paige; Kuroki, Yoshikazu; Silberbach, Michael; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Van Thienen, Marie-Noëlle; Vetter, Ulrich; Steinmann, Beat

    1995-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder manifested by variable and pleiotropic features in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The average life span in MFS is about 35 years. A group with much more severe cardiovascular disease and a mean life span of approximately I year also exists. We refer to this latter group as “neonatal Marfan syndrome” (nMFS). Fibrillin defects are now known to be the cause of MFS and nMFS. Immunofluorescence studies were the first to demonstrate this association. Here we describe immunofluorescence studies in a series of 10 neonates and summarize their salient clinical features. In vitro accumulation of fibrillin reactive fibers was assayed using monoclonal antibodies to fibrillin in hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures. As was previously observed in MFS, fibroblast cultures from nMFS patients showed an apparent decrease in accumulation of immunostainable fibrillin. Significantly, however, the morphology of the immunostained fibrils in the nMFS cultures were abnormal and differed not only from control cultures, but also from those seen in cultures of MFS fibroblasts. The nMFS fibrils appeared short, fragmented, and frayed, characteristics that are not seen in MFS. Both the clinical and fibrillin morphology data provide evidence to suggest a useful subclassification of nMFS in the spectrum of MFS. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7778680

  14. Abnormal Subcortical Brain Morphology in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cui Ping; Bai, Zhi Lan; Zhang, Xiao Na; Zhang, Qiu Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the involvement of subcortical brain structures in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and persistent pain as the defining symptom of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), little attention has been paid to the morphometric measurements of these subcortical nuclei in patients with KOA. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential morphological abnormalities of subcortical brain structures in patients with KOA as compared to the healthy control subjects by using high-resolution MRI. Structural MR data were acquired from 26 patients with KOA and 31 demographically similar healthy individuals. The MR data were analyzed by using FMRIB’s integrated registration and segmentation tool. Both volumetric analysis and surface-based shape analysis were performed to characterize the subcortical morphology. The normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in the KOA group than in the control group (P = 0.004). There was also a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus in KOA as compared to the control group (P = 0.027). Detailed surface analyses further localized these differences with a greater involvement of the left hemisphere (P < 0.05, corrected) for the caudate nucleus. Hemispheric asymmetry (right larger than left) of the caudate nucleus was found in both KOA and control groups. Besides, no significant correlation was found between the structural data and pain intensities. Our results indicated that patients with KOA had statistically significant smaller normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus and a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus as compared to the control subjects. Further investigations are necessary to characterize the role of caudate nucleus in the course of chronicity of pain associated with KOA. PMID:26834629

  15. Kinesin family 17 (osmotic avoidance abnormal-3) is dispensable for photoreceptor morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Tam, Beatrice M; Ying, Guoxing; Wu, Sen; Hauswirth, William W; Frederick, Jeanne M; Moritz, Orson L; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, homodimeric [kinesin family (KIF) 17, osmotic avoidance abnormal-3 (OSM-3)] and heterotrimeric (KIF3) kinesin-2 motors are required to establish sensory cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT) where KIF3 and KIF17 cooperate to build the axoneme core and KIF17 builds the distal segments. However, the function of KIF17 in vertebrates is unresolved. We expressed full-length and motorless KIF17 constructs in mouse rod photoreceptors using adeno-associated virus in Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors using a transgene and in ciliated IMCD3 cells. We found that tagged KIF17 localized along the rod outer segment axoneme when expressed in mouse and X. laevis photoreceptors, whereas KIF3A was restricted to the proximal axoneme. Motorless KIF3A and KIF17 mutants caused photoreceptor degeneration, likely through dominant negative effects on IFT. KIF17 mutant lacking the motor domain translocated to nuclei after exposure of a C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Germ-line deletion of Kif17 in mouse did not affect photoreceptor function. A rod-specific Kif3/Kif17 double knockout mouse demonstrated that KIF17 and KIF3 do not act synergistically and did not prevent rhodopsin trafficking to rod outer segments. In summary, the nematode model of KIF3/KIF17 cooperation apparently does not apply to mouse photoreceptors in which the photosensory cilium is built exclusively by KIF3. PMID:26229057

  16. Whole mount nuclear fluorescent imaging: convenient documentation of embryo morphology.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Lisa L; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Here, we describe a relatively inexpensive and easy method to produce high quality images that reveal fine topological details of vertebrate embryonic structures. The method relies on nuclear staining of whole mount embryos in combination with confocal microscopy or conventional wide field fluorescent microscopy. In cases where confocal microscopy is used in combination with whole mount nuclear staining, the resulting embryo images can rival the clarity and resolution of images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescent nuclear staining may be performed with a variety of cell permeable nuclear dyes, enabling the technique to be performed with multiple standard microscope/illumination or confocal/laser systems. The method may be used to document morphology of embryos of a variety of organisms, as well as individual organs and tissues. Nuclear stain imaging imposes minimal impact on embryonic specimens, enabling imaged specimens to be utilized for additional assays.

  17. Egestion of asbestos fibers in Tetrahymena results in early morphological abnormalities. A step in the induction of heterogeneous cell lines?

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1989-01-01

    In Tetrahymena populations exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers, many cells develop morphological abnormalities within 1-2 hours. The abnormalities are mainly large or small protrusions or indentations, or flattened parts of the cell surface and most often located in the posterior part of the cell. They are formed repeatedly in all cells but are also continuously repaired so that the fraction of cells affected represents an equilibrium between these two processes. Their formation is connected with egestion of the large bundles of fibers formed by phagocytosis. Such effects of egestion of fibers do not seem to have been reported previously. Egestion of a bundle of fibers is much slower than for other types of undigestible residues. In contrast to normal exocytosis occurring invariably at the cytoproct, egestion of asbestos often occurs in the posterior part of the cell outside the cytoproct. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of either very slow or extra-cytoproctal egestion in Tetrahymena. Cells with large abnormalities have a greater tendency to develop into "early heterogeneous" cells than the average abnormal cell. Some of these give rise to hereditarily stable heterogeneous cell lines of Tetrahymena. The morphological abnormalities are probably caused by mechanical action of the crocidolite fibers resulting in local damage of the cytoskeletal elements responsible for normal cell shape. The heterogenous cell lines may arise when cellular structures carrying non-genic cytotactically inherited information are modified. The relevance of these ideas to the induction of cancer by asbestos is briefly discussed.

  18. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p < 0.001). It was associated with a cluster of other dentate developmental abnormalities that reflect defective neuronal proliferation, migration, and/or survival. Dentate lesions in a large subset of infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death. PMID:25421424

  19. Seasonality of nuclear abnormalities in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (L.) erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Strunjak-Perovic, Ivancica; Coz-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Topic Popovic, Natalija; Jadan, Margita

    2009-06-01

    The frequencies of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, such as irregularly shaped (ISN), vacuolated nuclei (VN), binucleated cells (BN), including micronuclei (MN), were monitored in the peripheral blood of cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) from the southern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) and assessed for a relation to seasonality. Fish were sampled in February, April, June, and September. The lowest frequencies of ISN and MN were measured in April, and the lowest frequencies of VN and BN were found in February. The highest values of ISN and BN were detected in September. The highest values of MN and the most frequent occurrence of VN occurred in June and April, respectively. The Spearman rank order correlation test revealed a significant positive correlation between the frequencies of ISN, BN and MN; VN did not correlate with any of the measured parameters. The ISN had significantly higher nuclear surface area values than normal nuclei (P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that the measured parameters displayed a distinct seasonality. Consequently, we conclude that seasonal variations should be taken into account when nuclear abnormalities are used as biomarkers. This variation should be well understood in order to successfully separate true contamination effects from seasonal factors that have the potential to affect the frequency and occurrence of nuclear abnormalities.

  20. Studies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells of Colossoma macropomum exposed to methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; da Cunha, Lorena Araújo; da Silva Pinheiro, Raul Henrique; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and morphological nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), treated with 2 mg.L−1 methylmercury (MeHg), were analyzed. Two groups (nine specimens in each) were exposed to MeHg for different periods (group A - 24 h; group B - 120 h). A third group served as negative control (group C, untreated; n = 9). Although, when compared to the control group there were no significant differences in MN frequency in the treated groups, for NA, the differences between the frequencies of group B (treated for 120 h) and the control group were extremely significant (p < 0.02), thus demonstrating the potentially adverse effects of MeHg on C. macropomum erythrocytes after prolonged exposure. PMID:22215976

  1. Nuclear Morphology and Deformation in Engineered Cardiac Myocytes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Feinberg, Adam W.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering requires finely-tuned manipulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment to optimize internal myocardial organization. The myocyte nucleus is mechanically connected to the cell membrane via cytoskeletal elements, making it a target for the cellular response to perturbation of the ECM. However, the role of ECM spatial configuration and myocyte shape on nuclear location and morphology is unknown. In this study, printed ECM proteins were used to configure the geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Engineered one- and two-dimensional tissue constructs and single-myocyte islands were assayed using live fluorescence imaging to examine nuclear position, morphology and motion as a function of the imposed ECM geometry during diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction. Image analysis showed that anisotropic tissue constructs cultured on microfabricated ECM lines possessed a high degree of nuclear alignment similar to that found in vivo; nuclei in isotropic tissues were polymorphic in shape with an apparently random orientation. Nuclear eccentricity was also increased for the anisotropic tissues, suggesting that intracellular forces deform the nucleus as the cell is spatially confined. During systole, nuclei experienced increasing spatial confinement in magnitude and direction of displacement as tissue anisotropy increased, yielding anisotropic deformation. Thus, the nature of nuclear displacement and deformation during systole appears to rely on a combination of the passive myofibril spatial organization and the active stress fields induced by contraction. Such findings have implications in understanding the genomic consequences and functional response of cardiac myocytes to their ECM surroundings under conditions of disease. PMID:20382423

  2. Epididymal Hypo-Osmolality Induces Abnormal Sperm Morphology and Function in the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Knockout Mouse1

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Avenel; Shur, Barry D.; Ko, CheMyong; Chambon, Pierre; Hess, Rex A.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) is highly expressed in the efferent ductules of all species studied as well as in the epididymal epithelium in mice and other select species. Male mice lacking ESR1 (Esr1KO) are infertile, but transplantation studies demonstrated that Esr1KO germ cells are capable of fertilization when placed in a wild-type reproductive tract. These results suggest that extratesticular regions, such as the efferent ductules and epididymis, are the major source of pathological changes in Esr1KO males. Previous studies have shown alterations in ion and fluid transporters in the efferent duct and epididymal epithelia of Esr1KO males, leading to misregulation of luminal fluid pH. To determine the effect of an altered epididymal milieu on Esr1KO sperm, we assayed sperm morphology in the different regions of the epididymis. Sperm recovered from the epididymis exhibited abnormal flagellar coiling and increased incidence of spontaneous acrosome reactions, both of which are consistent with exposure to abnormal epididymal fluid. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the osmolality of the Esr1KO fluid was reduced relative to wild type, consistent with prior reports of inappropriate fluid absorption from the efferent ductules. This, along with the finding that morphological defects increased with transit through the epididymal duct, suggests that the anomalies in sperm are a consequence of the abnormal luminal environment. Consistent with this, incubating Esr1KO sperm in a more wild-type-like osmotic environment significantly rescued the abnormal flagellar coiling. This work demonstrates that Esr1KO mice exhibit an abnormal fluid environment in the lumen of the efferent ducts and epididymis, precluding normal sperm maturation and instead resulting in progressive deterioration of sperm that contributes to infertility. PMID:20130266

  3. Abnormal XPD-induced nuclear receptor transactivation in DNA repair disorders: trichothiodystrophy and xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Khan, Sikandar G; Tamura, Deborah; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Compe, Emmanuel; Egly, Jean-Marc; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-08-01

    XPD (ERCC2) is a DNA helicase involved in nucleotide excision repair and in transcription as a structural bridge tying the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) core with the cdk-activating kinase complex, which phosphorylates nuclear receptors. Mutations in XPD are associated with several different phenotypes, including trichothiodystrophy (TTD), with sulfur-deficient brittle hair, bone defects, and developmental abnormalities without skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), with pigmentary abnormalities and increased skin cancer, or XP/TTD with combined features, including skin cancer. We describe the varied clinical features and mutations in nine patients examined at the National Institutes of Health who were compound heterozygotes for XPD mutations but had different clinical phenotypes: four TTD, three XP, and two combined XP/TTD. We studied TFIIH-dependent transactivation by nuclear receptor for vitamin D (VDR) and thyroid in cells from these patients. The vitamin D stimulation ratio of CYP24 and osteopontin was associated with specific pairs of mutations (reduced in 5, elevated in 1) but not correlated with distinct clinical phenotypes. Thyroid receptor stimulation ratio for KLF9 was not significantly different from normal. XPD mutations frequently were associated with abnormal VDR stimulation in compound heterozygote patients with TTD, XP, or XP/TTD. PMID:23232694

  4. Morphological abnormalities in frogs from a rice-growing region in NSW, Australia, with investigations into pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Spolyarich, Nicholas; Hyne, Ross V; Wilson, Scott P; Palmer, Carolyn G; Byrne, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Three frog species (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, Limnodynastes fletcheri and Litoria raniformis) were surveyed in rice bays of the Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), NSW, Australia, during the rice-growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. A total external morphological abnormality index of 7.0% was observed in frogs of the CIA (n=1,209). The types and frequencies of abnormalities were typical of reports from agricultural areas with ectrodactyly being the most common aberration. A relatively low abnormality index of 1.2% was observed in L. raniformis (n=87) compared to indices of 7.1% and 8.2% observed in L. fletcheri (n=694) and L. tasmaniensis (n=428), respectively. No conclusive evidence was found of unnaturally high rates of intersex, gonadal maldevelopment or unbalanced sex ratios in any species. Rice bay surface waters differed significantly in mean pesticide concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor on farms growing rice and corn compared to farms with rice as the sole crop. However, the similar abnormality indices observed in recent metamorphs emerging from these two farm types provided no evidence to suggest a link between larval exposure to the measured pesticides and developmental malformations.

  5. Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tirali, R. Ebru; Sar, Cagla; Ates, Ufuk; Kizilkaya, Metin; Cehreli, S. Burcak

    2013-01-01

    Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly. PMID:23476813

  6. Abnormal Nuclear Variations in Response to Radiotherapy- As a Tool in Treatment Planning and Assessment of Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Manisha; Kaur, Sohinder; Reddy, K.S.; Pasi, Rachna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The treatment approaches for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) include single management with surgery, radiotherapy, along with chemotherapy or various combinations of these modalities. The estimation of radio sensitivity of individual tumours is essential for planning the optimum radiation schedule for each patient. Assessment of radiation induced histo morphological changes in the nucleus is a known marker of radiosensitivity. Aim The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between nuclear changes with radiation dose and to investigate the prospect of utilizing them as an assay to predict tumour response to radiotherapy in oral cancers. Materials and Methods The present study included 50 patients (age range of 30-65yrs) with histopathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa and being treated by radiotherapy alone with a radiation dose schedule of 4, 14, 24 and 60 Gy respectively at 2nd, 7th, 12th and 30th day. From the included patients, smear of the buccal mucosa was collected and was air dried and fixed with methanol. The Nuclear changes of Micronucleus (MN), Nuclear Budding (NB) and Multinucleation (MNU) were evaluated under the bright field microscopy after staining with Giemsa and May-Grunwald’s stain. Results Out of the 50, 37(74%) were males and 13(26%) were females (Ratio 3:1). The mean percentage increase of MN and MNU were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001) when compared with pre-treatment day. Similar findings were seen with NB, except between pretreatment and after 14 Gy (p-0.110). In the present study the measurement of relative increment index done in respect to all nuclear abnormalities show a sustained increase with increasing dosage of radiation. Conclusion The present study, was undertaken to explore the possibility of establishing a relationship between the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities in patients with oral cancer with applied dosage and duration of radiotherapy. The

  7. Abnormal tenocyte morphology is more prevalent than collagen disruption in asymptomatic athletes' patellar tendons.

    PubMed

    Cook, J L; Feller, J A; Bonar, S F; Khan, K M

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of each of the four features of patellar tendinosis in asymptomatic athletic subjects undergoing patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty subjects (39 males and 11 females) undergoing ACL reconstruction using a patellar tendon graft were screened for previous tendon symptoms, training and playing history and had their patellar tendons examined with ultrasound prior to surgery. During surgery, a small piece of proximal posterocentral tendon was harvested, fixed and examined under light microscopy. Histopathological changes were graded for severity. Results demonstrate that 18 tendons were abnormal on light microscopy and 32 were normal. There were no differences between subjects with and without pathology in respect of training, recovery after surgery and basic anthropometric measures. Three tendons were abnormal on ultrasound but only one had proximal and central changes. Tendons showed a consistent series of changes. Tenocyte changes were found in all but one of the abnormal tendons. In all but one of the tendons with increased ground substance there were tenocyte changes, and collagen separation was always associated with both tenocyte changes and increased ground substance. No tendons demonstrated neovascularization. It appears that cellular changes must be present if there is an increase in ground substance, or collagen and vascular changes. Further research is required to confirm these findings.

  8. Abnormal morphology of nanocrystalline Mn-Zn ferrite sintered by pulse electric current sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yu, Liming; Yuan, Shujuan; Zhang, Shouhua; Zhao, Xinluo

    2009-11-01

    Nanocrystalline manganese-zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite powders prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method are sintered to form bulk ferrite by pulse electric current sintering technique. The sample phase, before sintering and after sintering, is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the sample is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the bulk ferrite obtained has a pure spinel structure. With special graphite die, a special morphology is observed, which is explained by pressure, temperature and induced electromagnetic field.

  9. Assessment of nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leonardo da Cunha Menezes; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Transmission and reception of mobile telephony signals take place through electromagnetic wave radiation, or electromagnetic radiofrequency fields, between the mobile terminal and the radio base station. Based on reports in the literature on adverse effects from exposure to this type of radiation, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of such exposure, by means of the micronucleus test on exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium. The sample included 45 individuals distributed in 3 groups according to the amount of time in hours per week (t) spent using mobile phones: group I, t > 5 h; group II, t > 1 h and ≤ 5 h; and group III, t ≤ 1 h. Cells from the oral mucosa were analyzed to assess the numbers of micronuclei, broken egg structures and degenerative nuclear abnormalities indicative of apoptosis (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis and pyknosis) or necrosis (karyolysis in addition to these changes). The occurrences of micronuclei and degenerative nuclear abnormalities did not differ between the groups, but the number of broken egg (structures that may be associated with gene amplification) was significantly greater in the individuals in group I (p < 0.05).

  10. Nuclear kinesis, neurite sprouting and abnormal axonal projections of cone photoreceptors in the aged and AMD-afflicted human retina.

    PubMed

    Pow, David V; Sullivan, Robert K P

    2007-05-01

    Tissues often respond to damage by recapitulating developmental programs. We have investigated whether anatomical signs of developmental recapitulation are evident in cone photoreceptors of the aged and AMD-afflicted human retina. Radial migration of cell nuclei mediated by microtubules is a characteristic feature of cells in the developing retina. Similarly, neurite outgrowth is a feature of developing neurons. We have examined whether nuclear kinesis and neurite outgrowth from cone photoreceptors is evident. Calbindin-positive cone photoreceptor nuclei are normally positioned as a single layer of somata at the outer border of the outer nuclear layer. In AMD-afflicted retinae, many nuclei are translocated, with some somata abutting the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and others outside the outer limiting membrane whilst many nuclei are present at intermediate levels. The axonal processes of many cones were also aberrant, displaying tortuous pathways as they projected to the OPL, with occasional evidence for bifurcation at points where the axon changed direction. We suggest that tangential extension of collateral neurites and the rapid retraction of the original process may give rise to the tortuous axonal projections observed. Since microtubules are key mediators of both neurite extension and nuclear kinesis we examined expression of microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) which is an important regulator of neurite extension. The strong expression of MAP2 observed in those cells with aberrant morphologies supports the notion that abnormal microtubule-mediated remodelling events are present in the AMD retina and to a lesser extent in normal aged retinas, allowing cone photoreceptors to recapitulate two key features of development.

  11. Abnormal infant islet morphology precedes insulin resistance in PCOS-like monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Lindsey E; O'Brien, Timothy D; Dumesic, Daniel A; Grogan, Tristan; Tarantal, Alice F; Abbott, David H

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is prevalent in reproductive-aged women and confounded by metabolic morbidities, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although the etiology of PCOS is undefined, contribution of prenatal androgen (PA) exposure has been proposed in a rhesus monkey model as premenopausal PA female adults have PCOS-like phenotypes in addition to insulin resistance and decreased glucose tolerance. PA female infants exhibit relative hyperinsulinemia, suggesting prenatal sequelae of androgen excess on glucose metabolism and an antecedent to future metabolic disease. We assessed consequences of PA exposure on pancreatic islet morphology to identify evidence of programming on islet development. Islet counts and size were quantified and correlated with data from intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT) obtained from dams and their offspring. Average islet size was decreased in PA female infants along with corresponding increases in islet number, while islet fractional area was preserved. Infants also demonstrated an increase in both the proliferation marker Ki67 within islets and the beta to alpha cell ratio suggestive of enhanced beta cell expansion. PA adult females have reduced proportion of small islets without changes in proliferative or apoptotic markers, or in beta to alpha cell ratios. Together, these data suggest in utero androgen excess combined with mild maternal glucose intolerance alter infant and adult islet morphology, implicating deviant islet development. Marked infant, but subtle adult, morphological differences provide evidence of islet post-natal plasticity in adapting to changing physiologic demands: from insulin sensitivity and relative hypersecretion to insulin resistance and diminished insulin response to glucose in the mature PCOS-like phenotype. PMID:25207967

  12. Cancer, reproductive abnormalities, and diabetes in Micronesia: the effect of nuclear testing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Seiji

    2004-09-01

    Many suggest that cancer and other diseases in Micronesia have been caused by nuclear testing in the Pacific. The 50-year commemoration of the March 1, 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test has rekindled interest in this area. This paper explores the documentation for, and the plausibility of, claims for disease causation by nuclear testing. Given the sheer volume of testing that the US conducted in the Pacific, it appears plausible that excess cancer would have occurred in areas of Micronesia other than the Marshall Islands. An excess of birth abnormalities in the Marshall Islands has been documented. While diabetes is not a radiogenic disease, and other cancers are generally less radiogenic than leukemia or thyroid cancer, the social and cultural effects of nuclear testing specifically, and the strategic uses to which Micronesia has been put generally, have had roles in the social production of disease. Integration into a globalized, cosmopolitan economy-with attendant phenomena such as the importation of tobacco, alcohol, foods of poor nutritional value, and new cultural morés-are also factors. PMID:16281703

  13. Can Signal Abnormalities Detected with MR Imaging in Knee Articular Cartilage Be Used to Predict Development of Morphologic Cartilage Defects? 48-Month Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Gersing, Alexandra S; Mbapte Wamba, John; Nevitt, Michael C; McCulloch, Charles E; Link, Thomas M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence with which morphologic articular cartilage defects develop over 48 months in cartilage with signal abnormalities at baseline magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in comparison with the incidence in articular cartilage without signal abnormalities at baseline. Materials and Methods The institutional review boards of all participating centers approved this HIPAA-compliant study. Right knees of 90 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (mean age, 55 years ± 8 [standard deviation]; 51% women) with cartilage signal abnormalities but without morphologic cartilage defects at 3.0-T MR imaging and without radiographic osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence score, 0-1) were frequency matched for age, sex, Kellgren-Lawrence score, and body mass index with right knees in 90 subjects without any signal abnormalities or morphologic defects in the articular cartilage (mean age, 54 years ± 5; 51% women). Individual signal abnormalities (n = 126) on intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo MR images were categorized into four subgrades: subgrade A, hypointense; subgrade B, inhomogeneous; subgrade C, hyperintense; and subgrade D, hyperintense with swelling. The development of morphologic articular cartilage defects (Whole-Organ MR Imaging Score ≥2) at 48 months was analyzed on a compartment level and was compared between groups by using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Cartilage signal abnormalities were more frequent in the patellofemoral joint than in the tibiofemoral joint (59.5% vs 39.5%). Subgrade A was seen more frequently than were subgrades C and D (36% vs 22%). Incidence of morphologic cartilage defects at 48 months was 57% in cartilage with baseline signal abnormalities, while only 4% of compartments without baseline signal abnormalities developed morphologic defects at 48 months (all compartments combined and each compartment separately, P < .01). The development of morphologic defects was not significantly

  14. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  15. Relationship of abnormal Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein localization to renal morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R; Groufsky, A; Hunt, J S; Lynn, K L; McGiven, A R

    1986-07-01

    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (TH) distribution was studied using a biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase technique in renal biopsies from 166 consecutive patients and 8 normal kidneys. Tubulointerstitial damage was independently assessed and graded. In 109 patients TH antibodies were measured by ELISA and in 30 of these urinary TH and beta 2-microglobulin excretions were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 124 biopsies only distal tubular epithelium and casts were stained. Glomerular space (8) or interstitial (34) deposits were seen in 42 biopsies; 16/68 with glomerulonephritis, 4/14 with systemic vasculitis, 12/33 with chronic interstitial nephritis, 1/8 with acute interstitial nephritis, 9/43 with other nephropathies. There was no correlation between TH distribution and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage (p greater than 0.5), urinary TH excretion (p greater than 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin excretion (p greater than 0.05), glomerular filtration rate, urinary concentrating ability, or the incidence of pyuria. TH antibodies did not correlate with TH distribution (p greater than 0.5) or the degree of tubulointerstitial damage. Abnormal TH distribution showed no statistical relationship to the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, changes in renal function or levels of TH antibodies.

  16. Biochemical and morphological changes associated with long bone abnormalities in silicon deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, E M

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate long bone changes in silicon deficiency more extensively and under a new set of conditions. Long bone abnormalities have been produced in silicon-deficient chicks fed a casein-based rather than amino acid-based diet and under an entirely new set of conditions. As demonstrated previously feeding amino acid diets, the long bones of cockerels fed a silicon-supplemented basal diet and sacrificed at 4 weeks had a significantly greater amount of articular cartilage and water content as compared with the silicon-deficient group. Biochemical analyses of tibia for bone mineral, non-collagenous protein, hexosamine and collagen demonstrated that tibia from supplemented chicks had a significantly greater percentage and total amount of hexosamine and greater percentage of collagen than deficient chicks, the difference being greater for hexosamines than collagen. Tibia from silicon-deficient chicks also showed marked lesions, profound changes being demonstrated in epiphyseal cartilage, especially striking in the proliferative zone. The disturbed epiphyseal cartilage sequences resulted in defective endochondral bone growth indicating that silicon is involved in the metabolic chain of events required for the normal growth of bone.

  17. Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Trainer, Vera L; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2004-02-10

    The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular concern because the embryos and larvae of some marine fish species may be unable to actively avoid the dissolved toxins that algal cells release into the water column during harmful algal blooms. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model experimental system to explore the sublethal effects of a dissolved PSP toxin, saxitoxin (STX), on early development in fish, including sensorimotor function, morphology, and long-term growth and survival. Aqueous phase exposures of 229 +/- 7 microg STX eq. l(-1) caused reductions in sensorimotor function as early as 48 h postfertilization (hpf) and paralysis in all larvae by 4 days postfertilization (dpf). Rohon-Beard mechanosensory neurons appeared to be more sensitive to STX than dorsal root ganglion neurons at this dose. Additionally, exposure to 481 +/- 40 microg STX eq. l(-1) resulted in severe edema of the eye, pericardium, and yolk sac in all exposed larvae by 6 dpf. The onset of paralysis in STX-exposed larvae was stage-specific, with older larvae becoming paralyzed more quickly than younger larvae (5 h at 6 dpf as compared to 8 and 46 h for 4 and 2 dpf larvae, respectively). When transferred to clean water, many larvae recovered from the morphological and sensorimotor effects of STX. Thus, the sublethal effects of the toxin on larval morphology and behavior were reversible. However, zebrafish exposed to STX transiently during larval development (from 2 to 4 dpf) had significantly reduced growth and survival at 18 and 30 days of age. Collectively, these data show that (1) dissolved phase STX is bioavailable to fish

  18. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lischinsky, Julieta E.; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10–12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  19. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  20. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders.

  1. Exposure of C. elegans eggs to a glyphosate-containing herbicide leads to abnormal neuronal morphology.

    PubMed

    McVey, Kenneth A; Snapp, Isaac B; Johnson, Megan B; Negga, Rekek; Pressley, Aireal S; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to a high-use glyphosate-containing herbicide, Touchdown (TD), potentially damages the adult nervous system. It is unknown, however, whether unhatched worms exposed to TD during the egg stage show abnormal neurodevelopment post-hatching. Therefore, we investigated whether early treatment with TD leads to aberrant neuronal or neurite development in C. elegans. Studies were completed in three different worm strains with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurons to facilitate visual neuronal assessment. Initially, eggs from C. elegans with all neurons tagged with GFP were chronically exposed to TD. Visual inspection suggested decreased neurite projections associated with ventral nerve cord neurons. Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in overall green pixel numbers at the fourth larval (L4) stage (*p<0.05). We further investigated whether specific neuronal populations were preferentially vulnerable to TD by treating eggs from worms that had all dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons tagged with GFP. As before, green pixel number associated with these discrete neuronal populations was analyzed at multiple larval stages. Data analysis indicated statistically significant decreases in pixel number associated with DAergic, but not GABAergic, neurons (***p<0.001) at all larval stages. Finally, statistically significant decreases (at the first larval stage, L1) or increases (at the fourth larval stage, L4) in superoxide levels, a developmental signaling molecule, were detected (*p<0.05). These data suggest that early exposure to TD may impair neuronal development, perhaps through superoxide perturbation. Since toxic insults during development may late render individuals more vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases in adulthood, these studies provide some of the first evidence in this model organism that early exposure to TD may adversely

  2. Exposure of C. elegans eggs to a glyphosate-containing herbicide leads to abnormal neuronal morphology.

    PubMed

    McVey, Kenneth A; Snapp, Isaac B; Johnson, Megan B; Negga, Rekek; Pressley, Aireal S; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to a high-use glyphosate-containing herbicide, Touchdown (TD), potentially damages the adult nervous system. It is unknown, however, whether unhatched worms exposed to TD during the egg stage show abnormal neurodevelopment post-hatching. Therefore, we investigated whether early treatment with TD leads to aberrant neuronal or neurite development in C. elegans. Studies were completed in three different worm strains with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurons to facilitate visual neuronal assessment. Initially, eggs from C. elegans with all neurons tagged with GFP were chronically exposed to TD. Visual inspection suggested decreased neurite projections associated with ventral nerve cord neurons. Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in overall green pixel numbers at the fourth larval (L4) stage (*p<0.05). We further investigated whether specific neuronal populations were preferentially vulnerable to TD by treating eggs from worms that had all dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons tagged with GFP. As before, green pixel number associated with these discrete neuronal populations was analyzed at multiple larval stages. Data analysis indicated statistically significant decreases in pixel number associated with DAergic, but not GABAergic, neurons (***p<0.001) at all larval stages. Finally, statistically significant decreases (at the first larval stage, L1) or increases (at the fourth larval stage, L4) in superoxide levels, a developmental signaling molecule, were detected (*p<0.05). These data suggest that early exposure to TD may impair neuronal development, perhaps through superoxide perturbation. Since toxic insults during development may late render individuals more vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases in adulthood, these studies provide some of the first evidence in this model organism that early exposure to TD may adversely

  3. Anatomical equivalence class based complete morphological descriptor for robust image analysis and abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Sajjad; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    Groupwise registration and statistical analysis of medical images are of fundamental importance in computational anatomy, where healthy and pathologic anatomies are compared relative to their differences with a common template. Accuracy of such approaches is primarily determined by the ability of finding perfectly conforming shape transformations, which is rarely achieved in practice due to algorithmic limitations arising from biological variability. Amount of the residual information not reflected by the transformation is, in fact, dictated by template selection and is lost permanently from subsequent analysis. In general, an attempt to aggressively minimize residual results in biologically incorrect correspondences, necessitating a certain level of regularity in the transformation at the cost of accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a framework for groupwise registration and statistical analysis of biomedical images that optimally fuses the information contained in a diffeomorphism and the residual to achieve completeness of representation. Since the degree of information retained in the residual depends on transformation parameters such as the level of regularization, and template selection, our approach consists of forming an equivalence class for each individual, thereby representing them via nonlinear manifolds embedded in high dimensional space. By employing a minimum variance criterion and constraining the optimization to respective anatomical manifolds, we proceed to determine their optimal morphological representation. A practical ancillary benefit of this approach is that it yields optimal choice of transformation parameters, and eliminates respective confounding variation in the data. Resultantly, the optimal signatures depend solely on anatomical variations across subjects, and may ultimately lead to more accurate diagnosis through pattern classification.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  5. Conditional Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related R1441C LRRK2 in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons of Mice Causes Nuclear Abnormalities without Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Kannan, Meghna; Foo, Caroline Shi-Yan; Dikeman, Dustin; Glauser, Liliane; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Knott, Graham W.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical and neurochemical features of LRRK2-linked PD are similar to idiopathic disease although neuropathology is somewhat heterogeneous. Dominant mutations in LRRK2 precipitate neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism which can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing human LRRK2 variants. A number of LRRK2 transgenic mouse models have been developed that display abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and alterations in tau metabolism yet without consistently inducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. To directly explore the impact of mutant LRRK2 on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, we developed conditional transgenic mice that selectively express human R1441C LRRK2 in dopaminergic neurons from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter. The expression of R1441C LRRK2 does not induce the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficits in mice up to 2 years of age, and fails to precipitate abnormal protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein, tau, ubiquitin or autophagy markers (LC3 and p62). Furthermore, mice expressing R1441C LRRK2 exhibit normal motor activity and olfactory function with increasing age. Intriguingly, the expression of R1441C LRRK2 induces age-dependent abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in nigral dopaminergic neurons including reduced nuclear circularity and increased invaginations of the nuclear envelope. In addition, R1441C LRRK2 mice display increased neurite complexity of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these novel R1441C LRRK2 conditional transgenic mice reveal altered dopaminergic neuronal morphology with advancing age, and provide a useful tool for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the R1441C LRRK2 mutation in PD. PMID:25174890

  6. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  7. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties.

  8. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  9. Potential uses, limitations, and basic procedures of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

  10. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  11. Morphological abnormalities during early-life development of the estuarine mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as an indicator of androgenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C; Maclatchy, Deborah L; Bérubé, Céline H; Hewitt, L Mark; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2005-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gross morphological abnormalities are a sensitive indicator of exposure to waterborne androgenic and anti-androgenic compounds during embryonic, larval and juvenile stages of development in the common estuarine killifish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus; Pisces: Cyprinodontidae). Static exposures with daily renewal were carried out with 10-100,000 ng/L of the androgen agonist, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), or the androgen antagonist, cyproterone acetate (CA), for 60 days post-fertilization (PF) in duplicate exposures. Measured concentrations were 78.4-155.8% of nominal concentrations for MT and 13.5-168.1% for CA. No dose-related or consistent effects of MT or CA were observed before hatch. In 60 days PF juveniles, incidence of skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, lordosis, head, facial and fin), soft tissue abnormality (anal swelling) and hemorrhaging were significantly increased by MT but only at high concentrations (> or =1000 ng/L). The 10,000 and 100,000 ng/L concentrations of MT produced a wider range of abnormalities than 1000ng/L. Over 90% of fish exposed to 10,000 or 100,000 ng/L were abnormal with an average of over 3.5 abnormalities per fish. CA did not increase the incidence of any type of abnormality. Survival of juveniles to the end of the exposure was reduced by MT at concentrations of 1000 ng/L and greater in the first experiment and at concentrations of 10,000 ng/L and greater in the second experiment. Juvenile length was reduced by high concentrations of MT (> or =10,000 ng/L) in the first experiment and by most concentrations in the second experiment. We conclude that morphological abnormalities in early-life stages of mummichogs are not a sensitive indicator of exposure to androgenic or anti-androgenic waterborne EDSs at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  12. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  13. Expression of ERα and PR in Various Morphological Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding-Endometrial causes in Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Chaurasia, Amrita; Dhingra, Vishal; Misra, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is most common gynaecological problem but its management is not well defined. So FIGO/PALMCOEIN classification was developed to provide clear management options as treatment is different in PALM and AUB-E group. FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification and immunohistochemistry with ERα and PR expression in AUB-E group will be helpful in management of these patients, thus preventing surgical interventions. Aim To study histomorphological classification according to FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification in patients presenting with AUB into PALM and AUB-E group. To study the receptor expression of ERα and PR in AUB-E group. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed in patients presenting with AUB in reproductive age group (15-45 years). Six hundred endometrial specimens were stained with H&E for histolomorphological examination and classified as per FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification of AUB in non-gravid women in reproductive age group. Fifty endometrial biopsies were of pregnancy and pregnancy related complications and were excluded from study. A total of 550 samples were evaluated in present study. IHC for quantification of ERα and PR expression was carried out in AUB-E (100) cases and control group endometrium (20) cases due to technical constraints. Statistical Analysis Unpaired student t-test was performed. p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results Endometrial (58.19%) (AUB-E) causes were most common cause of AUB. Most common morphology was AUB-E (Proliferative endometrium), AUB-L (Leiomyoma) and AUB-E (Secretory endometrium) respectively. Statistically significant expression of ERα and PR was found in AUB-E endometrium as compared to control group endometrium. In Non secretory/Proliferative endometrium AUB-E group. Proliferative endometrium and hyperplasia without atypia had significant expression of ERα and PR in glands and stroma when compared with proliferative phase control group

  14. Plant lignan secoisolariciresinol suppresses pericardial edema caused by dioxin-like compounds in developing zebrafish: Implications for suppression of morphological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Saimi; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J

    2016-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) enter the body mainly through diet and cause various toxicological effects through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated transcription factor. Some plant extracts and phytochemicals are reported to suppress this transformation. However, most of these reports have been from in vitro experiments and few reports have been from in vivo experiments. In addition, there has been no report of foodstuffs that effectively prevent AhR-associated morphological abnormalities such as deformities caused by dioxins and DLCs in vivo. In this study, we show that secoisolariciresinol (SECO), a natural lignan-type polyphenolic phytochemical found mainly in flaxseed, has a rescuing effect, actually suppressing morphological abnormalities (pericardial edema) in zebrafish embryos exposed to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB congener. Importantly, the rescuing effect of SECO was still evident when it was applied 16 h after the beginning of exposure to PCB126. This study suggests that SECO may be useful as a natural suppressive agent for morphological abnormalities caused by dioxins and DLCs. PMID:27427306

  15. Computational image analysis of nuclear morphology associated with various nuclear-specific aging disorders.

    PubMed

    Choi, Siwon; Wang, Wei; Ribeiro, Alexandrew J S; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Gregg, Siobhan Q; Opresko, Patricia L; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Rohde, Gustavo K; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2011-01-01

    Computational image analysis is used in many areas of biological and medical research, but advanced techniques including machine learning remain underutilized. Here, we used automated segmentation and shape analyses, with pre-defined features and with computer generated components, to compare nuclei from various premature aging disorders caused by alterations in nuclear proteins. We considered cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) with an altered nucleoskeletal protein; a mouse model of XFE progeroid syndrome caused by a deficiency of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair nuclease; and patients with Werner syndrome (WS) lacking a functional WRN exonuclease and helicase protein. Using feature space analysis, including circularity, eccentricity, and solidity, we found that XFE nuclei were larger and significantly more elongated than control nuclei. HGPS nuclei were smaller and rounder than the control nuclei with features suggesting small bumps. WS nuclei did not show any significant shape changes from control. We also performed principle component analysis (PCA) and a geometric, contour based metric. PCA allowed direct visualization of morphological changes in diseased nuclei, whereas standard, feature-based approaches required pre-defined parameters and indirect interpretation of multiple parameters. Both methods yielded similar results, but PCA proves to be a powerful pre-analysis methodology for unknown systems.

  16. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients.

  17. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  18. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  19. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  20. The involvement of MCT-1 oncoprotein in inducing mitotic catastrophe and nuclear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung-Ju; Chu, Kang-Lin; Wu, Meng-Hsun; Wu, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Wen; Chu, Jan-Show; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Takeuchi, Hideki; Ouchi, Toru; Hsu, Hsin-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Centrosome amplification and chromosome abnormality are frequently identified in neoplasia and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these defects remain unclear. We here identify that MCT-1 is a centrosomal oncoprotein involved in mitosis. Knockdown of MCT-1 protein results in intercellular bridging, chromosome mis-congregation, cytokinesis delay, and mitotic death. Introduction of MCT-1 oncogene into the p53 deficient cells (MCT-1-p53), the mitotic checkpoint kinases and proteins are deregulated synergistically. These biochemical alterations are accompanied with increased frequencies of cytokinesis failure, multi-nucleation, and centrosome amplification in subsequent cell cycle. As a result, the incidences of polyploidy and aneuploidy are progressively induced by prolonged cell cultivation or further promoted by sustained spindle damage on MCT-1-p53 background. These data show that the oncoprotein perturbs centrosome structure and mitotic progression, which provide the molecular aspect of chromsomal abnormality in vitro and the information for understanding the stepwise progression of tumors under oncogenic stress.

  1. A live infant with trisomy 14 mosaicism and nuclear abnormalities of the neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dallapiccola, B; Ferranti, G; Giannotti, A; Novelli, G; Pasquini, L; Porfirio, B

    1984-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 14 is described in a patient with severe developmental retardation and congenital malformations. Together with a few previous reports, this case suggests the existence of a syndrome associated with this chromosome imbalance. Hitherto unrecognised manifestations of trisomy 14 mosaicism were, in our patient, abnormalities of the neutrophil nuclei, which consisted of multiple pedunculated or sessile projections, similar to those characteristically associated with trisomy 13 syndrome. Images PMID:6512839

  2. Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Ozolek, John A; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2014-07-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing.

  3. Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning

    PubMed Central

    Ozolek, John A.; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2014-01-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. PMID:24835183

  4. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  5. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. PMID:26796967

  6. Nuclear nano-morphology markers of histologically normal cells detect the "field effect" of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rajan K; Wang, Pin; Bhargava, Rohit; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Yang

    2012-08-01

    Accurate detection of breast malignancy from histologically normal cells ("field effect") has significant clinical implications in a broad base of breast cancer management, such as high-risk lesion management, personalized risk assessment, breast tumor recurrence, and tumor margin management. More accurate and clinically applicable tools to detect markers characteristic of breast cancer "field effect" that are able to guide the clinical management are urgently needed. We have recently developed a novel optical microscope, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy, which extracts the nanoscale structural characteristics of cell nuclei (i.e., nuclear nano-morphology markers), using standard histology slides. In this proof-of-concept study, we present the use of these highly sensitive nuclear nano-morphology markers to identify breast malignancy from histologically normal cells. We investigated the nano-morphology markers from 154 patients with a broad spectrum of breast pathology entities, including normal breast tissue, non-proliferative benign lesions, proliferative lesions (without and with atypia), "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue, and invasive carcinoma. Our results show that the nuclear nano-morphology markers of "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue can detect the presence of invasive breast carcinoma with high accuracy and do not reflect normal aging. Further, we found that a progressive change in nuclear nano-morphology markers that parallel breast cancer risk, suggesting its potential use for risk stratification. These novel nano-morphology markers that detect breast cancerous changes from nanoscale structural characteristics of histologically normal cells could potentially benefit the diagnosis, risk assessment, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Morphology, star formation, and nuclear activity in void galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, Sophia; Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Pazar, Beni; Alfvin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We report on new Chandra observations of six early-type galaxies located within cosmic voids, from a program examining the influence of Mpc-scale environment upon star formation and low-level supermassive black hole activity. Simple feedback prescriptions are predicted to operate independently of the surrounding density once outside the dark matter halo, and further link star formation quenching to black hole activity. Alternatively, mediation of the cold gas supply by the large-scale environment, for example through increased cold-stream accretion and reduced harassment or stripping within more isolated regions, could mutually enhance star formation and (perhaps indirectly) low-level supermassive black hole activity. The six targeted early-type galaxies have comparable stellar masses of 6-9e10 solar, chosen to be near the predicted "critical value" for efficient feedback, but span a wide range of star-formation rates. Specifically, they have SFRs of 6.5, 1.4, 0.45, 0.10, 0.04, and 0.03 solar masses per year. All galaxies are detected in the Chandra ACIS-S observations with 0.3-8 keV X-ray luminosities ranging from 2e39 to 1e41 erg/s. Specifically, they have log Lx values of 40.4, 41.1, 41.1, 39.3, 39.2, and 39.2, again ordered by decreasing SFR. The three galaxies with moderate-to-high star formation rates have nuclear X-ray luminosities that are significantly greater than those of the three galaxies with low star formation rates. This result is more consistent with a symbiotic relationship between current low-level star formation and supermassive black hole activity than with simple feedback quenching models. We additionally situate these galaxies in the context of void and cluster galaxies in the local universe, model their optical surface brightness profiles and color gradients, discuss caveats including the possibility of X-ray binary contamination, and consider other supermassive black hole activity indicators.

  8. Altered Sonic hedgehog signaling is associated with morphological abnormalities in the penis of the BB/WOR diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Zelner, David J; Harris, Joseph D; Meroz, Cynthia L; Tang, Yi; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2003-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and debilitating pathological development that affects up to 75% of diabetic males. Neural stimulation is a crucial aspect of the normal erection process. Nerve injury causes ED and disrupts signaling of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) cascade in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa. Shh and targets of its signaling establish normal corpora cavernosal morphology during postnatal differentiation of the penis and regulate homeostasis in the adult. Interruption of the Shh cascade in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa results in extensive changes in corpora cavernosal morphology that lead to ED. Our hypothesis is that the neuropathy observed in diabetics causes morphological changes in the corpora cavernosa of the penis that result in ED. Disruption of the Shh cascade may be involved in this process. We tested this hypothesis by examining morphological changes in the penis, altered gene and protein expression, apoptosis, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the BB/WOR rat model of diabetes. Extensive smooth muscle and endothelial degradation was observed in the corpora cavernosa of diabetic penes. This degradation accompanied profound ED, significantly decreased Shh protein in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa, and increased penile Shh RNA expression in the intact penis (nerves, corpora, and urethra). Localization and expression of Shh targets were also disrupted in the corpora cavernosa. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate Shh signaling may provide valuable insight into improving treatment options for diabetic impotence. PMID:12748119

  9. Abnormal brain aging as a radical-related disease: A new target for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujibayashi, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Waki, A. |

    1996-05-01

    DNA damages caused by endogenously produced radicals are closely correlated with aging. Among them, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions have been reported as a memory of DNA damage by oxygen radicals. In fact, clinical as well as experimental studies indicated the accumulation of deleted mtDNA in the brain, myocardium and son on, in aged subjects. In our previous work, radioiodinated radical trapping agent, p-iodophenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, and hypoxia imaging agent, Cu-62 diacetyl-bis-N-4-methyl-thiosemicarbazone have been developed for the diagnosis of radical-related diseases, such as ischemic, inflammation, cancer or aging. The aim of the present work was to evaluate these agents for brain aging studies. In our university, an unique animal model, a senescence accelerated model mouse (SAM), has been established. Among the various substrains, SAMP8 showing memory deterioration in its young age ({approximately}3 month) was basically evaluated as an abnormal brain aging model with mtDNA deletion. As controls, SAMR1 showing normal aging and ddY mice were used. MtDNA deletion n the brain was analyzed with polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) method, and relationship between mtDNA deletion and brain uptake of IPBN or Cu-62-ATSM was studied. In 1-3 month old SAMP8 brain, multiple mtDNa deletions were already found and their content was significantly higher than that of SAMR1 or age-matched ddY control. Thus, it was cleared that SAMP8 brain has high tendency to be attacked by endogenously produced oxygen radicals, possibly from its birth. Both IPBN and Cu-ATSM showed significantly higher accumulation in the SAMP8 brain than in the SAMR1 brain, indicating that these agents have high possibility for the early detection of abnormal brain aging as a radical-related disease.

  10. Homoplasious colony morphology and mito-nuclear phylogenetic discordance among Eastern Pacific octocorals.

    PubMed

    Ament-Velásquez, Sandra L; Breedy, Odalisca; Cortés, Jorge; Guzman, Hector M; Wörheide, Gert; Vargas, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Octocorals are a diverse and ecologically important group of cnidarians. However, the phylogenetic relationships of many octocoral groups are not well understood and are based mostly on mitochondrial sequence data. In addition, the discovery and description of new gorgonian species displaying unusual or intermediate morphologies and uncertain phylogenetic affinities further complicates the study of octocoral systematics and raises questions about the role played by processes such as plasticity, crypsis, and convergence in the evolution of this group of organisms. Here, we use nuclear (i.e. 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (mtMutS) markers and a sample of Eastern Pacific gorgonians thought to be remarkable from a morphological point of view to shed light on the morphological diversification among these organisms. Our study reveals the loss of the anastomosed colony morphology in two unrelated lineages of the seafan genus Pacifigorgia and offers strong evidence for the independent evolution of a whip-like morphology in two lineages of Eastern Pacific Leptogorgia. Additionally, our data revealed one instance of mito-nuclear discordance in the genera Leptogorgia and Eugorgia, which may be the results of incomplete lineage sorting or ancient hybridization-introgression events. Our study stresses the importance of comprehensive taxonomic sampling and the use of independent sources of evidence to address the phylogenetic relationships and clarifying the evolution of octocorals.

  11. Homoplasious colony morphology and mito-nuclear phylogenetic discordance among Eastern Pacific octocorals.

    PubMed

    Ament-Velásquez, Sandra L; Breedy, Odalisca; Cortés, Jorge; Guzman, Hector M; Wörheide, Gert; Vargas, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Octocorals are a diverse and ecologically important group of cnidarians. However, the phylogenetic relationships of many octocoral groups are not well understood and are based mostly on mitochondrial sequence data. In addition, the discovery and description of new gorgonian species displaying unusual or intermediate morphologies and uncertain phylogenetic affinities further complicates the study of octocoral systematics and raises questions about the role played by processes such as plasticity, crypsis, and convergence in the evolution of this group of organisms. Here, we use nuclear (i.e. 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (mtMutS) markers and a sample of Eastern Pacific gorgonians thought to be remarkable from a morphological point of view to shed light on the morphological diversification among these organisms. Our study reveals the loss of the anastomosed colony morphology in two unrelated lineages of the seafan genus Pacifigorgia and offers strong evidence for the independent evolution of a whip-like morphology in two lineages of Eastern Pacific Leptogorgia. Additionally, our data revealed one instance of mito-nuclear discordance in the genera Leptogorgia and Eugorgia, which may be the results of incomplete lineage sorting or ancient hybridization-introgression events. Our study stresses the importance of comprehensive taxonomic sampling and the use of independent sources of evidence to address the phylogenetic relationships and clarifying the evolution of octocorals. PMID:26953740

  12. Cerebral cortical hypoplasia with abnormal morphology of pyramidal neuron in growth-retarded mouse (grt/grt).

    PubMed

    Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Chika; Aoyama, Junya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize structural abnormalities of the cerebrum in a growth-retarded mouse (grt/grt) with a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase 2 gene defect. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from fixed brains of male homogenous grt/grt (n=5) and heterozygous grt/+ (n=5) mice at 15 weeks of age, and volumes of representative cerebral regions were calculated on the basis of those images. Following CT measurements, cryosections of the brain were made, and immunohistochemistry for NeuN and SMI-32 was carried out. By CT-based volumetry, region-specific reductions in volumes were marked in the cerebral cortex and white matter, but not in other cerebral regions of grt/grt. When quantitatively evaluating the shape of the cerebral cortex, the frontooccipital length of the cortex was significantly smaller in grt/grt than in grt/+, whereas the cortical width was not altered in grt/grt. On the other hand, both cortical thickness and density of NeuN-immunopositive neurons in three distinctive cortical regions, i.e., the primary motor cortex, barrel field of primary somatosensory cortex and primary visual cortex, were not different between grt/grt and grt/+. By semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis, the intensity of SMI-32 immunostaining was significantly weaker in grt/grt than in grt/+ in the three cortical areas examined. SMI-32 staining was reduced, particularly in layer III pyramidal neurons in grt/grt, while it was sustained in multipolar neurons. The present results suggest that cerebral abnormalities in grt/grt mice are characterized by cortical hypoplasia at the frontooccipital axis with immature pyramidal neurons and insufficient development of callosal fibers.

  13. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI). Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1) showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a good predictor of whether the

  14. Common toad Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) and its importance in assessing environmental health: test of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pollo, Favio E; Bionda, Clarisa L; Salinas, Zulma A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities may generate significant changes in the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, so long-term monitoring of populations that inhabit them is crucial. Counting micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) in peripheral blood is a widely used method for detecting chromosomal damage due to chemical agents in the water. We analyzed MN and ENA frequency in blood obtained from the common toad Rhinella arenarum populations in sites with different degrees of environmental degradation. The results of this study indicate that there is an association between the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities and the degree of environmental alteration recorded for the sites studied.

  15. Frequency of micronuclei and of other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of the grey mullet from the Mondego, Douro and Ave estuaries--Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carrola, João; Santos, Nádia; Rocha, Maria J; Fontainhas-Fernandes, António; Pardal, Miguel A; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Fish are bioindicators of water pollution, and an increased rate of their erythrocyte nuclear morphological abnormalities (ENMAs)-and particularly of erythrocyte micronuclei (EMN)-is used as a genotoxicity biomarker. Despite the potential value of ENMAs and MN, there is scarce information about fish captured in Iberian estuaries. This is the case of the Portuguese estuaries of the Mondego, Douro and Ave, suffering from different levels of environmental stress and where chemical surveys have been disclosing significant amounts of certain pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicants impacts and infer about the exposure at those ecosystems, using the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) as bioindicator and considering the type and frequency of nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes as proxies of genotoxicity. Sampling of mullets was done throughout the year in the important Mondego, Douro and Ave River estuaries (centre and north-western Portugal). The fish (total n = 242) were caught in campaigns made in spring-summer and autumn-winter, using nets or fishing rods. The sampled mullets were comparable between locations in terms of the basic biometric parameters. Blood smears were stained with Diff-Quik to assess the frequencies of six types of ENMAs and MN (given per 1,000 erythrocytes). Some basic water physicochemical parameters were recorded to search for fluctuations matching the ENMAs. Overall, the most frequent nucleus abnormality was the polymorphic type, sequentially followed by the blebbed/lobed/notched, segmented, kidney shaped, vacuolated, MN and binucleated. The total average frequency of the ENMAs ranged from 73 ‰ in the Mondego to 108 ‰ in the Ave. The polymorphic type was typically ≥50 % of the total ENMAs, averaging about 51 ‰, when considering all three estuaries. The most serious lesion-the MN-in fish from Mondego and Douro had a similar frequency (≈0.38 ‰), which was significantly lower than that in the Ave (0

  16. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San’ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I.; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP. PMID:26314382

  17. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP. PMID:26314382

  18. Morphological abnormalities of embryonic cranial nerves after in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for the pathogenesis of autism with multiple developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yasura; Oyabu, Akiko; Imura, Yoshio; Uchida, Atsuko; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Autism is often associated with multiple developmental anomalies including asymmetric facial palsy. In order to establish the etiology of autism with facial palsy, research into developmental abnormalities of the peripheral facial nerves is necessary. In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their cranial nerves were visualized by immunostaining. Treatment with VPA after embryonic day 9 had a significant effect on the peripheral fibers of several cranial nerves. Following VPA treatment, immunoreactivity within the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was significantly reduced. Additionally, abnormal axonal pathways were observed in the peripheral facial nerves. Thus, the morphology of several cranial nerves, including the facial nerve, can be affected by prenatal VPA exposure as early as E13. Our findings indicate that disruption of early facial nerve development is involved in the etiology of asymmetric facial palsy, and may suggest a link to the etiology of autism.

  19. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%).

  20. Morphological abnormalities in myelinated nerve fibres caused by Leiurus, Centruroides and Phoneutria venoms and their prevention by tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed

    Love, S; Cruz-Höfling, M A; Duchen, L W

    1986-01-01

    Morphological changes in peripheral nerve caused by the venoms of the scorpions Leiurus quinquestriatus and Centruroides sculpturatus were compared with those caused by Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom. Both scorpion venoms are known to delay the inactivation of sodium currents, Centruroides venom also altering the voltage dependence of sodium gating. Venom was injected by means of a glass micropipette into the sciatic nerves of anaesthetized mice. After survival times ranging from 15 min to 24 h the nerves were examined by light and electron microscopy. The two scorpion venoms caused alterations virtually identical to those produced by Phoneutria venom, which included swelling of the nodal axoplasm and accumulation of fluid in the periaxonal space of myelinated fibres. These alterations were most marked after 1 to 2 h and had largely disappeared by 24 h. Pre-treatment of the nerves with tetrodotoxin, which specifically blocks sodium channels, completely prevented both the nodal axoplasmic swelling and the periaxonal oedema. It seems likely that these effects result from an action common to the three venoms and that this is probably a delay in the inactivation of sodium current at the node of Ranvier.

  1. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  2. Morphological abnormalities and cell death in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) midgut associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Murad; Fattah-Hosseini, Somayeh; Levy, Amit; Cilia, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that is associated with the development of citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB). CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, in a circulative manner. Two major barriers to transmission within the insect are the midgut and the salivary glands. We performed a thorough microscopic analysis within the insect midgut following exposure to CLas-infected citrus trees. We observed changes in nuclear architecture, including pyknosis and karyorrhexis as well as changes to the actin cytoskeleton in CLas-exposed midgut cells. Further analyses showed that the changes are likely due to the activation of programmed cell death as assessed by Annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation assays. These results suggest that exposure to CLas-infected trees induces apoptotic responses in the psyllid midgut that should be further investigated. Understanding the adaptive significance of the apoptotic response has the potential to create new approaches for controlling HLB. PMID:27630042

  3. Morphological abnormalities and cell death in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) midgut associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Murad; Fattah-Hosseini, Somayeh; Levy, Amit; Cilia, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that is associated with the development of citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB). CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, in a circulative manner. Two major barriers to transmission within the insect are the midgut and the salivary glands. We performed a thorough microscopic analysis within the insect midgut following exposure to CLas-infected citrus trees. We observed changes in nuclear architecture, including pyknosis and karyorrhexis as well as changes to the actin cytoskeleton in CLas-exposed midgut cells. Further analyses showed that the changes are likely due to the activation of programmed cell death as assessed by Annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation assays. These results suggest that exposure to CLas-infected trees induces apoptotic responses in the psyllid midgut that should be further investigated. Understanding the adaptive significance of the apoptotic response has the potential to create new approaches for controlling HLB.

  4. Morphological abnormalities and cell death in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) midgut associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Murad; Fattah-Hosseini, Somayeh; Levy, Amit; Cilia, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that is associated with the development of citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB). CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, in a circulative manner. Two major barriers to transmission within the insect are the midgut and the salivary glands. We performed a thorough microscopic analysis within the insect midgut following exposure to CLas-infected citrus trees. We observed changes in nuclear architecture, including pyknosis and karyorrhexis as well as changes to the actin cytoskeleton in CLas-exposed midgut cells. Further analyses showed that the changes are likely due to the activation of programmed cell death as assessed by Annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation assays. These results suggest that exposure to CLas-infected trees induces apoptotic responses in the psyllid midgut that should be further investigated. Understanding the adaptive significance of the apoptotic response has the potential to create new approaches for controlling HLB. PMID:27630042

  5. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Atrazine and Ametrine Induce Micronuclei Formation and Nuclear Abnormalities in Erythrocytes of Fish.

    PubMed

    Botelho, R G; Monteiro, S H; Christofoletti, C A; Moura-Andrade, G C R; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry triple quadrupole direct aqueous injection for analysis of atrazine and ametrine herbicides in surface waters was developed. According to the validation method, water samples from six different locations in the Piracicaba River were collected monthly from February 2011 to January 2012 and injected into a liquid chromatographer/dual mass spectrometer without the need for sample extraction. The method was validated and shown to be precise and accurate; limits of detection and quantification were 0.07 and 0.10 µg L(-1) for atrazine and 0.09 and 0.14 µg L(-1) for ametrine. During the sampling period, concentrations of atrazine ranged from 0.11 to 1.92 µg L(-1) and ametrine from 0.25 to 1.44 µg L(-1). After analysis of the herbicides, Danio rerio were exposed a range of concentrations found in the river water to check the induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes. Concentrations of atrazine and ametrine >1.0 and 1.5 µg L(-1), respectively, induced MN formation in D. rerio. Ametrine was shown to be more genotoxic to D. rerio because a greater incidence of NAs was observed compared with atrazine. Therefore, environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine and ametrine found in the Piracicaba River are dangerous to the aquatic biota. PMID:26081367

  6. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Atrazine and Ametrine Induce Micronuclei Formation and Nuclear Abnormalities in Erythrocytes of Fish.

    PubMed

    Botelho, R G; Monteiro, S H; Christofoletti, C A; Moura-Andrade, G C R; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry triple quadrupole direct aqueous injection for analysis of atrazine and ametrine herbicides in surface waters was developed. According to the validation method, water samples from six different locations in the Piracicaba River were collected monthly from February 2011 to January 2012 and injected into a liquid chromatographer/dual mass spectrometer without the need for sample extraction. The method was validated and shown to be precise and accurate; limits of detection and quantification were 0.07 and 0.10 µg L(-1) for atrazine and 0.09 and 0.14 µg L(-1) for ametrine. During the sampling period, concentrations of atrazine ranged from 0.11 to 1.92 µg L(-1) and ametrine from 0.25 to 1.44 µg L(-1). After analysis of the herbicides, Danio rerio were exposed a range of concentrations found in the river water to check the induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes. Concentrations of atrazine and ametrine >1.0 and 1.5 µg L(-1), respectively, induced MN formation in D. rerio. Ametrine was shown to be more genotoxic to D. rerio because a greater incidence of NAs was observed compared with atrazine. Therefore, environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine and ametrine found in the Piracicaba River are dangerous to the aquatic biota.

  7. Effects of developmental hyperserotonemia on the morphology of rat dentate nuclear neurons.

    PubMed

    Hough, L H; Segal, S

    2016-05-13

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, disordered communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, abnormalities in basic motor control, skilled motor gestures, and motor learning, are common in ASD. These characteristics have been attributed to a possible defect in the pre- and postnatal development of specific neural networks including the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, which is involved in motor learning, automaticity of movements, and higher cognitive functions. The current study utilized custom diolistic labeling and unbiased stereology to characterize morphological alterations in neurons of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in developing rat pups exposed to abnormally high levels of the serotonergic agonist 5-methyloxytryptamine (5-MT) pre-and postnatally. Occurring in as many as 30% of autistic subjects, developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS) is the most consistent neurochemical finding reported in autism and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD. This exposure produced dramatic changes in dendritic architecture and synaptic features. We observed changes in the dendritic branching morphology which did not lead to significant differences (p>0.5) in total dendritic length. Instead, DHS groups presented with dendritic trees that display changes in arborescence, that appear to be short reaching with elaborately branched segments, presenting with significantly fewer (p>0.001) dendritic spines and a decrease in numeric density when compared to age-matched controls. These negative changes may be implicated in the neuropathological and functional/behavioral changes observed in ASD, such as delays in motor learning, difficulties in automaticity of movements, and deficits in higher cognitive functions. PMID:26892293

  8. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; Tunnell, James W; Hunter, Martin; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fulghum, Stephen F; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2006-11-01

    We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy (phi/LSS), a novel technique for assessing epithelial-cell nuclear morphology. The difference between the spectra measured at azimuthal angles phi = 0 degrees and phi = 90 degrees preferentially isolates the single backscattering contribution due to large (approximately 10 microm) structures such as epithelial cell nuclei by discriminating against scattering from smaller organelles and diffusive background. We demonstrate the feasibility of using phi/LSS for cancer detection by showing that spectra from cancerous colon tissue exhibit significantly greater azimuthal asymmetry than spectra from normal colonic tissues. PMID:17041654

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of liquids morphology inside partially saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechifor, Ruben; Badea, Codruta; Ardelean, Ioan

    2009-08-01

    In the present contribution we are investigating the relationship between liquid morphology and relaxation time distribution in partially saturated pores. The filling fluids are acetone (polar) and tetradecane (nonpolar). The porous sample is a silica glass (Vitrapor#5) with the nominal mean pore size is d = 1 μm (± 0.6 μm). All nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments are performed at 20C using a NMR instrument operable at 20 MHz proton resonance frequency. The experimental results are compared with a two phase exchange model providing us information on the strength of surface relaxation.

  10. Metabolic differentiation and classification of abnormal Savda Munziq's pharmacodynamic role on rat models with different diseases by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics

    PubMed Central

    Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Results: Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda. PMID:26600713

  11. Evidence for cryptic speciation in Carchesium polypinum Linnaeus, 1758 (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) inferred from mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological markers.

    PubMed

    Gentekaki, Eleni; Lynn, Denis H

    2010-01-01

    Protist diversity is currently a much debated issue in eukaryotic microbiology. Recent evidence suggests that morphological and genetic diversity might be decoupled in some groups of protists, including ciliates, and that these organisms might be much more diverse than their morphology implies. We sought to assess the genetic and morphological diversity of Carchesium polypinum, a widely distributed peritrich ciliate. The mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA were used to examine genetic diversity. For the morphological assessment, live microscopy and Protargol staining were used. The mitochondrial marker revealed six robust, deeply diverging, and strongly supported clades, while the nuclear gene was congruent for three of these clades. There were no major differences among individuals from the different clades in any of the morphological features examined. Thus, the underlying genetic diversity in C. polypinum is greater than what its morphology suggests, indicating that morphology and genetics are not congruent in this organism. Furthermore, because the clades identified by the mitochondrial marker are so genetically diverse and are confirmed by a conserved nuclear marker in at least three cases, we propose that C. polypinum be designated as a "cryptic species complex." Our results provide another example where species diversity can be underestimated in microbial eukaryotes when using only morphological criteria to estimate species richness.

  12. Aberrant gene expression patterns in placentomes are associated with phenotypically normal and abnormal cattle cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Everts, Robin E; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Razzak, Anthony; Hue, Isabelle; Green, Cheryl A; Oliveira, Rosane; Vignon, Xavier; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Tian, X Cindy; Yang, Xiangzhong; Renard, Jean-Paul; Lewin, Harris A

    2008-03-14

    Transcription profiling of placentomes derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, n = 20), in vitro fertilization (IVF, n = 9), and artificial insemination (AI, n = 9) at or near term development was performed to better understand why SCNT and IVF often result in placental defects, hydrops, and large offspring syndrome (LOS). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to distinguish the effects of SCNT, IVF, and AI on gene expression, taking into account the effects of parturition (term or preterm), sex of fetus, breed of dam, breed of fetus, and pathological finding in the offspring (hydrops, normal, or other abnormalities). Differential expression of 20 physiologically important genes was confirmed with quantitative PCR. The largest effect on placentome gene expression was attributable to whether placentas were collected at term or preterm (i.e., whether the collection was because of disease or to obtain stage-matched controls) followed by placentome source (AI, IVF, or SCNT). Gene expression in SCNT placentomes was dramatically different from AI (n = 336 genes; 276 >2-fold) and from IVF (n = 733 genes; 162 >2-fold) placentomes. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that IVF has significant effects on genes associated with cellular metabolism. In contrast, DEG associated with SCNT are involved in multiple pathways, including cell cycle, cell death, and gene expression. Many DEG were shared between the gene lists for IVF and SCNT comparisons, suggesting that common pathways are affected by the embryo culture methods used for IVF and SCNT. However, the many unique gene functions and pathways affected by SCNT suggest that cloned fetuses may be starved and accumulating toxic wastes due to placental insufficiency caused by reprogramming errors. Many of these genes are candidates for hydrops and LOS.

  13. Mutations in DNAH1, which Encodes an Inner Arm Heavy Chain Dynein, Lead to Male Infertility from Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the Sperm Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  14. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  15. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae): evidence from morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D J; Les, D H; Crow, G E

    1999-09-01

    The genus Nuphar consists of yellow-flowered waterlilies and is widely distributed in north-temperate bodies of water. Despite regular taxonomic evaluation of these plants, no explicit phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the genus. We investigated phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar using morphology and sequences of the chloroplast gene matK and of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two major lineages within Nuphar are consistently resolved with the morphological and molecular data sets. One lineage comprises New World taxa and the other represents a primarily Old World lineage. Relationships within the major lineages were poorly resolved by morphology and ITS, yet certain relationships were elucidated by all analyses. Most notable is the strong support for a monophyletic lineage of dwarf taxa and the alliance of the North American N. microphylla with the Eurasian taxa. Minor discordance between the independent cladograms is accounted for by hybridization. The common taxonomic practice of uniting all North American and Eurasian taxa under one species is not supported phylogenetically.

  17. [Nuclear morphology in false negative and negative rectal biopsies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rilke, F; Clemente, C; Pilotti, S

    1975-01-01

    An typical nuclear structure consisting of a cribriform and condensed chromatin pattern with hyperchromasia, a small nucleolus and a moderately increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was observed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and in the stromal and muscular cells of 51 out of 70 oncologically negative biopsies of the rectal mucosa. The subsequent retrieval of all clinical and histologia data revealed that the 51 cases included 39 of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine either present (15 cases) at a variable distance from the false negative biopsy or removed previously (24 cases), 7 of extra-intestinal malignant tumor (parotid gland, urinary bladder, endometrium, breast, stomach, metastatic, anus) and 5 with benign conditions of the large intestine. Of the remaining 19 cases whose biopsies did not reveal the atypical nuclear structure 16 had benign lesions of the large intestine and nowhere evidence of malignancy, two had an adenocarcinoma of the large bowel (one present and one removed previously) and one a carcinoma of the anus. In the rectal biopsies examined the atypical nuclear structure was detected in 93.9% of the cases with a malignant tumor either present or removed previously and in 19% of the cases with benign conditions. The morphologic evidence indicated that the atypical nuclear structure was compatible with a possible distrubance of the mitotic cycle since the findings were restricted to the generative compartment of rectal epithelium. The results are discussed in connection with their possible practical use as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation and interpretation of false negative and negative rectal biopsies as well as with their possible significance in the biology of tumor-bearing hosts.

  18. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

  19. The morphology of C–S–H: Lessons from {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valori, A.; McDonald, P.J.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2013-07-15

    {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to cement pastes, and in particular calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), for the characterisation of porosity and pore water interactions for over three decades. However, there is now renewed interest in the method, given that it has been shown to be non-invasive, non-destructive and fully quantitative. It is possible to make measurements of pore size distribution, specific surface area, C–S–H density and water fraction and water dynamics over 6 orders of magnitude from nano- to milli-seconds. This information comes in easily applied experiments that are increasingly well understood, on widely available equipment. This contribution describes the basic experiments for a cement audience new to the field and reviews three decades of work. It concludes with a summary of the current state of understanding of cement pore morphology from the perspective of {sup 1}H NMR.

  20. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle.

  1. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae. PMID:26516094

  2. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae.

  3. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A.; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P.; Pires, J. Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene–Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae. PMID:26516094

  4. Quantification of cell, actin, and nuclear DNA morphology with high-throughput microscopy and CalMorph.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Automated image acquisition and processing systems have been developed to quantitatively describe yeast cell morphology. These systems are superior to the preceding qualitative methods in terms of reproducibility, as they completely avoid subjective recognition of images. Because high-throughput microscopy has enabled rapid production of numerous cellular images, reinforcement of high-performance and high-throughput automated image-processing techniques has been in increasing demand in the field of biology. This protocol describes how to use a high-throughput microscope in conjunction with the image-processing software CalMorph, which outputs more than 500 morphological parameters, for quantification of cell, actin, and nuclear DNA morphology.

  5. The relationship of galaxy morphology to nuclear star formation in non-interacting spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Pompea, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Three specific questions concerning the relationship between galactic morphology and infrared properties were addressed for noninteracting galaxies: (1) the scarcity of high infrared luminosity Sa galaxies compared to Sb and Sc; (2) the relationship between the bulge to total luminosity and the infrared properties of early type spirals; and (3) nuclear star formation processes in noninteracting galaxies. These questions were answered using IRAS data, CO (1 to 0) measurements, 2 micron, 10 micron, and visible CCD observations. Only four percent of Sa's in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog (RSAC) with B(gamma) is less than 12 have infrared luminosities 1/6th of the ratio for Sb's and Sc's. Less than three Sa's of 166 in the RSAC have nuclear starbursts not associated with interactions or active nuclei. A comparison of neutral hydrogen fluxes and CO fluxes with infrared fluxes implies that molecular cloud formation is inhibited in Sa's, leading to the lack of infrared activity. An investigation of the role of bulges in suppressing star formation in Sa through Sb spirals relied on the photometric observations of Kent, Kodaira, and Cornell and on IRAS infrared observatories. The results indicate that disk star formation is relatively unaffected by bulge size. The hypothesis that high far-infrared luminosities in noninteracting galaxies are dependent on material fed into the nuclei by bars was tested by near infrared imaging of a sample of 15 optically unbarred galaxies in a search for hidden bars. At least 8 of these galaxies do not appear to have bars. Strong bars therefore are not an absolute requirement for high infrared luminosity.

  6. Investigation of nuclear nano-morphology marker as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment using a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, Rajan K.; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J.; Qiu, Wei; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2012-06-01

    The development of accurate and clinically applicable tools to assess cancer risk is essential to define candidates to undergo screening for early-stage cancers at a curable stage or provide a novel method to monitor chemoprevention treatments. With the use of our recently developed optical technology--spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), we have derived a novel optical biomarker characterized by structure-derived optical path length (OPL) properties from the cell nucleus on the standard histology and cytology specimens, which quantifies the nano-structural alterations within the cell nucleus at the nanoscale sensitivity, referred to as nano-morphology marker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the nuclear nano-morphology marker from histologically normal cells, extracted directly from the standard histology specimens, to detect early-stage carcinogenesis, assess cancer risk, and monitor the effect of chemopreventive treatment. We used a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis--ApcMin mice, which develop multiple intestinal adenomas (Min) due to a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. We found that the nuclear nano-morphology marker quantified by OPL detects the development of carcinogenesis from histologically normal intestinal epithelial cells, even at an early pre-adenomatous stage (six weeks). It also exhibits a good temporal correlation with the small intestine that parallels the development of carcinogenesis and cancer risk. To further assess its ability to monitor the efficacy of chemopreventive agents, we used an established chemopreventive agent, sulindac. The nuclear nano-morphology marker is reversed toward normal after a prolonged treatment. Therefore, our proof-of-concept study establishes the feasibility of the SL-QPM derived nuclear nano-morphology marker OPL as a promising, simple and clinically applicable biomarker for cancer risk assessment and

  7. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Interference with BRCA2, which localizes to the centrosome during S and early M phase, leads to abnormal nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Akira; Han, Xiangzi; Saito, Hiroko; Taguchi, Keiko; Ohta, Yoshiyasu; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Miki, Yoshio; E-mail: miki.mgen@mri.tmd.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    BRCA2 is responsible for familial breast and ovarian cancer, and its gene product is linked to DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. The BRCA2 protein exists mainly in the nucleus. Here, we show that BRCA2 has a centrosomal localization signal (CLS), localizes also to centrosomes during S and early M phases, and may regulate duplication and separation of the centrosomes. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the CLS peptides from BRCA2 (GFP-CLS) localizes to centrosomes and prevents endogenous BRCA2 from localizing to centrosomes. In addition, expression of GFP-CLS in cells leads to the abnormal duplication and positioning of centrosomes, resulting in the generation of multinuclear cells. These results thus implicate BRCA2 in the regulation of the centrosome cycle, and provide new insight into the aneuploid nature of many breast cancers.

  10. Developmental Outcome and Related Abnormalities in Goats: Comparison Between Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer- and In Vivo-Derived Concepti During Pregnancy Through Term.

    PubMed

    Martins, Leonardo Tondello; Neto, Saul Gaudêncio; Tavares, Kaio César Simiano; Calderón, Carlos Enrique Méndez; Aguiar, Luis Henrique; Lazzarotto, Cícera Regina; Ongaratto, Felipe Ledur; Rodrigues, Victor Hugo Vieira; Carneiro, Igor de Sá; Rossetto, Rafael; Almeida, Anderson Pinto; Fernandes, César Carneiro Linhares; Rondina, Davide; Dias, Ana Christina Oliveira; Chies, Jocelei Maria; Polejaeva, Irina A; Rodrigues, José Luiz; Forell, Fabiana; Bertolini, Luciana Relly; Bertolini, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is characterized by low efficiency and the occurrence of developmental abnormalities, which are rather poorly studied phenomena in goats. This study aimed at comparing overall SCNT efficiency in goats by using in vitro-matured (IVM) or in vivo-matured oocytes and fibroblast donor cells (mock transfected, transgenic, or wild type), also characterizing symptoms of the Abnormal Offspring Syndrome (AOS) in development, comparing results with pregnancies produced by artificial insemination (AI) and in vivo-derived (IVD) embryos. The SCNT group had lower pregnancy rate (18.3%, 11/60), total number of concepti (20.0%, 12/60), term births (3.3%, 2/60), and live births (1.7%, 1/60) than both the IVD (77.8%, 7/9; 155.5%, 14/9; 122.2%, 11/9; 88.8%, 8/9) and the AI (71.4%, 10/14; 121.4%, 17/14; 100%, 14/14; 78.5%, 11/14) groups, respectively (p < 0.05). No SCNT pregnancies reached term using IVM oocytes, but in vivo-matured oocytes resulted in two term transgenic cloned kids. The proportion fetal membrane (FM) weight/birth weight reflected an increase in FM size and cotyledonary enlargement in clones, for disproportionally bigger newborns in relation to cotyledonary numbers. Overall, goat cloning showed losses and abnormality patterns similar to the AOS in cloned cattle and sheep, which have not been previously well recognized in goats. PMID:27362734

  11. Impaired Fetoplacental Angiogenesis in Growth-Restricted Fetuses With Abnormal Umbilical Artery Doppler Velocimetry Is Mediated by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong; Yin, Ping; Dyson, Matthew; Coon, John; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Mestan, Karen K.; Ernst, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fetal growth restriction with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (FGRadv), reflective of elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance, is associated with increased risks of fetal morbidity and mortality even in comparison to those of growth-restricted fetuses with normal placental blood flow. One major cause of this abnormally elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance is the aberrantly formed, thin, elongated villous vessels that are seen in FGRadv placentas. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of fetoplacental endothelial cells (ECs) in angiogenesis in normal pregnancies and in those complicated by FGRadv. Design and Participants: Human placental specimens were obtained from FGRadv and gestational age–matched, appropriately grown control pregnancies for EC isolation/culture and for immunohistochemical studies. Additional mechanistic studies were performed on ECs isolated from subjects with term, uncomplicated pregnancies. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated tube formation and differential angiogenic gene expression in FGRadv and control ECs, and we used ECs from uncomplicated pregnancies to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which angiogenesis is impaired in FGRadv pregnancies. Results: Tube formation assays showed that FGRadv ECs demonstrate fewer branch points and total length compared with those from gestational age–matched controls, and this defect was not rescued by exposure to hypoxia. FGRadv ECs also demonstrated lower aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) expression. ARNT knockdown resulted in suppression of key angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor A expression and led to deficient tube formation. Conclusions: ARNT expression in the placental vasculature mediates key angiogenic expression and fetoplacental EC angiogenesis, and low ARNT expression in FGRadv ECs appears to be a key factor in deficient angiogenesis. This, in turn, results in malformed thin

  12. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Greek Isolates of Aspergillus Species Based on Morphology and Nuclear and Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Krimitzas, Antonios; Kouvelis, Vassili N.; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia; Typas, Milton A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus species originating from Greece were examined by morphological and molecular criteria to explore the diversity of this genus. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were determined using sequences from the ITS and IGS region of the nuclear rRNA gene complex, two nuclear genes (β-tubulin (benA) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2)) and two mitochondrial genes (small rRNA subunit (rns) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1)) and, where available, related sequences from databases. The morphological characters of the anamorphs and teleomorphs, and the single gene phylogenetic trees, differentiated and placed the species examined in the well-supported sections of Aenei, Aspergillus, Bispori, Candidi, Circumdati, Clavati, Cremei, Flavi, Flavipedes, Fumigati, Nidulantes, Nigri, Restricti, Terrei, Usti, and Zonati, with few uncertainties. The combined use of the three commonly employed nuclear genes (benA, rpb2, and ITS), the IGS region, and two less often used mitochondrial gene sequences (rns and cox1) as a single unit resolved several taxonomic ambiguities. A phylogenetic tree was inferred using Neighbour-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods. The strains examined formed seven well-supported clades within the genus Aspergillus. Altogether, the concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial sequences offer additional tools for an improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this genus. PMID:23762830

  13. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  14. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  17. Evaluation of hybrid algorithm for analysis of scattered light using ex vivo nuclear morphology measurements of cervical epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Drake, Tyler K; Bentley, Rex C; Valea, Fidel A; Wax, Adam

    2015-08-01

    We evaluate a new hybrid algorithm for determining nuclear morphology using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI) measurements in ex vivo cervical tissue. The algorithm combines Mie theory based and continuous wavelet transform inverse light scattering analysis. The hybrid algorithm was validated and compared to traditional Mie theory based analysis using an ex vivo tissue data set. The hybrid algorithm achieved 100% agreement with pathology in distinguishing dysplastic and non-dysplastic biopsy sites in the pilot study. Significantly, the new algorithm performed over four times faster than traditional Mie theory based analysis. PMID:26309741

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  19. Cell cycle-dependent alteration in NAC1 nuclear body dynamics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hung, Shen-Hsiu; Ren, Tina; Shih, Ie-Ming; Tseng, Yiider

    2011-02-01

    NAC1, a BTB/POZ family member, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the stemness of embryonic stem cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. In ovarian cancer, NAC1 upregulation is associated with disease aggressiveness and with the development of chemoresistance. Like other BTB/POZ proteins, NAC1 forms discrete nuclear bodies in non-dividing cells. To investigate the biological role of NAC1 nuclear bodies, we characterized the expression dynamics of NAC1 nuclear bodies during different phases of the cell cycle. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays revealed that NAC1 was rapidly exchanged between the nucleoplasm and NAC1 nuclear bodies in interphase cells. The number of NAC1 bodies significantly increased and their size decreased in the S phase as compared to the G0/G1 and G2 phases. NAC1 nuclear bodies disappeared and NAC1 became diffuse during mitosis. NAC1 nuclear bodies reappeared immediately after completion of mitosis. These results indicate that a cell cycle-dependent regulatory mechanism controls NAC1 body formation in the nucleus and suggest that NAC1 body dynamics are associated with mitosis or cytokinesis.

  20. Cell cycle-dependent alteration in NAC1 nuclear body dynamics and morphology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hung, Shen-Hsiu; Ren, Tina; Shih, Ie-Ming; Tseng, Yiider

    2011-02-01

    NAC1, a BTB/POZ family member, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the stemness of embryonic stem cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. In ovarian cancer, NAC1 upregulation is associated with disease aggressiveness and with the development of chemoresistance. Like other BTB/POZ proteins, NAC1 forms discrete nuclear bodies in non-dividing cells. To investigate the biological role of NAC1 nuclear bodies, we characterized the expression dynamics of NAC1 nuclear bodies during different phases of the cell cycle. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays revealed that NAC1 was rapidly exchanged between the nucleoplasm and NAC1 nuclear bodies in interphase cells. The number of NAC1 bodies significantly increased and their size decreased in the S phase as compared to the G₀/G₁ and G₂ phases. NAC1 nuclear bodies disappeared and NAC1 became diffuse during mitosis. NAC1 nuclear bodies reappeared immediately after completion of mitosis. These results indicate that a cell cycle-dependent regulatory mechanism controls NAC1 body formation in the nucleus and suggest that NAC1 body dynamics are associated with mitosis or cytokinesis.

  1. Reduction of anabolic signals and alteration of osteoblast nuclear morphology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Rodenacker, Karsten; Jütting, Uta

    2006-10-01

    Bone loss has been repeatedly documented in astronauts after flight, yet little is known about the mechanism of bone loss in space flight. Osteoblasts were activated during space flight in microgravity (microg) with and without a 1 gravity (1 g) field and 24 genes were analyzed for early induction. Induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (cox-2), cpla2, osteocalcin (OC), c-myc, fibroblast growth factor-2 (fgf-2), bcl2, bax, and fgf-2 message as well as FGF-2 protein were significantly depressed in microg when compared to ground (gr). Artificial onboard gravity normalized the induction of c-myc, cox-2, TGFbeta, bax, bcl2, and fgf-2 message as well as FGF-2 protein synthesis in spaceflight samples. In normal gravity, FGF-2 induces bcl2 expression; we found that bcl2 expression was significantly reduced in microgravity conditions. Since nuclear shape is known to elongate in the absence of mitogens like FGF-2, we used high-resolution image-based morphometry to characterize changes in osteoblast nuclear architecture under microgravity, 1 g flight, and ground conditions. Besides changes in cell shape (roundish/elliptic), other high-resolution analyses show clear influences of gravity on the inner nuclear structure. These changes occur in the texture, arrangement, and contrast of nuclear particles and mathematical modeling defines the single cell classification of the osteoblasts. Changes in nuclear structure were evident as early as 24 h after exposure to microgravity. This documented alteration in nuclear architecture may be a direct result of decreased expression of autocrine and cell cycle genes, suggesting an inhibition of anabolic response in microg. Life on this planet has evolved in a normal gravity field and these data suggest that gravity plays a significant role in regulation of osteoblast transcription.

  2. Morphological Analysis of Zirconium Nuclear Fuel Retaining Rods Braided with SiC: Quality Assurance and Defect Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael V Glazoff; Robert Hiromoto; Akira Tokuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In the after-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Among the methods explored currently to improve zircaloys’ thermal stability in off-normal conditions, using a protective coat of the SiC filaments is considered because silicon carbide is well known for its remarkable chemical inertness at high temperatures. A typical SiC fiber contains ~50,000 individual filaments of 5 – 10 µm in diameter. In this paper, an effort was made to develop and apply mathematical morphology to the process of automatic defect identification in Zircaloy-4 rods braided with the protective layer of the silicon carbide filament. However, the issues of the braiding quality have to be addressed to ensure its full protective potential. We present the original mathematical morphology algorithms that allow solving this problem of quality assurance successfully. In nuclear industry, such algorithms are used for the first time, and could be easily generalized to the case of automated continuous monitoring for defect identification in the future.

  3. Morphological analysis of zirconium nuclear fuel retaining rods braided with SiC: Quality assurance and defect identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazoff, Michael V.; Hiromoto, Robert; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2014-08-01

    In the after-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Among the methods explored currently to improve zircaloys’ thermal stability in off-normal conditions, using a protective coat of the SiC filaments is considered because silicon carbide is well known for its remarkable chemical inertness at high temperatures. A typical SiC fiber contains ∼50,000 individual filaments of 5-10 μm in diameter. In this paper, an effort was made to develop and apply mathematical morphology to the process of automatic defect identification in Zircaloy-4 rods braided with the protective layer of the silicon carbide filament. However, the issues of the braiding quality have to be addressed to ensure its full protective potential. We present the original mathematical morphology algorithms that allow solving this problem of quality assurance successfully. In nuclear industry, such algorithms are used for the first time, and could be easily generalized to the case of automated continuous monitoring for defect identification in the future.

  4. Effect of temporary nuclear arrest by phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor on morphological and functional aspects of in vitro matured mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Leen; Nogueira, Daniela; Gerris, Jan; Dhont, Marc; De Sutter, Petra

    2008-06-01

    The present study aimed to analyze detailed morphological and functional characteristics of mouse in vitro matured oocytes after a pre-maturation culture (PMC) by temporary nuclear arrest with the specific phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor (PDE3-I) Cilostamide. In a first experiment the lowest effective dose of Cilostamide was determined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), isolated from small antral follicles, were exposed to different concentrations of Cilostamide (ranging from 0 (control) to 10 microM) for 24 hr. Afterwards, oocytes were removed from PDE3-I-containing medium and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) for 16-18 hr. A concentration of 1 microM Cilostamide was the lowest effective dose for maximum level of inhibition and reversibility of meiosis inhibition. This concentration was used in further experiments to evaluate oocyte quality following IVM in relation to different parameters: kinetics of meiotic progression, metaphase II (MII) spindle morphology, aneuploidy rate, fertilization, and embryonic developmental rates. The results were compared to nonarrested (in vitro control) and in vivo matured oocytes (in vivo control). Following withdrawal of the inhibitor, the progression of meiosis was more synchronous and accelerated in arrested when compared to nonarrested oocytes. A PMC resulted in a significant increase in the number of oocytes constituting a MII spindle of normal morphology. None of the oocytes exposed to PDE3-I showed numerical chromosome alterations. In addition, fertilization and embryonic developmental rates were higher in the PMC group compared to in vitro controls, but lower than in vivo controls. These results provide evidence that induced nuclear arrest by PDE3-I is a safe and reliable method to improve oocyte quality after IVM.

  5. Understanding Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Poa pratensis Worldwide Collection through Morphological, Nuclear and Chloroplast Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Luigi; Marconi, Gianpiero; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Veronesi, Fabio; Albertini, Emidio

    2015-01-01

    Poa pratensis L. is a forage and turf grass species well adapted to a wide range of mesic to moist habitats. Due to its genome complexity little is known regarding evolution, genome composition and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the present study we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity of 33 P. pratensis accessions from 23 different countries using both nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers as well as flow cytometry of somatic tissues. This with the aim of shedding light on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the collection that includes both cultivated and wild materials. Morphological characterization showed that the most relevant traits able to distinguish cultivated from wild forms were spring growth habit and leaf colour. The genome size analysis revealed high variability both within and between accessions in both wild and cultivated materials. The sequence analysis of the trnL-F chloroplast region revealed a low polymorphism level that could be the result of the complex mode of reproduction of this species. In addition, a strong reduction of chloroplast SSR variability was detected in cultivated materials, where only two alleles were conserved out of the four present in wild accessions. Contrarily, at nuclear level, high variability exist in the collection where the analysis of 11 SSR loci allowed the detection of a total of 91 different alleles. A Bayesian analysis performed on nuclear SSR data revealed that studied materials belong to two main clusters. While wild materials are equally represented in both clusters, the domesticated forms are mostly belonging to cluster P2 which is characterized by lower genetic diversity compared to the cluster P1. In the Neighbour Joining tree no clear distinction was found between accessions with the exception of those from China and Mongolia that were clearly separated from all the others. PMID:25893249

  6. Understanding Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Poa pratensis Worldwide Collection through Morphological, Nuclear and Chloroplast Diversity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Lorenzo; Bitocchi, Elena; Russi, Luigi; Marconi, Gianpiero; Sharbel, Timothy F; Veronesi, Fabio; Albertini, Emidio

    2015-01-01

    Poa pratensis L. is a forage and turf grass species well adapted to a wide range of mesic to moist habitats. Due to its genome complexity little is known regarding evolution, genome composition and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the present study we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity of 33 P. pratensis accessions from 23 different countries using both nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers as well as flow cytometry of somatic tissues. This with the aim of shedding light on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the collection that includes both cultivated and wild materials. Morphological characterization showed that the most relevant traits able to distinguish cultivated from wild forms were spring growth habit and leaf colour. The genome size analysis revealed high variability both within and between accessions in both wild and cultivated materials. The sequence analysis of the trnL-F chloroplast region revealed a low polymorphism level that could be the result of the complex mode of reproduction of this species. In addition, a strong reduction of chloroplast SSR variability was detected in cultivated materials, where only two alleles were conserved out of the four present in wild accessions. Contrarily, at nuclear level, high variability exist in the collection where the analysis of 11 SSR loci allowed the detection of a total of 91 different alleles. A Bayesian analysis performed on nuclear SSR data revealed that studied materials belong to two main clusters. While wild materials are equally represented in both clusters, the domesticated forms are mostly belonging to cluster P2 which is characterized by lower genetic diversity compared to the cluster P1. In the Neighbour Joining tree no clear distinction was found between accessions with the exception of those from China and Mongolia that were clearly separated from all the others. PMID:25893249

  7. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed.

  8. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences reveal recent divergence in morphologically indistinguishable petrels.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Yoshida, Allison A; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-04-01

    Often during the process of divergence, genetic markers will only gradually obtain the signal of isolation. Studies of recently diverged taxa utilizing both mitochondrial and nuclear data sets may therefore yield gene trees with differing levels of phylogenetic signal as a result of differences in coalescence times. However, several factors can lead to this same pattern, and it is important to distinguish between them to gain a better understanding of the process of divergence and the factors driving it. Here, we employ three nuclear intron loci in addition to the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene to investigate the magnitude and timing of divergence between two endangered and nearly indistinguishable petrel taxa: the Galapagos (GAPE) and Hawaiian (HAPE) petrels (Pterodroma phaeopygia and P. sandwichensis). Phylogenetic analyses indicated reciprocal monophyly between these two taxa for the mitochondrial data set, but trees derived from the nuclear introns were unresolved. Coalescent analyses revealed effectively no migration between GAPE and HAPE over the last 100,000 generations and that they diverged relatively recently, approximately 550,000 years ago, coincident with a time of intense ecological change in both the Galapagos and Hawaiian archipelagoes. This indicates that recent divergence and incomplete lineage sorting are causing the difference in the strength of the phylogenetic signal of each data set, instead of insufficient variability or ongoing male-biased dispersal. Further coalescent analyses show that gene flow is low even between islands within each archipelago suggesting that divergence may be continuing at a local scale. Accurately identifying recently isolated taxa is becoming increasingly important as many clearly recognizable species are already threatened by extinction. PMID:21324012

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences reveal recent divergence in morphologically indistinguishable petrels.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Yoshida, Allison A; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-04-01

    Often during the process of divergence, genetic markers will only gradually obtain the signal of isolation. Studies of recently diverged taxa utilizing both mitochondrial and nuclear data sets may therefore yield gene trees with differing levels of phylogenetic signal as a result of differences in coalescence times. However, several factors can lead to this same pattern, and it is important to distinguish between them to gain a better understanding of the process of divergence and the factors driving it. Here, we employ three nuclear intron loci in addition to the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene to investigate the magnitude and timing of divergence between two endangered and nearly indistinguishable petrel taxa: the Galapagos (GAPE) and Hawaiian (HAPE) petrels (Pterodroma phaeopygia and P. sandwichensis). Phylogenetic analyses indicated reciprocal monophyly between these two taxa for the mitochondrial data set, but trees derived from the nuclear introns were unresolved. Coalescent analyses revealed effectively no migration between GAPE and HAPE over the last 100,000 generations and that they diverged relatively recently, approximately 550,000 years ago, coincident with a time of intense ecological change in both the Galapagos and Hawaiian archipelagoes. This indicates that recent divergence and incomplete lineage sorting are causing the difference in the strength of the phylogenetic signal of each data set, instead of insufficient variability or ongoing male-biased dispersal. Further coalescent analyses show that gene flow is low even between islands within each archipelago suggesting that divergence may be continuing at a local scale. Accurately identifying recently isolated taxa is becoming increasingly important as many clearly recognizable species are already threatened by extinction.

  10. Morphology of the lumbar transversospinal muscles examined in a mouse bearing a muscle fiber-specific nuclear marker.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Deries, Marianne; Duxson, Marilyn

    2010-12-01

    Although the morphology of human lumbar transversospinal (TSP) muscles has been studied, little is known about the structure of these muscles in the mouse (Mus musculus). Such information is relevant given mice are often used as a "normal" phenotype for studies modeling human development. This study describes the gross morphology, muscle fiber arrangement, and innervation pattern of the mouse lumbar TSP muscles. A unique feature of the study is the use of a transgenic mouse line bearing a muscle-specific nuclear marker that allows clear delineation of muscle fiber and connective tissue boundaries. The lumbar TSP muscles of five mice were examined bilaterally; at each spinal level muscles attached to the caudal edge of the spinous process and passed caudally as a single complex unit. Fibers progressively terminated over the four vertebral segments caudad, with multiple points of muscle fiber attachment on each vertebra. Motor endplates, defined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, were consistently located half way along each muscle fiber, regardless of length, with all muscle fibers arranged in-parallel rather than in-series. These results provide information relevant to interpretation of developmental and functional studies involving this muscle group in the mouse and show mouse lumbar TSP muscles are different in form to descriptions of equivalent muscles in humans and horses.

  11. Anisotropic nuclear spin interactions for the morphology analysis of proteins in solution by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Shin-Ichi

    2008-01-01

    Determining the relative orientation of domains within a protein is an important problem in structural biology, which has been difficult to address by either X-ray crystallography or NMR. The structure of a multidomain protein in a crystal lattice can be altered by crystal packing forces, resulting in different domain arrangements from those in solution. On the other hand, conventional NMR primarily provides short-range structural information, including proton-proton distances derived from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) and torsion angles through vicinal spin couplings. Thus, NMR cannot always determine the precise interdomain arrangements due to the sparsely observed spin interactions between domains. However, the weak alignment of proteins in solution has enabled a new NMR technique to determine the domain arrangement based on the different structural information, which defines the orientation of a structural unit in protein against the magnetic field. This technique relies on the anisotropic nuclear spin interactions that only occur for a molecule in a weakly aligned state. In this review, the basics of the new NMR approach are described with focusing on its application to domain orientation analysis. We also describe our recently established NMR approach using the same spin interactions, which expands the domain arrangement analysis to higher-molecular weight proteins over 100 kDa.

  12. [Morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of astome ciliates Almophrya bivacuolata and A. maediovacuolata (protozoa: ciliophora) endocommensal of terricolous oligochaetes in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Nana, P A; Ngassam, P; Fokam, Z; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Coffe, G; Sime, Gando T; Zébazé, Togouet S H

    2010-12-01

    The silver impregnation supplemented by DAPI and Feulgen nuclear coloration enabled us to study the morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of two species of endocommensal Astome ciliates, Almophrya bivacuoloata (de Puytorac & Dragesco, 1968) and A. mediovocuolata (Ngassam, 1983). We highlighted important digitations and the presence of dark bands in the structure of the "H" macronucleus of the small cellular types as well as the presence of intermediate forms between "H" and "X" in these two species. PMID:21280311

  13. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  14. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  15. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  16. Morphological studies of polyphosphazenes and their nanocomposites using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuchu

    Solution state NMR of 'H, 19F and 3IP of poly[bis(trifluoroethoxy)] (PBFP) in THFd8 were acquired to study the polymer morphology in the solution state. Solid state high resolution *H, I9F and 31P MAS DP NMR spectra were studied using a deconvolution method to understand how each component proportion varies with synthetic approach and processing methods, such as solvent casting, heat cycling, and inclusion of inorganic nanoparticles. The l9F and 31P NMR relaxation time data were acquired at an MAS spinning rate of 10 kHz, over a temperature range from 20 to 80 °C for samples PBFP, annealed PBFP, NC 5% and annealed NC 5%. The l9F NMR spectra were deconvolved using a three-component model for samples PBFP and NC 5% and a four-component model for samples annealed PBFP and annealed NC 5% from 20 to 40 °C. A four-component model was used for all four samples at high temperature range, from 50-80 °C. The 3IP NMR spectra were deconvolved using a four-component model for all four samples from 20 to 40 °C. A five-component model was applied to all four samples over 50 to 80 °C. The models were established and adjusted to be consistent for all the relaxation arrays over their corresponding temperature ranges. The relaxation time constants of each component were analyzed and compared between samples and temperatures. All 31P Ti constants decrease with increasing temperature and their T2 values increase, indicating the polymer backbone is in the slow motion regime. For any particular component, the annealed PBFP always has the largest Ti, the annealed NC 5% has the second longest Ti, followed by the PBFP and NC 5% has the shortest Ti, suggesting that annealing increases the crystallite size and thus slows the motion of the backbone; the filling of nano-TiCh suppresses the growth of the crystallites and enhances the motion of the polymer backbone. The I9F Tj values increase with temperature and their T2 also increase with temperature, suggesting the polymer sidechain is in

  17. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  18. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Baozhu Jefferson, Amy M.; Millecchia, Lyndell; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Reynolds, Steven H.

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer.

  19. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Jefferson, Amy M; Millecchia, Lyndell; Popescu, Nicholas C; Reynolds, Steven H

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer. PMID:17888903

  20. Deceptive single-locus taxonomy and phylogeography: Wolbachia-associated divergence in mitochondrial DNA is not reflected in morphology and nuclear markers in a butterfly species

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Simonsen, Thomas J; Bromilow, Sean; Wahlberg, Niklas; Sperling, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The satyrine butterfly Coenonympha tullia (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) displays a deep split between two mitochondrial clades, one restricted to northern Alberta, Canada, and the other found throughout Alberta and across North America. We confirm this deep divide and test hypotheses explaining its phylogeographic structure. Neither genitalia morphology nor nuclear gene sequence supports cryptic species as an explanation, instead indicating differences between nuclear and mitochondrial genome histories. Sex-biased dispersal is unlikely to cause such mito-nuclear differences; however, selective sweeps by reproductive parasites could have led to this conflict. About half of the tested samples were infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Using multilocus strain typing for three Wolbachia genes, we show that the divergent mitochondrial clades are associated with two different Wolbachia strains, supporting the hypothesis that the mito-nuclear differences resulted from selection on the mitochondrial genome due to selective sweeps by Wolbachia strains. PMID:24455146

  1. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable.

  2. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibit classic apoptotic features.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Xu, Hui-yun; Di, Sheng-meng; Shi, Dong-yan; Qian, Ai-rong; Wang, Jin-fu; Shang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of abnormal gravity on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient generate a magnetic force that can add to or subtract from the gravitational force. In this study, this is defined as a high-magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE). The HMGE provides three apparent gravity levels, i.e. hypogravity (μg), hypergravity (2g) and normal gravity with strong magnetic field (1g) conditions. After hMSCs were subject to HMGE for 12 h, the proliferation, morphology, structure and apoptosis were investigated. Results showed that the proliferation of hMSCs was inhibited under μg condition. The abnormal gravity induced morphologic characteristics of apoptosis cells, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear chromatin condensation and margination, decreased cell viability, and increased caspase-3/7 activity. The rate of apoptosis under μg condition is up to 56.95%. The F-actin stress fibers and microtubules were disrupted under abnormal gravity condition. Under μg-condition, the expression of p53 at mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated more than 9- and 6 folds, respectively. The Pifithrin-α, an specific inhibitor of p53, inhibited the apoptosis and prevented the disruption of cytoskeleton induced by abnormal gravity. These results implied that hMSCs were sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibited classic apoptotic features, which might be associated with p53 signaling.

  4. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Anti- and Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids, Epithelial Proliferation, and Nuclear Morphology in Biopsies of Normal Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Neilson, Andrew; Plegue, Missy; Waters, Ian G; Chan, Alexander; Askew, Leah M; Ruffin, Mack T; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the effects of intervention with either a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean diet on colon biomarkers in 120 healthy individuals at increased colon cancer risk. The hypothesis was that eicosanoids and markers of proliferation would be favorably affected by the Mediterranean diet. Colon epithelial biopsy tissues and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 mo of intervention. Colonic eicosanoid concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-MS-MS, and measures of epithelial proliferation and nuclear morphology were evaluated by image analysis of biopsy sections. There was little change in proinflammatory eicosanoids and in plasma cytokine concentrations with either dietary intervention. There was, however, a 50% increase in colonic prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), which is formed from eicosapentanoic acid, in the Mediterranean arm. Unlike PGE2, PGE3, was not significantly affected by regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at baseline, and normal weight subjects had significantly higher colon PGE3 than overweight or obese subjects. Increased proliferation in the colon at baseline, by Ki67 labeling, was associated with morphological features that defined smaller nuclei in the epithelial cells, lower colon leukotriene concentrations and higher plasma cytokine concentrations. Dietary intervention had little effect on measures of epithelial proliferation or of nuclear morphology. The increase in PGE3 with a Mediterranean diet indicates that in normal colon, diet might affect protective pathways to a greater extent than proinflammatory and proliferative pathways. Hence, biomarkers from cancer models might not be relevant in a true prevention setting.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  6. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  7. The Associative Changes in Scutellum Nuclear Content and Morphology with Viability Loss of Naturally Aged and Accelerated Aging Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Yang, Hui; Fu, Yong-Bi

    2016-01-01

    Timely prediction of seed viability loss over long-term storage represents a challenge in management and conservation of ex situ plant genetic resources. However, little attention has been paid to study the process of seed deterioration and seed aging signals under storage. An attempt was made here to investigate morphological and molecular changes in the scutellum and aleurone sections of naturally or artificially aged wheat seeds using TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. Twelve wheat genotypes or samples exposed to natural ageing (NA) or accelerated ageing (AA) were assayed and these samples had germination rates ranging from 11 to 93%. The assayed samples showed substantial changes in scutellum, but not aleurone. The nuclei observed in the majority of the scutellum cells of the NA seed samples of lower germination rates were longer in size and less visible, while the scutellum cell morphology or arrangement remained unchanged. In contrast, longer AA treatments resulted in the loss of scutellum cell structure, collapse of cell layers, and disappearance of honey comb arrangements. These nuclei and structural changes were consistent with the DNA assessments of nuclear alternations for the selected wheat samples. Interestingly, the sample seed germination loss was found to be associated with the reductions in the scutellum nuclear content and with the increases in the scutellum nuclei length to width ratio. These findings are significant for understanding the process of wheat seed deterioration and are also useful for searching for sensitive seed aging signals for developing tools to monitor seed viability under storage. PMID:27729925

  8. Genetic homogenization of the nuclear ITS loci across two morphologically distinct gentians in their overlapping distributions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Quanjun; Peng, Huichao; Bi, Hao; Lu, Zhiqiang; Wan, Dongshi; Wang, Qian; Mao, Kangshan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and introgression can lead to partial genetic homogenization at certain neutral loci between morphologically distinct species and may obscure the species delimitation using nuclear genes. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon through population genetic survey of two alpine plants (Gentiana siphonantha and G. straminea) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the distributions of two species are partly overlapped. We identified two clusters of chloroplast DNA haplotypes which correspond to the two species, and three clusters of ITS ribotypes. In addition to clusters specific to each species, the third ITS cluster, which was most likely derived from hybridization between the other two clusters and subsequent recombination and concerted evolution, was widely shared by two species in their adjacent areas. In contrast to the morphological distinctiveness of the two species, interspecific gene flow possibly led to genetic homogenization at their ITS loci. The new ITS lineage recovered for species in adjacent areas is distinctly different from original lineages found in allopatric areas. These findings may have general implications for our understanding of cryptic changes at some genetic loci caused by interspecific gene flow in the history, and they indicate that species delimitation should be based on a combination of both nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence variations. PMID:27687878

  9. A New Classification of Ficus Subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) Based on Four Nuclear DNA Markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS), Morphology and Leaf Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Berg, Cornelis C; Kjellberg, Finn; Rønsted, Nina; Garcia, Marjorie; Baider, Claudia; van Welzen, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Ficus subsection Urostigma as currently circumscribed contains 27 species, distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, and is of key importance to understand the origin and evolution of Ficus and the fig-wasp mutualism. The species of subsection Urostigma are very variable in morphological characters and exhibit a wide range of often partly overlapping distributions, which makes identification often difficult. The systematic classification within and between this subsection and others is problematic, e.g., it is still unclear where to classify F. amplissima and F. rumphii. To clarify the circumscription of subsection Urostigma, a phylogenetic reconstruction based on four nuclear DNA markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS) combined with morphology and leaf anatomy is conducted. The phylogenetic tree based on the combined datasets shows that F. madagascariensis, a Madagascan species, is sister to the remainder of subsect. Urostigma. Ficus amplissima and F. rumphii, formerly constituting sect. Leucogyne, appear to be imbedded in subsect. Conosycea. The result of the phylogenetic analysis necessitates nomenclatural adjustments. A new classification of Ficus subsection Urostigma is presented along with the morphological and leaf anatomical apomorphies typical for the clades. Two new species are described ─ one in subsect. Urostigma, the other in Conosycea. One variety is raised to species level.

  10. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  11. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  12. Analysis of nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated with Cu and Zn and after 4-, 8-, and 12-day depuration (post-treatment recovery).

    PubMed

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Baršienė, Janina; Vosylienė, Milda Zita; Svecevičius, Gintaras

    2016-02-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), bi-nucleated erythrocytes with nucleoplasmic bridge (BNb), vacuolated (VacNuc), blebbed (BL), 8-shaped nuclei, bi-nucleated (BN) and fragmented-apoptotic (FA) erythrocytes was analysed in the peripheral blood, cephalic kidney and liver of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after 4-day treatment with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) mixture solutions and in 4-, 8- and 12-day depuration process. Fish (three treatment and one control group, N=40) were exposed to 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25 fractions of 96-h LC50, respectively under semi-static conditions. Exposure of O. mykiss to Cu and Zn induced significant increase of MN (in blood in all test groups; in liver 0.125, 0.25 and in kidney 0.25 groups, respectively), NB and BL (in blood and kidney 0.25 group), 8-shaped (in blood 0.25; in liver 0.125, 0.25 and in kidney all test groups, respectively) and VacNuc (in liver and kidney 0.0625 and 0.125 groups). After 4-day recovery, significantly elevated levels of MN (in blood 0.0625, 0.125; in liver and kidney 0.125 group, respectively) and 8-shaped (in kidney-0.0625 group) were observed in fish. Significant recovery was observed in 0.0625 group after 12-day depuration, estimating the formation of MN in erythrocytes of blood, of 8-shaped nuclei erythrocytes in liver and kidney (after 8-, 12-day and 8-day recovery, respectively). Significant decrease of MN in blood (after 8- and 12-day recovery), in liver (after 8-day recovery), of NB in blood and kidney (after 8-day recovery) and of 8-shaped nuclei erythrocytes in blood (after 8 and 12-day recovery), kidney and liver (after 8-day recovery) was determined in 0.25 group. Changes in gross morphometric indices and biological parameters were observed. The binary metal mixture did not induce FA erythrocytes in any tissue at any test concentration.

  13. Impact of smoking on the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated oral cells: a comparative study with different cigarette types.

    PubMed

    Nersesyan, Armen; Muradyan, Rafael; Kundi, Michael; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the impact of tar and nicotine contents of cigarettes on chromosomal damage in oral mucosa cells of smokers. We monitored the effect of smoking different cigarette types (i.e., of ultralight filter, light filter, medium filter and unfiltered cigarettes) on induction of nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), broken eggs (BE), binucleates (BN), condensed chromatin (CC), karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL) and pyknosis (P) in exfoliated buccal cells. The cells were collected from 83 healthy heavy smokers (n=15-25/group) consuming a similar number of cigarettes (26-33) per day and from never smokers as controls (n=20). The frequencies of KR, CC, KL, BE and BN were increased significantly only in smokers of medium (MF) and non-filtered (NF) types of cigarettes while MN levels were only elevated (p < 0.0001) in the group that smoked NF cigarettes. Since BN and BE were increased (p < 00001) as a consequence of exposure to lower levels of toxic constituents in tobacco, it suggests that these endpoints, which both reflect DNA damage, are more sensitive than MN, which is the only parameter scored in most earlier studies. The induction of MN, BN, KR and KL increased significantly with daily tar exposure and decreased simultaneously with daily nicotine uptake (in all cases, P was < 0.0001). These findings also suggest that nicotine potentially protects cells against DNA reactive carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke although earlier in vitro and animal studies showed that the alkaloid induces DNA damage per se. A significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of endpoints such as cells with MN (- 1.56), MN (-1.69), BN (-1.36), KR (-1.10) and KL (-1.87) with the nicotine levels in cigarettes was found. However, this observation requires further verification by a controlled intervention study. In case it can be substantiated it will have an impact on the ongoing discussion of the health risks associated with

  14. Pre-spermiogenic initiation of flagellar growth and correlative ultrastructural observations on nuage, nuclear and mitochondrial developmental morphology in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linli; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Bian, Xunguang; Ullah, Shakeeb; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Wei; Le, Yuan; Chen, Bing; Lin, Jinxing; Gao, Cheng; Hu, Jianhua; Chen, Qiusheng

    2014-11-01

    The microstructural and ultrastructural changes of germ cells during spermatogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Generally the process of spermatogenesis in zebrafish is similar to that of other teleosts, however, here we describe some peculiar features of zebrafish spermatogenic cells which have a limited report in this species. (1) The basic events of spermiogenesis are asynchronous, location of flagellum finished in initial stage, while chromatin condensation sharply occurred in intermediate stage and elimination of excess cytoplasm mainly taken place in final stages. (2) Surprisingly, the cilia or initial flagellae are created in spermatocytes, approach toward the nucleus of early stage spermatids, and then the centrioles depress into nuclear fossa and change their orientation to each other from right angle to obtuse angle about 125°. (3) During spermatogenesis, the chromatin compaction performs in a distinctive pattern, condensed heterogeneously from granular into chromatin clumps with central electron-lucent areas, round or long, which diminished to small nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa. This finding demonstrates the origin of nuclear vacuoles in zebrafish spermatozoa for the first time. (4) Nuages are observed in both spermatogonia and spermatocytes. They are connected with the mitochondria and nuclear membrane, and are even located in the perinuclear spaces of spermatogonia nuclei. (5) Mitochondrial morphology and distribution shows diversity in different germ cells. The condensed mitochondria appear in pachytene spermatocytes, and mitochondria including membrane conglomerate exist in both spermatocytes and spermatids. This study was undertaken in order to disclose specific spermatogenic cells features in zebrafish that could be helpful for understanding the correlative function in this model species.

  15. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  16. A nuclear DNA based phylogeny of endemic sand dune ants of the genus Mycetophylax (Emery, 1913): how morphology is reflected in molecular data.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Danon Clemes; Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Heinze, Jürgen; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have substantially advanced our knowledge about ant systematics in the past few years. Here, we infer the molecular phylogeny of sand dune ants of the genus Mycetophylax, Emery 1913 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini) using 730 base pairs of DNA sequences of the two nuclear genes longwave rhodopsin and wingless. Our analyses indicate that Mycetophylax is monophyletic, as suggested by its morphological characters. M. morschi, previously considered a species of Cyphomyrmex due to a scrobe-like impressed area on the head, forms a well-supported cluster with the two other species of Mycetophylax, M. conformis and M. simplex. Our analysis yields the first comprehensive phylogeny of Mycetophylax based on molecular data and includes specimens from localities within a wide distributional range as well as all species belonging to the genus following the recent taxonomic revision.

  17. Systematics of marine brown alga Sargassum from Thailand: A preliminary study based on morphological data and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantachumpoo, Attachai; Uwai, Shinya; Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    The marine brown algal genus Sargassum has been investigated extensively based on genetic information. In this report, we performed the first comparative study of morphological and molecular data among common species of Sargassum found in Thailand and explored the phylogenetic diversity within the genus. Our results revealed an incongruent pattern for species classification in Thai Sargassum. Morphologically, our Sargassum specimens were distinguishable and represented 8 species, namely, S. aquifolium (Turner) C.Agardh, Sargassum baccularia (Mertens) C. Agardh, S. cinereum J. Agardh, S. ilicifolium (Turner) C.Agardh, S. oligocystum Montagne, S. plagiophyllum C. Agardh, S. polycystum C. Agardh and S. swartzii (Turuner) C. Agardh. In contrast, using three different methods, phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) revealed six distinct clades, including S. baccularia/ S. oligosyntum clade, S. aquifolium/ S. swartzii clade, S. cinereum clade, S. aquifolium/ S. ilicifolium clade, S. polycystum clade, and S. plagiophyllum clade, which was suggestive of a phenotypic plasticity species complex. Our molecular data also confirmed the paraphyletic relationship in the section Binderianae and suggested that this section requires reassessment. Overall, further studies are required to increase our understanding of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries among Sargassum species in Thailand.

  18. Stomatocytosis, abnormal platelets and pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G W; O'Brien, H; Morris, S A; Owen, J S; Lloyd, J K; Ames, J A

    1987-04-01

    A 13-yr-old girl with congenital haemolytic anaemia associated with pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia is described. The erythrocyte morphology showed 50-80% stomatocytes, but no abnormality of membrane lipid or protein composition or of cation transport was detected. The platelets were reduced in number, abnormally large and showed reduced adhesion. Successful treatment of the hypercholesterolaemia did not influence the stomatocytosis.

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  20. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  1. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  2. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  5. A simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay with propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W-J; Li, J

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a new simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay (SNVA) with propidium iodide (PI) to determine the status of nuclear vacuole (NV) of individual spermatozoa. After PI staining, sperm nuclei were classified into the 14 categories according to both nuclear morphology and the status of NV. The incidence was 57.8% (range 28-84%) in fertile controls (n = 40), and 85.1% (range 67-99%) in men with varicocele (n = 40). In the fertile group, normal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region were significantly more in comparison with the varicocele group. In the varicocele group, abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one large NV and with multiple NVs located in the ante-nuclear region were most frequent findings. Besides, spermatozoa with NVs in both ante- and post-nuclear regions in the varicocele group were significantly more than those in the fertile group. In both fertile and varicocele groups, normal or abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one or more vacuoles only located in the post-nuclear region occurred sparingly. The SNVA provides a useful additional approach to identify the status of NV in human spermatozoa for diagnostic purposes. A good sperm sample would have more spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region.

  6. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A.

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  7. A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Rutishauser, J.; Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Froesch, E.R.; Wichmann, W.; Huisman, T.

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal high resolution T1-weighted images of the pituitary were obtained from affected and healthy family members. PCR was used to amplify the AVP-NP II precursor gene, and PCR products were directly sequenced. Under maximal osmotic stimulation, AVP serum levels were close to or below the detection limit in affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed the characteristic hyperintense ({open_quotes}bright spot{close_quotes}) appearance of the posterior pituitary in two healthy family members. This signal was absent in all four ADNDI patients examined. The coding sequences of AVP and its carrier protein, neurophysin II, were normal in all family members examined. Affected individuals showed a novel single base deletion (G 227) in the translation initiation codon of the AVP-NP II signal peptide on one allele. The mutation in the AVP-NP II leader sequence appears to be responsible for the disease in this kindred, possibly by interfering with protein translocation. The absence of the hyperintense posterior pituitary signal in affected individuals could reflect deficient posterior pituitary function. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  9. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases.

  10. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  11. The budding yeast nuclear envelope adjacent to the nucleolus serves as a membrane sink during mitotic delay.

    PubMed

    Witkin, Keren L; Chong, Yolanda; Shao, Sichen; Webster, Micah T; Lahiri, Sujoy; Walters, Alison D; Lee, Brandon; Koh, Judice L Y; Prinz, William A; Andrews, Brenda J; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2012-06-19

    The mechanisms that dictate nuclear shape are largely unknown. Here we screened the budding yeast deletion collection for mutants with abnormal nuclear shape. A common phenotype was the appearance of a nuclear extension, particularly in mutants in DNA repair and chromosome segregation genes. Our data suggest that these mutations led to the abnormal nuclear morphology indirectly, by causing a checkpoint-induced cell-cycle delay. Indeed, delaying cells in mitosis by other means also led to the appearance of nuclear extensions, whereas inactivating the DNA damage checkpoint pathway in a DNA repair mutant reduced the fraction of cells with nuclear extensions. Formation of a nuclear extension was specific to a mitotic delay, because cells arrested in S or G2 had round nuclei. Moreover, the nuclear extension always coincided with the nucleolus, while the morphology of the DNA mass remained largely unchanged. Finally, we found that phospholipid synthesis continued unperturbed when cells delayed in mitosis, and inhibiting phospholipid synthesis abolished the formation of nuclear extensions. Our data suggest a mechanism that promotes nuclear envelope expansion during mitosis. When mitotic progression is delayed, cells sequester the added membrane to the nuclear envelope associated with the nucleolus, possibly to avoid disruption of intranuclear organization.

  12. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  13. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  14. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil in Nuclear and Cellular Morphology, Proliferation, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, Cytoskeletal and Caveolar Distribution in Primary Cultures of Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Marcelo de Carvalho; Morrot, Alexandre; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world and is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The anti-metabolite 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of patients with colon cancer and other cancer types. 5-FU-based chemotherapy has been shown to be very efficient in the improvement of overall survival of the patients and for the eradication of the disease. Unfortunately, common side effects of 5-FU include severe alterations in the motility of the gastrointestinal tissues. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Primary smooth muscle cell cultures are an important tool for studies of the biological consequences of 5-FU at the cellular level. The avian gizzard is one of the most robust organs of smooth muscle cells. Here we studied the molecular and cellular effects of the chemotherapic drug 5-FU in a primary culture of chick gizzard smooth muscle cells. We found that treatment of smooth muscle cells with 5-FU inhibits cell proliferation by the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle and induce apoptosis. 5-FU induced a decrease in the percentage of histone H3-positive cells. Treatment of cells with 5-FU induced changes in cellular and nuclear morphology, a decrease in the number of stress fibers and a major decrease in the number of caveolin-3 positive cells. Our results suggest that the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the reduction of caveolin-3 expression could explain the alterations in contractility observed in patients treated with 5-FU. These findings might have an impact in the understanding of the cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle tissues and might help the improvement of new therapeutic protocols for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:23646193

  15. Effects of 5-fluorouracil in nuclear and cellular morphology, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeletal and caveolar distribution in primary cultures of smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Marcelo de Carvalho; Morrot, Alexandre; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world and is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The anti-metabolite 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of patients with colon cancer and other cancer types. 5-FU-based chemotherapy has been shown to be very efficient in the improvement of overall survival of the patients and for the eradication of the disease. Unfortunately, common side effects of 5-FU include severe alterations in the motility of the gastrointestinal tissues. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Primary smooth muscle cell cultures are an important tool for studies of the biological consequences of 5-FU at the cellular level. The avian gizzard is one of the most robust organs of smooth muscle cells. Here we studied the molecular and cellular effects of the chemotherapic drug 5-FU in a primary culture of chick gizzard smooth muscle cells. We found that treatment of smooth muscle cells with 5-FU inhibits cell proliferation by the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle and induce apoptosis. 5-FU induced a decrease in the percentage of histone H3-positive cells. Treatment of cells with 5-FU induced changes in cellular and nuclear morphology, a decrease in the number of stress fibers and a major decrease in the number of caveolin-3 positive cells. Our results suggest that the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the reduction of caveolin-3 expression could explain the alterations in contractility observed in patients treated with 5-FU. These findings might have an impact in the understanding of the cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle tissues and might help the improvement of new therapeutic protocols for the treatment of colon cancer.

  16. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  1. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  2. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  3. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  4. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  5. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  6. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  7. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis. PMID:23480230

  8. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.

  9. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species. PMID:24174037

  10. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species.

  11. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  12. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  13. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  16. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  17. [DAX-1 abnormality].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Ei-ichi

    2002-02-01

    DAX-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and function of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Absence of DAX-1 results in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, a human inherited disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The DAX-1 gene may be responsible for a male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, referred to as dosage sensitive sex reversal(DSS), due to the duplication of a small region of human chromosome Xp21. Dax-1 and Sry have been shown to act antagonistically in the mouse system, where over-expression of Dax-1 leads to female development and increasing activity of Sry to male development. Although these data strongly implicate Dax-1 in sex determination, there is no evidence that DAX-1 is equivalent to DSS in human.

  18. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  19. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  3. Lamin B1 Polymorphism Influences Morphology of the Nuclear Envelope, Cell Cycle Progression, and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Sandra C. P.; Malhas, Ashraf; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gustavsson, Peter; Vaux, David J.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1 in maintaining

  4. Phenomenology of Abnormal Grain Growth in Systems with Nonuniform Grain Boundary Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the potential for nonuniform grain boundary mobility to act as a persistence mechanism for abnormal grain growth (AGG) using Monte Carlo Potts model simulations. The model system consists of a single initially large candidate grain embedded in a matrix of equiaxed grains, corresponding to the abnormal growth regime before impingement occurs. We assign a mobility advantage to grain boundaries between the candidate grain and a randomly selected subset of the matrix grains. We observe AGG in systems with physically reasonable fractions of fast boundaries; the probability of abnormal growth increases as the density of fast boundaries increases. This abnormal growth occurs by a series of fast, localized growth events that counteract the tendency of abnormally large grains to grow more slowly than the surrounding matrix grains. Resulting abnormal grains are morphologically similar to experimentally observed abnormal grains.

  5. The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Diane E; Henderson, Deborah J; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the "Valentine" orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.

  6. 3D Analysis of HCMV Induced-Nuclear Membrane Structures by FIB/SEM Tomography: Insight into an Unprecedented Membrane Morphology.

    PubMed

    Villinger, Clarissa; Neusser, Gregor; Kranz, Christine; Walther, Paul; Mertens, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography is an excellent method to analyze the three-dimensional structure of a fibroblast nucleus infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We found that the previously described infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane, which are unique among its kind, form an extremely complex network of membrane structures not predictable by previous two-dimensional studies. In all cases they contained further invaginations (2nd and 3rd order infoldings). Quantification revealed 5498HCMV capsids within two nuclear segments, allowing an estimate of 15,000 to 30,000 capsids in the entire nucleus five days post infection. Only 0.8% proved to be enveloped capsids which were exclusively detected in 1st order infoldings (perinuclear space). Distribution of the capsids between 1st, 2nd and 3rd order infoldings is in complete agreement with the envelopment/de-envelopment model for egress of HCMV capsids from the nucleus and we confirm that capsid budding does occur at the large infoldings. Based on our results we propose the pushing membrane model: HCMV infection induces local disruption of the nuclear lamina and synthesis of new membrane material which is pushed into the nucleoplasm, forming complex membrane infoldings in a highly abundant manner, which then may be also used by nucleocapsids for budding. PMID:26556360

  7. 3D Analysis of HCMV Induced-Nuclear Membrane Structures by FIB/SEM Tomography: Insight into an Unprecedented Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Villinger, Clarissa; Neusser, Gregor; Kranz, Christine; Walther, Paul; Mertens, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography is an excellent method to analyze the three-dimensional structure of a fibroblast nucleus infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We found that the previously described infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane, which are unique among its kind, form an extremely complex network of membrane structures not predictable by previous two-dimensional studies. In all cases they contained further invaginations (2nd and 3rd order infoldings). Quantification revealed 5498 HCMV capsids within two nuclear segments, allowing an estimate of 15,000 to 30,000 capsids in the entire nucleus five days post infection. Only 0.8% proved to be enveloped capsids which were exclusively detected in 1st order infoldings (perinuclear space). Distribution of the capsids between 1st, 2nd and 3rd order infoldings is in complete agreement with the envelopment/de-envelopment model for egress of HCMV capsids from the nucleus and we confirm that capsid budding does occur at the large infoldings. Based on our results we propose the pushing membrane model: HCMV infection induces local disruption of the nuclear lamina and synthesis of new membrane material which is pushed into the nucleoplasm, forming complex membrane infoldings in a highly abundant manner, which then may be also used by nucleocapsids for budding. PMID:26556360

  8. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  9. QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In toxicology, the role of quantitative assessment of brain morphology can be understood in the context of two types of treatment-related alterations. One type of alteration is specifically associated with treatment and is not observed in control animals. Measurement ...

  10. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  11. Immunocytochemical localization of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors in cultured acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons: a correlation between the presence of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors and L-tri-iodothyronine morphological effects.

    PubMed

    Garza, R; Puymirat, J; Dussault, J H

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody against the rat liver L-tri-iodothyronine nuclear receptor and acetylcholinesterase cytochemistry were used for the localization of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors in acetylcholinesterase-positive cell nuclei in fetal rat cerebral hemisphere neuronal cultures. After 3 days in vitro, the ratio of acetylcholinesterase-positive cells that were immunoreactive for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor to those not stained for this receptor (74-26%, respectively) remains unchanged despite an increase in the number of acetylcholinesterase-positive cells with time (from day 3 to day 21) in culture. Furthermore, the addition of 3 X 10(-8) L-tri-iodothyronine in culture did not modify this ratio or have an effect on the number of acetylcholinesterase-positive cells, but significantly increased the neurite density in those acetylcholinesterase-positive cells that were immunoreactive for the thyroid hormone receptor. Conversely, no difference in the neurite densities of those acetylcholinesterase-positive cells not stained for this receptor was observed when cultured in the presence or absence of thyroid hormone. In other experiments with the same fetal brain cultures, treatment of cultures for 8 days with L-tri-iodothyronine, beginning on culture day 20, demonstrated the presence of a critical period which occurs in vitro around day 20, since the stimulatory effect of L-tri-iodothyronine on immunoreactive acetylcholinesterase-positive cell neurite density is lost after 20 days in vitro. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of L-tri-iodothyronine nuclear receptors in fetal rat acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons and the existence of a cellular heterogeneity in the distribution of the thyroid hormone receptor. The presence of these receptors in fetal brain acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons suggests that some effects of L-tri-iodothyronine on the maturation of a subpopulation of acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons may result

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the three, congruent nuclear and mitochondrial lineage patterns show that “Urbanus belli” in ACG is a complex of three sympatric species. A single strain of Wolbachia present in two of the three cryptic species indicates that Urbanus segnestami Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ01), Urbanus bernikerni Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ02), and Urbanus ehakernae Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ03) may be biologically separated by Wolbachia, as well as by their genetics. Use of parallel sequencing through 454-pyrosequencing improved the utility of ITS2 as a phylogenetic marker and permitted examination of the intra- and interlineage relationships of ITS2 variants within the species complex. Interlineage, intralineage and intragenomic compensatory base pair changes were discovered in the secondary structure of ITS2. Conclusion These findings corroborate the existence of three cryptic species. Our confirmation of a novel cryptic species complex, initially suggested by DNA barcode lineages, argues for using a multi-marker approach coupled with next-generation sequencing for exploration of other suspected species complexes. PMID:25005355

  13. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  14. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  15. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  16. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  17. Mechanical and molecular basis for the symmetrical division of the fission yeast nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Castagnetti, Stefania; Božič, Bojan; Svetina, Saša

    2015-06-28

    In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout mitosis and undergoes a series of symmetrical morphological changes when the spindle pole bodies (SPBs), embedded in the nuclear envelope, are pushed apart by elongating spindle microtubules. These symmetrical membrane shape transformations do not correspond to the shape behavior of an analogous system based on lipid vesicles. Here we report that the symmetry of the dividing fission yeast nucleus is ensured by SPB-chromosome attachments, as loss of kinetochore clustering in the vicinity of SPBs results in the formation of abnormal asymmetric shapes with long membrane tethers. We integrated these findings in a biophysical model, which explains the symmetry of the nuclear shapes on the basis of forces exerted by chromosomes clustered at SPBs on the extending nuclear envelope. Based on this analysis we conclude that the fission yeast nuclear envelope exhibits the same mechanical properties as simple lipid vesicles, but interactions with other cellular components, such as chromosomes, influence the nuclear shape during mitosis, allowing the formation of otherwise energetically unfavorable symmetrical dumbbell structures upon spindle elongation. The model allows us to explain the appearance of abnormal asymmetric shapes in fission yeast mutants with mis-segregated chromosomes as well as with altered nuclear membrane composition.

  18. Nuclear organization and morphology of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis): increased brain size does not lead to increased organizational complexity.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Aude'marie; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Fuxe, Kjell; Manger, Paul R

    2008-09-01

    The distribution, morphology and nuclear organization of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brain of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were identified following immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in the complement of nuclear subdivisions of these systems in the Cape porcupine in comparison with previous studies of these systems in other rodents. The Cape porcupine is the largest rodent in which these systems have been examined and has an adult body mass of 10-24kg and an average brain mass of approximately 37g, around 15 times larger than the laboratory rat. The Cape porcupines were taken from the wild and while these differences, especially that of mass, may lead to the prediction of a significant difference in the nuclear organization or number within these systems, all the nuclei observed in all three systems in the laboratory rat and in other rodents had direct homologues in the brain of the Cape porcupine. Moreover, there were no additional nuclei in the brain of the Cape porcupine that are not found in the laboratory rat or other rodents studied and vice versa. It is noted that the medial septal nucleus of the Cape porcupine appeared qualitatively to have a reduced number of neurons in comparison to the laboratory rat and other rodents. The locus coeruleus of the laboratory rat differs in location to that observed for the Cape porcupine and several other rodent species. The Cape porcupine is distantly related to the laboratory rat, but still a member of the order Rodentia; thus, changes in the organization of these systems appears to demonstrate a form of constraint related to the phylogenetic level of the order. PMID:18472246

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in human arrested preimplantation embryos: A multiple-probe FISH study

    SciTech Connect

    Munne, S.; Grifo, J.; Cohen, J. ); Weier, H.U.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Numerical chromosome abnormalities were studied in single blastomeres from arrested or otherwise morphologically abnormal human preimplantation embryos. A 6-h FISH procedure with fluorochrome-labeled DNA probes was developed to determine numerical abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 18. The three chromosomes were stained and detected simultaneously in 571 blastomeres from 131 embryos. Successful analysis including biopsy, fixation, and FISH analysis was achieved in 86.5% of all blastomeres. The procedure described here offers a reliable alternative to sexing of embryos by PCR and allows simultaneous ploidy assessment. For the three chromosomes tested, numerical aberrations were found in 56.5% of the embroys. Most abnormal embryos were polyploid or mosaics, and 6.1% were aneuploid for gonosomes or chromosome 18. Extrapolation of these results to all human chromosomes suggests that the majority of abnormally developing and arrested human embryos carry numerical chromosome abnormalities. 44 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  1. Abnormal EEG and calcification of the pineal gland in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities. We reported recently an association between pineal calcification (PC) and cortical and prefrontal cortical atrophy, and third ventricular size on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. These findings indicate that in schizophrenia PC is associated with the morphological brain abnormalities associated with the disease. If PC is, indeed, related to organic cerebral pathology, then one would expect a higher prevalence of pineal gland pathology among patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities by comparison to those with a normal EEG. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the prevalence of PC on CT scan in a sample of 52 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (29 men, 23 women, mean age: 51.3 years SD = 9.1), of whom 10 (19.2%) had an abnormal EEG. The prevalence of PC in patients with EEG abnormalities was significantly greater by comparison to those with a normal EEG (90.0% vs. 54.8%, X2 = 4.24, p < .05). Since both groups did not differ on any of the historical and demographic data, and since PC was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure, these findings suggest that in schizophrenia PC may be related to the disease process and that it may be a marker of subcortical pathology. PMID:1342008

  2. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  3. Plasma cell morphology in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Ribourtout, B; Zandecki, M

    2015-06-01

    Normal and reactive plasma cells (PC) are easy to ascertain on human bone marrow films, due to their small mature-appearing nucleus and large cytoplasm, the latter usually deep blue after Giemsa staining. Cytoplasm is filled with long strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and one large Golgi apparatus (paranuclear hof), demonstrating that PC are dedicated mainly to protein synthesis and excretion (immunoglobulin). Deregulation of the genome may induce clonal expansion of one PC that will lead to immunoglobulin overproduction and eventually to one among the so-called PC neoplasms. In multiple myeloma (MM), the number of PC is over 10% in most patients studied. Changes in the morphology of myeloma PC may be inconspicuous as compared to normal PC (30-50% patients). In other instances PC show one or several morphological changes. One is related to low amount of cytoplasm, defining lymphoplasmacytoid myeloma (10-15% patients). In other cases (40-50% patients), named immature myeloma cases, nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony is observed: presence of one nucleolus, finely dispersed chromatin and/or irregular nuclear contour contrast with a still large and blue (mature) cytoplasm. A peculiar morphological change, corresponding to the presence of very immature PC named plasmablasts, is observed in 10-15% cases. Several prognostic morphological classifications have been published, as mature myeloma is related to favorable outcome and immature myeloma, peculiarly plasmablastic myeloma, is related to dismal prognosis. However, such classifications are no longer included in current prognostic schemes. Changes related to the nucleus are very rare in monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). In contrast, anomalies related to the cytoplasm of PC, including color (flaming cells), round inclusions (Mott cells, Russell bodies), Auer rod-like or crystalline inclusions, are reported in myeloma cases as well as in MGUS and at times in reactive disorders. They do not correspond

  4. Isotropic 3D Nuclear Morphometry of Normal, Fibrocystic and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cells Reveals New Structural Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F.; Lintecum, Kelly M.; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. Methodology We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. Principal Findings We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio) between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. Conclusions Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations

  5. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  6. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  7. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  8. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  9. Biogenesis of nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Dundr, Miroslav; Misteli, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The nucleus is unique amongst cellular organelles in that it contains a myriad of discrete suborganelles. These nuclear bodies are morphologically and molecularly distinct entities, and they host specific nuclear processes. Although the mode of biogenesis appears to differ widely between individual nuclear bodies, several common design principles are emerging, particularly, the ability of nuclear bodies to form de novo, a role of RNA as a structural element and self-organization as a mode of formation. The controlled biogenesis of nuclear bodies is essential for faithful maintenance of nuclear architecture during the cell cycle and is an important part of cellular responses to intra- and extracellular events.

  10. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  11. An Artificial Vector Model for Generating Abnormal Electrocardiographic Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D.; Nemati, Shamim; Sameni, Reza

    2010-01-01

    We present generalizations of our previously published artificial models for generating multi-channel ECG to provide simulations of abnormal cardiac rhythms. Using a three-dimensional vectorcardiogram (VCG) formulation, we generate the normal cardiac dipole for a patient using a sum of Gaussian kernels, fitted to real VCG recordings. Abnormal beats are specified either as perturbations to the normal dipole or as new dipole trajectories. Switching between normal and abnormal beat types is achieved using a first-order Markov chain. Probability transitions can be learned from real data or modeled by coupling to heart rate and sympathovagal balance. Natural morphology changes from beat-to-beat are incorporated by varying the angular frequency of the dipole as a function of the inter-beat (RR) interval. The RR interval time series is generated using our previously described model whereby time- and frequency-domain heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability characteristics can be specified. QT-HR hysteresis is simulated by coupling the Gaussian kernels associated with the T-wave in the model with a nonlinear factor related to the local HR (determined from the last n RR intervals). Morphology changes due to respiration are simulated by introducing a rotation matrix couple to the respiratory frequency. We demonstrate an example of the use of this model by simulating HR-dependent T-Wave Alternans (TWA) with and without phase-switching due to ectopy. Application of our model also reveals previously unreported effects of common TWA estimation methods. PMID:20308774

  12. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-01-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  13. Comprehensive Imaging Review of Abnormalities of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sadaf F; Moshiri, Mariam; Osman, Sherif; Robinson, Tracy J; Siebert, Joseph R; Bhargava, Puneet; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    The placenta has a fundamental role in fetal health and functions as an important bridge to normal fetal development throughout pregnancy. A complete fetal ultrasound (US) survey should include full assessment of the placenta for any possible abnormalities. Placental diseases range from abnormal morphology, size, location, extent, and degree of placentation, to abruption and the presence of rare placental neoplasms of benign or malignant nature. Some of these conditions are associated with other diseases including aneuploidies, and their discovery should alert the radiologist to perform a very thorough fetal US examination. At times, a fetal karyotype may be needed to provide additional information. Timely detection of placental abnormalities can alert the clinician regarding the need to make important management decisions to reduce fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta is therefore necessary for the radiologist. Ultrasound with Doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a problem-solving examination in instances where the US findings are equivocal or where additional information is needed. Computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of placental disease because of its relatively limited tissue characterization and in particular because of the resultant direct radiation exposure of the fetus. However, in specific instances, particularly after trauma, computed tomography can provide invaluable information for patient management. PMID:26938032

  14. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  15. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  16. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  17. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  18. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  19. Detection and diagnosis of abnormal transients in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.C.; Rank, P.J.; Hawkes, E.; Wehe, D.K. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Reifman, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This document describes a simulation-based algorithm that combines fuzzy logic with macroscopic conservation equations to diagnose multiple-failure events subject to uncertainties in transient data. Clusters of single-failure data points of similar characteristics are obtained through a pattern recognition algorithm and the cluster centers are combined in the space of macroscopic inventory derivatives to generate multiple-failure cluster centers. A fuzzy membership function is used to represent the likelihood of a data point belonging to a cluster, and failure estimates are obtained through solution of a fuzzy matrix equation. The algorithm has been successful in detecting simulated malfunctions in the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  1. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing.

  2. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing. PMID:26808221

  3. An Elastic Model of Blebbing in Nuclear Lamin Meshworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkhouser, Chloe; Sknepnek, Rastko; Shimi, Takeshi; Goldman, Anne; Goldman, Robert; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2013-03-01

    A two-component continuum elastic model is introduced to analyze a nuclear lamin meshwork, a structural element of the lamina of the nuclear envelope. The main component of the lamina is a meshwork of lamin protein filaments providing mechanical support to the nucleus and also playing a role in gene expression. Abnormalities in nuclear shape are associated with a variety of pathologies, including some forms of cancer and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, and are often characterized by protruding structures termed nuclear blebs. Nuclear blebs are rich in A-type lamins and may be related to pathological gene expression. We apply the two-dimensional elastic shell model to determine which characteristics of the meshwork could be responsible for blebbing, including heterogeneities in the meshwork thickness and mesh size. We find that if one component of the lamin meshwork, rich in A-type lamins, has a tendency to form a larger mesh size than that rich in B-type lamins, this is sufficient to cause segregation of the lamin components and also to form blebs rich in A-type lamins. The model produces structures with comparable morphologies and mesh size distributions as the lamin meshworks of real, pathological nuclei. Funded by US DoE Award DEFG02-08ER46539 and by the DDR&E and AFOSR under Award FA9550-10-1-0167; simulations performed on NU Quest cluster

  4. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  5. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  6. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  7. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  8. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  9. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  10. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Pulmonary vascular development goes awry in congenital lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kool, Heleen; Mous, Daphne; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Rottier, Robbert J

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary vascular diseases of the newborn comprise a wide range of pathological conditions with developmental abnormalities in the pulmonary vasculature. Clinically, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is characterized by persistent increased resistance of the vasculature and abnormal vascular response. The classification of PH is primarily based on clinical parameters instead of morphology and distinguishes five groups of PH. Congenital lung anomalies, such as alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) and PH associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but also bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are classified in group three. Clearly, tight and correct regulation of pulmonary vascular development is crucial for normal lung development. Human and animal model systems have increased our knowledge and make it possible to identify and characterize affected pathways and study pivotal genes. Understanding of the normal development of the pulmonary vasculature will give new insights in the origin of the spectrum of rare diseases, such as CDH, ACD, and BPD, which render a significant clinical problem in neonatal intensive care units around the world. In this review, we describe normal pulmonary vascular development, and focus on four diseases of the newborn in which abnormal pulmonary vascular development play a critical role in morbidity and mortality. In the future perspective, we indicate the lines of research that seem to be very promising for elucidating the molecular pathways involved in the origin of congenital pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:25424472

  12. Induced abnormality in Mir- and earth grown super dwarf wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Pdolsky, I.; Chernova, L.

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet ``Greenhouse'' exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of `Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing `Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  13. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Crist, W M; Roper, M; Takagi, M; Austin, R L

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multipole microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment. PMID:7306702

  14. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  15. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  16. Pulmonary imaging abnormalities in an adult case of congenital lobar emphysema.

    PubMed

    Pike, Damien; Mohan, Sindu; Ma, Weijing; Lewis, James F; Parraga, Grace

    2015-02-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema is mainly diagnosed in infants, although rare cases are reported in adults. A 20-yr-old female with acute dyspnea, chest pain and left upper lobe (LUL) chest x-ray hyperlucency underwent 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements, as well as CT for emphysema and airway wall measurements. Forced expiratory volume in 1s, residual volume, and airways-resistance were abnormal, but there was normal carbon-monoxide-diffusing-capacity. The LUL relative area of the density histogram <-950 HU and airway morphology were highly abnormal compared with the other lobes and coincident with highly abnormal MRI-derived acinar duct dimensions. CT also identified bronchial atresia and congenital lobar emphysema as the source of symptoms in this case where there was also functional imaging evidence of collateral ventilation from the fissure (and not the abnormally terminated airway) into the emphysematous LUL.

  17. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ajitkumar G.; Barkema, Herman W.; Wilde, Randy; Kastelic, John P.; Thundathil, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of breed, age, and scrotal circumference (SC), and their interaction, on the prevalence of sperm abnormalities in beef bulls in Alberta, Canada, and the percentage of satisfactory potential breeders identified during breeding soundness examination solely due to normal sperm morphology. Eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears and evaluation reports of 1642 bull breeding soundness evaluations were procured from 6 veterinary clinics in Alberta. Sperm morphology was determined for at least 100 sperm per bull. The most common defects were detached head [4.86% ± 5.71%; mean ± standard deviation (s)], distal midpiece reflex (6.19% ± 9.13%), and bent tail (1.01% ± 1.54%). Although breed, age, and SC did not significantly affect the prevalence of head or midpiece defects, morphologically normal or abnormal sperm, tail defects were more prevalent in Angus and Hereford bulls compared with other breeds. Overall, solely on the basis of sperm morphology, 1363 (83.0%) bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders and the remainder 279 (17.0%) as unsatisfactory (> 30% abnormal sperm, > 20% defective heads, or both). Although not significantly different, the breed with the highest percentage of satisfactory potential breeders was Limousin (90.6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance. PMID:22468020

  18. Three-dimensional echocardiography of congenital abnormalities of the left atrioventricular valve

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the left atrioventricular (AV) valve are a significant diagnostic challenge. Traditionally, reliance has been placed on two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) imaging to guide recognition of the specific morphological features. Real-time 3DE can provide unique views of the left AV valve with the potential to improve understanding of valve morphology and function to facilitate surgical planning. This review illustrates the features of congenital abnormalities of the left AV valve assessed by 3DE. The similarities and differences in morphology between different lesions are described, both with respect to the valve itself and supporting chordal apparatus. The potential advantages as well as limitations of this technique in clinical practice are outlined. PMID:26693328

  19. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  20. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  1. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  2. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  3. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-10-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  4. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  6. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish warmblood stallions and their relationship to pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Jane M; Johannisson, Anders; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Hammar, Linda; Sandebert, Thomas; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination is not as widely used in horses as in other domestic species, such as dairy cattle and pigs, partly because of the wide variation in sperm quality between stallion ejaculates and partly due to decreased fertility following the use of cooled transported spermatozoa. Furthermore, predictive tests for sperm fertilising ability are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in ejaculates obtained from 11 warmblood breeding stallions in Sweden, and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to pregnancy rates to investigate the possibility of using these tests predictively. Methods Aliquots from fortyone ejaculates, obtained as part of the normal semen collection schedule at the Swedish National Stud, were used for morphological analysis by light microscopy, whereas thirtyseven were used for chromatin analysis (SCSA) by flow cytometry. The outcome of inseminations using these ejaculates was made available later in the same year. Results Ranges for the different parameters were as follows; normal morphology, 27–79.5%; DNA-fragmentation index (DFI), 4.8–19.0%; standard deviation of DNA fragmentation index (SD_DFI) 41.5–98.9, and mean of DNA fragmentation index (mean_DFI), 267.7–319.5. There was considerable variation among stallions, which was statistically significant for all these parameters except for mean_DFI (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.2 respectively). There was a negative relationship between normal morphology and DFI (P < 0.05), between normal morphology and SD_DFI (P < 0.001), and between normal morphology and mean_DFI (P < 0.05). For specific defects, there was a direct relationship between the incidence of pear-shaped sperm heads and DFI (P < 0.05), and also nuclear pouches and DFI (P < 0.001), indicating that either morphological analysis or chromatin analysis was able to identify abnormalities in spermiogenesis that could compromise DNA

  7. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells.

  8. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells. PMID:26963026

  9. Epilepsy-induced abnormal striatal plasticity in Bassoon mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Picconi, Barbara; Sgobio, Carmelo; Bagetta, Vincenza; Barone, Ilaria; Paillè, Vincent; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Polli, Federica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Altrock, Wilko; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Bernardi, Giorgio; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Di Luca, Monica; Calabresi, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the striatum has been implicated in the spread of epileptic seizures. As the absence of functional scaffolding protein Bassoon in mutant mice is associated with the development of pronounced spontaneous seizures, we utilized this new genetic model of epilepsy to investigate seizure-induced changes in striatal synaptic plasticity. Mutant mice showed reduced long-term potentiation in striatal spiny neurons, associated with an altered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit distribution, whereas GABAergic fast-spiking (FS) interneurons showed NMDA-dependent short-term potentiation that was absent in wild-type animals. Alterations in the dendritic morphology of spiny neurons and in the number of FS interneurons were also observed. Early antiepileptic treatment with valproic acid reduced epileptic attacks and mortality, rescuing physiological striatal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor subunit composition. However, morphological alterations were not affected by antiepileptic treatment. Our results indicate that, in Bsn mutant mice, initial morphological alterations seem to reflect a more direct effect of the abnormal genotype, whereas plasticity changes are likely to be caused by the occurrence of repeated cortical seizures.

  10. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  11. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of sperm nuclear integrity in patients with different percentages of decapitated sperm in ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Rondanino, Christine; Duchesne, Véronique; Escalier, Denise; Jumeau, Fanny; Verhaeghe, France; Peers, Marie-Claire; Mitchell, Valérie; Rives, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    The decapitated sperm defect is a rare type of teratozoospermia responsible for male infertility. Spermatozoa from patients affected by this syndrome are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) although little is known about their DNA integrity. This study evaluated sperm nuclear alterations in four patients and ten fertile men (control group). Sperm samples were examined by light, transmission electron and high-magnification contrast microscopy and analysed after terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling, aniline blue staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Spermatozoa from patients presented varying degrees of decapitation, along with morphological and ultrastructural head abnormalities. Whereas the proportion of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA and numerical chromosome abnormalities was similar in patients 1-3 and controls, the percentage of spermatozoa with hypocondensed chromatin was higher in patients 1-3 than in fertile men. Patient 4 presented a distinct phenotype, with an increased proportion of flagellated spermatozoa with DNA strand breaks as well as increased aneuploidy and diploidy rates compared with controls and with patients 1-3. No successful pregnancy resulted from ICSI although embryos were obtained for three patients. The morphological defects and the nuclear alterations observed in spermatozoa of patients with the decapitated sperm syndrome may have contributed to ICSI failures.

  13. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 89 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and an additional ten accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions were used for morphological analyses of germplasm planted in a common garden in...

  14. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  15. Retrospective evaluation of the clinical and laboratory data from 300 patients of various hematological malignancies with chromosome 3 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Suning; Pan, Jinlan; He, Xuefeng; Liang, Jianying; Chen, Zixing

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory behaviors of chromosome 3 abnormalities by analyzing the morphological, cytogenetic, and follow-up data from 300 patients of various hematological malignancies with chromosome 3 abnormalities. From the results, trisomy 3, translocation (3q), and del(3) were the abnormal types most frequently observed (>10%) among the chromosome 3 abnormalities. In hematological malignancies, chromosome 3 abnormalities were most frequently seen in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (24.7%) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (16%), followed by those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (13.7%) and multiple myeloma (MM) (12.7%). In this series, genomic losses were the most frequent genetic abnormalities in AML, ALL, and hybrid acute leukemia (HAL) patients, whereas structural rearrangements were frequently seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and MDS patients, and genomic gains in MM, lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Chromosome 3 abnormalities mainly occurred as a component of a complex abnormality (251/300) rather than a sole one (14/300). Survival analysis demonstrated a statistical difference between the patients with trisomy 3, who had a better prognosis, and patients with del(3), who had a worse prognosis in this series (P < 0.05). Abnormalities in chromosome 3 may imply an unfavorable outcome in CML and ALL.

  16. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  18. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  19. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  1. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  2. hcf5, a nuclear photosynthetic electron transport mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with a pleiotropic effect on chloroplast gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Dinkins, R D; Bandaranayake, H; Baeza, L; Griffiths, A J; Green, B R

    1997-01-01

    A photosynthetic mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, hcf5, was isolated by screening M2 seedlings for high chlorophyll fluorescence. Thylakoid morphology was strikingly abnormal, with large grana stacks and almost no stroma lamellae. Fluorescence induction kinetics, activity assays, and immunoblotting showed that photosystem II was absent. Polypeptides of the photosystem I complex, the Cyt b6/f complex, coupling factor, and the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were also severely depleted. However, the nuclear-encoded chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex polypeptides were unaffected. The rbcL transcript was present at very low levels, the pattern of transcripts from the polycistronic psbB-psbH-petB-petD operon was abnormal, and the mature psbH message was almost completely lacking. This suggests that the hcf5 locus may encode a product required for the correct expression of several chloroplast genes. PMID:9112766

  3. Morphology and molecules on opposite sides of the diversity gradient: four cryptic species of the Cliona celata (Porifera, Demospongiae) complex in South America revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Thiago Silva; Zilberberg, Carla; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele

    2012-01-01

    A great number of marine organisms lack proper morphologic characters for identification and species description. This could promote a wide distributional pattern for a species morphotype, potentially generating many morphologically similar albeit evolutionarily independent worldwide lineages. This work aimed to estimate the genetic variation of South America populations of the Cliona celata species complex. We used COI mtDNA and ITS rDNA as molecular markers and tylostyle length and width as morphological characters to try to distinguish among species. Four distinct clades were found within the South American C. celata complex using both genetic markers. The genetic distances comparisons revealed that scores among those clades were comparable to distances between each clade and series of previously described clionaid species, some of which belong to different genera. Our results also suggest that one of the clades has a broad discontinuous distribution in the Atlantic Ocean, while another presents high gene flow between the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. Conversely, spicule morphology was not able to distinguish each clade, due to the high degree of overlap among them. Therefore, we considered that each recovered clade correspond, in fact, to different species that cannot be differentiated via morphological characters, which are often used to describe species within the C. celata species complex.

  4. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  5. Cardiac abnormalities in acromegaly. Pathophysiology and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Pivonello, Rosario; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is claimed to be one of the most severe complications of acromegaly, contributing significantly to mortality in this disease. In fact, an excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) causes a specific derangement of cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities in cardiac muscle structure and function, inducing a specific cardiomyopathy. In the early phase of acromegaly the excess of GH and IGF-I induces a hyperkinetic syndrome, characterized by increased heart rate and increased systolic output. Concentric hypertrophy is the most common feature of cardiac involvement in acromegaly, found in more than two thirds of patients at diagnosis. This abnormality is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction and eventually with impaired systolic function ending in heart failure, if the GH/IGF-I excess is left untreated. In addition, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of heart valves have also been described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, aggravates acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Successful control of acromegaly induces a decrease in left ventricular mass and an improvement in diastolic function, while the effects of GH/IGF-I suppression on systolic function are more variable. However, since cardiovascular alterations in young patients with short disease duration are milder than in those with longer disease duration, it is likely to be easier to reverse and/or arrest acromegalic cardiomyopathy in young patients with early-onset disease. In conclusion, careful assessments of cardiac function, morphology, and activity are required in patients with acromegaly. An early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are important in order to reverse acromegalic cardiomyopathy.

  6. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  7. Cellular abnormalities in depression: evidence from postmortem brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Stockmeier, Craig A; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2004-06-01

    During the past two decades, in vivo neuroimaging studies have permitted significant insights into the general location of dysfunctional brain regions in depression. In parallel and often intersecting ways, neuroanatomical, pharmacological, and biochemical studies of postmortem brain tissue are permitting new insights into the pathophysiology of depression. In addition to long-recognized neurochemical abnormalities in depression, novel studies at the microscopic level support the contention that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in cell morphology and distribution. In the past 6 years, cell-counting studies have identified changes in the density and size of both neurons and glia in a number of frontolimbic brain regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex, and the amygdala and hippocampus. Convergence of cellular changes at the microscopic level with neuroimaging changes detected in vivo provides a compelling integration of clinical and basic research for disentangling the pathophysiology of depression. The ultimate integration of these two research approaches will occur with premortem longitudinal clinical studies on well-characterized patients linked to postmortem studies of the same subjects.

  8. Hemorheological abnormalities in lipoprotein lipase deficient mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui; Huang Wei; Xian Xunde; Ross, Colin J.D.; Hayden, Michael R.; Wen Zongyao . E-mail: rheol@bjmu.edu.cn; Liu George . E-mail: vangeorgeliu@gmail.com

    2006-03-24

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis.

  9. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  10. Gyrification brain abnormalities as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Manara, Renzo; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Gyrification brain abnormalities are considered a marker of early deviations from normal developmental trajectories and a putative predictor of poor outcome in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore cortical folding morphology in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A MRI brain study was conducted on 38 patients with AN, 20 fully recovered patients, and 38 healthy women. Local gyrification was measured with procedures implemented in FreeSurfer. Vertex-wise comparisons were carried out to compare: (1) AN patients and healthy women; (2) patients with a full remission at a 3-year longitudinal follow-up assessment and patients who did not recover. AN patients exhibited significantly lower gyrification when compared with healthy controls. Patients with a poor 3-year outcome had significantly lower baseline gyrification when compared to both healthy women and patients with full recovery at follow-up, even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and gray matter volume. No significant correlation has been found between gyrification, body mass index, amount of weight loss, onset age, and duration of illness. Brain gyrification significantly predicted outcome at follow-up even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and other clinical prognostic factors. Although the role of starvation in determining our findings cannot be excluded, our study showed that brain gyrification might be a predictor of outcome in AN. Further studies are needed to understand if brain gyrification abnormalities are indices of early neurodevelopmental alterations, the consequence of starvation, or the interaction between both factors.

  11. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses between the BTBR mice with low level sociability and B6 mice with high level sociability. The results revealed that the number of excitatory synapse colocalized with pre- and post-synaptic marker was not different between aged BTBR and B6 mice. The aged BTBR mice had a normal structure of dendritic spine and the expression of Shank3 protein in the brain as well as that in B6 mice. The baseline and KCl-evoked glutamate release from the cortical synaptoneurosome in aged BTBR mice was lower than that in aged B6 mice. Overall, the data indicate that there is a link between disturbances of the glutamate transmission and autism. These findings provide new evidences for the hypothesis of excitation/inhibition imbalance in autism. Further work is required to determine the cause of this putative abnormality.

  12. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Annual, l986 features state-of-the-art reports on the technical aspects and clinical applications of single-photon emission computed tomography, as well as on monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoimaging and on receptorbinding radiopharmaceuticals. Also included is a review of magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac abnormalities. Other contributions cover bone mineral measurements; skeletal scintigraphy of the hands and wrists; and radionuclide blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis of the leg.

  13. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  14. Induced Abnormality In Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph; Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Levinski, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Chernova, Lola; Ivanova, Irene; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with normal wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen grains however, contain only one nucleus, while normal viable pollen is trinucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was identified - a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1200 ppb). Ground studies conducted exposing "Super-dwarf" wheat to ethylene at just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  16. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  17. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  18. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal spermatozoa via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. F.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, G. N.; Chen, J. H.; Wang, J.; Lin, J. Q.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the percentage of spermatozoa with aberrant sperm head morphologies has been correlated with a rise in male infertility. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy using a new substrate was utilized to characterize and differentiate the morphologically normal and abnormal human sperm cells based on their different biochemical components by showing their different specific Raman spectra. A detailed classification based on the PCA-LDA method was performed showing a diagnostic sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91%, with 80% classification accuracy. Our results suggest that micro-Raman spectroscopy can serve as a reliable and non-invasive tool for detection and differentiation of human spermatozoa.

  19. arc6, an extreme chloroplast division mutant of Arabidopsis also alters proplastid proliferation and morphology in shoot and root apices.

    PubMed

    Robertson, E J; Pyke, K A; Leech, R M

    1995-09-01

    The arc6 (accumulation and replication of chloroplasts) mutant of Arabidopsis has only two greatly enlarged chloroplasts per mature leaf mesophyll cell compared with ninety chloroplasts per cell in the wild type. The mutation is a single nuclear gene and the plant phenotype is normal. Shoot and root apical meristems of arc6 plants have been examined to determine how early during plastid development the mutant arc6 phenotype can be recognised. In the cells of the arc6 apical meristem there are only two proplastids, which are larger than wild type with a highly variable morphology. In the cells of the leaf primordia where differentiation of proplastids to chloroplasts occurs arc6 plastids are larger and at a more advanced developmental stage than wild-type plastids. In arc6 root cells statoliths and other plastids also show grossly abnormal morphology and the statoliths are greatly increased in size. During arc6 stomatal guard cell development the perturbation in proplastid population dynamics affects plastid segregation and 30% of stomata lack plastids in one or both guard cells. Our evidence would suggest that ARC6 is expressed throughout the vegetative cells of the Arabidopsis seedling with major effects on both the proplastid phenotype and the proplastid population. ARC6 is the first gene to be identified in Arabidopsis which has a global effect on plastid development in cells arising from both the shoot and root meristems, and is of major importance in the nuclear control of plastid differentiation in higher plants.

  20. Predictive Value of Morphological Features in Patients with Autism versus Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, H.; Hellemann, G. S.; de Jonge, M. V.; Beemer, F. A.; van Engeland, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the predictive power of morphological features in 224 autistic patients and 224 matched-pairs controls. To assess the relationship between the morphological features and autism, we used the receiver operator curves (ROC). In addition, we used recursive partitioning (RP) to determine a specific pattern of abnormalities that is…

  1. Abnormal Growth Factor/Cytokine Network in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer cells express a broad spectrum of the growth factor/cytokine receptor systems that organize the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in tumor microenvironment, which confers cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis. However, these abnormal growth factor/cytokine networks differ in the two histological types of gastric cancer. Importantly, activation of nuclear factor-kB pathway by Helicobacter pylori infection may act as a key player for induction of growth factor/cytokine networks in gastritis and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Better understanding of these events will no doubt provide new approaches for biomarkers of diagnosis and effective therapeutic targeting of gastric cancer. PMID:19308687

  2. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  3. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  4. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  5. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  6. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  7. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  8. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  9. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  10. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  11. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  12. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  13. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  14. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  15. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  16. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  17. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  18. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  19. Morphological, Electrophysiological, and Metabolic Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle in People with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anuradha; Garland, S. Jayne; House, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Fatigue is one of the most frequent debilitating symptoms reported by people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) therapy. A wide range of underlying abnormalities, including skeletal muscle weakness, have been implicated as causes of this fatigue. Skeletal muscle weakness is well established in this population, and such muscle weakness is amenable to physical therapy treatment. The purpose of this review was to identify morphological, electrophysiological, and metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscles in people with ESRD/HD that may cause skeletal muscle weakness. Method: Electronic databases were searched for relevant literature from inception to March 2010. Inclusion criteria were English language; adult subjects with ESRD/HD; and the use of muscle biopsy, electromyography, and nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (31P-NMRS) techniques to evaluate muscle characteristics. Results: In total, 38 studies were included. All studies of morphological characteristics reported type II fibre atrophy. Electrophysiological characteristics included both neuropathic and myopathic skeletal muscle changes. Studies of metabolic characteristics revealed higher cytosolic inorganic phosphate levels and reduced effective muscle mass. Conclusion: The results indicate an array of changes in the morphological, electrophysiological, and metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle structure in people with ESRD/HD that may lead to muscle weakness. PMID:22654242

  20. Ultrastructural analysis of reorganization of the periodontium in simulated torsion abnormality and its correction with succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Karasulova, E L; Khloponin, P A; Popkov, V L; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A

    2003-11-01

    Morphological study confirmed the positive effect of succinic acid on tissue ultrastructure, energy metabolism in cells of fibroblastic differon, reorganization and neogenesis of intercellular substance of the periodontal connective tissue during the retention period after correction of simulated dental torsion abnormality in dogs.

  1. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011–2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years. PMID:26661851

  2. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  3. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  4. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  5. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  6. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  7. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  8. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  9. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  10. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  11. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  12. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  13. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  14. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  15. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  16. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  17. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  18. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  19. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  20. Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Yuji; Iida, Toshii; Inomata, Shinji; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2005-05-01

    Abnormal follicular keratinization is involved in comedogenesis in acne vulgaris. We recently demonstrated that calcium influx into epidermal keratinocytes is associated with impaired skin barrier function and epidermal proliferation. Based on these results, we hypothesized that sebum components affect calcium dynamics in the keratinocyte and consequently induce abnormal keratinization. To test this idea, we first observed the effects of topical application of sebum components, triglycerides (triolein), saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitoleic acid) on hairless mouse skin. Neither triglyceride nor saturated fatty acids affected the skin surface morphology or epidermal proliferation. On the other hand, application of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, and palmitoleic acid induced scaly skin, abnormal keratinization, and epidermal hyperplasia. Application of triglycerides and saturated fatty acids on cultured human keratinocytes did not affect the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), whereas unsaturated fatty acids increased the [Ca(2+)](i) of the keratinocytes. Moreover, application of oleic acid on hairless mouse skin induced an abnormal calcium distribution in the epidermis. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids in sebum alter the calcium dynamics in epidermal keratinocytes and induce abnormal follicular keratinization.

  1. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  2. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  3. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1993. Volume 16, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period April through June 1993, and discusses four abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, three involving medical brachytherapy misadministrations and one involving a research reactor that operated without a safety system. One pool irradiation facility contamination event, two medical misadministrations (one ``sodium iodide`` and one brachytherapy), and one industrial radiographer overexposure event that were reported by NRC Agreement States are also discussed. The report also contains information updating one previously reported abnormal occurrence and information on three other events of interest.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events.

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1993. Volume 16, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1993. This report discusses six abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities. Five involved medical brachytherapy misadministrations, and one involved an overexposure to a nursing infant. Seven abnormal occurrences that were reported by the Agreement States are also discussed, based on information provided by the Agreement States as of February 28, 1994. Of these events, three involved brachytherapy misadministrations, one involved a teletherapy misadministration, one involved a theft of radioactive material during transport and improper disposal, and two involved lost sources.

  6. Association of cervical artery dissection with connective tissue abnormalities in skin and arteries.

    PubMed

    Brandt, T; Morcher, M; Hausser, I

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) often occur in otherwise healthy individuals without known risk factors for stroke and frequently develop spontaneously without relevant trauma. An underlying arteriopathy leading to a so-called 'weakness of the vessel wall' and predisposing certain individuals to dissection has often been postulated. Therefore, the morphology of connective tissue, a main component of vessel wall and environment, was investigated in carotids and skin. While the overall morphology of dermal connective tissue is normal, about half of patients with sCAD show mild ultrastructural connective tissue alterations. These ultrastructural morphological aberrations can be designated either as 'Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) III-like', resembling mild findings in patients with the hypermobility type of EDS (EDS III); or coined 'EDS IV-like' with collagen fibers containing fibrils with highly variable diameters resembling mild findings in vascular EDS; or the abnormalities are restricted to the elastic fibers (with fragmentation and minicalcifications) without significant alterations in the morphology of the collagen fibrils. These findings had some similarity with the morphology found in heterozygous carriers of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. A grading scale according to the severity of the findings has been introduced. Similar connective tissue abnormalities were detected in some first-degree relatives of patients with sCAD showing hereditary at least in a subgroup. They can serve as a phenotypic marker for further genetic studies in patients with sCAD and large families to possibly identify the underlying basic molecular defect(s). Very few of patients (<5%) with sCAD and connective tissue abnormalities have clinical manifestations of skin, joint, or skeletal abnormalities of a defined heritable connective tissue disorder. In specimens of arterial walls of carotid, aortic, and renal arteries of patients with sCAD, pronounced systemic, histopathological

  7. Macro- and microscopic spectral-polarization characteristics of the structure of normal and abnormally located chordae tendianeae of left ventricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyk, Yu. Yu.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The morphological peculiarities of TS mitral valve of the heart of man in normal and abnormal spaced strings of the left ventricle and the study of their structural features depending on the location was studied. There are given the results of comparative statistics, correlation and fractal study population Mueller-matrix images (MMI) of healthy and abnormal (early forms that are not diagnosed by histological methods) BT normal and abnormally located tendon strings left ventricle of the human heart. Abnormalities in the structure of the wings, tendon strings (TS), mastoid muscle (MM) in inconsistencies elements and harmonized operation of all valve complex shown in the features of the polarization manifestations of it laser images.

  8. Abnormal gastric morphology and function in CCK-B/gastrin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Langhans, N.; Rehfeld, J. F.; Beinborn, M.; Kopin, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Mice lacking the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptor have been generated by targeted gene disruption. The roles of this receptor in controlling gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth have been assessed. The analysis of homozygous mutant mice vs. wild type included measurement of basal gastric pH, plasma gastrin concentrations as well as quantification of gastric mucosal cell types by immunohistochemistry. Mutant mice exhibited a marked increase in basal gastric pH (from 3.2 to 5.2) and about a 10-fold elevation in circulating carboxyamidated gastrin compared with wild-type controls. Histologic analysis revealed a decrease in both parietal and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, thus explaining the reduction in acid output. Consistent with the elevation in circulating gastrin, antral gastrin cells were increased in number while somatostatin cells were decreased. These data support the importance of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor in maintaining the normal cellular composition and function of the gastric mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10461365

  9. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

  10. Quantitation of human platelet transformation on siliconized glass: comparison of "normal' and "abnormal' platelets.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, R; Zacharski, L R; Allen, R D

    1981-08-28

    A series of typical morphological stages, representing progression of transformation, may be defined following adhesion of platelets to a siliconized glass surface. Platelets are visualized by new light microscopic techniques that allow quantitative categorization of transformation of large platelet populations by morphological stage, and thus the detection and elucidation of platelet defects which influence transformation. Living platelets form each of five subjects with bleeding disorders, due to platelet defects, exhibited a pattern of morphologic transformation which differed from normal. In addition, the pattern observed with the platelets from a subject with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia was sufficiently different from that observed with the platelets from four subjects with thrombopathy, so as to point to a qualitative difference in the activity of the platelets in the two disorders. These findings indicate that the analysis of platelet transformation in vitro through the use of light microscopy may allow for detection and further classification of platelet abnormalities. PMID:7302892

  11. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  12. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  15. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  16. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  17. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  18. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  19. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  20. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  1. Second-trimester pregnancy termination for genetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, W F; LaFerla, J J

    1982-09-01

    2nd trimester pregnancy termination techniques are reviewed in this discussion, and attention is directed to some of the special needs of couples with a genetically abnormal fetus. Focus is on the psychological considerations, the medical techniques (prostaglandins, hypertonic saline, and hypertonic urea), and surgical techniques (dilatation and evacuation and abdominal operations). Patients who present for genetic diagnosis are generally older, more often married, and desirous of a healthy pregnancy outcome. The grief response is common and understandable when one considers that amniocentesis results are not known until after quickening and that patients have seen the ultrasonic image of their living fetuses at the time of amniocentesis. Patients differ in their manner of dealing with the loss of their hoped for healthy children, and the physician must be sufficiently sensitive to assess the individual patient's needs rather than give the same advice when counseling every patient. The patient and her partner may want to vent their immediate feelings or concentrate on the objective details of the termination procedure. In any case, the various available methods of terminating the pregnancy should be reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Prostaglandins should be used with caution and are contraindicated for the following conditions: hypersensitivity; pelvic inflammatory disease; unfavorable fetal position; and placenta previa. Careful monitoring of uterine contractions should be done. The primary advantage of prostaglandins in terminating a pregnancy with a malformed or genetically abnormal fetus is the removal of an intact fetus for morphologic examination and for other diagnostic tests to confirm the antenatal diagnosis. Hypertonic saline promotes uterine contractions by drawing fluid from the vascular and extravascular space. 100 milliliters of amniotic fluid is removed with a 20 gauge spinal needle, and 200 ml of a 20% saline solution instilled

  2. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  3. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  4. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  5. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  6. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  7. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  8. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  9. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  10. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  11. Spectral Cytopathology of Cervical Samples: Detecting Cellular Abnormalities in Cytologically Normal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jennifer M.; Bird, Benjamin; Papamarkakis, Kostas; Miljković, Miloš; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Diem, Max

    2010-01-01

    Aim Spectral Cytopathology (SCP) is a novel spectroscopic method for objective and unsupervised classification of individual exfoliated cells. The limitations of conventional cytopathology are well-recognized within the pathology community. In SCP, cellular differentiation is made by observing molecular changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which may or may not produce morphological changes detectable by conventional cytopathology. This proof of concept study demonstrates SCP’s potential as an enhancing tool for cytopathologists by aiding in the accurate and reproducible diagnosis of cells in all states of disease. Method Infrared spectra are collected from cervical cells deposited onto reflectively coated glass slides. Each cell has a corresponding infrared spectrum that describes its unique biochemical composition. Spectral data are processed and analyzed by an unsupervised chemometric algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results In this blind study, cervical samples are classified by analyzing the spectra of morphologically normal looking squamous cells from normal samples and samples diagnosed by conventional cytopathology with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). SCP discriminated cytopathological diagnoses amongst twelve different cervical samples with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. SCP also correlated two samples with abnormal spectral changes: these samples had a normal cytopathological diagnosis but had a history of abnormal cervical cytology. The spectral changes observed in the morphologically normal looking cells are most likely due to an infection with human papillomavirus, HPV. HPV DNA testing was conducted on five additional samples, and SCP accurately differentiated these samples by their HPV status. Conclusions SCP tracks biochemical variations in cells that are consistent with the onset of disease. HPV has been implicated as the cause of these changes detected spectroscopically. SCP does not depend on

  12. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  13. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  14. [Genetic nature of abnormal larval development in the progeny of l(1)ts403(sbr10) females of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Pugacheva, O M; Mamon, L A

    2005-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the small bristles (sbr) gene is vital and evolutionary conservative and controls nuclear export of mRNA. Sbr mutant alleles had a broad pleiotropic effect. High frequency of abnormal larva dying (up to 18 %) at the first instar stage in progeny of heat shock (37 degrees C, 1 h) treated mutant females is one of the most interesting l(l)ts403(sbr10) allele effects. Abnormal larvae display characteristic phenotype that involves the Malpighian tubules defect. Using interphase FISH method (fluorescence in situ hybridization), we showed that abnormal larvae had monosomy on chromosomes 2 and 3. DNA content in neuroblast interphase nuclei of abnormal larvae is 2.1 times less than in normal larvae. We suggest that abnormal larvae could be full or mosaic haploids that appeared as a result of maternal genome loss during fertilization or the mitotic division. Larvae with the same abnormalities appear in a progeny of females with different genotypes mating with males carrying compound chromosomes 2 or 3. FISH analysis showed that such larvae had monosomy only on a chromosome that is compound in paternal strain. Thus, monosomy on large autosomes may cause aspecial phenotype of abnormal larvae in D. melanogaster.

  15. Abnormal corneal epithelial maintenance in mice heterozygous for the micropinna microphthalmia mutation Mp.

    PubMed

    Douvaras, Panagiotis; Dorà, Natalie J; Mort, Richard L; Lodge, Emily J; Hill, Robert E; West, John D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the corneal morphology of adult Mp/+ mice, which are heterozygous for the micropinna microphthalmia mutation, and identified several abnormalities, which implied that corneal epithelial maintenance was abnormal. The Mp/+ corneal epithelium was thin, loosely packed and contained goblet cells in older mice. Evidence also suggested that the barrier function was compromised. However, there was no major effect on corneal epithelial cell turnover and mosaic patterns of radial stripes indicated that radial cell movement was normal. Limbal blood vessels formed an abnormally wide limbal vasculature ring, K19-positive cells were distributed more widely than normal and K12 was weakly expressed in the peripheral cornea. This raises the possibilities that the limbal-corneal boundary was poorly defined or the limbus was wider than normal. BrdU label-retaining cell numbers and quantitative clonal analysis suggested that limbal epithelial stem cell numbers were not depleted and might be higher than normal. However, as corneal epithelial homeostasis was abnormal, it is possible that Mp/+ stem cell function was impaired. It has been shown recently that the Mp mutation involves a chromosome 18 inversion that disrupts the Fbn2 and Isoc1 genes and produces an abnormal, truncated fibrillin-2(MP) protein. This abnormal protein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells that normally express Fbn2 and causes ER stress. It was also shown that Fbn2 is expressed in the corneal stroma but not the corneal epithelium, suggesting that the presence of truncated fibrillin-2(MP) protein in the corneal stroma disrupts corneal epithelial homeostasis in Mp/+ mice. PMID:27235794

  16. Behavioural changes observed in demyelination model shares similarities with white matter abnormalities in humans.

    PubMed

    Serra-de-Oliveira, Nathalia; Boilesen, Sabine Nunes; Prado de França Carvalho, Carolina; LeSueur-Maluf, Luciana; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Spadari, Regina Célia; Medalha, Carla Cristina; Monteiro de Castro, Gláucia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Further to the symptoms resulting from demyelination, new studies point to the involvement of neuroinflammation and white matter abnormalities in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Cuprizone, a model of MS, produces consistent demyelination and elicits behavioural, morphological and inflammatory changes in animals that share some similarities with those observed in humans. In this study, we used the cuprizone model in Lewis rats to evaluate clinical signs triggered by the demyelination process which could be comparable with the symptoms seen in white matter abnormalities in human beings. To induce the demyelination process, 0.6% cuprizone was added to the Lewis rats' diet for 4 weeks. We proceeded with behavioural, morphological and immunological analyses. Animals fed with cuprizone exhibited behavioural changes: higher scores in the neurotoxicity test, reduced exploratory and locomotion behaviour, and also an increase of permanency in the closed arm of the elevated plus maze test, were observed. In these analyses, the animals showed motor coordination impairment and anxiety-like behaviour. Demyelination also triggered changes in discrimination of objects identified by an increase in the time spent close to a familiar object. These behavioural alterations were associated with a significant increase in the levels of TNF-alpha and corticosterone, consistent with the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, the results of this work show the cuprizone/Lewis rat model demyelination as an attractive paradigm for studying the correlation between white matter abnormalities and behaviour.

  17. Morphologic and growth responses in Chironomus tentans to arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, E A; Wold, L; Moore, B C; Schaumloffel, J; Dasgupta, N

    2006-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays consisting of sediments spiked with three concentrations (30, 130, and 260 microg g-1 As dry wt) of arsenic (As+3) were used to assess morphologic responses and growth in Chironomus tentans larvae. Chironomid larvae were raised in contaminated sediments from egg stage to emergence, and mouthpart abnormalities, larval length, and larval head width were used as end points to determine differences between metal-spiked and control specimens. C. tentans exhibited significantly higher mouthpart deformity proportions, smaller body sizes, smaller head widths, and slower development than control larvae. Our results demonstrate a dose-response relationship between As and mentum deformities in C. tentans. However, the proportion of deformed larvae did not increase with time in the treatment tanks. Results demonstrate that As induces mouthpart abnormalities at various concentrations. This research provides more support for the use of chironomid abnormalities as a tool for the assessment of heavy-metal pollution in aquatic systems. PMID:16998632

  18. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Pović et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological

  19. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Michael J.

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  1. The effects of male age on sperm analysis by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). Methods Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast) optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area). At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years. Results There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II) groups (P >0.05). The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III) was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of LNV spermatozoa between the younger (I and II) groups (P >0.05). The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III) than in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of normal sperm with increasing age (P < 0.05; r = -0.10). However, there was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of spermatozoa with LNV and male age (P < 0.05, r = 0.10). Conclusion The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of

  2. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  4. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  5. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Beare, Richard J; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Loh, Wai Y; Matthews, Lillian G; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Spittle, Alicia J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Seal, Marc L; Thompson, Deanne K

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical

  6. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  7. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  8. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  9. Comprehensive automatic assessment of retinal vascular abnormalities for computer-assisted retinopathy grading.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinayak; Agurto, Carla; VanNess, Richard; Nemeth, Sheila; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important signs of systemic disease that presents on the retina is vascular abnormalities such as in hypertensive retinopathy. Manual analysis of fundus images by human readers is qualitative and lacks in accuracy, consistency and repeatability. Present semi-automatic methods for vascular evaluation are reported to increase accuracy and reduce reader variability, but require extensive reader interaction; thus limiting the software-aided efficiency. Automation thus holds a twofold promise. First, decrease variability while increasing accuracy, and second, increasing the efficiency. In this paper we propose fully automated software as a second reader system for comprehensive assessment of retinal vasculature; which aids the readers in the quantitative characterization of vessel abnormalities in fundus images. This system provides the reader with objective measures of vascular morphology such as tortuosity, branching angles, as well as highlights of areas with abnormalities such as artery-venous nicking, copper and silver wiring, and retinal emboli; in order for the reader to make a final screening decision. To test the efficacy of our system, we evaluated the change in performance of a newly certified retinal reader when grading a set of 40 color fundus images with and without the assistance of the software. The results demonstrated an improvement in reader's performance with the software assistance, in terms of accuracy of detection of vessel abnormalities, determination of retinopathy, and reading time. This system enables the reader in making computer-assisted vasculature assessment with high accuracy and consistency, at a reduced reading time.

  10. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort.

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin S C; Valcour, Victor G; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  11. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  12. Normal and Abnormal Development in the Arabidopsis Vegetative Shoot Apex.

    PubMed Central

    Medford, JI; Behringer, FJ; Callos, JD; Feldmann, KA

    1992-01-01

    Vegetative development in the Arabidopsis shoot apex follows both sequential and repetitive steps. Early in development, the young vegetative meristem is flat and has a rectangular shape with bilateral symmetry. The first pair of leaf primordia is radially symmetrical and is initiated on opposite sides of the meristem. As development proceeds, the meristem changes first to a bilaterally symmetrical trapezoid and then to a radially symmetrical dome. Vegetative development from the domed meristem continues as leaves are initiated in a repetitive manner. Abnormal development of the vegetative shoot apex is described for a number of mutants. The mutants we describe fall into at least three classes: (1) lesions in the shoot apex that do not show an apparent alteration in the shoot apical meristem, (2) lesions in the apical meristem that also (directly or indirectly) alter leaf primordia, and (3) lesions in the apical meristem that alter meristem size and leaf number but not leaf morphology. These mutations provide tools both to genetically analyze vegetative development of the shoot apex and to learn how vegetative development influences floral development. PMID:12297656

  13. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  14. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV + cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Benjamin S.C.; Valcour, Victor G.; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Gutman, Boris A.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%. PMID:26640768

  15. [From anomalies to abnormalities. Therapeutic considerations].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    The proper timing prior to any treatment should be the therapeutic decision. This concept seems to us particularly opportune as we deal, in the exercise of our disciplines, with facial morphology, a topic that is nowadays affected by excessive expectations and by the dictates of fashion, body image and appearance, all stirred up to a fever pitch by the media.

  16. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  17. Relationship between conventional sperm parameters and motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME).

    PubMed

    Perdrix, A; Saïdi, R; Ménard, J F; Gruel, E; Milazzo, J P; Macé, B; Rives, N

    2012-08-01

    With the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), spermatozoa morphology may be assessed directly on motile spermatozoa at high magnification (up to 6600×). This procedure describes more precisely spermatozoa abnormalities, especially head vacuoles. However, no consensus has been established concerning normal or abnormal MSOME criteria. The aim of our study was to define MSOME vacuole criteria assessed objectively with a digital imaging system software to establish a potential relationship between conventional semen parameters. A total of 440 semen samples were obtained from males consulting in Rouen University Hospital Reproductive Biology Laboratory. Conventional semen analysis (volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, vitality and morphology) and MSOME assessment {sperm head length, width and area as well as vacuole number, vacuole area and relative vacuole area to sperm head [RVA (%) = [vacuole area (μm(2))/head area (μm(2))] × 100)]} were performed for each semen sample. Among our 440 males, 109 presented normal conventional semen parameters and 331 abnormal ones. Sperm head vacuoles were significantly larger in abnormal semen samples (p < 0.0001). RVA was the most discriminative MSOME criterion between normal and abnormal semen samples according to ROC curves analysis, and was negatively correlated with poor sperm morphology (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001). We concluded to (i) the normal occurrence of vacuoles in sperm head whatever the normality or abnormality of semen parameters, (ii) the discriminative function of the RVA to distinguish semen samples with normal and abnormal parameters, and (iii) the strong correlation between high RVA and poor sperm morphology.

  18. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  19. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  20. Protein 4.1R–deficient mice are viable but have erythroid membrane skeleton abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng-Tao; Afzal, Veena; Coller, Barry; Patel, Dipti; Chasis, Joel A.; Parra, Marilyn; Lee, Gloria; Paszty, Chris; Stevens, Mary; Walensky, Loren; Peters, Luanne L.; Mohandas, Narla; Rubin, Edward; Conboy, John G.

    1999-01-01

    A diverse family of protein 4.1R isoforms is encoded by a complex gene on human chromosome 1. Although the prototypical 80-kDa 4.1R in mature erythrocytes is a key component of the erythroid membrane skeleton that regulates erythrocyte morphology and mechanical stability, little is known about 4.1R function in nucleated cells. Using gene knockout technology, we have generated mice with complete deficiency of all 4.1R protein isoforms. These 4.1R-null mice were viable, with moderate hemolytic anemia but no gross abnormalities. Erythrocytes from these mice exhibited abnormal morphology, lowered membrane stability, and reduced expression of other skeletal proteins including spectrin and ankyrin, suggesting that loss of 4.1R compromises membrane skeleton assembly in erythroid progenitors. Platelet morphology and function were essentially normal, indicating that 4.1R deficiency may have less impact on other hematopoietic lineages. Nonerythroid 4.1R expression patterns, viewed using histochemical staining for lacZ reporter activity incorporated into the targeted gene, revealed focal expression in specific neurons in the brain and in select cells of other major organs, challenging the view that 4.1R expression is widespread among nonerythroid cells. The 4.1R knockout mice represent a valuable animal model for exploring 4.1R function in nonerythroid cells and for determining pathophysiological sequelae to 4.1R deficiency. PMID:9927493

  1. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  2. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  3. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  4. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  5. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  7. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  8. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  9. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  10. Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities from Multilead ECG using Multiscale Phase Alternation Features.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG. PMID:27118009

  11. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  12. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  13. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  14. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  15. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  16. Effects of freezing on bone histological morphology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Miguel Gustavo Setúbal; Sá, Camila Neves; Marchionni, Antônio Márcio Teixeira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; Sadigursky, Moysés

    2008-12-01

    Allograft bone has been widely used for reconstruction of different portions of the skeleton. The fragment of bone harvested must be kept under low temperatures. The cryopreservation also contributes to decrease the antigenic potential of the tissue. Although this technique is considered safe, there is little information about the morphological modifications that the medullary and cortical portions of bone suffer after freezing. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of bone tissue after freezing under different temperatures and periods. Twelve rabbits were used to analyze the effects of two temperatures, -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C, during four periods of time: 30, 60, 90, 120 days. Tissues were analyzed by HE, picro-sirius stains and also by Feulgen's reaction, through qualitative and morphometric ways, considering the area occupied by cells and nuclei, medullary and cortical portions, as well as by collagen expression at cortical. The differences among the treatments were analyzed by Tukey s test, at 5% significance level. Bone freezing increased cellular and nuclear areas at cancellous bone and diminished nuclear area at the cortical bone. Cortical bone collagen suffered denaturation proportionally to temperature decrease and to freezing duration. These alterations compromised the morphology of tissues after 90 or 120 days of freezing at the temperature of -70 degrees C. Cells necrosed during freezing, contributing to reduce bone antigenicity.

  17. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  18. Nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains part of the series New Liberal Arts, which is intended to make science and technology more accessible to students of the liberal arts. Volume in hand provides a comprehensive, multifaceted examination of nuclear energy, in nontechnical terms. Wolfson explains the basics of nuclear energy and radiation, nuclear power..., and nuclear weapons..., and he invites readers to make their own judgments on controversial nuclear issues. Illustrated with photos and diagrams. Each chapter contains suggestions for additional reading and a glossary. For policy, science, and general collections in all libraries. (ES) Topics contained include Atoms and nuclei. Effects and uses of radiation. Energy and People. Reactor safety. Nuclear strategy. Defense in the nuclear age. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and nuclear futures.

  19. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  20. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  1. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  2. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  3. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.

  4. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. PMID:25590398

  5. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  6. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    1-2% of women has abnormal uterine development due to nonunification of the Müllerian ducts in the embryonal period. At the RWTH Aachen, in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics, between January and June 1987, we had searched systematically for maldevelopment of the uterus in 2299 echosonografies. In 13 cases we found maldevelopment of internal genital; 5 of these cases were diagnosed by an echosonografic routine-examination. The echografic criteria of the different grades of uterine malformations have been determined, systematized and discussed in relation to the symptoms. The most frequent malformations as uterus subseptus, uterus septus, uterus bicornis and uterus duplex are subject of a detailed discussion. This work demonstrates that echosonografic is a very efficient instrument to diagnose uterine malformations and gives us a very exact anatomic interpretation of malformations.

  7. Abnormal branch of the testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, P Vijaya; Bhasin, Vishu; Kumar, Sushil

    2006-09-01

    We present a case report of an abnormal course and branching of the right testicular artery, which was uncovered during routine dissection of the abdomen in our first year medical class. It arose from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and immediately divided into two branches; one branch coursed inferiorly behind the inferior vena cava as the testicular artery proper, while the other branch passed behind the inferior vena cava and emerged on the anterior surface of the right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of the kidney, it bifurcated into an ascending branch that went to the right suprarenal gland and a descending branch that ended in the posterior abdominal wall. The left testicular artery was normal in its course and distribution. This is a very rare variation.

  8. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder investigated with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Milham, Michael P; Bain, Earle E; Mah, Linda; Cannon, Dara M; Marrett, Sean; Zarate, Carlos A; Pine, Daniel S; Price, Joseph L; Drevets, Wayne C

    2006-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with abnormalities of brain structure. Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum. These structures share anatomical connections with each other and form part of a "visceromotor" network modulating emotional behavior. Areas of the lateral orbital, superior temporal and posterior cingulate cortices project to this network, but morphometric abnormalities in these areas have not been established in BD. The current study assessed tissue volumes within these areas in BD using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). MRI images were obtained from 36 BD subjects and 65 healthy controls. To account for possible neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of psychotropic medications, BD subjects were divided into medicated and unmedicated groups. Images were segmented into tissue compartments, which were examined on a voxel-wise basis to determine the location and extent of morphometric changes. The GM was reduced in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and superior temporal gyrus of unmedicated BD subjects relative to medicated BD subjects and in the lateral orbital cortex of medicated BD subjects relative to controls. White matter (WM) was increased in the orbital and posterior cingulate cortices, which most likely reflected alterations in gyral morphology resulting from the reductions in the associated GM. The morphometric abnormalities in the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and lateral orbital cortices in BD support the hypothesis that the extended network of neuroanatomical structures subserving visceromotor regulation contains structural alterations in BD. Additionally, localization of morphometric abnormalities to areas known to exhibit increased metabolism in depression supports the hypothesis that repeated stress and elevated glucocorticoid

  9. Is assisted reproduction associated with abnormal placentation?

    PubMed

    Joy, Jolly; Gannon, Caroline; McClure, Neil; Cooke, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) and conception following a period of untreated infertility (>1 year) are independently associated with increased pregnancy complications in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. It is unknown if placental dysfunction associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic histological discrepancies might explain some of these variances. Our aim was to compare the histopathology of placentae from singleton pregnancies belonging to 3 groups, as follows: conception as a result of ART; spontaneous conception (<1 year of trying); and conception following untreated infertility (>1 year). Pathological examination of placentae from singleton pregnancies of nonsmoking, age-matched primiparous women with no significant medical history and no known uterine congenital anomalies was performed by a single pathologist blinded to the groups. Features were compared using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. A total of 89 placental pathology reports were available (control  =  39, infertility  =  17, ART  =  33). The mean placental thickness was significantly higher in the ART group when compared to the spontaneous conception group (P  =  0.02). There were significantly more placental hematomas in the ART group (P  =  0.04) compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal placental shapes or abnormal cord insertions. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of microscopic placental lesions, nor were there any statistically significant differences in the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic placental lesions between the infertility group and the other groups. Placentae of ART pregnancies show significantly increased thickness and a higher incidence of hematomas. Increased placental thickness has previously been linked to increased perinatal risk.

  10. Karyotypic abnormalities in myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Joris; Demory, Jean Loup; Caulier, Marie Thérèse; Agape, Philippe; Wetterwald, Marc; Bauters, Francis; Laï, Jean Luc

    2003-01-15

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by an increase of total red cell volume; in 10% to 15% of cases, bone marrow fibrosis complicates the course of the disease after several years, resulting in a hematologic picture mimicking myelofibrosis with myelocytic metaplasia (MMM). This condition is known as post polycythemic myelofibrosis (PPMF). Among 30 patients with PPMF followed in Northern France, 27 (90%) expressed one or two abnormal clones in myelocytic cell cultures. Of these, 19 (70%) had partial or complete trisomy 1q. This common anomaly either resulted from unbalanced translocations with acrocentric chromosomes, that is, 13, 14, and 15, or other chromosomes, that is, 1, 6, 7, 9, 16, 19, and Y, or from partial or total duplication of long arm of chromosome 1. A single patient had an isochromosome 1q leading to tetrasomy 1q. In all cases, a common trisomic region spanning 1q21 to 1q32 has been identified. Given that most patients had previously received chemotherapy or radio-phosphorus to control the polycythemic phase of their disease, this study illustrates the increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities after such treatments: 90% versus 50% in de novo MMM. Moreover, karyotype can be used to distinguish PPMF-where trisomy 1q is the main anomaly-from primary MMM where trisomy 1q is rare and deletions 13q or 20q are far more common. Whether trisomy 1q is or is not a secondary event remains a matter of debate, as well as the role of cytotoxic treatments. PMID:12645649

  11. Eye-Head Coordination Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Simon; Würmle, Othmar; Razavi, Nadja; Müri, René M.; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. Methodology/Principal Findings Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view). Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. Conclusions/Significance Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients with schizophrenia. PMID

  12. Ciliary abnormalities due to defects in the retrograde transport protein DYNC2H1 in short-rib polydactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Amy E; Merriman, Barry; Farrington-Rock, Claire; Camacho, Natalia; Sebald, Eiman T; Funari, Vincent A; Schibler, Matthew J; Firestein, Marc H; Cohn, Zachary A; Priore, Mary Ann; Thompson, Alicia K; Rimoin, David L; Nelson, Stanley F; Cohn, Daniel H; Krakow, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    The short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndromes are a heterogeneous group of perinatal lethal skeletal disorders with polydactyly and multisystem organ abnormalities. Homozygosity by descent mapping in a consanguineous SRP family identified a genomic region that contained DYNC2H1, a cytoplasmic dynein involved in retrograde transport in the cilium. Affected individuals in the family were homozygous for an exon 12 missense mutation that predicted the amino acid substitution R587C. Compound heterozygosity for one missense and one null mutation was identified in two additional nonconsanguineous SRP families. Cultured chondrocytes from affected individuals showed morphologically abnormal, shortened cilia. In addition, the chondrocytes showed abnormal cytoskeletal microtubule architecture, implicating an altered microtubule network as part of the disease process. These findings establish SRP as a cilia disorder and demonstrate that DYNC2H1 is essential for skeletogenesis and growth.

  13. Essential role of the nuclear isoform of RBFOX1, a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders, in the brain development

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nanako; Ito, Hidenori; Nishijo, Takuma; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Morishita, Rika; Tabata, Hidenori; Momiyama, Toshihiko; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Gene abnormalities in RBFOX1, encoding an mRNA-splicing factor, have been shown to cause autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Since pathophysiological significance of the dominant nuclear isoform in neurons, RBFOX1-isoform1 (iso1), remains to be elucidated, we performed comprehensive analyses of Rbfox1-iso1 during mouse corticogenesis. Knockdown of Rbfox1-iso1 by in utero electroporation caused abnormal neuronal positioning during corticogenesis, which was attributed to impaired migration. The defects were found to occur during radial migration and terminal translocation, perhaps due to impaired nucleokinesis. Axon extension and dendritic arborization were also suppressed in vivo in Rbfox1-iso1-deficient cortical neurons. In addition, electrophysiology experiments revealed significant defects in the membrane and synaptic properties of the deficient neurons. Aberrant morphology was further confirmed by in vitro analyses; Rbfox1-iso1-konckdown in hippocampal neurons resulted in the reduction of primary axon length, total length of dendrites, spine density and mature spine number. Taken together, this study shows that Rbfox1-iso1 plays an important role in neuronal migration and synapse network formation during corticogenesis. Defects in these critical processes may induce structural and functional defects in cortical neurons, and consequently contribute to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders with RBFOX1 abnormalities. PMID:27481563

  14. Observation and analysis of abnormal absorption signals in laser flash photolysis measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Yuan, Yao-feng; Li, Xiao-lin; Su, Xiao-long; Sun, Wen-hua

    2013-03-15

    In order to investigate a noise-like signal appearing in dynamic mode measurement during laser flash photolysis experiments, five compounds were chosen which show this abnormal phenomenon. The reproducibility of this phenomenon was done repeatedly, indicating that it originates from each molecular structural property. Also their two regulation pattern or features were found by our analysis. One is a U-shaped curve of main frequency intensity with time and it seems to be directly related to the concentration of the T(1) excited state. The other is a high damping oscillation curve of the frequency shift with time and this curve seems to be indicating an energy transportation process from light into chemical energy. Finally, a possible origin of hydrogen nuclear optical resonance was proposed for the abnormal signal. PMID:23376219

  15. Observation and analysis of abnormal absorption signals in laser flash photolysis measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Yuan, Yao-feng; Li, Xiao-lin; Su, Xiao-long; Sun, Wen-hua

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate a noise-like signal appearing in dynamic mode measurement during laser flash photolysis experiments, five compounds were chosen which show this abnormal phenomenon. The reproducibility of this phenomenon was done repeatedly, indicating that it originates from each molecular structural property. Also their two regulation pattern or features were found by our analysis. One is a U-shaped curve of main frequency intensity with time and it seems to be directly related to the concentration of the T1 excited state. The other is a high damping oscillation curve of the frequency shift with time and this curve seems to be indicating an energy transportation process from light into chemical energy. Finally, a possible origin of hydrogen nuclear optical resonance was proposed for the abnormal signal.

  16. Early morphological changes in organ cultured human corneal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Sperling, S

    1978-10-01

    Nineteen human cadaver corneas with few damaged endothelial cells were incubated under tissue culture conditions for time periods ranging from five min to 48 h. Morphological alterations of the endothelial cells were studied in whole wet mounts stained by alizarine red-alkohol-trypane blue and by scanning electron microscopy. Joint meetings of three cells are characteristic for normal corneal endothelium. After 15--60 min of incubation, damaged cells were expelled from the coherent cell sheet by expanding neighbouring cells. Joint meetings of 5--8 expanding cells were formed. After 24 h of incubation, joint meetings of four cells were the dominating morphological abnormality. Morphological changes during reduction of the numbers of cells in joint meetings are described.

  17. Metronidazole-induced alterations in murine spermatozoa morphology.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Marta D; Palermo, Ana M; Merani, María S; Carballo, Marta A

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of metronidazole (MTZ) on the stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and spermatozoa morphology when the drug is administered in human therapeutic doses to 60-day-old CFW male mice. The frequency of the stages was established by counting spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids. Abnormalities in the flagellum or the head, lack of maturity and multiple malformations, were considered in the morphological analysis. Murine control strain was compared with MTZ treated group (v.ip 130 mg/kg/bw) both kept in standard captivity conditions. Cellular composition or number of stages in the seminiferous tubules were not altered in MTZ exposed animals, though the number of cells in stages I, V and XII was increased. The sperm cell morphology was severely affected by the treatment with potentially serious consequences on the normal fertilization process. Thus, the MTZ has to be considered as a conceivable thread regarding male fertility. PMID:17184970

  18. Volcanology and morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Apollo 15 photographs of the southern parts of Serenitatis and Imbrium were used for a study of the morphology and distribution of wrinkle ridges. Volcanic and structural features along the south margin of Serenitatis were also studied, including the Dawes basalt cinder cones. Volcanic and structural features in crater Aitken were investigated as well. Study of crater Goclenius showed a close relationship between morphology of the impact crater and grabens which tend to parallel directions of the lunar grid. Similar trends were observed in the walls of crater Tsiolkovsky and other linear structures. Small craters of possible volcanic origin were also studied. Possible cinder cones were found associated with the Dawes basalt and in the floor of craters Aitken and Goclenius. Small pit craters were observed in the floors of these craters. Attempts were made to obtain contour maps of specific small features and to compare Orbiter and Apollo photographs to determine short term changes associated with other processes.

  19. Assessing human sperm morphology: top models, underdogs or biometrics?

    PubMed

    Auger, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of the percentage of spermatozoa having an 'ideal' morphology using so-called strict method is the method recommended in the latest edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for semen analysis. This recommendation is a result of the statistical association between 'ideal' sperm morphology and fertility, and of the current general belief that sperm morphology assessment should be used primarily as a fertility tool. The notion of an 'ideal' sperm morphology has persisted despite the very low percentage of such spermatozoa in the semen of fertile men, a subject of intense controversy. The detailed categorization of each abnormal spermatozoon has thus, for a long time, been considered optional and partially redundant, an idea which is reflected in the earlier editions of the WHO manual. However, several recent studies have shown the importance of carefully assessing abnormal sperm morphology for use in the diagnosis of infertility, to determine fertility prognosis, and for basic or public health studies. One approach, which combines videomicroscopy and computer vision, and is the only approach able to assess the continuum of sperm biometrics, has been used successfully in several recent clinical, basic and toxicology studies. In summary, the visual assessment of detailed sperm morphology-including the categorization of anomalies allowing arithmetically derived indices of teratozoospermia-and the more modern computer-based approaches, although often considered to be redundant, are in fact complementary. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the field of investigation (clinical, research, toxicology) and the problem being addressed. Each approach has advantages as well as certain limitations, which will be discussed briefly herein.

  20. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  1. [Neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated clinical abnormalities in 27 children].

    PubMed

    Syrbe, S; Eberle, K; Strenge, S; Bernhard, M K; Herbertz, S; Bierbach, U; Hirsch, W; Froster, U G; Kiess, W; Merkenschlager, A

    2007-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the most common of the phakomatoses and the clinical follow-up is an interdisciplinary challenge. The data of 27 patients with NF1 were systematically reviewed and compared to data from the literature. All of our patients had clinical signs of NF1. Besides the classic criteria café-au-lait spots (100%), freckling (48,1%), positive family history (44,1%), neurofibromas (40,7%), Lisch nodules (22,2%) and optic pathway tumors (22,2%) there were developmental delay (40,7%), macrocephaly (33,3%), strabism (29,6%), scoliosis (18,5%), epilepsy (14,8%), pubertal anomalies (14,8%), short stature (11,1%) and tics. Morphologically, CNS hamartomas (55,5%), astrocytomas (22,2%) and one pheochromocytoma became apparent. Special findings consist of one aneurysm of internal carotic arteria, juvenile xanthogranulomas, a case of pulmonary stenosis and an intracardial tumor. Four new mutations in the NF1 gene were found. Regular screening of optic glioma with MRI had no clinical significance. In contrast to other authors, one of our patients with optic glioma showed clinical progress after twelve years of age. The detection of astrocytomas led only to therapeutic consequences, when clinical signs or symptoms occurred. As with other authors, we found no potential for CNS hamartoma to proliferate. In three cases with pubertal anomalies we found CNS gliomas, which indicates the need for MRI. The expense of screening, apart from clinical surveillance, seems inadequate in relation to clinical relevance and costs. We describe four new mutations in the NF1 gene; there have been no specific genotype-phenotype correlations. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated clinical abnormalities in 27 children. PMID:18183640

  2. Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain disturbances.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, M Y; Chistik, V; Chapman, J; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-15

    IRDA (intermittent rhythmic delta activity) is an abnormal generalized EEG pattern that is not specific to any single etiology and can occur with diffuse or focal cerebral disturbances. To determine whether different electrographic features of IRDA and associated EEG findings can differentiate underlying focal from diffuse brain disturbances, we performed a blind analysis of 58 consecutive EEGs with an IRDA pattern, recorded from 1993 until 1996, in which we evaluated posterior background activity, focal slowing and IRDA characteristics (frequency, distribution, duration, symmetry and abundance). The clinical diagnosis, state of consciousness and CT brain findings were retrieved from the patients' hospital records. There were 58 patients (33 females; mean age, 58+/-21 years). Twelve (21%) had only focal brain lesions, while 46 (79%) had diffuse brain abnormalities, (15 diffuse structural, 19 metabolic abnormalities, 12 postictal). Normal consciousness and focal EEG slowing were more frequent in patients with focal abnormalities, however, this was not statistically significant. Of the patients with focal abnormality, 11 (92%) had normal posterior background activity either bilaterally (n=4) or contralateral to the focal lesion (n=7). Bilaterally normal posterior background activity was observed in about 30% in both groups. Bilaterally abnormal posterior background activity was apparent in one patient (8%) with focal brain lesion and in 31 patients (67%) with diffuse brain abnormalities (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in IRDA electrographic features between the focal group and the group with diffuse brain disturbances. We conclude that IRDA morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain abnormalities.

  3. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  4. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  5. Pathogenesis and management of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, N J

    1985-01-01

    In the prepubertal child, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis is functional and extremely sensitive to negative feedback inhibition by low circulating levels of sex steroids. This feedback system may be under the control of unknown CNS inhibitory mechanisms. Clinical signs of puberty are preceded by increased pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropin secretion, particularly LH, increases in both sexes, especially during sleep, resulting in gonadal stimulation, secretion of sex steroids, and progressive physical maturation. When any phase of the H-P-G axis malfunctions, abnormal puberty can result. Abnormal puberty may be precocious or delayed. When puberty is precocious it may be isosexual or heterosexual, complete or partial, intermittent (unsustained), or progressive. True (central) precocious puberty is usually progressive, and hormonally reflective of normal puberty, although occurring at an earlier age, whereas intermittent or unsustained precocious puberty usually is associated with immature patterns of gonadotropin secretion, or with complete gonadotropin suppression as in precocious pseudopuberty (ovarian or adrenal tumors). Cranial axial tomography, gonadotropin response to GnRH, and pelvic ultrasound in girls are useful tools to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Intermittent, or unsustained, puberty in girls is usually self-limited, requiring no medical or surgical intervention. True progressive central precocity may now be managed with GnRH analogues, which effectively arrest pubertal changes as well as slow rapid linear growth and skeletal maturation. Although a maturation lag usually explains most patterns of delayed puberty, it is often challenging to exclude other conditions that may contribute to slow pubertal progression, such as chronic illness, excessive exercise, emotional stress, anorexia, or drug use. Elevated

  6. Using a Morphological Analyzer to Teach Theoretical Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavans, Judith L.; Chodorow, Martin S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of an instructional morphological parser (IMP) in the teaching of courses in theoretical and computational morphology. Provides an overview of computational morphology. Outlines the two courses and speculates on computational and linguistic concepts that students learned. Examines problems encountered in teaching about recursion.…

  7. Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance examination of female reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Noyszewski, E.A.; Raman, J.; Trupin, S.R.; McFarlin, B.L.; Dawson, M.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful method of investigating the relationship between metabolism and function in living tissues. We present evidence that the phosphorus 31 spectra of myometrium and placenta are functions of physiologic state and gestational age. Specific spectroscopic abnormalities are observed in association with disorders of pregnancy and gynecologic diseases. Our results suggest that noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations may sometimes be a useful addition to magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biopsy specimens could become a cost-effective method of evaluating certain biochemical abnormalities.

  8. Mislocalization of prelamin A Tyr646Phe mutant to the nuclear pore complex in human embryonic kidney 293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yong; Garg, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Anil K. . E-mail: anil.agarwal@utsouthwestern.edu

    2007-03-30

    Mature lamin A is formed after post-translational processing of prelamin A, which includes prenylation and carboxymethylation of cysteine 661 in the CaaX motif, followed by two proteolytic cleavages by zinc metalloprotease (ZMPSTE24). We expressed several prelamin A mutants, C661S (defective in prenylation), Y646F (designed to undergo prenylation but not second proteolytic cleavage), double mutant, Y646F/C661S and Y646X (mature lamin A), and the wild-type construct in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Only the Y646F mutant co-localized with nuclear pore complex proteins, including Nup53 and Nup98, whereas the other mutants localized to the nuclear envelope rim. The cells expressing Y646F mutant also revealed abnormal nuclear morphology which was partially rescued with the farnesyl transferase inhibitors. These data suggest that the unprenylated prelamin A is not toxic to the cells. The toxicity of prenylated prelamin A may be due to its association and/or accumulation at the nuclear pore complex which could be partially reversed by farnesyl transferase inhibitors.

  9. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  10. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  11. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  13. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  14. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  15. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  16. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  17. Liver abnormalities in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Crotti, Chiara; Selmi, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    The liver is a lymphoid organ involved in the immune response and in the maintenance of tolerance to self molecules, but it is also a target of autoimmune reactions, as observed in primary liver autoimmune diseases (AILD) such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Further, the liver is frequently involved in connective tissue diseases (CTD), most commonly in the form of liver function test biochemical changes with predominant cholestatic or hepatocellular patterns. CTD commonly affecting the liver include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholypid syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polimyositis, and anti-synthetase syndrome, while overlap syndromes between AILD and CTD may also be diagnosed. Although liver cirrhosis and failure are extremely rare in patients with CTD, unusual liver conditions such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia or Budd-Chiari syndrome have been reported with increasing frequency in patients with CTD. Acute or progressing liver involvement is generally related to viral hepatitis reactivation or to a concomitant AILD, so it appears to be fundamental to screen patients for HBV and HCV infection, in order to provide the ideal therapeutic regimen and avoid life-threatening reactivations. Finally, it is important to remember that the main cause of biochemical liver abnormalities in patients with CTD is a drug-induced alteration or coexisting viral hepatitis. The present article will provide a general overview of the liver involvement in CTD to allow rheumatologists to discriminate the most common clinical scenarios.

  18. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, François; Meuli, Reto

    2015-12-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. PMID:26255159

  19. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  20. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2006-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the captive chimpanzee population, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of heart disease in this species. We reviewed the physical exam records of 265 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for electrocardiogram abnormalities. During the 24-mo period reviewed (August 2003 through August 2005), 34 animals were diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias consisting of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, mixed arrhythmias, and bradycardia. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was significantly higher in male animals, chimpanzees 20 to 39 y old, and those with structural heart disease. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was not significantly higher in animals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic viral infections. During the retrospective period, 7 animals with cardiac arrhythmias died or were euthanized. Mortality was significantly higher in animals with ventricular arrhythmias compared with those without ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that in the common chimpanzee, age, male gender, and structural heart disease are risk factors for developing cardiac arrhythmias and that ventricular arrhythmias are risk factors for mortality. PMID:17219782

  1. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  2. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  3. Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

    2013-12-30

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients.

  4. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making.

  5. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  6. NUCLEAR MEMBRANES FROM MAMMALIAN LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Werner W.; Deumling, Barbara; Ermen, Baerbel; Jarasch, Ernst-Dieter; Kleinig, Hans

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear membranes were isolated from rat and pig liver by sonication of highly purified nuclear fractions and subsequent removal of adhering nucleoproteins in a high salt medium. The fractions were examined in the electron microscope by both negative staining and thin sectioning techniques and were found to consist of nuclear envelope fragments of widely varying sizes. Nuclear pore complex constituents still could frequently be recognized. The chemical composition of the nuclear membrane fractions was determined and compared with those of microsomal fractions prepared in parallel. For total nuclei as well as for nuclear membranes and microsomes, various enzyme activities were studied. The results indicate that a similarity exists between both fractions of cytomembranes, nuclear envelope, and endoplasmic reticulum, with respect to their RNA:protein ratio and their content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Both membranous fractions had many proteins in common including some membrane-bound enzymes. Activities in Mg-ATPase and the two examined cytochrome reductases were of the same order of magnitude. The content of cytochrome b5 as well as of P-450 was markedly lower in the nuclear membranes. The nuclear membranes were found to have a higher buoyant density and to be richer in protein. The glucose-6-phosphatase and Na-K-ATPase activities in the nuclear membrane fraction were very low. In the gel electrophoresis, in addition to many common protein bands, some characteristic ones for either microsomal or nuclear membranous material were detected. Significant small amounts of DNA and RNA were found to remain closely associated with the nuclear envelope fragments. Our findings indicate that nuclear and endoplasmic reticulum membranes which are known to be in morphological continuity have, besides a far-reaching similarity, some characteristic differences. PMID:4317731

  7. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Emilly M; Marques, Vinicius B; Nunes, Dieli de O; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; dos Santos, Leonardo; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in a mammal's physiological processes. However, iron tissue deposits have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Studies that evaluate the effect of acute iron overload on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that acute iron overload leads to HPG axis abnormalities, including iron accumulation and impairment in reproductive tract morphology. Female rats were treated with iron-dextran (Fe rats) to assess their HPG morphophysiology. The increasing serum iron levels due to iron-dextran treatment were positively correlated with higher iron accumulation in the HPG axis and uterus of Fe rats than in control rats. An increase in the production of superoxide anions was observed in the pituitary, uterus and ovary of Fe rats. Morphophysiological reproductive tract abnormalities, such as abnormal ovarian follicular development and the reduction of serum estrogen levels, were observed in Fe rats. In addition, a significant negative correlation was obtained between ovary superoxide anion and serum estrogen levels. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that acute iron overload is toxic for the HPG axis, a finding that may be associated with the subsequent development of the risk of reproductive dysfunction.

  8. Sebaceous Gland, Hair Shaft, and Epidermal Barrier Abnormalities in Keratosis Pilaris with and without Filaggrin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Robert; Sugarman, Jeffrey L.; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Mauro, Theodora M.; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Brandner, Johanna M.; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Schmuth, Matthias; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Although keratosis pilaris (KP) is common, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. KP is associated clinically with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis and molecular genetically with filaggrin-null mutations. In 20 KP patients and 20 matched controls, we assessed the filaggrin and claudin 1 genotypes, the phenotypes by dermatoscopy, and the morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy. Thirty-five percent of KP patients displayed filaggrin mutations, demonstrating that filaggrin mutations only partially account for the KP phenotype. Major histologic and dermatoscopic findings of KP were hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, mild T helper cell type 1-dominant lymphocytic inflammation, plugging of follicular orifices, striking absence of sebaceous glands, and hair shaft abnormalities in KP lesions but not in unaffected skin sites. Changes in barrier function and abnormal paracellular permeability were found in both interfollicular and follicular stratum corneum of lesional KP, which correlated ultrastructurally with impaired extracellular lamellar bilayer maturation and organization. All these features were independent of filaggrin genotype. Moreover, ultrastructure of corneodesmosomes and tight junctions appeared normal, immunohistochemistry for claudin 1 showed no reduction in protein amounts, and molecular analysis of claudin 1 was unremarkable. Our findings suggest that absence of sebaceous glands is an early step in KP pathogenesis, resulting in downstream hair shaft and epithelial barrier abnormalities. PMID:25660180

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  10. Prognostic significance of QRS duration and morphology.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Zaręba, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    QRS duration and morphology, evaluated via a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), represent an opportunity to derive useful prognostic information regarding the risk of subsequent cardiac events or therapeutic outcomes. Prolonged QRS duration, and the presence of intraventricular conduction abnormalities, usually indicate the presence of changes in the myocardium due to underlying heart disease. Prolonged QRS duration is often associated with depressed ejection fraction or enlarged left ventricular volumes, but several studies have demonstrated that this simple ECG measure provides independent prognostic value, after adjusting for relevant clinical covariates. Post-infarction patients with prolonged QRS duration have a significantly increased risk of mortality, although data associating QRS prolongation specifically with sudden death is less supportive. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is no evidence that QRS duration has prognostic significance in predicting mortality or sudden death. Prolonged QRS duration, and especially presence of left bundle branch block, seems to predict a benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Therefore, QRS duration and morphology should not only be considered a predictor of death or sudden death in patients after myocardial infarction, and in those suspected of coronary artery disease, but also as a predictor of benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure, whether of an ischemic or non-ischemic origin. PMID:21305480

  11. Morphological imaging of the hippocampus in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Isnard, J; Bourdillon, P

    2015-03-01

    The hippocampus is a structure frequently involved in epilepsy, especially in partial drug-resistant forms. In addition, some hippocampal pathologies are associated with specific types of epilepsy presenting specific clinical courses and requiring specific treatments. Considering these major implications for treatment, morphological investigations of the hippocampus are crucial for epileptic patients. Indeed, discovery of hippocampal sclerosis may (depending on the clinical and electrophysiological findings) lead to the diagnosis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). If the diagnosis of MTLE is retained in a case of drug-resistance, surgery may be proposed without invasive phase II investigations such as stereoelectroencephalograpy. In other instances, hippocampal abnormalities may be associated with epilepsy, but without the same value for localizing the ictal onset zone. Hippocampal dysgenesis is a strong argument for non-temporo-mesial ictal onset ipsilateral to the malformation. We describe here the specific MRI modalities adapted for hippocampal investigations and the radiological signs of hippocampal pathologies associated with epilepsy (especially hippocampal sclerosis and hippocamal dysgenesis). Hippocampus morphological investigations in epilepsy require specific MRI modalities and appropriate knowledge of the specific signs of each pathology. Careful analysis is crucial since the results may have a major impact on the therapeutic management of epileptic patients.

  12. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  13. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  14. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  15. A multi-feature based morphological algorithm for ST shape classification.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuqiong; Miao, Fen; Ma, Ruiqing; Li, Ye; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal ST segment is an important parameter for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and other heart diseases. As most abnormal ST segments sustain for only a few seconds, it is impractical for the doctors to detect and classify abnormal ones manually on time. Even though many ST segment classification algorithms are proposed to meet the rising demand of automatic myocardial ischemia diagnosis, they are often with lower recognition rate. The aim of this study is to detect abnormal ST segments precisely and classify them into more categories, and thus provide more detailed category information to help the clinicians make decisions. This study sums up ten common abnormal ST segments according to the clinical ECG records and proposes a morphological classification algorithm of ST segment based on multi-features. This algorithm consists of two parts: Feature points extraction and ST segment classification. In the first part, R wave is detected by using the 2B-spline wavelet transform, and mode-filtering method and morphological characteristics are used for other feature points extraction. In the ST segment classification process, ST segment level, variance, slope value, number of convex/concave points and other feature parameters are employed to classify the ST segment. This algorithm can classify abnormal ST segments into ten categories above. We evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm based on ECG data in the European ST-T database. The global recognition rate of 92.7% and the best accuracy of 97% demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. PMID:26737618

  16. Gross Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia: A Regional Analysis of Traditional Diagnostic Subtypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    Categorized 56 patients with chronic schizophrenia into 2 groups based on traditional diagnostic subtypology. Compared groups on indices of cortical and subcortical cerebrospinal fluid (SCF) volume to explore whether more virulent nonparanoid disorder was linked to cortical/subcortical morphological brain abnormalities. Two groups differed…

  17. Vesta's shape and morphology.

    PubMed

    Jaumann, R; Williams, D A; Buczkowski, D L; Yingst, R A; Preusker, F; Hiesinger, H; Schmedemann, N; Kneissl, T; Vincent, J B; Blewett, D T; Buratti, B J; Carsenty, U; Denevi, B W; De Sanctis, M C; Garry, W B; Keller, H U; Kersten, E; Krohn, K; Li, J-Y; Marchi, S; Matz, K D; McCord, T B; McSween, H Y; Mest, S C; Mittlefehldt, D W; Mottola, S; Nathues, A; Neukum, G; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Prettyman, T H; Raymond, C A; Roatsch, T; Russell, C T; Schenk, P; Schmidt, B E; Scholten, F; Stephan, K; Sykes, M V; Tricarico, P; Wagner, R; Zuber, M T; Sierks, H

    2012-05-11

    Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body. PMID:22582254

  18. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Yue, Ying; Kong, Li; Wang, Jijun; Li, Chunbo; Tan, Ling; Su, Hui; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1) the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2) atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement. PMID:26789520

  19. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Yue, Ying; Kong, Li; Wang, Jijun; Li, Chunbo; Tan, Ling; Su, Hui; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1) the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2) atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  20. Use of abnormal preprophase bands to decipher division plane determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C.; Cyr, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many premitotic plant cells possess a cortical preprophase band of microtubules and actin filaments that encircles the nucleus. In vacuolated cells, the preprophase band is visibly connected to the nucleus by a cytoplasmic raft of actin filaments and microtubules termed the phragmosome. Typically, the location of the preprophase band and phragmosome corresponds to, and thus is thought to influence, the location of the cell division plane. To better understand the function of the preprophase band and phragmosome in orienting division, we used a green fluorescent protein-based microtubule reporter protein to observe mitosis in living tobacco bright yellow 2 cells possessing unusual preprophase bands. Observations of mitosis in these unusual cells support the involvement of the preprophase band/phragmosome in properly positioning the preprophase nucleus, influencing spindle orientation such that the cytokinetic phragmoplast initially grows in an appropriate direction, and delineating a region in the cell cortex that attracts microtubules and directs later stages of phragmoplast growth. Thus, the preprophase band/phragmosome appears to perform several interrelated functions to orient the division plane. However, functional information associated with the preprophase band is not always used or needed and there appears to be an age or distance-dependent character to the information. Cells treated with the anti-actin drug, latrunculin B, are still able to position the preprophase nucleus suggesting that microtubules may play a dominant role in premitotic positioning. Furthermore, in treated cells, spindle location and phragmoplast insertion are frequently abnormal suggesting that actin plays a significant role in nuclear anchoring and phragmoplast guidance. Thus, the microtubule and actin components of the preprophase band/phragmosome execute complementary activities to ensure proper orientation of the division plane.