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Sample records for abnormal oral glucose

  1. Meal related glucose monitoring is a method of diagnosing glucose intolerance in pregnancies with high probability of gestational diabetes but normal glucose tolerance by oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    John, Mathew; Gopinath, Deepa

    2013-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed by classical oral glucose tolerance test can result in fetal complications like macrosomia and polyhydramnios. Guidelines exist on management of patients diagnose by abnormal oral glucose tolerance test with diet modification followed by insulin. Even patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test maintaining apparently normal blood sugars with diet are advised insulin if there is accelerated fetal growth. But patients with normal oral glucose tolerance test can present with macrosomia and polyhydramnios. These patients are labelled as not having gestational diabetes mellitus and are followed up with repeat oral glucose tolerance test. We hypothesise that these patients may have an altered placental threshold to glucose or abnormal sensitivity of fetal tissues to glucose. Meal related glucose monitoring in these patients can identify minor abnormalities in glucose disturbance and should be treated to targets similar to physiological levels of glucose in non pregnant adults.

  2. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM). The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM), among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT) and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years) were investigated. Using OGTT, (25%) had impaired fasting blood (plasma) glucose concentration (BG) (>5.6 mmol/L). 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic) and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (BG > 7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L). Monitoring the maximum (postprandial) BG using CGMS,4 adolescents were diagnosed with diabetes (25%) (BG >11.1 mmol/L) and 9 with IGT (56%). HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels <2.6 (1.6 ± 0.8) and >0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03), respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B%) on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively) on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01) and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001). Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r

  3. Evaluation of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Children With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Varlamis, Sotirios; Vavatsi, Norma; Pavlou, Evangelos; Kotsis, Vasileios; Spilioti, Martha; Kavga, Maria; Varlamis, George; Sotiriadou, Foteini; Agakidou, Eleni; Voutoufianakis, Spyridon; Evangeliou, Athanasios E

    2013-11-01

    Glucose metabolism of children with drug-resistant epilepsy, controlled by antiepileptic drugs epilepsy, and first-time nonfebrile seizures was studied through the performance of an oral glucose tolerance test and through insulin, C-peptide, and glycosylated hemoglobin measurements. In the refractory epilepsy group, there were more abnormal oral glucose tolerance test results (62.07%) in comparison to the controlled epilepsy group (25%) and the group of first-time seizures (21.21%). There was a significant difference between the group of refractory epilepsy and every other group concerning the abnormality of the oral glucose tolerance test (P < .05). The mean values of insulin, HbA1c, and C-peptide levels were normal for all groups. The results of the present study suggest that there is a distinction of refractory epilepsies from the drug-controlled ones and the first-induced seizures relating to their metabolic profile, regardless of the type of seizures.

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 <11.1 mmol/L), and none with diabetes. Using the continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS), IFG was detected in 4 cases, the maximum serum blood glucose (BG : 2h or more after meal) was >7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L (IGT) in 9 children (69%) and >11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of <2.7 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). No glycemic abnormality was detected using HbA1C (5.7 ± 0.3%). 11/13 patients had HOMA values >2.6 and QUICKI values <0.35 denoting insulin resistance. Beta cell mass percent (B %) = 200 ± 94.8% and insulin sensitivity values (IS)=50.4 ± 45.5% denoted insulin resistance with hyper-insulinaemia and preserved beta cell mass. In obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  5. Oral glucose tolerance and hormonal response in heroin-dependent males.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L; Ghodse, A H

    1973-06-09

    Tests on 12 heroin addicts showed that their response to a glucose load differed from that in normal controls. Though the fasting blood sugar was normal, the rise in blood glucose after a standard 50-g oral glucose tolerance test was delayed and the rise smaller than in the controls. The heroin addicts had high resting insulin levels and a delayed peak response to an oral glucose load, and their growth hormone response was also abnormal.

  6. [Flat curves of oral glucose tolerance tests (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Tchobroutsky, G

    1980-04-26

    Patients are often referred to diabetologists on account of a flat curve of oral glucose tolerance test. This abnormality, however, is virtually never associated with a serious metabolic disorder and in any case, it never points to a disease that cannot be diagnosed by questioning or by straightforward clinical examination, nor confirmed by a more specific laboratory test. The curve may be flat for technical reasons (e.g. rejection of the glucose administered, timing of blood withdrawals and assays), for physiological reasons (differences between venous and arteriolo-capillary blood), or for pathological reasons (interaction with drugs, pituitary, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency, digestive malabsorption) but it never implies organic hypoglycaemia nor diabetes mellitus.

  7. Metabolite Profiles During Oral Glucose Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P.; Florez, Jose C.; Clish, Clary B.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify distinct biological pathways of glucose metabolism, we conducted a systematic evaluation of biochemical changes after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a community-based population. Metabolic profiling was performed on 377 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age 57 years, 42% women, BMI 30 kg/m2) before and after OGTT. Changes in metabolite levels were evaluated with paired Student t tests, cluster-based analyses, and multivariable linear regression to examine differences associated with insulin resistance. Of 110 metabolites tested, 91 significantly changed with OGTT (P ≤ 0.0005 for all). Amino acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates decreased after OGTT, and glycolysis products increased, consistent with physiological insulin actions. Other pathways affected by OGTT included decreases in serotonin derivatives, urea cycle metabolites, and B vitamins. We also observed an increase in conjugated, and a decrease in unconjugated, bile acids. Changes in β-hydroxybutyrate, isoleucine, lactate, and pyridoxate were blunted in those with insulin resistance. Our findings demonstrate changes in 91 metabolites representing distinct biological pathways that are perturbed in response to an OGTT. We also identify metabolite responses that distinguish individuals with and without insulin resistance. These findings suggest that unique metabolic phenotypes can be unmasked by OGTT in the prediabetic state. PMID:23382451

  8. Metabolite profiles during oral glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jennifer E; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P; Florez, Jose C; Clish, Clary B; Gerszten, Robert E; Wang, Thomas J

    2013-08-01

    To identify distinct biological pathways of glucose metabolism, we conducted a systematic evaluation of biochemical changes after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a community-based population. Metabolic profiling was performed on 377 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age 57 years, 42% women, BMI 30 kg/m(2)) before and after OGTT. Changes in metabolite levels were evaluated with paired Student t tests, cluster-based analyses, and multivariable linear regression to examine differences associated with insulin resistance. Of 110 metabolites tested, 91 significantly changed with OGTT (P ≤ 0.0005 for all). Amino acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates decreased after OGTT, and glycolysis products increased, consistent with physiological insulin actions. Other pathways affected by OGTT included decreases in serotonin derivatives, urea cycle metabolites, and B vitamins. We also observed an increase in conjugated, and a decrease in unconjugated, bile acids. Changes in β-hydroxybutyrate, isoleucine, lactate, and pyridoxate were blunted in those with insulin resistance. Our findings demonstrate changes in 91 metabolites representing distinct biological pathways that are perturbed in response to an OGTT. We also identify metabolite responses that distinguish individuals with and without insulin resistance. These findings suggest that unique metabolic phenotypes can be unmasked by OGTT in the prediabetic state.

  9. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    PubMed Central

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  10. An integrated glucose-insulin model to describe oral glucose tolerance test data in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Jauslin, Petra M; Silber, Hanna E; Frey, Nicolas; Gieschke, Ronald; Simonsson, Ulrika S H; Jorga, Karin; Karlsson, Mats O

    2007-10-01

    An integrated model for the glucose-insulin system describing oral glucose tolerance test data was developed, extending on a previously introduced model for intravenous glucose provocations. Model extensions comprised the description of glucose absorption by a chain of transit compartments with a mean transit time of 35 minutes, a bioavailability of 80%, and a representation of the incretin effect, expressed as a direct effect of the glucose absorption rate on insulin secretion. The ability of the model to predict the incretin effect was assessed by simulating the observed difference in insulin response following an oral glucose tolerance test compared with an isoglycemic glucose infusion mimicking an oral glucose tolerance test profile. The extension of the integrated glucose-insulin model to gain information from oral glucose tolerance test data considerably expands its range of applications because the oral glucose tolerance test is one of the most common glucose challenge experiments for assessing the efficacy of hypoglycemic agents in clinical drug development.

  11. Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.

    PubMed

    Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R

    2005-01-01

    Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine.

  12. Orally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 affects glucose homeostasis following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Steinert, R E; Poller, B; Castelli, M C; Friedman, K; Huber, A R; Drewe, J; Beglinger, C

    2009-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts several effects on glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake. After its release from intestinal L cells, GLP-1 is subject to (i) rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and (ii) high liver extraction. The highest concentrations of GLP-1 are found in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation. An oral delivery system would mimic endogenous secretion. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) effects of a single dose (2 mg) of oral GLP-1 administered prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 16 healthy males. GLP-1 was rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to tenfold higher plasma concentrations compared with controls. The PD profile was consistent with reported pharmacology; GLP-1 significantly stimulated basal insulin release (P < 0.027), with marked effects on glucose levels. The postprandial glucose peak was delayed with GLP-1, suggesting an effect on gastric emptying.

  13. Glucose metabolic abnormality is associated with defective mineral homeostasis in skeletal disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zou, JiangHuan; Xiong, XiWen; Lai, BeiBei; Sun, Min; Tu, Xin; Gao, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Bone was reported as a crucial organ for regulating glucose homeostasis. In this study, we found that Phex mutant mice (PUG), a model of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), displayed metabolic abnormality in addition to abnormal phosphate homeostasis, skeletal deformity and growth retardation. Glucose tolerance was elevated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in PUG, though circulating insulin level decreased. Interestingly, bone mineral density defects and glucose metabolic abnormality were both rescued by adding phosphorus- and calcium-enriched supplements in daily diet. Serum insulin level, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity showed no differences between PUG and wild-type mice with rescued osteocalcin (OCN) following treatment. Our study suggested that OCN is a potential mediator between mineral homeostasis and glucose metabolism. This investigation brings a new perspective on glucose metabolism regulation through skeleton triggered mineral homeostasis and provides new clues in clinical therapeutics of potential metabolic disorders in XLH patients.

  14. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  15. Correspondence of continuous interstitial glucose measurement against arterialised and capillary glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dye, Louise; Mansfield, Michael; Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Mahawish, Lena; Schnell, Rainer; Talbot, Duncan; Chauhan, Hitesh; Croden, Fiona; Lawton, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Glucoday continuous interstitial ambulatory glucose-monitoring device (AGD) against plasma glucose measured from arterialised venous (AV) and glucose from capillary whole blood (finger prick, FP) in non-diabetic subjects in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Fifteen healthy overweight men (age 30-49 years, BMI 26-31 kg/m2) participated. Glucose levels were measured before, during and after consumption of an oral 75 g glucose load using twelve FP samples and forty-four 1 ml AV blood samples during 180 min. Interstitial glucose was measured via the AGD. Three venous samples for fasting insulin were taken to estimate insulin resistance. Profiles of AGD, AV and FP glucose were generated for each participant. Glucose values for each minute of the measurement period were interpolated using a locally weighted scatterplot smoother. Data were compared using Bland-Altman plots that showed good correspondence between all pairs of measurements. Concordance between the three methods was 0.8771 (Kendall's W, n 15, P < 0.001). Concordance was greater between AV and FP (W = 0.9696) than AGD and AV (W = 0.8770) or AGD and FP (W = 0.8764). Analysis of time to peak glucose indicated that AGD measures lagged approximately 15 min behind FP and AV measures. Percent body fat was significantly correlated with time to peak glucose levels for each measure, while BMI and estimated insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment, HOMA) were not. In conclusion, AGD shows good correspondence with FP and AV glucose measures in response to a glucose load with a 15 min time lag. Taking this into account, AGD has potential application in nutrition and behaviour studies.

  16. New insulin sensitivity index from the oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Youichiro; Takamura, Toshinari; Sakurai, Masaru; Shindo, Hisakazu; Ohkubo, Eizho; Aida, Kaoru; Harii, Norikazu; Taki, Katsumi; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Shimura, Hiroki; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    A new insulin sensitivity index was devised on the basis of an autoregressive model and its validity was investigated. Using data from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 115 subjects were divided into 3 groups: 40 with normal glucose tolerance, 34 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 41 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The new insulin sensitivity index: oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI) was calculated from five sets of plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during OGTT using a formula based on an autoregressive model. Forty-three of the 115 subjects were examined for insulin sensitivity index (ISI) by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. GSI decreased in the order of normal glucose tolerance group>impaired glucose tolerance group>diabetic group. There was a significant correlation between GSI and the ISI derived from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study data in all 43 subjects who underwent both tests (r=0.72; P<0.0001). The ISI calculated by previous methods poorly correlated with the ISIs obtained by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. In conclusion, this new insulin sensitivity index based on the data obtained from OGTT using an autoregressive model is comparable to an insulin sensitivity index by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and may be superior to previous indexes that have been devised to determine insulin sensitivity from OGTT data.

  17. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  18. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  19. An integrated glucose-insulin model to describe oral glucose tolerance test data in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Silber, Hanna E; Frey, Nicolas; Karlsson, Mats O

    2010-03-01

    The extension of the previously developed integrated models for glucose and insulin (IGI) to include the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy volunteers could be valuable to better understand the differences between healthy individuals and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data from an OGTT in 23 healthy volunteers were used. Analysis was based on the previously developed intravenous model with extensions for glucose absorption and incretin effect on insulin secretion. The need for additional structural components was evaluated. The model was evaluated by simulation and a bootstrap. Multiple glucose and insulin concentration peaks were observed in most individuals as well as hypoglycemic episodes in the second half of the experiment. The OGTT data were successfully described by the extended basic model. An additional control mechanism of insulin on glucose production improved the description of the data. The model showed good predictive properties, and parameters were estimated with good precision. In conclusion, a previously presented integrated model has been extended to describe glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy volunteers following an OGTT. The characterization of the differences between the healthy and diabetic stages in the IGI model could potentially be used to extrapolate drug effect from healthy volunteers to T2DM.

  20. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  1. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Pankow, James S; Vollenweider, Peter; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Dupuis, Josée; Jackson, Anne U; Kao, W H Linda; Li, Man; Glazer, Nicole L; Manning, Alisa K; Luan, Jian’an; Stringham, Heather M; Prokopenko, Inga; Johnson, Toby; Grarup, Niels; Boesgaard, Trine W; Lecoeur, Cécile; Shrader, Peter; O’Connell, Jeffrey; Ingelsson, Erik; Couper, David J; Rice, Kenneth; Song, Kijoung; Andreasen, Camilla H; Dina, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Pattou, François; Taneera, Jalal; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Rybin, Denis; Ardlie, Kristin; Sampson, Michael; Qi, Lu; van Hoek, Mandy; Weedon, Michael N; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Voight, Benjamin F; Grallert, Harald; Balkau, Beverley; Bergman, Richard N; Bielinski, Suzette J; Bonnefond, Amelie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Buchanan, Thomas A; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marilyn; Crawford, Gabriel J; Delplanque, Jerome; Doney, Alex; Egan, Josephine M; Erdos, Michael R; Firmann, Mathieu; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Hingorani, Aroon; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Krohn, Knut; Kumari, Meena; Lauritzen, Torsten; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Mayor, Vladimir; McAteer, Jarred B; Meyre, David; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Palmer, Colin N A; Pakyz, Ruth; Pascoe, Laura; Payne, Felicity; Pearson, Daniel; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Scott, Laura J; Sharp, Stephen J; Sijbrands, Eric; Singleton, Andrew; Siscovick, David S; Smith, Nicholas L; Sparsø, Thomas; Swift, Amy J; Syddall, Holly; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Waeber, Gérard; Walley, Andrew; Waterworth, Dawn M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhao, Jing Hua; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H Erich; Wilson, James F; van Duijn, Cornelia; Hu, Frank B; Morris, Andrew D; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Nilsson, Peter; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Shuldiner, Alan R; Walker, Mark; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter; Williams, Gordon H; Nathan, David M; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Cooper, Cyrus; Marmot, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mooser, Vincent; Stumvoll, Michael; Loos, Ruth J F; Altshuler, David; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Sladek, Robert; Froguel, Philippe; Meigs, James B; Groop, Leif; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watanabe, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958–30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, β (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 × 10−15). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 × 10−17; ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 × 10−16) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 × 10−4). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 × 10−16), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 × 10−8), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 × 10−11) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 × 10−10) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09–1.15, P = 4.8 × 10−18). PMID:20081857

  2. Shifting from glucose diagnosis to the new HbA1c diagnosis reduces the capability of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) to screen for glucose abnormalities within a real-life primary healthcare preventive strategy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate differences in the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as a screening tool for glucose abnormalities after shifting from glucose-based diagnostic criteria to the proposed new hemoglobin (Hb)A1c-based criteria. Methods A cross-sectional primary-care study was conducted as the first part of an active real-life lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes within a high-risk Spanish Mediterranean population. Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years (n = 3,120) were screened using the FINDRISC. Where feasible, a subsequent 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c test were also carried out (n = 1,712). The performance of the risk score was calculated by applying the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic, using three sets of criteria (2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, HbA1c) and three diagnostic categories (normal, pre-diabetes, diabetes). Results Defining diabetes by a single HbA1c measurement resulted in a significantly lower diabetes prevalence (3.6%) compared with diabetes defined by 2-hour plasma glucose (9.2%), but was not significantly lower than that obtained using fasting plasma glucose (3.1%). The FINDRISC at a cut-off of 14 had a reasonably high ability to predict diabetes using the diagnostic criteria of 2-hour or fasting glucose (AUC = 0.71) or all glucose abnormalities (AUC = 0.67 and 0.69, respectively). When HbA1c was used as the primary diagnostic criterion, the AUC for diabetes detection dropped to 0.67 (5.6% reduction in comparison with either 2-hour or fasting glucose) and fell to 0.55 for detection of all glucose abnormalities (17.9% and 20.3% reduction, respectively), with a relevant decrease in sensitivity of the risk score. Conclusions A shift from glucose-based diagnosis to HbA1c-based diagnosis substantially reduces the ability of the FINDRISC to screen for glucose abnormalities when applied in this real-life primary-care preventive strategy. PMID

  3. Effects of celiac superior mesenteric ganglionectomy on glucose homeostasis and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance testing in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Atsushi; Shikuma, Junpei; Ogihara, Norikazu; Eiki, Jun-ichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Notoya, Yōko; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Odawara, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in the body. In the prandial state, some of the glucose which is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver. In contrast, the liver produces glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis while fasting. Thus, the liver contributes to maintaining blood glucose level within normoglycemic range. Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are regulated by various mechanisms including hormones, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the hepatic glucose content. In this study, we examined a rat model in which the celiac superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG) was resected. We attempted to elucidate how the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating glucose homeostasis by assessing the effects of CSMG resection on glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, and by examining hepatic glycogen content and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity. On the oral glucose tolerance test, CSMG-resected rats demonstrated improved glucose tolerance and significantly increased GP activity compared with sham-operated rats, whereas there were no significant differences in insulin, glucagon or catecholamine levels between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating the rate of glycogen consumption through GP activity. In conclusion, the examined rat model showed that the celiac sympathetic nervous system regulates hepatic glucose metabolism in conjunction with vagal nerve innervations and is a critical component in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis.

  4. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Sine H.; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K.; van Hall, Gerrit; Solomon, Thomas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty‐four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2, P > 0.05) underwent a 180‐min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6‐2H2]glucose and ingestion of [U‐13C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C‐peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg−1 min−1) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; RaOGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate‐intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control. PMID:25168869

  5. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide confers early phase insulin release to oral glucose in rats: demonstration by a receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J T; Dayanandan, B; Habener, J F; Kieffer, T J

    2000-10-01

    A novel GIP receptor antagonist was developed to evaluate the acute role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the insulin response to oral glucose in rats. Antisera to an extracellular epitope of the GIP receptor (GIPR) detected immunoreactive GIPR on rat pancreatic beta-cells. Purified GIPR antibody (GIPR Ab) specifically displaced GIP binding to the receptor and blocked GIP-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. When delivered to rats by ip injection, GIPR Ab had a half-life of approximately 4 days. Treatment with GIPR Ab (1 microg/g BW) blocked the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP (60 pmol) but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, 60 pmol) in anesthetized rats. The insulin response to oral glucose was delayed in conscious unrestrained rats that were pretreated with GIPR Ab. Plasma insulin levels were approximately 35% lower at 10 min in GIPR Ab treated animals compared with controls. As a result, the glucose excursion was greater in the GIPR Ab treated group. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not altered by GIPR Ab. We conclude that release of GIP following oral glucose may act as an anticipatory signal to pancreatic beta-cells to promote rapid release of insulin for glucose disposal.

  6. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of acromegalic patients with different abnormalities in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; González, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Sosa, Ernesto; Mercado, Moisés

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes, glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose in Mexican patients with acromegaly and establish associations with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables. 257 patients with acromegaly were evaluated by a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of both GH and glucose (0, 30, 60, 90 120 min) as well as baseline IGF-1. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes (DM) were defined based on the 2003 ADA criteria. NGT, IFG, IGT and DM were found in 27.6, 8.9, 31.6 and 31.9% of the subjects, respectively; 42 of the DM patients were unaware of the diagnosis. Patients with diabetes were older than subjects in the other 3 categories (P = 0.001), and the proportion of women was significantly higher in the DM (74%) and IGT (68%) groups than in the NGT group (52%) (P = 0.004). Odds ratio for the development of DM was 3.29 (95% CI 3.28-3.3). GH and IGF-1 levels were comparable among the different groups. In a multivariable analysis DM was significantly associated with age, presence of a macroadenoma, disease duration and a basal GH > 30 μg/dl. DM and probably IGT are more prevalent in acromegaly than in the general Mexican population. DM was more frequent in females of all ages, in subjects with severely elevated GH concentrations, in patients with macroadenomas, and long-standing disease duration. The odds ratio for DM in our subjects with acromegaly is more than 3 times higher than in the general population.

  7. Oral abnormalities in the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

    PubMed

    Babaji, Prashant

    2010-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, mainly affecting the ectodermal components such as, enamel, nail, and hair. The gene for EvC syndrome is located on chromosome 4p16. Patients with EvC syndrome characteristically presents with congenitally missing teeth, abnormal frenal attachment, microdontia, and hexadactyly.

  8. Effects of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on hepatic glucose balance before and after oral glucose. Role of insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Chap, Z; Ishida, T; Chou, J; Michael, L; Hartley, C; Entman, M; Field, J B

    1986-01-01

    In conscious dogs, phentolamine infusion significantly increased fasting portal vein insulin, glucagon, and decreased net hepatic glucose output and plasma glucose. Propranolol significantly decreased portal vein insulin, portal flow, and increased hepatic glucose production and plasma glucose. Phentolamine, propranolol, and combined blockade reduced glucose absorption after oral glucose. alpha, beta, and combined blockade abolished the augmented fractional hepatic insulin extraction after oral glucose. Despite different absolute amounts of glucose absorbed and different amounts of insulin reaching the liver, the percent of the absorbed glucose retained by the liver was similar for control and with alpha- or beta blockade, but markedly decreased with combined blockade. Our conclusions are: (a) phentolamine and propranolol effects on basal hepatic glucose production may predominantly reflect their action on insulin and glucagon secretion; (b) after oral glucose, alpha- and beta-blockers separately or combined decrease glucose release into the portal system; (c) net hepatic glucose uptake is predominantly determined by hyperglycemia but can be modulated by insulin and glucagon; (d) direct correlation does not exist between hepatic delivery and uptake of insulin and net hepatic glucose uptake; (e) alterations in oral glucose tolerance due to adrenergic blockers, beyond their effects on glucose absorption, can be, to a large extent, mediated by their effects on insulin and glucagon secretion reflecting both hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism. PMID:2870078

  9. Hepatic portal vein denervation impairs oral glucose tolerance but not exenatide's effect on glycemia.

    PubMed

    Ionut, Viorica; Castro, Ana Valeria B; Woolcott, Orison O; Stefanovski, Darko; Iyer, Malini S; Broussard, Josiane L; Burch, Miguel; Elazary, Ram; Kolka, Cathryn M; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Bergman, Richard N

    2014-10-15

    The hepatoportal area is an important glucohomeostatic metabolic sensor, sensing hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). We have reported previously that activation of hepatoportal sensors by intraportal infusion of glucose and GLP-1 or by subcutaneous administration of GLP-1 receptor activator exenatide and of intraportal glucose improved glycemia independent of corresponding changes in pancreatic hormones. It is not clear whether this effect is mediated via the portal vein (PV) or by direct action on the liver itself. To test whether receptors in the PV mediate exenatide's beneficial effect on glucose tolerance, we performed 1) paired oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with and without exenatide and 2) intravenous glucose tolerance tests before and after PV denervation in canines. Denervation of the portal vein affected oral glucose tolerance; post-denervation (POST-DEN) OGTT glucose and insulin AUC were 50% higher than before denervation (P = 0.01). However, portal denervation did not impair exenatide's effect to improve oral glucose tolerance (exenatide effect: 48 ± 12 mmol·l⁻¹·min before vs. 64 ± 26 mmol·l⁻¹·min after, P = 0.67). There were no changes in insulin sensitivity or secretion during IVGTTs. Portal vein sensing might play a role in controlling oral glucose tolerance during physiological conditions but not in pharmacological activation of GLP-1 receptors by exenatide.

  10. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  11. Plasma myeloperoxidase is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in elderly subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Leonard P; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2010-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a biomarker related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide scavenging, has been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Because elevated hydrogen peroxide concentrations in diabetic vessels may enhance MPO activity, we hypothesized that a stronger association of MPO with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) may be found in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were measured in EDTA plasma samples from participants of a population-based cohort study, including 230 subjects with normal glucose metabolism and 386 with abnormal glucose metabolism. Vascular function was expressed as FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. In subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, MPO was negatively associated with FMD (-20.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -41.7 to -0.2] -μm change in FMD per SD increment of MPO). This association remained significant after adjustment for nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (-31.1 [95% CI, -50.0 to -12.3]) and was not attenuated after further adjustment for established risk factors. In subjects with normal glucose metabolism, MPO was not significantly associated with FMD (2.0 [95% CI, -16.0 to 20.0]). In conclusion, in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, plasma levels of MPO are inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation, possibly reflecting enhancement of MPO activity by vascular oxidative stress.

  12. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Naïve Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease. PMID:23207109

  13. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  14. Simulation of oral glucose tolerance tests and the corresponding isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion studies for calculation of the incretin effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeungseon; Oh, Tae Jung; Lee, Jung Chan; Choi, Karam; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hee Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Sungwan

    2014-03-01

    The incretin effect, which is a unique stimulus of insulin secretion in response to oral ingestion of nutrients, is calculated by the difference in insulin secretory responses from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a corresponding isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) study. The OGTT model of this study, which is individualized by fitting the glucose profiles during an OGTT, was developed to predict the glucose profile during an IIGI study in the same subject. Also, the model predicts the insulin and incretin profiles during both studies. The incretin effect, estimated by simulation, was compared with that measured by physiologic studies from eight human subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and the result exhibited a good correlation (r > 0.8); the incretin effect from the simulation was 56.5% ± 10.6% while the one from the measured data was 52.5% ± 19.6%. In conclusion, the parameters of the OGTT model have been successfully estimated to predict the profiles of both OGTTs and IIGI studies. Therefore, with glucose data from the OGTT alone, this model could control and predict the physiologic responses, including insulin secretion during OGTTs and IIGI studies, which could eventually eliminate the need for complex and cumbersome IIGI studies in incretin research.

  15. The relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels with severity of obstructive sleep apnea and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, N Colak; Cakal, E; Sahin, M; Ozkaya, E Cakir; Firat, H; Delibasi, T

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D₃ (25-OH-D) deficiency are two separate disorders associating with obesity, inflammation, and impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the vitamin D status of OSA patients regarding to potential links between lower vitamin D levels and abnormal glucose metabolism, which is one of the main adverse outcomes of OSA. Study group is composed of 190 non-diabetic subjects who were suspected of having OSA. Subjects undergone polysomnography and were grouped due to apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) as controls (AHI < 5, n = 47), mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 46), moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 47), and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 50). Serum 25-OH-D, HbA₁c, insulin levels were measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Serum 25-OH-D level (ng/ml) of OSA patients were lower than control subjects (17.4 ± 6.9 vs. 19.9 ± 7.8), and decrement was parallel to severity of OSA; as 18.2 ± 6.4 (5 ≤ AHI < 15), 17.5 ± 7.4 (15 ≤ AHI < 30), and 16.3 ± 6.9 (AHI > 30), respectively (P = 0.097, r = -0.13). However, severe female OSA patients had significantly lower 25-OH-D levels (11.55 ng/ml), while control males had the highest mean value (21.7 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). Frequency of insulin resistance (IR) was 48%, prediabetes 41%, diabetes 16% in OSA patients. Mean 25-OH-D level of insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.7, n = 77, AHI = 35.5) was lower than non-insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR < 2.7, n = 113, AHI = 19.8) as 16.18 ± 7.81 versus 19.2 ± 6.6, respectively (P = 0.004). 25-OH-D level of 91 non-diabetic subjects (n = 91, AHI = 19.7) was 19.5 ± 7.4, prediabetics (n = 75, AHI = 28.7) was 17.45 ± 6.9, and diabetics (n = 24, AHI = 46.3) was 13.8 ± 5.3 (P = 0.02). We showed that subjects with more severe OSA indices (AHI ≥ 15) tended to present lower vitamin D levels correlated to increased prevalence of IR, prediabetes, and diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role and/or worsen

  16. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease: Relation to Autophagy/Mitophagy and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E; Gibson, Gary E

    2015-12-01

    Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease: Relation to Autophagy/Mitophagy and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E.; Gibson, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26077923

  18. Intestinal transit of a glucose bolus and incretin kinetics: a mathematical model with application to the oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Salinari, Serenella; Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2011-06-01

    The rate of appearance (R(a)) of exogenous glucose in plasma after glucose ingestion is presently measured by tracer techniques that cannot be used in standard clinical testing such as the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We propose a mathematical model that represents in a simple way the gastric emptying, the transport of glucose along the intestinal tract, and its absorption from gut lumen into portal blood. The model gives the R(a) time course in terms of parameters with a physiological counterpart and provides an expression for the release of incretin hormones as related to glucose transit into gut lumen. Glucose absorption was represented by assuming two components related to a proximal and a distal transporter. Model performance was evaluated by numerical simulations. The model was then validated by fitting OGTT glucose and GLP-1 data in healthy controls and type 2 diabetic patients, and useful information was obtained for the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption, the R(a) profile, the insulin sensitivity, and the glucose effectiveness. Model-derived estimates of insulin sensitivity were well correlated (r = 0.929 in controls and 0.886 in diabetic patients) to data obtained from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Although the proposed OGTT analysis requires the measurement of an additional hormone concentration (GLP-1), it appears to be a reasonable choice since it avoids complex and expensive techniques, such as isotopes for glucose R(a) measurement and direct assessment of gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and gives additional correlated information, thus largely compensating for the extra expense.

  19. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  20. Response of incretins (GIP and GLP-1) to an oral glucose load in female and male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Ikawa, Takashi; Akagami, Takafumi; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose profile and the response of incretins in healthy young subjects by the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We first reported that plasma glucose and GIP levels were higher in males during the early phase of the OGTT.

  1. Oral glucose tolerance test reduces arterial baroreflex sensitivity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kenneth M; Tedder, Gale; Lockhart, Chris; Meneilly, Graydon S

    2008-03-01

    Although postprandial decreases in blood pressure are a common cause of syncope in the older adult population, the postprandial effects of the oral glucose tolerance test on blood pressure and the arterial baroreflex remain poorly characterized in older adults. Therefore, arterial blood pressure and the arterial baroreflex were studied in 19 healthy older adults (mean age 71.7 +/- 1.1 years) who were given a standardized oral glucose load (75 g) or an isovolumetric sham drink during 2 separate sessions. All measures were taken for 120 min after treatment. Baroreflex function was assessed by using the spontaneous baroreflex method (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS). Subjects demonstrated a decrease in BRS after oral glucose that was not seen in the placebo session (two-way analysis of variance, p = 0.04). There was no significant change in systolic, mean, or diastolic blood pressure; together with a drop in BRS, this resulted in a significant tachycardia post glucose (two-way analysis of variance, p < 0.001). We conclude that healthy older adults can successfully maintain blood pressure during an oral glucose tolerance test despite a decrease in arterial BRS. Decreased BRS resulted in a tachycardic response to glucose.

  2. Effect of glycemia on plasma incretins and the incretin effect during oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Marzieh; Aulinger, Benedict; D'Alessio, David A

    2012-11-01

    The incretin effect, reflecting the enhancement of postprandial insulin secretion by factors including the intestinal hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, increases in proportion to meal size. However, it is unknown whether the incretin effect is dependent on ambient glucose. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of plasma glycemia on the incretin effect. Thirteen healthy subjects consumed 50 g oral glucose solution mixed with d-xylose during fixed hyperglycemia at 8 and 10.5 mmol/L, on 3 separate days, twice at lower glycemia (LOW) and once at higher values (HIGH). The relative increase in insulin release after glucose ingestion at fixed hyperglycemia, a surrogate for the incretin effect, was similar among all three studies. The GLP-1 response to oral glucose was significantly lower at higher plasma glycemia, as was the appearance of d-xylose after the meal. Between the two LOW studies, the reproducibility of insulin release in response to intravenous glucose alone and intravenous plus ingested glucose was similar. These findings indicate that the incretin contribution to postprandial insulin release is independent of glycemia in healthy individuals, despite differences in GLP-1 secretion. The incretin effect is a reproducible trait among humans with normal glucose tolerance.

  3. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Evers, Susan; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Yama, Brie; Yuan, Su; Campbell, M. Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR = 1.53 (1.11, 2.12)), height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42)), antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44)), pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57)), and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27)) were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes) was significant (OR = 0.65, p = 0.12 versus OR = 2.84, p < 0.01). When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development. PMID:25977929

  4. The use of oral endoscopy for detection of cheek teeth abnormalities in 300 horses.

    PubMed

    Simhofer, Hubert; Griss, Robert; Zetner, Karl

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate an endoscopic examination protocol for routine dental examination in horses. The oral cavities of 300 standing, sedated horses were examined under field and hospital conditions with a rigid endoscope using a standardised technique that included examination of the occlusal, lingual (palatal) and buccal surfaces of all cheek teeth rows. The most common cheek teeth abnormalities detected were sharp enamel edges (present in 96.3% of horses), focal overgrowths (64.3%), fissure fractures (54.3%), diastemata (24.3%) and infundibular hypoplasia/caries (48.3%). Rigid endoscopy of the equine oral cavity was found to be a safe non-invasive diagnostic technique that appeared to be superior to clinical oral examination for detecting subtle cheek teeth changes.

  5. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  6. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  7. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, Swarnendu; Banerjee, Deb Ranjan; Basak, Amit; Das, Amit Kumar; Pal, Mousumi; Banerjee, Rita; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-04-17

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.

  8. Sucralose Affects Glycemic and Hormonal Responses to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Tiemann, Courtney D.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Wice, Burton M.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animal models. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22 ± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS. PMID:23633524

  9. Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

    2014-02-21

    Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region.

  10. The role of ranitidine infusion on glucose, insulin and C-peptide serum levels induced by oral glucose tolerance test in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Marmo, R; Costume, A; Orlando, C; D'Alessandro, R; De Bellis, G; Porcellini, M; Coltorti, M

    1986-01-01

    In 9 healthy subjects we evaluated the effect of a constant ranitidine infusion (100 mg) on glucose (mg/dl), insulin (microU/ml) and C-peptide (ng/ml) serum levels promoted by oral glucose tolerance test (75 g). Ranitidine significantly increased the area under concentration/time curves for glucose and insulin but not that of C-peptide. Our data indicate that ranitidine does not affect pancreatic insulin release nor peripheral glucose utilization and are consistent with the hypothesis that ranitidine influences the hepatic clearance of glucose and insulin both of which undergo high first-pass liver extraction.

  11. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Harati, Hadi; Saadat, Navid; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years. Methods The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4). Conclusion In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient. PMID:18501007

  12. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Bárbara Gastal Borges; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Silveira, Rita C.; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief. PMID:23525316

  13. Assessment of nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leonardo da Cunha Menezes; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Transmission and reception of mobile telephony signals take place through electromagnetic wave radiation, or electromagnetic radiofrequency fields, between the mobile terminal and the radio base station. Based on reports in the literature on adverse effects from exposure to this type of radiation, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of such exposure, by means of the micronucleus test on exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium. The sample included 45 individuals distributed in 3 groups according to the amount of time in hours per week (t) spent using mobile phones: group I, t > 5 h; group II, t > 1 h and ≤ 5 h; and group III, t ≤ 1 h. Cells from the oral mucosa were analyzed to assess the numbers of micronuclei, broken egg structures and degenerative nuclear abnormalities indicative of apoptosis (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis and pyknosis) or necrosis (karyolysis in addition to these changes). The occurrences of micronuclei and degenerative nuclear abnormalities did not differ between the groups, but the number of broken egg (structures that may be associated with gene amplification) was significantly greater in the individuals in group I (p < 0.05).

  14. Insulin Response to Oral Stimuli and Glucose Effectiveness Increased in Neuroglycopenia Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Mary Elizabeth; Li, Ping; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is a rare complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for weight management. This study evaluates insulin secretion and action in response to oral and intravenous stimuli in persons with and without neuroglycopenia following RYGB. Design and Methods Cross-sectional cohort studies were performed at a single academic institution to assess insulin secretion and action during oral mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Results Insulin secretion was increased more following oral mixed meal than intravenous glucose in individuals with neuroglycopenia compared to the asymptomatic group. Reduced insulin clearance did not contribute to higher insulinemia. Glucose effectiveness at zero insulin, estimated during the intravenous glucose tolerance test, was also higher in those with neuroglycopenia. Insulin sensitivity did not differ between groups. Conclusions Increased beta cell response to oral stimuli and insulin-independent glucose disposal may both contribute to severe hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID:25755084

  15. Effects of an oral glucose tolerance test on the myogenic response in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lott, Mary E J; Hogeman, Cynthia; Herr, Michael; Gabbay, Robert; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2007-01-01

    The myogenic response, the inherent ability of blood vessels to rapidly respond to changes in transmural pressure, is involved in local blood flow autoregulation. Animal studies suggest that both acute hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may impair myogenic vasoconstriction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an oral glucose load on brachial mean blood velocity (MBV) during increases in forearm transmural pressure in humans. Eight healthy men and women (38 +/- 5 yr) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). MBV (in cm/s; Doppler ultrasound) responses to a rise in forearm transmural pressure (arm tank suction, -50 mmHg) were studied before and every 30 min for 120 min during the OGTT. Before the start of the OGTT, MBV was lower than baseline values 30 and 60 s after the application of negative pressure. This suggests that myogenic constriction was present. During the OGTT, blood glucose rose from 88 +/- 2 to 120 +/- 6 mg/dl (P < 0.05) and insulin rose from 14 +/- 1 to 101 +/- 32 microU/ml (P < 0.05). Glucose loading attenuated the reduction in MBV with arm suction (Delta-0.73 +/- 0.14 vs. Delta-1.67 +/- 0.43 cm/s and Delta-1.07 +/- 0.14 vs. Delta-2.38 +/- 0.54 cm/s, respectively, during 30 and 60 s of suction postglucose compared with preglucose values; all P < 0.05). We observed no such time effect for myogenic responses during a sham OGTT. In an additional 5 subjects, glucose loading had no effect on brachial diameters with the application of negative pressure. Oral glucose loading leads to attenuated myogenic vasoconstriction in healthy individuals. The role that this diminished postglucose reactivity plays in mediating postprandial hypotension and/or orthostasis needs to be further explored.

  16. [Insulin response and NEFA behavior in volunteers with a flat response to oral glucose tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Viviani, G; Cordera, R; Maiello, M; De Micheli, A; Odetti, P; Corsi, L; Boeri, D; Prando, R

    1979-07-15

    The insulin response and the NEFA behaviour of 7 lean and 8 obese subjects with a flat response to an oral glucose tolerance test have been studied. A flat response has been defined as one in which the maximum glycemic increase and the area of increase does not exceed 32 mg% and 18 mg% respectively. The insulin response and the NEFA behaviour were similar both in lean and in obese subjects to controls with normal O.G.T.T. The glucose/I.R.I. ratios were increased. A possible physiopathological interpretation is proposed.

  17. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  18. The effect of low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kamau, R K; Maina, F W; Kigondu, C; Mati, J K

    1990-08-01

    The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS−) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS− in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS−. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  20. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste.

  1. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  2. Improved high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance by an oral administration of phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Itsuo; Mitsutake, Susumu; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Matsuda, Junko; Suzuki, Akemi; Shigyo, Tatsuro; Igarashi, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that phytoceramide and phytosphingosine (PHS) stimulated the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in cells. PPARγ is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. We found in this study that an oral administration of PHS improved diet-induced glucose intolerance in mice. Since PHS is highly expressed in yeast, PHS in fermented foods may improve diabetes.

  3. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  4. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  5. Glucose Metabolism during Resting State Reveals Abnormal Brain Networks Organization in the Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study the abnormal patterns of brain glucose metabolism co-variations in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients compared to Normal healthy controls (NC) using the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in a set of 90 structures belonging to the AAL atlas was obtained from Fluro-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography data in resting state. It is assumed that brain regions whose CMRgl values are significantly correlated are functionally associated; therefore, when metabolism is altered in a single region, the alteration will affect the metabolism of other brain areas with which it interrelates. The glucose metabolism network (represented by the matrix of the CMRgl co-variations among all pairs of structures) was studied using the graph theory framework. The highest concurrent fluctuations in CMRgl were basically identified between homologous cortical regions in all groups. Significant differences in CMRgl co-variations in AD and MCI groups as compared to NC were found. The AD and MCI patients showed aberrant patterns in comparison to NC subjects, as detected by global and local network properties (global and local efficiency, clustering index, and others). MCI network’s attributes showed an intermediate position between NC and AD, corroborating it as a transitional stage from normal aging to Alzheimer disease. Our study is an attempt at exploring the complex association between glucose metabolism, CMRgl covariations and the attributes of the brain network organization in AD and MCI. PMID:23894356

  6. Serum high-molecular weight adiponectin decreases abruptly after an oral glucose load in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, but not those with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Noriyuki; Hara, Kenji; Yatsuka, Chikako; Nakano, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Suetsugu, Mariko; Nakamachi, Takafumi; Takebayashi, Kohzo; Inukai, Toshihiko; Haruki, Kohsuke; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin exists in the blood as 3 forms, which are a trimer, a hexamer, and a high-molecular weight (HMW) form. We investigated whether circulating HMW adiponectin levels were altered by oral glucose or fat ingestion. Forty male subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose loading test (OGTT), and 11 healthy subjects (5 women and 6 men) received a fat loading test. Serum levels of HMW and total adiponectin were measured during the OGTT and the fat loading test. The fat loading test was performed for at least 8 hours. Among the 40 male subjects, 11 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 9 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 11 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 9 had diabetes mellitus (DM). In all 40 subjects, the serum total adiponectin level did not change significantly, whereas serum HMW adiponectin decreased significantly after a glucose load and reached 92.2% of the basal level at 120 minutes after the OGTT (P < .01). The HMW to total adiponectin ratio decreased significantly from 0.47 +/- 0.15 at baseline to 0.43 +/- 0.13 at 120 minutes after a glucose load (P < .05). Serum HMW adiponectin measured at 120 minutes after the OGTT decreased significantly to 86.0% and 85.6% of the basal level in subjects with NGT or IFG, respectively (both P < .01). In subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or DM, however, serum HMW adiponectin did not change. The area under the curve for insulin at 30 minutes after a glucose load during the OGTT was significantly larger in subjects with NGT or IFG than in those with DM (P < .05). In addition, the insulinogenic index (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) was significantly higher in subjects with NGT or IFG than in those with DM (P < .001). Percentage changes in serum HMW adiponectin of the baseline at 120 minutes correlated negatively with those in serum insulin (r = -0.468, P = .0023), but not plasma glucose, of the baseline at 30 minutes in 40 subjects. On the other hand, serum triglycerides increased significantly after an oral fat load in

  7. Abnormal antioxidant status in impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vijayalingam, S; Parthiban, A; Shanmugasundaram, K R; Mohan, V

    1996-08-01

    A total of 105 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were classified into two groups, 51 subjects with plasma glucose > 11.1 mmol l-1 in one of the blood samplings during OGTT, but at 2 h being less than < 11.1 mmol l-1 were classified as early hyperglycaemics. Fifty-four cases were classified as true IGT, with fasting plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol l-1 and post plasma glucose level between 7.8 and 11.1 mmol l-1. Age and sex matched groups of normals (healthy adults) and NIDDM cases without symptomatic secondary complications were also included in the study. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product in plasma, erythrocyte, and erythrocyte cell membrane were found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.001) in IGT, early hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus while glycosylated haemoglobin was also higher. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly lower in red blood cells obtained from IGT and early hyperglycaemic groups. They were closer to the levels showed in NIDDM confirming that antioxidant deficiency is already present in subjects classified as impaired glucose tolerant. Among the antioxidant scavengers, reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid are reduced by 15% and 20% in IGT and NIDDM, respectively. We conclude that antioxidant status is poor in both IGT and NIDDM, suggesting an overlap of frank diabetic state in those classified as IGT. It is possible that antioxidant therapy might retard progression from IGT to NIDDM.

  8. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.

  9. Changes of the plasma metabolome during an oral glucose tolerance test: is there more than glucose to look at?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinjie; Peter, Andreas; Fritsche, Jens; Elcnerova, Michaela; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) is a common tool to provoke a metabolic challenge for scientific purposes, as well as for diagnostic reasons, to monitor the kinetics of glucose and insulin. Here, we aimed to follow the variety of physiological changes of the whole metabolic pattern in plasma during an oGTT in healthy subjects in a nontargeted reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometric metabolomics approach. We detected 11,500 metabolite ion masses/individual. Applying multivariate data analysis, four major groups of metabolites have been detected as the most discriminating oGTT biomarkers: free fatty acids (FFA), acylcarnitines, bile acids, and lysophosphatidylcholines. We found in detail 1) a strong decrease of all saturated and monounsaturated FFA studied during the oGTT; 2) a significant faster decline of palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1) FFA levels than their saturated counterparts; 3) a strong relative increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fatty acid pattern at 120 min; and 4) a clear decrease in plasma C10:0, C12:0, and C14:1 acylcarnitine levels. These data reflect the switch from beta-oxidation to glycolysis and fat storage during the oGTT. Moreover, the bile acids glycocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid were highly discriminative, showing a biphasic kinetic with a maximum of a 4.5- to 6-fold increase at 30 min after glucose ingestion, a significant decrease over the next 60 min followed by an increase until the end of the oGTT. Lysophosphatidylcholines were also increased significantly. The findings of our metabolomics study reveal detailed insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an oGTT offering novel perspectives of this widely used procedure.

  10. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  11. Normal human oral keratinocytes demonstrate abnormal DNA end joining activity during replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo K; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Yip, Felix K; Park, No-Hee

    2005-04-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of cellular genetic integrity. DSBs are repaired by cellular end joining activity, which could proceed with varying degrees of accuracy. Abnormal end joining may lead to an accumulation of mutations and contribute to genetic instability and cellular aging. In the present study, we compared the efficiency and accuracy of end joining activities in exponentially replicating and senescing normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We developed an in vitro end joining assay utilizing a plasmid linearized with a unique EcoR I or EcoR V restriction site. The efficiency of end joining was determined by PCR with primers that could amplify the fragment containing the end joining site. The accuracy of end joining was assessed by determining whether the original EcoR I site was restored after end joining. Both replicating and senescing cultures of NHOK yielded a similar level of end joining efficiency, which was noted by the similar intensity of PCR amplification. However, the frequency of end joining errors was significantly elevated in NHOK during replicative senescence. Senescing NHOK could thus accumulate abnormal end joining products, which might contribute to cellular aging and cancer.

  12. Oral clefts with associated anomalies: findings in the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sárközi, Andrea; Wyszynski, Diego F; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the years, great efforts have been made to record the frequency of orofacial clefts in different populations. However, very few studies were able to account for the etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity of these conditions. Thus, data of cases with syndromic orofacial clefts from large population-based studies are infrequent. Methods Clinically recognized and notified syndromes and associations including cleft lip with or without cleft palate and other congenital anomalies were selected from the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry (HCAR) between 1973 and 1982 and prevalence rates were calculated. Results Of 3,110 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 653 had multiple congenital abnormalities. Of these, 60 (9.2%) had a known etiology (monogenic: 25 or 3.8%, chromosomal: 31 or 4.7%, teratogenic: 4 or 0.6%). Seventy-three subjects (11.2%) had schisis in addition to the oral cleft. Skeletal anomalies were the most common malformations among cases with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Disorders of the central nervous system and cardiovascular malformations were also frequently associated. Conclusion Surveillance systems, such as the HCAR, provide useful information about prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in a population. However, in a field where new syndromes are being discovered and classifications regularly updated, these rates should only be accepted as provisional. PMID:15985166

  13. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

  14. Flavor change and food deprivation are not critical for post-oral glucose appetition in mice.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    When mice trained to consume a CS- flavored solution paired with intragastric (IG) water self-infusion are given a new CS+ flavor paired with IG glucose self-infusion, their intake is stimulated within minutes in the first CS+ test. They also display a preference for the CS+ over the CS- in two-bottle tests. These indicators of post-oral appetite stimulation (appetition) have been studied in food-restricted mice, with novel CS+ and CS- flavors. Two experiments tested whether deprivation and flavor novelty are needed for stimulation of intake. Exp. 1 compared food-restricted and ad libitum fed C57BL/6 mice trained for 1h/day: 3 sessions with CS- flavor and IG water followed by 3 sessions with a novel CS+ flavor and IG 16% glucose. Ad libitum (AL) fed mice licked less overall, but like the food-restricted (FR) group they increased licking in the first session. In the choice test, FR mice displayed a significant CS+ preference (73%) whereas AL mice had a weaker preference (64%). In Exp. 2, food-restricted mice were trained with a flavor and IG water, and then the Same or a New flavor paired with IG 8% glucose. The glucose infusion rapidly stimulated intakes in the first and subsequent sessions and to the same degree in the two groups. Both groups also showed similar reductions in licking in extinction tests with IG water infusions. These data show that mice need not be explicitly food deprived or given a novel flavor cue to increase ongoing ingestion in response to post-oral glucose stimulation.

  15. Lack of effect of tenoxicam on dynamic responses to concurrent oral doses of glucose and glibenclamide.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D; Korn, A; Komjati, M; Heinz, G; Haefelfinger, P; Defoin, R; Waldhäusl, W K

    1990-01-01

    1. In a single-blind, placebo controlled study the influence of tenoxicam on responses of glucose, insulin and C-peptide to oral doses of glucose and glibenclamide was examined in 16 healthy male volunteers. 2. The subjects received once daily doses of 2.5 mg glibenclamide for 12 days. From day 5 through 12 eight subjects received concomitantly 20 mg tenoxicam once daily and the remaining eight subjects received placebo. 3. On days 1, 4, 5 and 12 glibenclamide was taken with 75 g glucose and blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide were measured over 5 h. Plasma levels of glibenclamide and tenoxicam (where appropriate) were followed over 10 h. 4. Characteristic parameters of blood glucose and insulin and C-peptide responses did not change significantly with time (day) and there was no difference between both treatment groups. 5. Baseline insulin increased from 11.7 mu l-1 on day 1 to 15.6 mu l-1 on day 4 (P = 0.009), likewise baseline C-peptide increased from 478 pmol l-1 to 530 pmol l-1 (P = 0.05), but there was no further change in the subsequent treatment period. 6. The AUC of the glibenclamide plasma concentration-time curve did not show changes with time or differences between treatment groups. The mean (s.d.) oral clearance of tenoxicam was 2.5 (1.5) ml min-1 and appeared slightly higher than in previous studies. 7. It was concluded that tenoxicam did not affect overall glycoregulation in healthy subjects under glibenclamide steady state conditions. PMID:2119677

  16. An oral lipid challenge and acute intake of caffeinated coffee additively decrease glucose tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2011-04-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance has been investigated primarily with i.v. infusions, and caffeine-induced insulin resistance, with alkaloid caffeine. The effects of orally consumed lipids and coffee have not been established and to our knowledge have never been simultaneously investigated. The goals of this study were to determine whether an oral lipid challenge and caffeinated coffee would disrupt glucose homeostasis and to characterize their respective incretin responses. It was hypothesized that oral ingestion of saturated lipids would impair glucose tolerance and that caffeinated coffee would further hinder glucose management. Ten young, healthy males participated in 5 trials in a randomized, cross-over design. At time 0 h, they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT: 1 g lipid/kg body weight) or consumed water, followed 5 h later by caffeinated (5 mg/kg) coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. At 6 h, volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Consumption of the OFTT increased glucose concentrations (P < 0.05) after a subsequent OGTT. At 7 h, caffeinated coffee produced the highest glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Glucagon-like peptide-1 active (GLP-1a) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were both increased for up to 6 h in all OFTT trials (P < 0.05). Compared to all other treatments, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee produced higher GLP-1a response at 6.25 h (P < 0.05), whereas only caffeinated coffee increased GIP secretion (P < 0.05). These results show that oral consumption of lipids and caffeinated coffee can independently and additively decrease glucose tolerance. Incretin hormones could explain at least in part this impaired glucose homeostasis.

  17. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  18. [Diagnostic value of fasting glucose, fructosamine, and glycated haemoglobin HbA(1c) with regard to ADA 1997 and who 1998 criteria for detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Gołembiewska, Edyta

    2004-01-01

    New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus proposed by the American Diabetes Association in 1997 and the World Heath Organization Consultation Report in 1998 recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to 7.0 mmol/L. This change in the diagnostic FPG cut-off point was based on the results of well-documented epidemiological studies showing that increased risk of microangiopathy starts at values closer to 7.0 than 7.8 mmol/L used in the past. To facilitate the diagnosis, ADA Expert Committee recommends using FPG as the main diagnostic tool and eliminating OGTT from routine clinical practice. In contrast to ADA, WHO Consultation Group strongly recommended keeping OGTT in routine use. Due to the inconvenience, poor reproducibility, non-physiological character and labour-intensiveness of OGTT, an alternative test has been sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting capillary glucose (FCG) along with fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) perform better for the detection of glucose tolerance abnormalities than FCG alone. OGTT was performed in 1528 patients. Serum fructosamine was determined in 480 and glycated haemoglobin in 234 of these patients. To assess the value of FCG, fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin in predicting post-load glycaemia and detecting glucose tolerance abnormalities, multiple linear regression analysis and Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis were done. Fructosamine correlated stronger with 2h-postload glucose concentrations than with fasting glucose. HbA(1c) correlated stronger with FCG than with 2h-postload glucose. Combined use of fructosamine and FCG predicted 2h-postload glucose better than combined use of FCG and HbA(1c). Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis showed that FCG was the best criterion in discriminating diabetes. Combined use of FCG and fructosamine slightly improved the ability to discriminate glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. The

  19. Convergence of glucose- and fatty acid-induced abnormal myocardial excitation-contraction coupling and insulin signalling.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Amy J

    2006-01-01

    1. Myocardial insulin resistance and abnormal Ca(2+) regulation are hallmarks of hypertrophic and diabetic hearts, but deprivation of energetic substrates does not tell the whole story. Is there a link between the aetiology of these dysfunctions? 2. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as phenotypic changes in the heart muscle cell independent of associated coronary vascular disease. The cellular consequences of diabetes on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and insulin signalling are presented in various models of diabetes in order to set the stage for exploring the pathogenesis of heart disease. 3. Excess glucose or fatty acids can lead to augmented flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The formation of uridine 5 cent-diphosphate-hexosamines has been shown to be involved in abnormal E-C coupling and myocardial insulin resistance. 4. There is growing evidence that O-linked glycosylation (downstream of HBP) may regulate the function of cytosolic and nuclear proteins in a dynamic manner, similar to phosphorylation and perhaps involving reciprocal or synergistic modification of serine/threonine sites. 5. This review focuses on the question of whether there is a role for HBP and dynamic O-linked glycosylation in the development of myocardial insulin resistance and abnormal E-C coupling. The emerging concept that O-linked glycosylation is a regulatory, post-translational modification of cytosolic/nuclear proteins that interacts with phosphorylation in the heart is explored.

  20. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.

  1. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by vitamin therapy in women using oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Heidari, Afrooz; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have some adverse effects on the serum lipid profile. Because hyperlipidemia is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in women consuming COCs. Vitamins E and C are known to have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamins E and C on serum lipids in women using COCs. Methods The study compared changes in lipid parameters with and without vitamin therapy in women consuming COCs compared to those of a control group (40 non-contraceptive users or NCU) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels along with HDL/LDL ratios were measured for all participants. Results COC users experienced significantly higher increases in the levels of triglycerides and LDL than non-users (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were noted in the total cholesterol and HDL levels. In the treated COC group receiving vitamins E and C, the HDL level and the HDL/LDL ratio increased and the LDL and triglycerides levels decreased significantly compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C restores a normal lipid profile in COC users. PMID:24693493

  2. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2014-06-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (γGlu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia.

  3. Amantadine reduces glucagon and enhances insulin secretion throughout the oral glucose tolerance test: central plus peripheral nervous system mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Pardey-Maldonado, Betty; Rivera, Jairo E; Lechin, Marcel E; Baez, Scarlet

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the trial was to examine the effects of amantadine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) plus insulin, glucagon and neurotransmitters circulating levels. Previous findings showed that hyperinsulinism and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with neural sympathetic and adrenal sympathetic activities, respectively. These peripheral sympathetic branches depend on the pontine (A5-noradrenergic) and the rostral ventrolateral (C1-adrenergic) medullary nuclei. They are excited by glutamate axons which act at NMDA postsynaptic receptors. Research design and methods One OGTT plus placebo and one OGTT plus oral amantadine test were carried out two weeks apart in 15 caucasic normal voluntary humans. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma-free serotonin, platelet serotonin, glucose, glucagon, and insulin were measured throughout the 180-minute testing period. Results Maximal reductions of plasma glucose and glucagon plus exacerbated insulin rises were significantly greater throughout the oral glucose plus amantadine test than those registered throughout the oral glucose plus placebo challenge. The above findings were paralleled by greater than normal noradrenaline/adrenaline plasma ratio increases. In addition, maximal reductions of the platelet serotonin and plasma serotonin circulating values contrasted with the normal rises of these parameters, always registered during the glucose load plus placebo challenge. Conclusion This study supports the theory that amantadine might be a powerful antidiabetic tool and could be added to the therapeutic arsenal against type 2 diabetes. PMID:21437134

  4. Oral salmon calcitonin enhances insulin action and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T; Andreassen, Kim V; Gydesen, Sofie; Ottosen, Ida; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Henriksen, Kim

    2014-08-15

    We previously reported that oral delivery of salmon calcitonin (sCT) improved energy and glucose homeostasis and attenuated diabetic progression in animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, although the glucoregulatory mode of action was not fully elucidated. In the present study we hypothesized that oral sCT as pharmacological intervention 1) exerted anti-hyperglycemic efficacy, and 2) enhanced insulin action in DIO-streptozotocin (DIO-STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetic hyperglycemia was induced in male selectively bred DIO rats by a single low dose (30mg/kg) injection of STZ. Oral sCT by gavage was delivered as once-daily administration with lead-in (2mg/kg) and maintenance (0.5mg/kg) dose of oral sCT for a total of 21 days. Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin tolerance test, and parameters of insulin sensitivity were investigated. Plasma glucoregulatory hormones and pancreatic insulin content were analyzed. Oral sCT treatment induced a pronounced anorectic action during the 7 days lead-in period and markedly reduced food intake and body weight in conjunction with improved glucose homeostasis. During the maintenance period, oral sCT normalized food intake and attenuated weight loss, albeit sustained glycemic control by reducing fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels compared to those of vehicle-treated rats at the end of study. Notably, plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin and adiponectin were unaltered, albeit insulin action was enhanced in conjunction with protection of pancreatic insulin content. The results of the present study indicate that oral sCT exerts a novel insulin-sensitizing effect to improve glucose metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  5. [Role of classical oral glucose-lowering medications in current treatment].

    PubMed

    Carramiñana Barrera, F C

    2014-07-01

    Classical oral glucose were discovered in the mid twentieth century. Despite the time elapsed since then and the lack of large studies to support the use of some of these drugs, they continue to be employed, are indicated in all clinical practice guidelines and consensus documents and, overall, remain among the most widely prescribed drugs in the national health system. The main arguments for their continued use are their widespread and prolonged prescription, their effectiveness, and cost. Their main disadvantages have always been and continue to be their adverse gastrointestinal effects, weight gain, the risk of hypoglycemia and other adverse effects, which have encouraged the development of new glucose-lowering drugs with an improved pharmacological profile that would cover the various mechanisms of hyperglycemia. Currently, deep knowledge of glucose-lowering drugs is required in the patient-centered management of diabetes. Furthermore, this knowledge should be adapted to each individual patient to acquire the experience necessary to achieve effective metabolic control, delay the development of chronic complications, and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with diabetes.

  6. Objective 3D surface evaluation of intracranial electrophysiologic correlates of cerebral glucose metabolic abnormalities in children with focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Asano, Eishi; Kumar Pilli, Vinod; Nakai, Yasuo; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2017-03-21

    To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data. Hypo-/hypermetabolic maps were transformed to 3D-MRI brain surface to compare the locations of metabolic changes with electrode coordinates of the ECoG-defined seizure onset zone (SOZ) and interictal spiking. While hypometabolic clusters showed a good agreement with the SOZ on the lobar level (sensitivity/specificity = 0.74/0.64), detailed surface-distance analysis demonstrated that large portions of ECoG-defined SOZ and interictal spiking area were located at least 3 cm beyond hypometabolic regions with the same statistical threshold (sensitivity/specificity = 0.18-0.25/0.94-0.90 for overlap 3-cm distance); for a lower threshold, sensitivity for SOZ at 3 cm increased to 0.39 with a modest compromise of specificity. Performance of FDG-PET SPM was slightly better in children with smaller as compared with widespread SOZ. The results demonstrate that SPM utilizing age-matched pseudocontrols can reliably detect the lobe of seizure onset. However, the spatial mismatch between metabolic and EEG epileptiform abnormalities indicates that a more complete SOZ detection could be achieved by extending intracranial electrode coverage at least 3 cm beyond the metabolic abnormality. Considering that the extent of feasible electrode coverage is limited, localization information from other modalities is particularly important to optimize grid coverage in cases of large hypometabolic cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017

  7. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  8. Evidence that the oral glucose-tolerance test does not provide a uniform stimulus to pancreatic islets in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Leacy, E A; Cowley, D M

    1989-07-01

    Fifty consecutive pregnant patients referred for a glucose-tolerance test were classified on the basis of increasing (n = 20) or decreasing (n = 28) hematocrit after an oral 75-g glucose load. (The hematocrit did not change in the other two patients.) Patients with increasing hematocrit, a response previously seen in patients with the dumping syndrome, showed significantly flatter increases in glucose concentrations in plasma after the load. The mean decrease in the concentration of phosphate in plasma, measured as an index of glucose uptake by cells, was significantly less (P less than 0.05) 2 h after the load in the group with flatter glucose responses, suggesting that the flat response is ascribable to poor glucose absorption rather than to an exaggerated insulin response. These results indicate that the oral glucose-tolerance test stresses the pancreatic islets differently in different pregnant subjects, owing to individual variations in the gastrointestinal handling of the glucose load. Consequently, patients may give a "normal" result who might otherwise become hyperglycemic after normal meals. We suggest that alternative screening procedures be investigated to assess pregnant patients postprandially.

  9. Milrinone efficiently potentiates insulin secretion induced by orally but not intravenously administered glucose in C57BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Eva; Manganiello, Vincent; Holst, Jens J; Ahrén, Bo

    2004-09-13

    To study the effect of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibition on plasma insulin and glucose levels, the selective PDE 3 inhibitor milrinone (0.25, 1.0, and 2.5 mg/kg) was given orally to anesthetized CL57Bl/6J mice 10 min before a gastric glucose gavage (150 mg/mouse). It was found that milrinone augmented the glucose-mediated increase in plasma insulin at 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg without, however, any improvement in glucose elimination. In contrast, when given 10 min before intravenous glucose (1 g/kg), milrinone (1 mg/kg) did not affect the insulin response to glucose. The increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels after gastric glucose was not altered by milrinone. However, the PDE3 inhibitor augmented the insulin response to intravenous GLP-1 (2.8 nmol/kg). We therefore conclude that PDE3 inhibition by milrinone augments insulin secretion in vivo in mice after oral but not after intravenous glucose, which may be explained by enhanced response to the cAMP-dependent insulinotropic action of endogenously released GLP-1.

  10. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-15

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers.

  11. The effect of short-term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose and oral glucose tolerance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M; Cunningham, K M; Wishart, J M; Jones, K L; Read, N W

    1996-04-01

    Recent observations indicate that gastric emptying may be influenced by patterns of previous nutrient intake. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of a high glucose diet on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, and the impact of any changes in gastric emptying on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in response to glucose and fructose loads. Gastric emptying of glucose and fructose (both 75 g dissolved in 350 ml water) were measured in seven normal volunteers on separate days while each was on a "standard' diet and an identical diet supplemented with 440 g/day of glucose for 4-7 days. Venous blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels were taken immediately before and for 180 min after ingestion of glucose and fructose loads. Dietary glucose supplementation accelerated gastric emptying of glucose (50% emptying time 82 +/- 8 vs 106 +/- 10 min, p = 0.004) and fructose (73 +/- 9 vs 106 +/- 9 min, p = 0.001). After ingestion of glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin (p < 0.05) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (p < 0.05) were higher during the glucose-supplemented diet. In contrast, plasma glucose concentrations at 60 min and 75 min were lower (p < 0.05) on the glucose-supplemented diet. We conclude that short-term supplementation of the diet with glucose accelerates gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, presumably as a result of reduced feedback inhibition of gastric emptying from small intestinal luminal receptors. More rapid gastric emptying of glucose has a significant impact on glucose tolerance.

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  13. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Effects of oral glucose on exercise thermoregulation in men after water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, Alan S.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Greenleaf, John E.; Barnes, Paul R.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Breckler, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis elevated blood glucose would attenuate the rise in exercise rectal temperature, six men age 35 plus or minus S.D. 7 years participated in each of three trials by 4-hr water immersion to the neck: (1) 2.0 g/kg body wt of oral glucose (33.8 percent wt./vol.) was consumed followed by 80 min controlled rest (Glu/Rest), and 70 min horizontal supine cycle exercise at 62.8 percent plus or minus S.E. 0.5 percent (1.97 plus or minus 0.02 L/min) of peak O2 uptake followed by 10 min recovery (2) with (Glu/Ex) and (3) without prior flucose (No Glu/Ex). Blood samples were taken at -25, 0, 15, 45, and 68 min of exercise and after plus 10 min of recovery for measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood glucose. Both mean skin (T sub sk) (from six sites) and rectal temperatures (T sub re) were monitored continuously. Sweat rate was measured by resistanc hygrometry. The mean of delta PV for the exercise trials was -12.2 plus or minus 2.1 percent. Mean blood glucose for the Glu/Ex trial was higher than that of the No Glu/Ex trial was (108.4 equal or minus 3.9 and 85.6 plus or minus 1.6 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.05. At the end of exercise T(sub sk) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Ex(32.0 plus or minus 0.3 and 32.4 equals or minus 0.2 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); T(sub re) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Es (38.22 plus or minus 0.17 and 38.60 plus or minus 0.11 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); and forearm sweat rate for the Glu/Ex trial (0.34 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.43 plus or minus g/sq cm, respectively, P less than 0.05). These data suggest that elevation of blood glucose prior to horizontal exercise following hypohydration attenuates the increase in body temperature without altering heat production or exercise hypovolemia.

  16. Oral administration of corn zein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 and GIP secretion and improves glucose tolerance in male normal rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Noriyuki; Hira, Tohru; Yamada, Nao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ileal administration of the dietary protein hydrolysate prepared from corn zein (ZeinH) stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and attenuated hyperglycemia in rats. In this study, to examine whether oral administration of ZeinH improves glucose tolerance by stimulating GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion, glucose tolerance tests were performed in normal Sprague-Dawley male rats and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats. The test solution was gavaged before ip glucose injection in normal rats or gavaged together with glucose in GK rats. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein or by using the jugular catheter to measure glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In the ip glucose tolerance test, oral administration of ZeinH (2 g/kg) significantly suppressed the glycemic response accompanied by an immediate increase in plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels in normal rats. In contrast, oral administration of another dietary peptide, meat hydrolysate, did not elicit a similar effect. The glucose-lowering effect of ZeinH was attenuated by a GLP-1 receptor antagonist or by a GIP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, oral ZeinH induced GLP-1 secretion and reduced glycemic response in GK rats under the oral glucose tolerance test. These results indicate that the oral administration of the dietary peptide ZeinH improves glucose tolerance in normal and diabetic rats by its incretin-releasing activity, namely, the incretinotropic effect.

  17. Effects of basswood honey, honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution, and oral glucose tolerance test solution on serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide concentrations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Sheybani, Babak; Hauenschild, Annette; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Winter, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Studies suggest that honey has less influence on serum glucose concentrations than monosaccharides and disaccharides. This study aimed to confirm these findings conclusively by comparing directly the effects of honey, an identical sugar solution, and oral glucose tolerance (OGT) test solution on serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men with a mean age of 27.7 years, a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2), and no history of metabolic disorders participated in the study. Subjects underwent OGT testing to establish values and exclude preclinical diabetes. One week later they were randomly assigned to basswood honey or a glucose-fructose solution (honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution). The following week subjects were given the other solution. All solutions contained 75 g of glucose. Serum glucose was measured before drinking test solutions and every 10 minutes for 120 minutes afterwards. C-peptide and insulin were measured at 60 and 120 minutes. Serum insulin and C-peptide values at 60 minutes were significantly lower for honey. The mean serum glucose concentration was also lower for honey, but direct comparisons at the various times showed no statistically significant differences between solutions. However, the area under the concentration-time profile for glucose response was lower for the honey than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Honey had less effect on serum glucose, C-peptide, and insulin values than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Further study to elucidate underlying mechanisms may be worthwhile, as may investigation of the implications of these findings for diabetic patients.

  18. Oral glucose tolerance test effects on endothelial inflammation markers in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; D'Angelo, A; Salvadeo, S A T; Ferrari, I; Fogari, E; Gravina, A; Mereu, R; Palumbo, I; Maffioli, P; Randazzo, S; Cicero, A F G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the level of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation markers in healthy subjects (H) and diabetic overweight patients (D). We enrolled 256 healthy subjects and 274 type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated blood glucose (BG), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline and after OGTT. We observed that BG, sICAM-1, IL-6, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and TNF-alpha values were higher in D group than in H group. In a large sample of adult healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics we observed that both answer to an OGTT with a significant increase in biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin. Type 2 diabetics experienced, however, a more significant increase in TNF-alpha, and sE-selectin.

  19. Cardiovascular disease and oral agent glucose-lowering therapies in the management of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Home, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Although glucose-lowering oral agents have been available for clinical use for over 60 years, the formal evidence base supporting their advantage and safety in regard of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes remains less than optimal. However, a synthesis of the evidence results in a high probability of benefit. For metformin, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) substudy is convincing for a definite effect in reducing myocardial infarction (MI), but the quantitative extent of that is uncertain. For sulfonylureas, support for reduction in MI comes from the UKPDS extension study, where the central estimate for risk reduction remains the same as in the original planned end to the study, but the greater number of events was statistically significant for the sulfonylurea/insulin arm. Other studies do not support the view that metformin and sulfonylureas differ with respect to MI or indeed CV outcomes more generally. The data available for acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, are weak but not of concern, although some positive substudy data are available for people with impaired glucose tolerance. For peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists the CV data are more controversial, but the purpose-designed randomized controlled trials are clear that pioglitazone is advantageous to placebo (except for heart failure [HF]), whereas rosiglitazone is indistinguishable from metformin/sulfonylureas (even when including HF data). Lower-quality data do, however, lead to significant concerns for MI with rosiglitazone. Early and somewhat low-quality data for the dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors show they are safe and hold promise for cardiovascular advantage, with major randomized controlled trials being underway. Preliminary CV data are available for one sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and look reassuring.

  20. New-onset diabetes after transplantation--role of oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis and study of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh K; Narayan, Girish

    2013-09-01

    To determine the role of the oral glucose tolerance test in the early detection of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and to compare the various risk factors and insulin kinetics in the transplant patients, we studied 41 live-related renal allograft recipients who were not diabetic before transplantation. Immunosuppression included triple drug therapy (cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids) and rejection episodes were treated with methyl prednisolone (30 mg/kg IV × 3 days). All the study patients were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at Day 90 post-transplant and classified as having normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and NODAT as per the World Health Organization guidelines. Insulin levels were also determined at 0, ½ hour, 1 hour and 2 hours during OGTT. NODAT was noted in 29.2% of the study patients, IFG in 4.8% of the study patients and NGT in 65.8% of the study patients. All the groups had normal fasting plasma glucose, but higher than normal insulin levels, suggesting insulin resistance. The patients with overt NODAT had, in addition, low fasting insulin (insulin secretory defect). OGTT may be used for the early detection of NODAT. Although insulin resistance is detected in the majority of post-transplant patients, NODAT also reveals also an insulin secretory defect.

  1. Factors associated with the glucose-lowering effect of vildagliptin identified from the results of the oral glucose tolerance test in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the factors contributing to the glucose-lowering effect of vildagliptin, we analyzed the results of the oral glucose tolerance test together with several clinical parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes before and after 24 weeks of treatment with vildagliptin. The data of the 13 patients who satisfactorily completed the follow-up examinations were included. After 24 weeks treatment with vildagliptin, the patients were classified into a responder group (69.2%) and a non-responder group (30.8%); the responders consisting of subjects whose HbA1c decreased following 24 weeks treatment with vildagliptin, and the non-responders consisting of subjects who did not show any significant decrease of HbA1c. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups before administration of vildagliptin. After 24 weeks of treatment, HbA1c was significantly reduced from 7.3 ± 0.5% to 6.7 ± 0.5% in the responder group (P = 0.0077), while it tended to rather increased from 7.1 ± 0.6% to 7.5 ± 0.7% in the non-responder group (P = 0.0679). Also, parameters reflecting the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, such as the insulinogenic index and oral disposition index, were significantly higher in the responder group than in the non-responder group, whereas insulin sensitivity was similar between the two groups. These results suggest that the difference in the degree of improvement of the glucose tolerance between the responder group and non-responder group in this study could be associated with the effect of vildagliptin on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but not on the insulin sensitivity.

  2. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    PubMed

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states.

  3. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R R; Marks, V; Leeds, A R; Anderson, J W

    2011-01-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) is a widely utilized dietary supplement that is used to promote joint health. Reports that oral GlcN supplementation at usual doses adversely affects glucose metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance have raised concerns that GlcN should be contraindicated in individuals with diabetes and those at risk for developing it. This review addresses its potential, when used at typical doses, to affect glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with diabetes or ‘pre-diabetes’. Publicly available scientific information and data on GlcN were systematically compiled using the electronic search tool, Dialog®, and reviewed with special emphasis on human studies. In long-term clinical trials, including those containing subjects with type 2 diabetes or ‘pre-diabetes’, GlcN produced a non-significant lowering of fasting blood glucose concentrations in all groups of subjects treated for periods of up to 3 years. Owing to limitations in study design, conclusions based on studies that report adverse affects of GlcN on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in pre-diabetic subjects are suspect. However, no definitive long-term studies of GlcN use for individuals with pre-diabetes are available. Nevertheless, based on available evidence, we conclude that GlcN has no effect on fasting blood glucose levels, glucose metabolism, or insulin sensitivity at any oral dose level in healthy subjects, individuals with diabetes, or those with impaired glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21218504

  4. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  5. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30–60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Conclusion: Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:28316946

  6. An acute oral dose of caffeine does not alter glucose kinetics during prolonged dynamic exercise in trained endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Roy, B D; Bosman, M J; Tarnopolsky, M A

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the possible influence of oral caffeine administration on endogenous glucose production and energy substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance exercise. Twelve trained endurance athletes [seven male, five female; peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) = 65.5 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed 60 min of cycle ergometry at 65% VO2peak twice, once after oral caffeine administration (6 mg.kg-1) (CAF) and once following consumption of a placebo (PLA). CAF and PLA were administered in a randomized double-blind manner 75 min prior to exercise. Plasma glucose kinetics were determined with a primed-continuous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose. No differences in oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were observed between CAF and PLA, at rest or during exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar between the two conditions at rest and also during exercise. Exercise did lead to an increase in serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations for both conditions; however, no differences were observed between CAF and PLA. Both the plasma glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) increased at the onset of exercise (P < 0.05), but were not affected by CAF, as compared to PLA. CAF did lead to a higher plasma lactate concentration during exercise (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an acute oral dose of caffeine does not influence plasma glucose kinetics or energy substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise in trained endurance athletes. However, CAF did lead to elevated plasma lactate concentrations. The exact mechanism of the increase in plasma lactate concentrations remains to be determined.

  7. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-06-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g(-1), respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g(-1), respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g(-1), respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g(-1) (range 10-3400 ng g(-1)) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g(-1) (range 230-1100 ng g(-1)) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g(-1) for plain milk-based, 37 ng g(-1) for low-iron, 128 ng g(-1) for iron supplemented, 462 ng g(-1) for lactose-free, 518 ng g(-1) for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g(-1) for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g(-1) more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g(-1) Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g(-1) Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  8. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  9. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  10. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation.

  11. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)<160 or 90≤average diastolic BP (AvDBP)<100] and 12.64% (8.64–16.64) had stage-II (AvSBP≥160 or AvDBP≥160) hypertension. Based on FPG and HbA1c, 10.41% (6.74–14.08) were diabetic and 27.88% (22.49–33.27) were pre-diabetic. Overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.61% (11.25–19.98). Among pre-diagnosed cases, 46.43% (26.74–66.12) had uncontrolled AGM. With one year increase in age [Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.05(1.03–1.07)], retired subjects [OR = 9.14(1.72–48.66)], overweight[OR = 2.78(1.37–5.64)], ex-drinkers [OR = 4

  12. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  13. Oral tungstate treatment improves only transiently alteration of glucose metabolism in a new rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Vanna; De Tata, Vincenzo; Pocai, Alessandro; Novelli, Michela; Barberà, Albert; Masiello, Pellegrino

    2002-11-01

    It has been shown that tungstate is an effective hypoglycemic agent in several animal models of diabetes. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of oral tungstate treatment in a new experimental diabetic syndrome, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide in adult rats, that shares several features with human type 2 diabetes. Sodium tungstate was administered in the drinking water (2 mg/mL) of control and diabetic rats for 15, 30, 60, and 90 d. Glucose metabolism was explored in vivo by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion and action were assessed in vitro in the isolated perfused pancreas and isolated adipocytes, respectively. Two weeks of tungstate treatment did not modify the moderate hyperglycemia of diabetic rats but reduced their intolerance to glucose, owing to an enhancement of postloading insulin secretion. However, this effect was transient, since it declined after 30 d and vanished after 60 and 90 d of tungstate administration, whereas a trend toward a reduction in basal hyperglycemia was observed on prolonged treatment. Oral tungstate was unable to modify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the isolated perfused pancreas, as well as muscle glycogen levels, hepatic glucose metabolism, and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in isolated adipocytes. Nevertheless, the decreased insulin content of pancreatic islets of diabetic rats was partially restored on prolonged tungstate treatment. In conclusion, in the STZ-nicotinamide model of diabetes, tungstate was unable to permanently correct the alterations in glucose metabolism, despite some indirect evidence of a trophic effect on beta-cells. The ineffectiveness of tungstate could be related to the absence, in this diabetic syndrome, of relevant metabolic alterations in the liver, which thus appear to constitute the major target of tungstate action.

  14. Oral glucose tolerance test for preoperative assessment of liver function in liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Rachapoodivenkata, Raghavendra Rao

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We intended to determine the role of the Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in addition to volumetry, in preoperative assessment of patients undergoing liver resection. Methods This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, between February 2009 and February 2011. OGTT curve (parabolic/linear), linearity index (LI) and Parenchymal Hepatic Resection Rate (PHRR) were correlated with postoperative outcomes in terms of postoperative liver failure (PLF), by 50-50 criteria, morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. Results Of the 33 patients included in the study, 23 (69.7%) patients underwent major liver resections. Hepatocellular carcinoma (30.3%) was the leading indication. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 72.7%, but major complications occurred in 3 (9.1%) patients only. There was no 90-day mortality. The 50-50 criteria were met by 3 patients undergoing major resection. Significant correlation was noted between the linear OGTT curve and the overall hospital stay (12.1 days vs. 9.6 days in parabolic; p=0.04). Patients with linear OGTT met the 50-50 criteria more often (18%) than those having a parabolic curve (4.5%; p=0.25). Although the OGTT was more often linear with occurrence of morbidity (41.7% vs 11.1%), major morbidity (66.7% vs 30%) and PLF by 50-50 criteria (66.7% vs 30%), it was not statistically significant. The linearity index was marginally lower (0.9 vs 1.2) in the presence of major morbidity and PLF by 50-50 criteria. Conclusions Linear OGTT affects the PLF and major morbidity, therein impacting the hospital stay. OGTT LI and PHRR can help predict postoperative outcome for a given extent of liver resection. PMID:28317039

  15. Mice Deficient in GEM GTPase Show Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis Due to Defects in Beta-Cell Calcium Handling

    PubMed Central

    Gunton, Jenny E.; Sisavanh, Mary; Stokes, Rebecca A.; Satin, Jon; Satin, Leslie S.; Zhang, Min; Liu, Sue M.; Cai, Weikang; Cheng, Kim; Cooney, Gregory J.; Laybutt, D. Ross; So, Trina; Molero, Juan-Carlos; Grey, Shane T.; Andres, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Hypothesis Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. Methods Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. Results Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. Conclusions These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling. PMID:22761801

  16. The oral administration of D-galactose induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; da Silva, Sabrina; Luz, Aline Pereira da; Schiavo, Gustavo Luiz; Batista-Silva, Hemily; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emílio Luiz; Quevedo, João

    2017-02-24

    D-Galactose (D-gal) chronic administration via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes has been used as a model of aging and Alzheimer disease in rodents. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of D-gal causes memory impairments, a reduction in the neurogenesis of adult mice, an increase in the levels of the amyloid precursor protein and oxidative damage; However, the effects of oral D-gal remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral administration of D-gal induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain of rats. Male Wistar rats (4 months old) received D-gal (100 mg/kg v.o.), during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th or 8th weeks by oral gavage. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was measured in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks after the administration of D-gal. The activity of the respiratory chain complex I was found to have increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 6th and 8th weeks, while the activity of the respiratory chain complex II increased in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the hippocampus and in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the prefrontal cortex. The activity of complex II-III increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in each week of oral D-gal treatment. The activity of complex IV increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment the activity increased only in hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study showed that the oral administration of D-gal increased the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III and IV in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the administration of D-gal via the oral route seems to cause the alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes observed in brain neurodegeneration.

  17. Beyond glucose: metabolic shifts in responses to the effects of the oral glucose tolerance test and the high-fructose diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuhai; Yang, Zhu; Liu, Hongde; Tang, Leihan; Cai, Zongwei

    2011-05-01

    High-fructose diet-fed rats as one of the insulin resistant models was used widely for understanding the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Systems-level metabolic profiling of the rat model, however, has not been deciphered clearly. To address this issue, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was employed to unlock the metabolic snapshots of the oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) effect in either healthy or diabetic rats, as well as to delineate the metabolic signatures in tissues of rats fed with high-fructose diet. Several differentiating metabolites were highlighted to reveal the metabolic perturbation of the oGTT effects in healthy and diabetic rats, which involved amino acid biosynthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and purine metabolism. Surprisingly, the patterns of relationships for the metabolic phenotypes by using data mining revealed that glucose ingestion might induce the healthy group to display its trajectory towards diabetic status, while only a very slight influence was observed on the high-fructose diet-fed rats 120 min after glucose ingestion. The data treatment for liver, skeletal muscle and brain tissues suggested that oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation and the declined antioxidant, the elevated amino acids and the perturbation of fatty acids, were caused by the high-fructose diet in liver and skeletal muscle tissues. On the other hand, the up-regulation in purine biosynthesis and the decreased concentrations for amino acids were observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus tissues. Collectively, the obtained results might provide a new insight not only for the impairment of glucose tolerance but also for the dietary style in rats.

  18. Rise of Oxyntomodulin in Response to Oral Glucose after Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laferrère, Blandine; Swerdlow, Nicholas; Bawa, Baani; Arias, Sara; Bose, Mousumi; Oliván, Blanca; Teixeira, Julio; McGinty, James; Rother, Kristina I.

    2010-01-01

    Context: The mechanisms by which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in sustained weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes are not fully understood. Objective: We hypothesized that the anorexic hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) might contribute to the marked weight reduction and the rapid improvement in glucose metabolism observed in morbidly obese diabetic patients after GBP. Methods: Twenty obese women with type 2 diabetes were studied before and 1 month after GBP (n = 10) or after a diet-induced equivalent weight loss (n = 10). Patients from both groups were matched for age, body weight, body mass index, and diabetes duration and control. OXM concentrations were measured during a 50-g oral glucose challenge before and after weight loss. Results: At baseline, OXM levels (fasting and stimulated values) were indistinguishable between the GBP and the diet group. However, OXM levels rose remarkably in response to an oral glucose load more than 2-fold (peak, 5.25 ± 1.31 to13.8 ± 16.2 pmol/liter; P = 0.025) after GBP but not after diet. The peak of OXM after glucose was significantly correlated with glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY3-36. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the observed changes in OXM primarily occur in response to GBP and not as a consequence of weight loss. These changes were observed early after surgery and occurred in parallel with previously reported increases in incretins and peptide YY. We speculate that the combination of gut hormone changes is essential for the improved glucose homeostasis and may partially explain the success of this surgery on diabetes resolution and weight loss. PMID:20501690

  19. Role of glucose transporters in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin, a highly water-soluble drug with good oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Huang, Juan; Luo, Hui; Lei, Xiaolu; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Mai, Yang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2013-07-01

    Gastrodin, a sedative drug, is a highly water-soluble phenolic glucoside with poor liposolubility but exhibits good oral bioavailability. The current study aims to investigate whether glucose transporters (GLTs) are involved in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. The intestinal absorption kinetics of gastrodin was determined using the rat everted gut sac model, the Caco-2 cell culture model and the perfused rat intestinal model. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies using diabetic rats with high GLT expression were performed. Saturable intestinal absorption of gastrodin was observed in rat everted gut sacs. The apparent permeability (Papp) of gastrodin from the apical (A) to basolateral (B) side in Caco-2 cells was two-fold higher than that from B to A. Glucose or phlorizin, a sodium-dependent GLT (SGLT) inhibitor, reduced the absorption rates of gastrodin from perfused rat intestines. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed that the time of maximum plasma gastrodin concentration (Tmax) was prolonged from 28 to 72 min when orally co-administered with four times higher dose of glucose. However, the Tmax of gastrodin in diabetic rats was significantly lowered to 20 min because of the high intestinal SGLT1 level. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SGLT1 can facilitate the intestinal absorption of gastrodin.

  20. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels.

  1. Abnormal temporal lobe response in Alzheimer's disease during cognitive processing as measured by /sup 11/C-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; de Leon, M.J.; Ferris, S.H.; Kluger, A.; George, A.E.; Reisberg, B.; Sachs, H.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-04-01

    Elderly controls and probable Alzheimer's disease patients underwent serial positron emission tomography (PET) studies during a baseline condition and while performing a verbal memory task. For the temporal lobes, all 7 Alzheimer patients demonstrated a relative shift in glucose metabolic rates to the right hemisphere during the memory condition relative to baseline, and 5 of 7 controls showed a shift to the left hemisphere. Baseline absolute regional metabolic rates replicate previous findings and were somewhat less useful than the memory challenge in differentiating patients from controls. These results indicate that a temporal lobe abnormality in Alzheimer's disease is related to memory performance.

  2. Boron-doped graphene quantum dots for selective glucose sensing based on the "abnormal" aggregation-induced photoluminescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Ru-Ping; Li, Ya-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-05-06

    A hydrothermal approach for the cutting of boron-doped graphene (BG) into boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) has been proposed. Various characterizations reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully doped into graphene structures with the atomic percentage of 3.45%. The generation of boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces facilitates their application as a new photoluminescence (PL) probe for label free glucose sensing. It is postulated that the reaction of the two cis-diol units in glucose with the two boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces creates structurally rigid BGQDs-glucose aggregates, restricting the intramolecular rotations and thus resulting in a great boost in the PL intensity. The present unusual "aggregation-induced PL increasing" sensing process excludes any saccharide with only one cis-diol unit, as manifested by the high specificity of BGQDs for glucose over its close isomeric cousins fructose, galactose, and mannose. It is believed that the doping of boron can introduce the GQDs to a new kind of surface state and offer great scientific insights to the PL enhancement mechanism with treatment of glucose.

  3. Oral glucose before venepuncture relieves neonates of pain, but stress is still evidenced by increase in oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Karl; Ketteler, Jörg; Hellwig, Magdalena; Laurenz, Maren; Versmold, Hans

    2004-04-01

    Oral glucose was recommended as pain therapy during venepuncture in neonates. It is unclear whether this intervention reduces excess oxygen consumption (o(2)), energy loss, or cardiovascular destabilization associated with venepuncture, and whether <2 mL glucose solution is effective. We tested the hypothesis that oral glucose solution attenuates the increases in neonatal oxygen consumption, energy expenditure (EE), and heart rate associated with venepuncture for two different volumes of glucose solution (2 and 0.4 mL). In this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 58 neonates (gestational age, 31-42 wk; postnatal age, 1-7 d) were randomized to 2 mL glucose 30%, 0.4 mL glucose 30%, or 2 mL water by mouth before venepuncture. The videotaped behavioral pain reactions were scored with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Cry duration, o(2), EE (indirect calorimetry), and heart rate were measured. The 2 mL glucose solution reduced pain score and crying after venepuncture compared with controls [median pain score, 5.5 (interquartile range, 4-9) versus 11 (7-12), p = 0.01; median duration of first cry, 0 s (0-43 s) versus 13 s (2-47 s), p < 0.05, respectively]. The 0.4 mL glucose solution had no effect. The 2 mL glucose solution did not attenuate the o(2) increase during venepuncture (1.5 +/- 0.2 mL/kg min (water) versus 1.7 +/- 0.5 (0.4 mL glucose) versus 1.1 +/- 0.2 (2 mL glucose) (mean +/- SEM) nor EE nor heart rate. We conclude that oral administration of 2 mL glucose 30% before venepuncture reduced pain expression and crying, but did not prevent the rise in o(2), EE, or heart rate. Alternative therapies against the stress of nonpainful handling during venepuncture should be explored.

  4. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675. PMID:27648290

  5. Decrease of serum S100B during an oral glucose tolerance test correlates inversely with the insulin response.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Schiltz, Kolja; Haase, Thekla; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Müller, Ulf J; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Borucki, Katrin; Schroeter, Matthias L; Isermann, Berend; Bogerts, Bernhard; Westphal, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Increased S100B serum levels have been considered as a marker of glial pathology, brain damage, and blood-brain-barrier impairment. However, S100B expression has also been detected outside the nervous system, suggesting that altered S100B serum levels may not exclusively reflect brain-specific pathologies. Notably, S100B secretion in adipocytes seems to be down-regulated by insulin, and up-regulated by stress and fasting. Therefore, we assumed that dynamic changes of S100B could be observed by challenging healthy subjects with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). OGTT was performed in 17 healthy adult test persons (9 male and 8 female). Apart from S100B, glucose, free fatty acids, insulin, C-peptide, and cortisol were determined in all samples after an overnight fast (0 h), as well as 1h and 2h after ingestion of 75 g glucose. Mean S100B concentrations decreased about 20% during the first hour after glucose ingestion (P<0.001). This decrease of S100B levels was not related to the declining morning peak of cortisol. However, the decrease of serum-S100B 1h after glucose ingestion correlated inversely with the respective changes of serum-insulin (r = -0.484, P=0.049) and serum-C-peptide (r = -0.570, P = 0.017). Our study suggests an inverse correlation between insulin secretion and S100B release after a standardized OGTT. Additional experiments, including the administration of insulin and the measurement of other food intake-related factors are important to ascertain an insulin-regulated S100B release in vivo. To improve comparability between clinical studies assessing conditions with rather mild changes of serum S100B, blood should be taken in a more standardized way (e.g., after fasting overnight).

  6. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  7. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  8. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27312339

  9. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  10. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  11. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose tolerance abnormality in Melanesians and subjects of Polynesian descent in the rural areas of New Caledonia and at Ouvea (Loyalty Islands)].

    PubMed

    Zimmet, P; Canteloube, D; Le Gonidec, G; Couzigou, P; Genelle, B; Peghini, M; Charpin, M; Bennett, P; Kuberski, T; Kleiber, N; Taylor, R

    1982-01-01

    The screening of different ethnic groups who live in the same natural system have enabled the authors to study interaction between genetic and environmental factors as a part of etiology of diabetes mellitus. In New Caledonian country areas, the prevalences of glucose tolerance abnormality (GTA) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been higher with people of polynesian descent than with Melanesians. GTA 7.6 p. ct. versus 5.1 p. ct. DM 6.5 p. ct. versus 2.2 p. ct. The prevalence of these combined diseases have been 14 p. ct. with the Polynesians and 7.2 p. ct. with Melanesians. These two ethnic groups have shown mean ages and obesity rates similar enough to lead the authors to deny these two factors a major part in the difference between the ethnic prevalences of DM. Besides, the mean plasmatic glycemia two hours after a dose of glucose and the relative risk of DM and GTA according to age and obesity rate have shown that the slight differences between these groups are not involved in the different prevalences of DM. This inter-ethnic difference may be due to genetic factors. However, some environment linked factors besides obesity (such as diet and daily life activity) may share a major part in this difference.

  12. Glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast: oral insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating agent: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Mizrahi, Tal; Raz, Itamar; Mirsky, Nitsa

    2012-09-01

    In search for an effective oral treatment for diabetes, we examined the capacity of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) extracted from yeast and administered orally to reduce hyperglycaemia in rat models exhibiting insulin deficiency. The cellular effect of GTF on the insulin signalling pathway was investigated in vitro. GTF (oral bolus), insulin (intraperitoneal) or their combination was administered to streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or hyperglycaemic Cohen diabetic-sensitive (hyp-CDs) rats. Blood glucose (BG) and insulin levels were measured in the postprandial (PP) state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Deoxy-glucose transport and insulin signal transduction were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and myoblasts incubated with the GTF. Low dose of insulin produced a 34 and 12·5 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. GTF induced a 33 and 17 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. When combined with insulin, a respective decrease (58 and 42 %) in BG levels was observed, suggesting a partially additive (hyp-CDs) or synergistic (STZ rats) effect of the GTF and insulin. GTF did not induce insulin secretion in hyp-CDs rats, yet it lowered their BG levels, proposing an effect on glucose clearance by peripheral tissues. GTF induced a dose-dependent increase in deoxy-glucose transport into myoblasts and fat cells similar to insulin, while the combined treatment resulted in augmented transport rate. GTF induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of insulin receptor phosphorylation. GTF exerts remarkable insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating effects, both in vivo and in vitro. It produces an insulin-like effect by acting on cellular signals downstream of the insulin receptor. These results demonstrate a potential source for a novel oral medication for diabetes.

  13. Haptoglobin, alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and risk of abnormal transcranial Doppler among patients with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sharon E; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; L'Esperence, Veline S; Kija, Edward; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Newton, Charles R J; Birch, Anthony A; Prentice, Andrew M; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2014-06-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) of basal intracranial vessels and is used clinically to detect stroke risk in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Co-inheritance in SCA of alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) polymorphisms is reported to associate with high CBFv and/or risk of stroke. The effect of a common functional polymorphism of haptoglobin (HP) is unknown. We investigated the effect of co-inheritance of these polymorphisms on CBFv in 601 stroke-free Tanzanian SCA patients aged <24 years. Homozygosity for alpha-thalassaemia 3·7 deletion was significantly associated with reduced mean CBFv compared to wild-type (β-coefficient -16·1 cm/s, P = 0·002) adjusted for age and survey year. Inheritance of 1 or 2 alpha-thalassaemia deletions was associated with decreased risk of abnormally high CBFv, compared to published data from Kenyan healthy control children (Relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0·53 [95% confidence interval (CI):0·35-0·8] & RRR = 0·43 [95% CI:0·23-0·78]), and reduced risk of abnormally low CBFv for 1 deletion only (RRR = 0·38 [95% CI:0·17-0·83]). No effects were observed for G6PD or HP polymorphisms. This is the first report of the effects of co-inheritance of common polymorphisms, including the HP polymorphism, on CBFv in SCA patients resident in Africa and confirms the importance of alpha-thalassaemia in reducing risk of abnormal CBFv.

  14. Meal feeding improves oral glucose tolerance in male rats and causes adaptations in postprandial islet hormone secretion that are independent of plasma incretins or glycemia

    PubMed Central

    P., Torsten; Aulinger, Benedikt A.; Smith, Eric P.; Drazen, Deborah L.; Ulrich-Lai, Yve; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Meal-fed (MF) rats with access to food for only 4 consecutive hours during the light cycle learn to eat large meals to maintain energy balance. MF animals develop behavioral and endocrine changes that permit glucose tolerance despite increased meal size. We hypothesized that enhanced activity of the enteroinsular axis mediates glucose homeostasis during MF. Cohorts of rats were allocated to MF or ad libitum (AL) regimens for 2–4 wk. Insulin secretion and glucose tolerance were determined after oral carbohydrate and intraperitoneal (ip) and intravenous (iv) glucose. MF rats ate less than AL in the first week but maintained a comparable weight trajectory thereafter. MF rats had decreased glucose excursions after a liquid mixed meal (AUC: MF 75 ± 7, AL 461 ± 28 mmol·l−1·min, P < 0.001), with left-shifted insulin secretion (AUC0–15: MF 31.0 ± 4.9, AL 9.6 ± 4.4 pM·min, P < 0.02), which peaked before a significant rise in blood glucose. Both groups had comparable fasting glucagon levels, but postprandial responses were lower with MF. However, neither intestinal expression of proGIP and proglucagon mRNA nor plasma incretin levels differed between MF and AL groups. There were no differences in the insulin response to ip or iv glucose between MF and AL rats. These findings demonstrate that MF improves oral glucose tolerance and is associated with significant changes in postprandial islet hormone secretion. Because MF enhanced β-cell function during oral but not parenteral carbohydrate administration, and was not accounted for by changes in circulating incretins, these results support a neural mechanism of adaptive insulin secretion. PMID:25159330

  15. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  16. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  17. Identification of the mechanism of action of a glucokinase activator from oral glucose tolerance test data in type 2 diabetic patients based on an integrated glucose-insulin model.

    PubMed

    Jauslin, Petra M; Karlsson, Mats O; Frey, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    A mechanistic drug-disease model was developed on the basis of a previously published integrated glucose-insulin model by Jauslin et al. A glucokinase activator was used as a test compound to evaluate the model's ability to identify a drug's mechanism of action and estimate its effects on glucose and insulin profiles following oral glucose tolerance tests. A kinetic-pharmacodynamic approach was chosen to describe the drug's pharmacodynamic effects in a dose-response-time model. Four possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic drugs were evaluated, and the corresponding affected model parameters were identified: insulin secretion, glucose production, insulin effect on glucose elimination, and insulin-independent glucose elimination. Inclusion of drug effects in the model at these sites of action was first tested one-by-one and then in combination. The results demonstrate the ability of this model to identify the dual mechanism of action of a glucokinase activator and describe and predict its effects: Estimating a stimulating drug effect on insulin secretion and an inhibiting effect on glucose output resulted in a significantly better model fit than any other combination of effect sites. The model may be used for dose finding in early clinical drug development and for gaining more insight into a drug candidate's mechanism of action.

  18. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol®) Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Jorge L.; Salgado, Ana-María; Lyon, Carolina; Vigil, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Delphinidin anthocyanins have previously been associated with the inhibition of glucose absorption. Blood glucose lowering effects have been ascribed to maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extracts in humans after boiled rice consumption. In this study, we aimed to explore whether a standardized delphinidin-rich extract from maqui berry (Delphinol) affects glucose metabolism in prediabetic humans based on glycemia and insulinemia curves obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a challenge with pure glucose. Volunteers underwent four consecutive OGTTs with at least one week washout period, in which different doses of Delphinol were administered one hour before glucose intake. Delphinol significantly and dose-dependently lowered basal glycemia and insulinemia. Lower doses delayed postprandial glycemic and insulinemic peaks, while higher doses reversed this tendency. Glycemia peaks were dose-dependently lowered, while insulinemia peaks were higher for the lowest dose and lower for other doses. The total glucose available in blood was unaffected by treatments, while the total insulin availability was increased by low doses and decreased by the highest dose. Taken together, these open exploratory results suggest that Delphinol could be acting through three possible mechanisms: by inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, by an incretin-mediated effect, or by improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:28025651

  19. Reduction of hepatic insulin clearance after oral glucose ingestion is not mediated by glucagon-like peptide 1 or gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans.

    PubMed

    Meier, Juris J; Holst, Jens J; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Nauck, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Changes in hepatic insulin clearance can occur after oral glucose or meal ingestion. This has been attributed to the secretion and action of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Given the recent availability of drugs based on incretin hormones, such clearance effects may be important for the future treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we determined insulin clearance in response to endogenously secreted and exogenously administered GIP and GLP-1. Insulin clearance was estimated from the molar C-peptide-to-insulin ratio calculated at basal conditions and from the respective areas under the curve after glucose, GIP, or GLP-1 administration. Oral glucose administration led to an approximately 60% reduction in the C-peptide-to-insulin ratio (P < 0.0001), whereas intravenous glucose administration had no effect (P = 0.09). The endogenous secretion of GIP or GLP-1 was unrelated to the changes in insulin clearance. The C-peptide-to-insulin ratio was unchanged after the intravenous administration of GIP or GLP-1 in the fasting state (P = 0.27 and P = 0.35, respectively). Likewise, infusing GLP-1 during a meal course did not alter insulin clearance (P = 0.87). An inverse nonlinear relationship was found between the C-peptide-to-insulin ratio and the integrated insulin levels after oral and during intravenous glucose administration. Insulin clearance is reduced by oral but not by intravenous glucose administration. Neither GIP nor GLP-1 has significant effects on insulin extraction. An inverse relationship between insulin concentrations and insulin clearance suggests that the secretion of insulin itself determines the rate of hepatic insulin clearance.

  20. The sweet taste of success: the presence of glucose in the oral cavity moderates the depletion of self-control resources.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource-depletion model, self-control is a limited resource that is depleted after a period of exertion. Evidence consistent with this model indicates that self-control relies on glucose metabolism and glucose supplementation to depleted individuals replenishes self-control resources. In five experiments, we tested an alternative hypothesis that glucose in the oral cavity counteracts the deleterious effects of self-control depletion. We predicted a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to an artificially sweetened placebo rinse, would lead to better self-control after depletion. In Studies 1 to 3, participants engaging in a depleting task performed significantly better on a subsequent self-control task after receiving a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to participants rinsing with a placebo. Studies 4 and 5 replicated these findings and demonstrated that the glucose mouth rinse had no effect on self-control in nondepleted participants. Results are consistent with a neural rather than metabolic mechanism for the effect of glucose supplementation on self-control.

  1. Opioid blockade effect on insulin beta-cells secretory patterns in polycystic ovary syndrome. Oral glucose load versus intravenous glucagon bolus.

    PubMed

    Ciampelli, M; Fulghesu, A M; Guido, M; Murgia, F; Muzj, G; Belosi, C; Fortini, A; Cento, R; Lanzone, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the involvement of endogenous opiates in the insulin disorders of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) a total of 25 PCOs women and 11 normo-ovulatory controls were studied by comparing the effect of a chronic opioid blockade on beta-cells responsiveness to oral glucose load and to intravenous glucagon bolus. Each patient, studied on follicular phase, underwent to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and, 2 days later, to a glucagon intravenous bolus (1 mg); these tests were then repeated after 6 weeks of naltrexone treatment (50 mg orally). Naltrexone treatment did not modify the insulin secretory patterns of control subjects, whereas the same therapy significantly reduced, in hyperinsulinemic PCOs women, the beta-cell hyperresponsiveness both to oral glucose load and to intravenous glucagon (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively), even if with different mean percent decrease (32% OGTT vs. 45% glucagon, p < 0.05). Moreover, normoinsulinemic PCOs patients showed a slight, but not significantly increase in the beta-cells response to OGTT after opioid blockade, whereas, in the same situation, the insulin release after glucagon bolus was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). Chronic opioid blockade did not modify gonadotropins, steroids and SHBG levels in either group. Our data show that naltrexone treatment is able to reduce the beta-cell response to a direct intravenous secretagogue stimulus in all PCOs patients, while only in hyperinsulinemic PCOs subjects the same treatment is effective in reducing the exaggerated insulin secretion after oral glucose load. The reason for such a discrepancy could be ascribed to a different effect of opioids on first- and second-phase insulin secretion, or, alternatively, to an involvement of other secretagogue factors, such as glucoincretins.

  2. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  3. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  4. Preserved glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to oral glucose, but reduced incretin effect, insulin secretion and sensitivity in young Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea; Lim, Shueh Lin; Tan, Florence Hui Sieng; Tong, Chin Voon; Hong, Janet Yeow Hua; Md Zain, Fuziah; Holst, Jens Juul; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2017-01-01

    Objective Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect are scarce. We examined the insulin resistance, β-cell function (BC), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 hormone and incretin effect in Asian YT2DM. Research design and methods This case–control study recruited 25 Asian YT2DM and 15 healthy controls, matched for gender, ethnicity and body mass index. Serum glucose, insulin, C peptide and GLP-1 were sampled during 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and 1-hour intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). Insulin sensitivity was derived from the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), Oral Glucose Insulin Sensitivity Index (OGIS) in OGTT and surrogate index of SI from the minimal model (calculated SI, CSI). Acute insulin response (AIR) was obtained from IVGTT. Total BC was computed as incremental area under the curve of insulin/incremental area under the curve of glucose, during OGTT (BCOG) and IVGTT (BCIV), respectively. Disposition index (DI) was calculated using the product of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. GLP-1 response to oral glucose was calculated as incremental area under the curve of GLP-1 (ΔAUCGLP-1). Per cent incretin effect was estimated as 100×(BCOG−BCIV)/BCOG). Results The YT2DM had marked impairment in BC (>80% reduction in AIR and BCOG, p<0.001) and lower QUICKI (p<0.001), OGIS (p<0.001) and CSI (p=0.015) compared with controls. There was no difference in GLP-1 at all time points and ΔAUCGLP-1 but the per cent incretin effect was reduced in the YT2DM compared with controls (12.1±8.93 vs 70.0±4.03, p<0.001). Conclusions Asian YT2DM showed similar GLP-1 response to oral glucose as controls but reduced incretin effect, BC and insulin sensitivity. The lack of compensatory

  5. [Angiodysplasia of moya-moya type disclosed by choreic unvoluntary abnormal movements during oral contraception. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Cabanot, C; Lévrier, O; Thuillier, J N; Chérif, A A

    1997-07-01

    Two seventeen year-old women, developed acute onset left choreic movements following two months and two weeks use of oral contraceptives. Left hemiparesia appeared a few days later, while involuntary movements discontinued. Cranial CT scan and MRI showed bilateral ischemic lesion in the frontal region for the first case and isolated lesion in the right centrum ovale for the second. Angiography showed nearly complete obstruction of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery with an outline Moya-Moya network. After discontinuing oral contraceptives, there has been no relapse of neurologic dysfunction for more than three years for the first case and twelve months for the second one. The role of perfusion insufficiency in limb-shaking carotid transient ischemic attack is discussed and the possible relations between oral contraceptives, chorea and angiographic features resembling Moya-Moya disease are evaluated.

  6. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Craig, Thomas P; Cleland, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Infusion of carnitine has been observed to increase non-oxidative glucose disposal in several studies, but the effect of oral carnitine on glucose disposal in non-diabetic lean versus overweight/obese humans has not been examined. This study examined the effects of 14 days of L-carnitine L-tartrate oral supplementation (LC) on blood glucose, insulin, NEFA and GLP-1 responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sixteen male participants were recruited [lean (n = 8) and overweight/obese (n = 8)]. After completing a submaximal predictive exercise test, participants were asked to attend three experimental sessions. These three visits were conducted in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and to conduct 2 h OGTTs. The first visit was a familiarisation trial and the final two visits were conducted 2 weeks apart following 14 days of ingestion of placebo (PL, 3 g glucose/day) and then LC (3 g LC/day) ingested as two capsules 3×/day with meals. On each visit, blood was drawn at rest, at intervals during the OGTT for analysis of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Data obtained were used for determination of usual insulin sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, AUC glucose, AUC insulin, 1st phase and 2nd phase β-cell function, estimated insulin sensitivity index and estimated metabolic clearance rate). Data were analysed using RMANOVA and post hoc comparisons where appropriate. There was a significant difference between groups for body mass, % fat and BMI with no significant difference in age and height. Mean (SEM) plasma glucose concentration at 30 min was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the lean group on the LC trial compared with PL [8.71(0.70) PL; 7.32(0.36) LC; mmol/L]. Conversely, plasma glucose concentration was not different at 30 min, but was significantly higher at 90 min (p < 0.05) in the overweight/obese group on the LC trial [5.09(0.41) PL; 7.11(0.59) LC; mmol/L]. Estimated first phase and second

  7. [Evaluation of oral glucose tolerance test in the assessment of reserved function of liver for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wen, T; Zheng, G; Meng, X; Chen, L

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT)in the assessment of reserved function of liver for predicting the tolerability of patients to hepatectomy and hence provided a criteria for selecting the candidates for undergoing hepatectomy, since the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were associated with posthepatitis cirrhosis. The preoperative and postoperative OGTT and liver biopsy for pathological investigation were carried out in 62 cases of hepatecomized patients and 49 cases of unresected patients for comparison. The results revealed that the patients whose preoperative OGTT curve was of P type recovered uneventfully after hepatectomy, but those whose curve was of L type of tolerated poorly to hepatectomy and were liable to postoperative hepatic failure and complications. The severity of cirrbosis in those poor risk patients fell to C III or C IV histological degree. 29 patients with intermediate feature of OGTT curve between P type and L type, i.e. I type underwent regional vascular occlusion at hepatic hilus as hepatectomy, and infusion of Danshen extract solution before vascular occlusion to prevent hepatocytes from reperfusion injury. Of them, 20 recovered uneventfully, 8 suffered from complications such as ascites and/or juandice, and 1 died within 1 month after operation. The followup study showed that the survival time of patients with P type OGTT curve was longer than that of I type, and the latter was longer than that of L type. The pattern of OGTT curve could change from preoperative P type to postoperative L type, depending on the severity of vascular interruption of liver and the ischemic injury to hepatocytic mass in operation.

  8. Effect of glucose ingestion in plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: analysis of 16 plasma markers from oral glucose tolerance test samples of normal and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Soon Young; Hong, Won Kyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured during OGTT in 54 subjects. Leptin, RBP4, CRP, OPN, ANG, MDC, and MCSF concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT (P<0.05). IL6, IL8, and MCP3 concentrations significantly increased during OGTT (P<0.05). These results provide evidence that glucose ingestion affects systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  9. Drug-drug interactions with sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, new oral glucose-lowering agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

  10. Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, You Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of the control and sucrose-administered groups. The AUCs of the lower levels fructoseor sucrose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of higher levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups. In type 2 diabetic rats, only the AUC of the lowest level of fructose-administered (0.05 g/kg body weight) group was slightly smaller than that of the control group. The AUCs of fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of the sucrose-administered groups, and the AUCs of lower levels fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those fed higher levels of fructose. We concluded from this experiment that fructose has tendency to be more effective in blood glucose regulation than sucrose, and moreover, that smaller amount of fructose is preferred to larger amount. Specifically, our experiments indicated that the fructose level of 0.05 g/kg body weight as dietary supplement was the most effective amount for blood glucose regulation from the pool of 0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg body weights. Therefore, our results suggest the use of fructose as the substitute sweetener for sucrose, which may be beneficial for blood glucose regulation. PMID:20016727

  11. Effectiveness of Medium-Chain Triglyceride Oil Therapy in Two Japanese Citrin-Deficient Siblings: Evaluation Using Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroki; Sasai, Hideo; Abdelkreem, Elsayed; Kawamoto, Norio; Kawamoto, Minako; Kamiya, Toshiya; Tanimoto, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Numakura, Chikahiko; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Citrin deficiency, an inherited defect of the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform (citrin), may cause impairment of glycolysis because of an increase in the cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio. We report a Japanese boy whose main complaint was recurrent hypoglycemic episodes. He was suspected as having citrin deficiency because of his peculiar preference for protein- and fat-rich food. His young sister also had a similar food preference. Both siblings were diagnosed with citrin deficiency by genetic analysis. The brother and sister underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 10 and 7 yr of age, respectively. Blood glucose, ammonia, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, and insulin levels were monitored before starting the test, and then every 30 min. During this test, they maintained blood glucose levels until 180 min. At 210 min, they experienced vomiting, feeling ill, and decreased blood glucose levels (2.9 and 2.8 mmol/l in the brother and sister, respectively). The sister and brother recovered uneventfully by intravenous glucose injection. In a second OGTT, 4 months after medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil supplementation, they had no major symptoms and normal glucose levels were maintained, even after 240 min. Additionally, after MCT oil therapy, their food preference slightly changed as they started eating more carbohydrates. Our OGTT data suggest excess carbohydrate intake has adverse consequences in patients with citrin deficiency, including hypoglycemia after a few hours. MCT oil therapy may be effective in preventing such hypoglycemia and improving metabolic derangement, even during the so-called apparently healthy period.

  12. Quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal, glyoxal and free advanced glycation end-products in the plasma of Wistar rats during the oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Jing; Aikawa, Chiwa; Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the production behavior of free adducts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Wistar rats under acute hyperglycemic conditions. Five AGE-free adducts as well as their precursors (i.e., highly reactive carbonyl intermediates of methylglyoxal and glyoxal) in rat plasma were quantitatively determined at greater than nanomolar levels using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate and 2,3-diaminonaphthalene derivatization techniques. An oral glucose (2 g/kg dose) tolerance test to 10-week-old Wistar rats provided evidence that the plasma levels of diabetes-related metabolites did not change acutely within 120 min, irrespective of increasing blood glucose levels.

  13. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose ... the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  14. [Abnormalities in behavior in the oral and cervical area: reassurance breast-feeding. Considerations on sudden infant death].

    PubMed

    Gudin, R G; Khalef, M

    1993-01-01

    The oral zone reflects the relational modalities of the child: the sensorimotor physiological and psychological behaviour is established according to the development of the facial sphere and its aero-digestive crossroads. In the baby, the mandibular equilibrium and position and the dimensions of the lower part of the face essentially depend upon praxic activities, which drive the mandibular and hyoid displacements. During the period of immaturity, the lingual area is brought into movement with each "sucking-swallowing" action that characterises breast-feeding: the mandibulo-hyoid swing is subordinate to the pharyngo-lingual complex. The analysis of this psycho-motor behaviour reveals imperfect and upsetting "mimics" that modify the balance of the jaw and of the hyo-lingual area during swallowing, which is the second phase of the reassurance breast-feed. The lingual ptosis causes congestion of the airways. These lax children, with a receding chin, are deformed by their oral habits. The clinical picture evidences the constitutional hyperlaxity by examining the parental group -the same facial dystrophies, the same habits resulting in various disorders of general or cervical statics. At the level of the temporomandibular joint, the dysfunction is also accompanied by claudication by mandibulo-hyo-lingual tipping. The general and cervical statics of the baby are thus affected in the course of sleep. It is during paradoxical sleep that the baby's head tips on to the thorax, due to the resultant atonia of the neck muscles. The head, insufficiently supported on its cervical pillar accentuates the asphyxial mechanism provoked by the tipping of the lingual area on the epiglottis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30–60 min and 60–120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  17. Anti-proliferative activity of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents on human vascular smooth muscle cells: thiazolidinediones (glitazones) have enhanced activity under high glucose conditions

    PubMed Central

    Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin; de Dios, Stephanie T; Cemerlang, Nelly; Ballinger, Mandy; Nigro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) proliferation by oral anti-hyperglycemic agents may have a role to play in the amelioration of vascular disease in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibit vSMC proliferation but it has been reported that they anomalously stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We investigated three TZDs, two biguanides and two sulfonylureas for their ability of inhibit vSMC proliferation. People with diabetes obviously have fluctuating blood glucose levels thus we determined the effect of media glucose concentration on the inhibitory activity of TZDs in a vSMC preparation that grew considerably more rapidly under high glucose conditions. We further explored the mechanisms by which TZDs increase [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Methods VSMC proliferation was investigated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Activation and inhibition of thymidine kinase utilized short term [3H]-thymidine uptake. Cell cycle events were analyzed by FACS. Results VSMC cells grown for 3 days in DMEM with 5% fetal calf serum under low (5 mM glucose) and high (25 mM glucose) increased in number by 2.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone showed modest but statistically significantly greater inhibitory activity under high versus low glucose conditions (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). We confirmed an earlier report that troglitazone (at low concentrations) causes enhanced incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA but did not increase cell numbers. Troglitazone inhibited serum mediated thymidine kinase induction in a concentration dependent manner. FACS analysis showed that troglitazone and rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone placed a slightly higher percentage of cells in the S phase of a growing culture. Of the biguanides, metformin had no effect on proliferation assessed as [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell numbers whereas phenformin was inhibitory in both assays albeit at high concentrations

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Gordon, Paul H; Dupuis, Luc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Simon, Dominique; Salachas, Francois; Corcia, Philippe; Frochot, Vincent; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Jardel, Claude; Coussieu, Christiane; Le Forestier, Nadine; Lacomblez, Lucette; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Meininger, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to analyse carbohydrate metabolism in a series of ALS patients and to examine potential association with parameters of lipid metabolism and clinical features. Glucose tolerance was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test in 21 non-diabetic ALS patients and compared with 21 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Lipids and lactate/pyruvate ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were also measured in ALS patients. Mann-Whitney U-tests analysed continuous data and Fisher's exact tests assessed categorical data. Blood glucose determined 120 min after the glucose bolus was significantly higher in patients with ALS (7.41 mmol/l+/-1.68) compared to controls (6.05+/-1.44, p=0.006). ALS patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria (n=7, 33%) were more likely to have elevated free fatty acids (FFA) levels compared to patients with normal glucose tolerance (0.77 nmol/l+/-0.30 vs. 0.57+/-0.19, p=0.04). IGT was not associated with disease duration or severity. In conclusion, patients with ALS show abnormal glucose tolerance that could be associated with increased FFA levels, a key determinant of insulin resistance. The origin of glucose homeostasis abnormalities in ALS may be multifactorial and deserves further investigation.

  19. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  20. Oral administration of soybean peptide Vglycin normalizes fasting glucose and restores impaired pancreatic function in Type 2 diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jueping; Du, Zhongxia; Zhen, Hui; Lin, Mei; Jia, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Huang, Xinyuan; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Chen, Zhengwang

    2014-09-01

    Vglycin, a natural 37-residue polypeptide isolated from pea seeds in which six half-cysteine residues are embedded in three pairs of disulfide bonds, is resistant to digestive enzymes and has antidiabetic potential. To investigate the pharmacological activity of Vglycin in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved, the therapeutic effect of Vglycin in diabetic rats was examined. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by high-fat diet and multiple streptozotocin intraperitoneal injections. Diabetic rats were treated daily with Vglycin for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assayed weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted on Day 29. Subsequently, levels of p-Akt in the liver and pancreas and cleaved PARP, Pdx-1 and insulin in the pancreas were detected by immunoblotting. The morphology of the pancreas and the insulin expression in the pancreas were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, human liver-derived cell lines were used to explore the in vitro effects of Vglycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Chronic treatment with Vglycin normalized fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. The improvement in glucose homeostasis and the increased insulin sensitivity mediated by restored insulin signaling likely contributed to decreased food intake and reduced body weight. Vglycin protected pancreatic cells from damage by streptozotocin. Although insulin synthesis and secretion in impaired β-cell were not significantly elevated, islets morphology was improved in the Vglycin-treated groups. These results suggest that Vglycin could be useful in Type 2 diabetes for restoring impaired insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and pancreatic function.

  1. Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.

    PubMed

    Almkvist, Ove; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  2. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug.

  3. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA copy number augments performance of A1C and oral glucose tolerance testing in the prediction of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong Beom; Koh, InSong; Nam, Hye-Young; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Lee, Hong Kyu; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2017-01-01

    Here, we tested the performance of the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) in predicting future type 2 diabetes (n = 1108). We used the baseline clinical data (age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and the mtDNA-CN, hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) including fasting plasma glucose, 1-hour glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels, to predict future diabetes. We built a prediction model using the baseline data and the diabetes status at biannual follow-up of 8 years. The mean area under curve (AUC) for all follow-ups of the full model including all variables was 0.92 ± 0.04 (mean ± standard deviation), while that of the model excluding the mtDNA-CN was 0.90 ± 0.03. The sensitivity of the f4ull model was much greater than that of the model not including mtDNA-CN: the mean sensitivities of the model with and without mtDNA-CN were 0.60 ± 0.06 and 0.53 ± 0.04, respectively. We found that the mtDNA-CN of peripheral leukocytes is a biomarker that augments the predictive power for future diabetes of A1C and OGTT. We believe that these results could provide invaluable information for developing strategies for the management of diabetes. PMID:28251996

  5. Consumption of caffeinated coffee and a high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial metabolism of a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test in young, healthy males.

    PubMed

    Moisey, Lesley L; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2010-03-01

    Caffeine and caffeinated coffee (CC) elicit acute insulin insensitivity when ingested before a carbohydrate load. The effects of CC on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when co-ingested with a high carbohydrate meal and on postprandial metabolism of a subsequent (second) carbohydrate load have not been studied. In a randomised, crossover design, ten healthy males ingested either CC (5 mg caffeine/kg body weight), decaffeinated coffee (DC) or water (W; equal volume) co-ingested with a high glycaemic index cereal followed 3 h later by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. After the initial meal, insulin area under the curve (AUC) and insulin sensitivity index did not differ between treatments, although glucose AUC for CC (107 (sem 18) mmol/l x 3 h) and DC (74 (sem 15) mmol/l x 3 h) was greater than W ( - 0.2 (sem 29) mmol/l x 3 h, P < 0.05). After the second carbohydrate load, insulin AUC for CC was 49 % and 57 % greater (P < 0.01) than for DC and W, respectively. Despite the greater insulin response, glucose AUC for CC (217 (sem 24) mmol/l x 2 h) was greater than both DC (126 (sem 11) mmol/l x 2 h, P = 0.01) and W (55 (sem 34) mmol/l x 2 h, P < 0.001). Insulin sensitivity index after the second meal was lower after CC (8.2 (sem 0.9)) compared with both DC (12.4 (sem 1.2), P < 0.01) and W (13.4 (sem 1.4), P < 0.001). Co-ingestion of CC with one meal resulted in insulin insensitivity during the postprandial phase of a second meal in the absence of further CC ingestion. Thus, CC may play a role in daily glycaemic management.

  6. Oral supplements of aqueous extract of tomato seeds alleviate motor abnormality, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone in mice: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Krishna; Muralidhara

    2014-07-01

    Although tomato seeds (an industrial by-product) are known to contain several bioactive compounds, studies describing their health effects are limited. Previously, we evidenced that aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) markedly attenuated rotenone (ROT)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila system. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of TSE in a chronic ROT model of neurotoxicity in mice. Initially, we assessed the potential of oral supplements of TSE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers of oxidative stress in brain regions of mice. Subsequently, employing a co-exposure paradigm, the propensity of TSE (100 mg/kg bw, 3 weeks) to attenuate ROT-induced behavioral phenotype (gait abnormalities, anxiety-like state), oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity was examined. We found that mice provided with TSE supplements exhibited progressive improvement in gait pattern and exploratory behavior. TSE markedly offset ROT-induced oxidative impairments, restored reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and protein carbonyls content in brain regions. Specifically, TSE effectively diminished ROT induced elevation in the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and restored the dopamine levels in striatum. Interestingly, in mitochondria, TSE was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes and redox state. Collectively, our findings in the chronic ROT model demonstrate the ability of TSE to alleviate behavioral phenotype, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Further studies in dopaminergic cell models are necessary to understand the precise molecular mechanism/s by which tomato seed bioactives offer significant neuroprotection.

  7. Relationship between body weight and the increment in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor after oral glucose challenge in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Te; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, the postprandial BDNF change has not been well investigated. We hypothesized that the BDNF increment after oral glucose challenge is associated with body weight. To address this possibility, man adults with obesity in conjunction with metabolic syndrome were compared with normal weight controls at baseline in the initial cross-sectional protocol. The obese subjects then underwent a 12-week program for body-weight reduction in the prospective protocol. The area under the curve (AUC) of serum BDNF was recorded during a 75 g oral glucose tolerant test and the BDNF AUC index was defined as [(AUC of BDNF) − (fasting BDNF∗2 hours)]/(fasting BDNF∗2 hours). A total of 25 controls and 36 obese subjects completed the study assessments. In the cross-sectional protocol, the BDNF AUC index was significantly higher in the obese subjects than in the controls (9.0 ± 16.5% vs. − 8.0 ± 22.5%, P = 0.001). After weight reduction (from 97.0 ± 12.5 kg to 88.6 ± 12.9 kg, P < 0.001), the percentage change of body weight was significantly associated with the BDNF AUC index after the study (95% CI between 0.21 and 1.82, P = 0.015). Using 6% weight reduction as a cut-off value, a larger weight reduction was able to reliably predict a negative BDNF AUC index. In conclusion, a high BDNF AUC index was observed for obese men in this study, whereas the index value significantly decreased after body-weight reduction. These findings suggest that postprandial BDNF increment may be associated with obesity. PMID:27787389

  8. Relationship between body weight and the increment in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor after oral glucose challenge in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Te; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2016-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, the postprandial BDNF change has not been well investigated. We hypothesized that the BDNF increment after oral glucose challenge is associated with body weight.To address this possibility, man adults with obesity in conjunction with metabolic syndrome were compared with normal weight controls at baseline in the initial cross-sectional protocol. The obese subjects then underwent a 12-week program for body-weight reduction in the prospective protocol. The area under the curve (AUC) of serum BDNF was recorded during a 75 g oral glucose tolerant test and the BDNF AUC index was defined as [(AUC of BDNF) - (fasting BDNF2 hours)]/(fasting BDNF2 hours).A total of 25 controls and 36 obese subjects completed the study assessments. In the cross-sectional protocol, the BDNF AUC index was significantly higher in the obese subjects than in the controls (9.0 ± 16.5% vs. - 8.0 ± 22.5%, P = 0.001). After weight reduction (from 97.0 ± 12.5 kg to 88.6 ± 12.9 kg, P < 0.001), the percentage change of body weight was significantly associated with the BDNF AUC index after the study (95% CI between 0.21 and 1.82, P = 0.015). Using 6% weight reduction as a cut-off value, a larger weight reduction was able to reliably predict a negative BDNF AUC index.In conclusion, a high BDNF AUC index was observed for obese men in this study, whereas the index value significantly decreased after body-weight reduction. These findings suggest that postprandial BDNF increment may be associated with obesity.

  9. Different Effects of Metformin on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Bromocriptine- and Cabergoline-treated Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Glucose Metabolism Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Okrzesik, J; Okopien, B

    2015-10-01

    Metformin was found to reduce serum thyrotropin levels in patients with hypothyroidism. This effect was less pronounced if patients were additionally treated with bromocriptine. The study included 39 premenopausal women with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyrotropin levels exceeding 3.0 mU/L. All patients had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine (5.0-7.5 mg daily) or cabergoline (0.5-1.0 mg weekly). Because of coexisting type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, they were then given metformin (1.7-2.55 g daily). Glucose homeostasis markers, thyroid antibody titers, as well as serum levels of thyrotropin, total and free thyroid hormones and prolactin were determined before and after 6 months of metformin treatment. At baseline, cabergoline-treated patients were less insulin resistant as well as tended to have lower levels of prolactin than bromocriptine-treated patients. Although in both treatment groups, metformin decreased plasma levels of fasting and post-challenge plasma glucose and improved insulin receptor sensitivity, this effect was more prominent in patients receiving cabergoline. However, only in bromocriptine-treated patients, metformin decreased serum thyrotropin and this effect reached the level of significance in a subgroup of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Neither in cabergoline- nor in bromocriptine-treated patients, metformin affected thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibody titers. Our results indicate that the effect of metformin on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is partially determined by endogenous dopaminergic tone, thyrotrope activity and insulin sensitivity.

  10. Influence of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs on Hyperglycemic Response to Foods in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Peterson; Chlup, Rudolf; Jana, Zapletalova; Kohnert, Klaus Dieter; Kudlova, Pavla; Bartek, Josef; Nakladalova, Marie; Doubravova, Blanka; Seckar, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective open-label trial was (1) to assess the influence of oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) on the glycemic index (GI), glucose response curves (GRCs), daily mean plasma glucose (MPG) and (2) to compare the GI of foods in persons with OAD-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the respective GI in healthy persons (HP). Methods Tested foods containing 50 g of carbohydrates were eaten for breakfast and dinner after 10 and 4 h of fasting, respectively. Glycemic index, GRC, and MPG were obtained using the CGMS®System Gold™ (CGMS). In T2DM patients [n = 16; age (mean ± standard error) 56.0 ± 2.25 years], foods were tested four times: tests 1, 2, and 3 were performed within one week in which placebo was introduced on day 2, and test 4 was carried out five weeks after reintroduction of OAD. Glycemic indexes, GRC, and MPG from tests 1, 2, 3, and 4 were compared. In a control group of 20 HP (age 24.4 ± 0.71 years), the mean GIs were calculated as the mean from 20 subject-related GIs. Results In T2DM patients, subject-related assessment of GIs, GRC, and MPG distinguished persons with and without OAD effect. Nevertheless, the group-related GIs and the MPG on days 2, 8, and 39 showed no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the GIs in OAD-treated T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP (except in apple baby food). Glucose response curves were significantly larger in T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP. Conclusions Determination of GRC and subject-related GI using the CGMS appears to be a potential means for the evaluation of efficacy of OAD treatment. Further studies are underway. PMID:20663465

  11. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  12. The Birth Weight Lowering C-Allele of rs900400 Near LEKR1 and CCNL1 Associates with Elevated Insulin Release following an Oral Glucose Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ehm A.; Harder, Marie N.; Pilgaard, Kasper; Pisinger, Charlotta; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Grarup, Niels; Færch, Kristine; Poulsen, Pernille; Witte, Daniel R.; Jørgensen, Torben; Vaag, Allan; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim The first genome-wide association study on birth weight was recently published and the most significant associated birth weight lowering variant was the rs900400 C-allele located near LEKR1 and CCNL1. We aimed to replicate the association with birth weight in the Danish Inter99 study and furthermore to evaluate associations between rs900400 and indices of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity obtained by oral glucose tolerance tests in adults from the Danish Inter99 study and the Finnish, Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) sample. Methods For 4,744 of 6,784 Inter99 participants, midwife journals were traced through the Danish State Archives and association of rs900400 with birth weight was examined. Associations between rs900400 and fasting serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and disposition index were studied in 5,484 Danish and 6,915 Finnish non-diabetic individuals and combined in meta-analyses. Results The C-allele of rs900400 was associated with a 22.1 g lower birth weight ([−41.3;−3.0], P = 0.024) per allele. Moreover, in combined analyses of the Danish Inter99 study and the Finnish METSIM study we found that the birth weight lowering allele was associated with increased insulin release measured by the insulinogenic index (β = 2.25% [0.59; 3.91], P = 0.008) and with an increased disposition index (β = 1.76% [0.04; 3.49], P = 0.05). Conclusion The birth weight lowering effect of the C-allele of rs900400 located near LEKR1 and CCNL1 was replicated in the Danish population. Furthermore the C-allele was associated with increased insulin response following oral glucose stimulation in a meta-analysis based on Danish and Finnish non-diabetic individuals. PMID:22073261

  13. Biokinetics of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of (14)C.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope (14)C. After administration of (13)C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic (13)C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for (13)C/(12)C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the (13)C administered was excreted in breath, whereas  <2% was excreted in urine and feces. In the other pathway, the excretion rate constant in the compartment with the longest residence time stretched to hundreds of days but the rate constant for each subject was not statistically significant (P value  >  0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of (13)C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and

  14. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  15. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James Stewart; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analog, Exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half life (3.3–4 hrs) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because diabetic patients take >60,000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12–24 fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulfide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5,000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but didn’t cause hypoglycemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. PMID:23078126

  16. Association between secondhand smoke and obesity and glucose abnormalities: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kermah, Dulcie; Shaheen, Magda; Pan, Deyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between cotinine level-confirmed secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and glycemic parameters and obesity. Research design and methods We examined a cohort of 6472 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2010. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported data on smoking were used to determine smoking status. The outcome variables were body mass index (BMI) and glycemic status (HbA1c), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Using cotinine level-confirmed smoking status, 1794 (27.4%) of the sample were current smokers, 1681 (25.0%) were former smokers, 1158 (17.8%) were secondhand smokers, and 1839 (29.8%) were non-smokers. In a generalized linear model after controlling for potential confounding variables, secondhand smokers had higher adjusted levels of HOMA-IR, FPG, and BMI compared with non-smokers (p<0.05). Adjustment for BMI demonstrated that some, but not all, of the detrimental effects of SHS on glycemic parameters are mediated by the increased body weight of secondhand smokers. Conclusions We conclude that SHS is associated with obesity and worsening glycemic parameters. More studies are needed to show a causal relationship between SHS and glycemic parameters and to understand the mechanisms involved in the association.

  17. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  18. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  19. A study of the interactive effects of oral contraceptive use and dietary fat intake on blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity and glucose tolerance in normotensive women.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, N E; Barrington, V E; Branley, P; Louis, W J

    1998-03-01

    The interactive effects of combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and dietary fat intake on cardiovascular hemodynamics and metabolic parameters were investigated in a comparative study of 16 normotensive OC users from Australia and 16 age- and weight-matched nonuser controls. The 6-week study's crossover design allocated women to consume either a high- or low-fat diet for 2-week periods. Analyses were performed at the end of each diet during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in OC users than nonusers in both diet groups; however, responses of lipoprotein levels to the 2 diets did not differ between study groups. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 15% and 17%, respectively, in OC users, and by 14% each in non-OC users on the low-fat, compared to the high-fat, diet. Fasting plasma insulin levels, the insulin production response to administration of glucose, and resting clinic and night-time systolic blood pressures were all significantly reduced on the low-fat diet, but only in nonusers. In OC users, blood pressure responses to noradrenaline and maximal heart rate response to cold were significantly attenuated by the low-fat diet. During the low-fat diet, resting systolic, 24-hour systolic, and diastolic blood pressures and areas under the curve were significantly higher in the OC group. OC users also demonstrated a greater systolic sensitivity to administration of both noradrenaline and angiotensin II, and had a higher plasma renin activity, regardless of diet. Overall, these findings confirm that OCs can cause adverse effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and the insulin production response to glucose administration, and negate some of the beneficial effects of a low-fat diet.

  20. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kum-Bing; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Ku, Dong-Chi; Liang, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP) with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%). None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated risk of PCOS amongst

  1. Glucose tolerance during pregnancy in Asian women.

    PubMed

    Samanta, A; Burden, M L; Burden, A C; Jones, G R

    1989-08-01

    The present study was aimed at examining differences in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between two ethnic populations (immigrant Asians and indigenous White Caucasians) residing in Leicester, U.K. The study was divided into two parts: to determine the prevalence of GDM and to determine the level at which glycaemia may impose a risk to the mother and the foetus. Of a total of 12,005 pregnancies (4561 Asian and 7444 White Caucasian), over a 3-year period, 314 (6.8%) Asian and 504 (6.7%) White Caucasian were given a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 weeks for indications of 'large for date' pregnancies, hydramnios, glycosuria, a history of previous abortions, stillbirths, congenital abnormalities or glucose intolerance, and family history of diabetes. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) was taken as a 2-h venous plasma glucose greater than or equal to 7.8 mmol/l which reverted to normal when formally tested during the puerperium (WHO criteria, 1985). AGT was found in 1.38% Asian and 0.87% White Caucasian pregnancies (P less than 0.01). This was further divided into impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (2-h value 7.8-11.1 mmol/l) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (2-h value greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/l). IGT was found in 1.2% Asian and 0.84% White Caucasian pregnancies (P less than 0.01), and GDM in 0.18% and 0.02% respectively (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  5. Screening of gestational diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy by oral glucose tolerance test and glycosylated fibronectin: study protocol for an international, prospective, multicentre cohort trial

    PubMed Central

    Huhn, E A; Fischer, T; Göbl, C S; Todesco Bernasconi, M; Kreft, M; Kunze, M; Schoetzau, A; Dölzlmüller, E; Eppel, W; Husslein, P; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Zimmermann, R; Bäz, E; Prömpeler, H; Bruder, E; Hahn, S; Hoesli, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As the accurate diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is of increasing importance; new diagnostic approaches for the assessment of GDM in early pregnancy were recently suggested. We evaluate the diagnostic power of an ‘early’ oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 75 g and glycosylated fibronectin (glyFn) for GDM screening in a normal cohort. Methods and analysis In a prospective cohort study, 748 singleton pregnancies are recruited in 6 centres in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Women are screened for pre-existing diabetes mellitus and GDM by an ‘early’ OGTT 75 g and/or the new biomarker, glyFn, at 12–15 weeks of gestation. Different screening strategies are compared to evaluate the impact on detection of GDM by an OGTT 75 g at 24–28 weeks of gestation as recommended by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). A new screening algorithm is created by using multivariable risk estimation based on ‘early’ OGTT 75 g and/or glyFn results, incorporating maternal risk factors. Recruitment began in May 2014. Ethics and dissemination This study received ethical approval from the ethics committees in Basel, Zurich, Vienna, Salzburg and Freiburg. It was registered under http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02035059) on 12 January 2014. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02035059. PMID:27733413

  6. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50-500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  7. Oral administration of SR-110, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances glucose homeostasis, insulin signaling, and islet architecture in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Sakineh; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Kwon, Guim

    2016-04-15

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. As a follow-up study to our previous work on SR-135 (Arch Biochem Biophys 577-578: 49-59, 2015), we provide evidence that this series of compounds are effective when administered orally, and their mechanisms of actions extend to the peripheral tissues. A more soluble analogue of SR-135, SR-110 (from a new class of Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes) was orally administered for 2 weeks to B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Mice fed a HFD for 4 months gained significantly higher body weights compared to lean diet-fed mice (52 ± 1.5 g vs 34 ± 1.3 g). SR-110 (10 mg/kg daily) treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control or vehicle (peanut butter) group. SR-110 treatment enhanced insulin signaling in the peripheral organs, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, SR-110 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst is effective in improving glucose homeostasis and restoring islet morphology and β-cell insulin content under nutrient overload.

  8. Preoperative octreotide therapy and surgery in acromegaly: associations between glucose homeostasis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Helseth, R; Carlsen, S M; Bollerslev, J; Svartberg, J; Øksnes, M; Skeie, S; Fougner, S L

    2016-02-01

    In acromegaly, high GH/IGF-1 levels associate with abnormal glucose metabolism. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) reduce GH and IGF-1 but inhibit insulin secretion. We studied glucose homeostasis in de novo patients with acromegaly and changes in glucose metabolism after treatment with SSA and surgery. In this post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial, 55 de novo patients with acromegaly, not using antidiabetic medication, were included. Before surgery, 26 patients received SSAs for 6 months. HbA1c, fasting glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were performed at baseline, after SSA pretreatment and at 3 months postoperative. Area under curve of glucose (AUC-G) was calculated. Glucose homeostasis was compared to baseline levels of GH and IGF-1, change after SSA pretreatment, and remission both after SSA pretreatment and 3 months postoperative. In de novo patients, IGF-1/GH levels did not associate with baseline glucose parameters. After SSA pretreatment, changes in GH/IGF-1 correlated positively to change in HbA1c levels (both p < 0.03). HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G increased significantly during SSA pretreatment in patients not achieving hormonal control (all p < 0.05) but did not change significantly in patients with normalized hormone levels. At 3 months postoperative, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G were significantly reduced in both cured and not cured patients (all p < 0.05). To conclude, in de novo patients with acromegaly, disease activity did not correlate with glucose homeostasis. Surgical treatment of acromegaly improved glucose metabolism in both cured and not cured patients, while SSA pretreatment led to deterioration in glucose homeostasis in patients not achieving biochemical control.

  9. Effect of acacia polyphenol on glucose homeostasis in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomized multicenter feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SOSUKE; MATSUMAE, TOMOYUKI; KATAOKA, TAKESHI; YAZAKI, YOSHIKAZU; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro and animal studies, as well as clinical trials have indicated that plant-derived polyphenols exert beneficial effects on glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of acacia polyphenol (AP) on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in non-diabetic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a total of 34 enrolled subjects. The subjects were randomly assigned to the AP-containing dietary supplement (AP supplement; in a daily dose of 250 mg as AP; n=17) or placebo (n=17) and the intervention was continued for 8 weeks. Prior to the start of the intervention (baseline) and after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention, plasma glucose and insulin were measured during a two-hour OGTT. Compared with the baseline, plasma glucose and insulin levels at 90 and/or 120 min, as well as the total area under the curve values during the OGTT (AUC0→2h) for glucose and insulin, were significantly reduced in the AP group, but not in the placebo group after intervention for 8 weeks. The decline from baseline in plasma glucose and insulin at 90 or 120 min of the OGTT for the AP group was significantly greater compared with that of the placebo group after 8 weeks of intervention. No AP supplement-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the study period. The AP supplement may have the potential to improve glucose homeostasis in subjects with IGT. PMID:23837032

  10. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  11. Comparison between 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography for measuring gross tumor volume in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Randall, Elissa K; Kraft, Susan L; Larue, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most refractory feline malignancies. Most patients succumb due to failure in local tumor control. 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET) is increasingly being used for veterinary oncology staging as it highlights areas with higher glucose metabolism. The goal of the current prospective study was to compare gross tumor volume measurements using (18) F-FDG PET vs. those using computed tomography (CT) for stereotactic radiation therapy planning in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twelve cats with confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent pretreatment (18) F-FDG PET/CT. Gross tumor volumes based on contrast-enhanced CT and (18) F-FDG PET were measured and compared among cats. Mean PET gross tumor volume was significantly smaller than mean CT gross tumor volume in the mandibular/maxillary squamous cell carcinoma group (n = 8, P = 0.002) and for the total number of patients (n = 12, P = 0.006), but not in the lingual/laryngeal group (n = 4, P = 0.57). Mismatch fraction analysis revealed that most of the lingual/laryngeal patients had a large region of high-(18) F-FDG activity outside of the CT gross tumor volume. This mismatch fraction was significantly greater in the lingual/laryngeal group than the mandibular/maxillary group (P = 0.028). The effect of poor spatial resolution of PET imaging was greater when the absolute tumor volume was small. Findings from this study indicated that (18) F-FDG PET warrants further investigation as a supplemental imaging modality in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma because it detected regions of possible primary tumor that were not detected on CT images.

  12. Establishment of human oral-cancer cell lines (KOSC-2 and -3) carrying p53 and c-myc abnormalities by geneticin treatment.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T; Matsuwari, S; Takahashi, R; Shimada, K; Fujie, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-15

    Two cultured cell lines derived from human squamous-cell carcinomas were established through xenografted tumors in nude mice by "Geneticin" treatment, which allows to eliminate contaminated mouse fibroblasts and obtain enriched tumor cells at the early stage of cultivation. Line KOSC-2 and KOSC-3 were each derived from a squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral floor and of the lower gingiva, respectively. Both lines grew in a cobblestone pattern, demonstrating their epithelial heritage. Giemsa-banding patterns by chromosome analysis confirmed that both lines are of human origin. Molecular analysis of cancer-related genes, including the Ha-ras, c-myc and p53 genes, was performed. KOSC-3 cells showed co-over-expression of p53 and c-myc mRNA, in addition to p53 point mutation at codon 248 with transition from CGG to TGG. However, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17 was detected in both lines by Southern blotting. These cell lines provide a model for elucidating the mechanism involving p53 inactivation and c-myc-gene over-expression.

  13. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  14. Dopaminergic drugs in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Brie, Belen; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Garcia Tornadu, Isabel; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2016-07-01

    The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans. The actions of dopamine on glucose homeostasis and food intake impact both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Different central actions of the dopamine system may mediate its metabolic effects such as: (i) regulation of hypothalamic noradrenaline output, (ii) participation in appetite control, and (iii) maintenance of the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. On the other hand, dopamine inhibits prolactin, which has metabolic functions; and, at the pancreatic beta cell dopamine D2 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. We review the evidence obtained in animal models and clinical studies that posited dopamine receptors as key elements in glucose homeostasis and ultimately led to the FDA approval of bromocriptine in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolic consequences of treatment with neuroleptics which target the D2R, that should be monitored in psychiatric patients to prevent the development in diabetes, weight gain, and hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Kessler, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose variability has been suspected to be a major factor of diabetic complications. Several indices have been proposed for measuring glucose variability, but their interest remains discussed. Our aim was to compare different indices. Methods: Glucose variability was studied in 150 insulin-treated diabetic patients (46% men, 42% type 1 diabetes, age 52 ± 11 years) using a continuous glucose monitoring system (668 ± 564 glucose values; mean glucose value 173 ± 38 mg/dL). Results from the mean, the median, different indices (SD, MAGE, MAG, glucose fluctuation index (GFI), and percentages of low [<60 mg/dL] and high [>180 mg/dL] glucose values), and ratios (CV = SD/m, MAGE/m, MAG/m, and GCF = GFI/m) were compared using Pearson linear correlations and a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). Results: CV, MAGE/m (ns), GCF and GFI (P < .05), MAG and MAG/m (P < .01) were not strongly correlated with the mean. The percentage of high glucose values was mainly correlated with indices. The percentage of low glucose values was mainly correlated with ratios. PCA showed 3 main axes; the first was associated with descriptive data (mean, SD, CV, MAGE, MAGE/m, and percentage of high glucose values); the second with ratios MAG/m and GCF and with the percentage of low glucose values; and the third with MAG, GFI, and the percentage of high glucose values. Conclusions: Indices and ratios provide complementary pieces of information associated with high and low glucose values, respectively. The pairs MAG+MAG/m and GFI+GCF appear to be the most reliable markers of glucose variability in diabetic patients. PMID:26880391

  16. Oral antidiabetic treatment in type-2 diabetes in the elderly: balancing the need for glucose control and the risk of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed at identifying variables predicting hypoglycemia in elderly type 2 diabetic patients and the relation to HbA1c values achieved. Design Prospective, observational registry in 3810 patients in primary care. Comparison of patients in different age tertiles: with an age < 60 (young, n=1,253), age 60 to < 70 (middle aged, n=1,184) to those ≥ 70 years (elderly, n=1,373). Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined from univariable and multivariable regression analyses. Results Elderly patients had a later diabetes diagnosis, a longer diabetes duration, better glucose control and more frequent co-morbid disease conditions. Overall 10.7% of patients experienced any severity hypoglycemia within the last 12 months prior to inclusion. Higher rates of hypoglycemia were observed in the elderly than in the young after adjusting for differences in HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.16-2.45). This was particularly true for hypoglycemic episodes without specific symptoms (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.05-2.89). In a multivariate model stroke / transitory ischemic attack, the presence of heart failure, clinically relevant depression, sulfonylurea use and blood glucose self-measurement were associated with hypoglycemic events. Conclusion Elderly patients are at an increased risk of hypoglycemia even at comparable glycemic control. Therefore identified variables associated with hypoglycemia in the elderly such as heart failure, clinically relevant depression, the use of sulfonylurea help to optimize the balance between glucose control and low levels of hypoglycemia. Asymptomatic hypoglycemia should not be disregarded as irrelevant but considered as a sign of possible hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure. PMID:23039216

  17. Hydrogen concentration in expired air analyzed with a new hydrogen sensor, plasma glucose rise, and symptoms of lactose intolerance after oral administration of 100 gram lactose.

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Eriksson, M; Bárány, F; Einarsson, K; Sundgren, H; Nylander, C; Lundström, I; Blomstrand, R

    1985-09-01

    A rapid breath hydrogen analyzer to detect lactose malabsorption is described. After ingestion of a lactose solution the patient expires into a mouthpiece attached to a hydrogen sensor at 30-min intervals for 3 1/2 h. The hydrogen of the expired air causes a voltage change that can be transformed into ppm from a calibration curve. A tolerance test with a load of 100 g lactose was performed in 43 consecutive patients with various gastrointestinal disturbances, referred to the laboratory for the commonly used lactose tolerance test based on plasma glucose measurements. Eleven patients developed symptoms of lactose intolerance during the test. Biopsy specimens from the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum showed partial villous atrophy in one, in whom celiac disease with lactose intolerance was diagnosed; the other 10 had normal specimens. In nine of them lactose intolerance was diagnosed and confirmed by observation for months on a lactose-poor diet. The 10th patient (H.P.L.) did not improve on such a diet. He also showed pronounced symptoms of intolerance during a test with monosaccharides (glucose + galactose). His intestinal disease remained undiagnosed. The 11 patients with symptoms of intolerance and 3 patients without symptoms during the lactose load showed a flat plasma glucose curve after drinking the lactose solution--that is, a maximum rise of the glucose concentration of 1.5 mmol/l. One of the symptom-free patients dropped out and could not be observed, another did not improve on a lactose-poor diet, and the third noticed a favorable effect of the diet on stool consistency but not on other abdominal symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  19. Dietary Compound Chrysin Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization with Abnormal Capillaries in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Lee, Eun-Jung; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Kim, Dong Yeon; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This study sought to determine the protective effects of chrysin on retinal neovascularization with abnormal vessels and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in 33 mM glucose-exposed human retinal endothelial cells and in db/db mouse eyes. High glucose caused retinal endothelial apoptotic injury, which was inhibited by submicromolar chrysin. This compound diminished the enhanced induction of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in high glucose-exposed retinal endothelial cells. Consistently, oral administration of 10 mg/kg chrysin reduced the induction of these proteins in db/db mouse eye tissues. In addition, chrysin restored the decrement of VE-cadherin and ZO-1 junction proteins and PECAM-1 in hyperglycemia-stimulated retinal endothelial cells and diabetic mouse retina, possibly maintaining tight cell-cell interactions of endothelial cells and pericytes. Anti-apoptotic chrysin reduced the up-regulation of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 crucial to retinal capillary occlusion and BRB permeability. Furthermore, orally treating chrysin inhibited acellular capillary formation, neovascularization, and vascular leakage observed in diabetic retinas. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that chrysin had a capability to encumber diabetes-associated retinal neovascularization with microvascular abnormalities and BRB breakdown. PMID:27918469

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  1. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials.

  2. Cytoprotective effect of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ether derivatives after oral administration to rats in a model of glucose-oxygen deprivation in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Marín, Javier; De La Cruz, José Pedro; Guerrero, Ana; López-Leiva, Inmaculada; López-Villodres, Juan Antonio; Reyes, José Julio; Espartero, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Labajos, María Teresa; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2012-08-08

    This study was designed to determine whether the oral administration of hydroxytyrosol (HT) alkyl ether derivatives has a neuroprotective effect in rats. The animals were treated for 7 days with HT or ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl, and dodecyl HT ether. A method of in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation in brain slices was used. Hexyl, octyl, and dodecyl HT derivatives reduced brain cell death (LDH efflux). Lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations were inhibited most by hexyl, octyl, and dodecyl derivatives. Concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine were reduced by HT butyl, hexyl, octyl, and dodecyl ether derivatives. Interleukin-1β was significantly reduced in brain slices from rats treated with all HT ether derivatives. LDH efflux showed a linear correlation with brain concentrations of lipid peroxides, nitrites plus nitrates, and interleukin 1β. The reduction in oxidative and nitrosative stress and decreased production of pro-inflammatory interleukins may be the basis for the observed neuroprotective effects.

  3. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S. )

    1990-11-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with (2-3H)glucose and HGP with (6-3H)glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). (2-3H)- minus (6-3H)glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP.

  4. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  5. Imparied glucose tolerance in long-term lithium-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Passoth, P M; Poser, W; Pudel, V

    1979-01-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed twice in patients under long-term lithium treatment. Blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined. The oGTT results were evaluated by three criteria (Köbberling-Creutzfeldt, WHO, and Epidemiological Study Group of the European Diabetes Association) and were compared to two representative reference studies from normal populations. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance in the patients was three times higher than expected on the basis of the studies on normal populations. The variability of the oGTT curves between the first and second tests as well as the steepness of the time-course of the 'insulinogenic index' suggested mild disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism (mild diabetes) in some of the patients. It is considered unlikely that the impairment of glucose tolerance in the patients was a direct pharmacological effect of lithium salts. The possible role of age, sex, manic-depressive disease, additional medication, and particularly obesity in the effects of long-term lithium treatment on glucose tolerance is discussed. The authors suggest that the oGTT should be carried out periodically in long-term, lithium-treated patients over the age of 40 years in order to detect abnormalities in their carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  7. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  8. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  9. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  10. Simulation on how to customize glucose adjustment method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the limitations of taking OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) as the glucose adjustment protocol for non-invasive blood glucose sensing. Previous studies built a mathematical model of glucose metabolism system-IMM (the Integrated Minimal Model) to probe other available adjustment methods. In this talk, a further study would be focused on more detailed combination options of different glucose input types for glucose adjustment projects in non-invasive blood glucose sensing. And predictive models of blood glucose concentration have been established by means of partial least squares (PLS) method, which could be used to evaluate the quality of different glucose adjustment options. Results of PLS modeling suggested that predictive models under combined glucose input types, compared with OGTT, show a great enhancement in the stability. This would finally improve the precision of non-invasive blood glucose sensing.

  11. Autonomic Markers of Impaired Glucose Metabolism: Effects of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenli; Redline, Susan; Khoo, Michael C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes and abnormalities in autonomic function is well-known, but it is not clear if this association can be extended to subjects with prediabetic impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which commonly occurs in this population, is often overlooked. We sought to determine how autonomic function, monitored in an overnight sleep study setting, may be impaired in subjects with IGM and/or SDB. Methods Polysomnograms (PSGs) selected from the Cleveland Family Study database were categorized into four groups: normal, SDB (respiratory disturbance index > 5/h), IGM, and both SDB and IGM. Impaired glucose metabolism was defined as an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) level > 140 mg/dl. Time-domain and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability were used to quantify autonomic impairment. Baroreflex sensitivity determined using pulse transit time (BRSPTT), an indirect measure of baroreflex sensitivity based on spontaneous pulse transit time fluctuations, was used as a surrogate measure of baroreflex sensitivity. Results Based on 31 PSGs from subjects (16 males, 15 females) ages 20.8–61.2 years, both SDNN and BRSPTT were found to be 20-25% lower in SDB and ~40% lower in IGM and SDB + IGM as compared to subjects without either condition. In analyses of continuous measures, mean standard deviation of 5 min R–R intervals (SDNN) and BRSPTT were found to be negatively correlated with OGTT following adjustment for age and body mass index. Oral glucose tolerance test and age were the two most significant factors for predicting SDNN and BRSPTT. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that cardiac autonomic control is impaired in IGM, regardless of whether SDB is present. The abnormal autonomic function involves degradation of baroreflex regulation. PMID:23063043

  12. Comparison of the long-term effects of high-fat v. low-fat diet consumption on cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2014-06-28

    The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the long-term effects (≥ 12 months) of high-fat (HF) v. low-fat (LF) diet consumption on the indicators of glycaemic control as well as cardiovascular risk factors in pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Literature search was carried out using the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Trial Register until November 2013. Study-specific weighted mean differences (MD) were pooled using a random-effects model of the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.1 and Stata 12.0 was used for meta-regressions. A total of fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria and a maximum of 1753 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. HF regimens were found to result in a significant decrease in TAG levels (MD -0·19 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14, P< 0·001; I² = 0 %, P= 0·58) and diastolic blood pressure (MD -1·30 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·73, -0·87, P< 0·001; I² = 0 %, P= 0·60) and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol levels (MD 0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·08, P= 0·01; I² = 57 %, P= 0·01). In addition, MD in the reductions of fasting glucose levels (-0·41 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·74, -0·08, P= 0·01; I² = 56 %, P= 0·02) were significantly high in patients with type 2 diabetes adhering to a HF diet. HF and LF diets might not be of equal value in the management of either pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, leading to emphasis being placed on the recommendations of HF diets.

  13. Oxidative damage to hyaluronate and glucose in synovial fluid during exercise of the inflamed rheumatoid joint. Detection of abnormal low-molecular-mass metabolites by proton-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grootveld, M; Henderson, E B; Farrell, A; Blake, D R; Parkes, H G; Haycock, P

    1991-01-15

    Proton Hahn spin-echo n.m.r. spectroscopy was employed to detect abnormal metabolites present in rheumatoid synovial fluid that are derived from the deleterious generation of reactive oxygen radical species during exercise of the inflamed rheumatoid joint. A resonance attributable to a low-molecular-mass N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharide formed by the oxygen-radical-mediated depolymerization of synovial-fluid hyaluronate was clearly demonstrable when subjects with inflammatory joint disease were exercised. Moreover, formate, which may be derived from the attack of OH.radical on synovial-fluid carbohydrates, was also readily detectable in these samples. gamma-Radiolysis of rheumatoid synovial fluid samples and aqueous solutions of hyaluronate also gave rise to the production of the low-molecular-mass hyaluronate-derived oligosaccharide species and markedly elevated concentrations of (non-protein-bound) formate in the biological fluids. As expected, corresponding spectra of gamma-irradiated blood serum samples obtained from normal volunteers did not contain the signal attributable to the low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species, but the formate resonance (barely detectable in non-irradiated normal serum samples) became clearly visible. Additionally, a curious increase in the effective concentration of non-protein-bound low-molecular-mass metabolites such as acetate, citrate, lactate and glutamine was observed after gamma-radiolysis of all biological fluids studied. The hyaluronate-derived low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species and formate are suggested as novel markers of reactive oxygen radical activity in the inflamed rheumatoid joint during exercise-induced hypoxic/reperfusion injury.

  14. Glucose >200 mg/dL during Continuous Glucose Monitoring Identifies Adult Patients at Risk for Development of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, J. S.; Wilson, A.; Clair, C. G. St.; Pickard, K. M.; Jones, M. C.; Brayshaw, S. J.; Chacon, C. S.; Barboa, C. M.; Sontag, M. K.; Accurso, F. J.; Nichols, D. P.; Saavedra, M. T.; Nick, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in patients with CF. In spite of increased screening, diagnosis, and treatment of CFRD, the mortality rate in patients with CFRD still far exceeds the mortality rate in those without CFRD. Guidelines suggest that screening for CFRD be performed annually using the 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Adherence to recommended screening has been poor, with only approximately one-quarter of adults with CF undergoing OGTT in 2014. Use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for diagnosis may become an alternative. Objectives. Our objective was to determine whether abnormal CGM predicts subsequent development of CFRD, lung function, and body mass index (BMI) decline and increased rate of CF pulmonary exacerbations in adults with CF. Methods. In a prospective single center pilot trial from September 2009 to September 2010, 21 adult patients due for routine OGTT were recruited to complete simultaneous 3-day CGM and 2-hour 75 gram OGTT. Subsequently, clinical information was reviewed from 2008 to 2015. Conclusions. There was a moderate correlation between interpreted results of 2-hour OGTT and CGM (p = 0.03); CGM indicated a greater level of glucose impairment than OGTT. Glucose >200 mg/dL by CGM predicted development of CFRD (p = 0.0002). PMID:27999822

  15. Differential associations of oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function with coronary artery calcification and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Claire K; McNeill, Ann M; Girman, Cynthia J; Churchill, Timothy W; Terembula, Karen; Ferguson, Jane F; Shah, Rachana; Mehta, Nehal N; Qasim, Atif N; Rickels, Michael R; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated relationships of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT)-derived measures of insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function with indices of diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes who are free of overt cardiovascular or renal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A subset of participants from the Penn Diabetes Heart Study (n = 672; mean age 59 ± 8 years; 67% male; 60% Caucasian) underwent a standard 2-h, 75-g OGTT. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), and β-cell function was estimated using the Insulinogenic Index. Multivariable modeling was used to analyze associations between quartiles of each index with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and microalbuminuria. RESULTS The Insulinogenic Index and Matsuda ISI had distinct associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. The top quartile of the Matsuda ISI had a negative association with CAC that remained significant after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (Tobit ratio -0.78 [95% CI -1.51 to -0.05]; P = 0.035), but the Insulinogenic Index was not associated with CAC. Conversely, the highest quartile of the Insulinogenic Index, but not the Matsuda ISI, was associated with lower odds of microalbuminuria (OR 0.52 [95% CI 0.30-0.91]; P = 0.022); however, this association was attenuated in models that included duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Lower β-cell function is associated with microalbuminuria, a microvascular complication, while impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with higher CAC, a predictor of macrovascular complications. Despite these pathophysiological insights, the Matsuda ISI and Insulinogenic Index are unlikely to be translated into clinical use in type 2 diabetes beyond established clinical variables, such as obesity or duration of diabetes.

  16. Clinical features and natural course of acromegaly in patients with discordance in the nadir GH level on the oral glucose test and the IGF-1 value at 3 months after adenomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Tominaga, Atsushi; Usui, Satoshi; Arita, Kazunori; Sakoguchi, Tetsuhiko; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Discordant GH and IGF-1 levels after adenomectomy are well recognized in acromegalics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and natural course of postoperative acromegaly associated with discordant GH and IGF-1 levels over a postoperative period. A total of 69 acromegalics underwent surgery with at least 1 year of follow-up and received 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at 3 months postoperatively. The patients were categorized into four groups according to the postoperative nadir GH levels and IGF-1 levels: controlled group (normal GH and normal IGF-1), high-IGF-1 group (normal GH and high IGF-1), high-GH group (high GH and normal IGF-1), and uncontrolled group (high GH and high IGF-1). The incidence of discordant GH and IGF-1 levels was 27.5%: high-IGF-1 group = 10.1% (n = 7) and high-GH group = 17.4% (n = 12). All patients in the high-IGF-1 group exhibited a decline in the IGF-1 level after surgery, with normalization observed in 71.4% of the patients without additional treatment (median 23 months). These subjects had preoperatively high IGF-1 levels despite not demonstrating higher GH levels than the patients in the controlled group. On the other hand, four patients in the high-GH group exhibited an elevated nadir GH level higher than 1.0 μg/L on repeated OGTTs after 3 months, and one patient experienced a recurrence of acromegaly. Patients in the high-IGF-1 group require no additional treatments, and their IGF-1 levels are likely to normalize within a few years. However, patients in the high-GH group should be carefully followed due to the possibility of recurrence.

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  19. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  20. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  2. Leptin replacement therapy does not improve the abnormal lipid kinetics of hypoleptinemic patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Rajagopal V; Jahoor, Farook; Iyer, Dinakar; Guthikonda, Anuradha; Paranilam, Jaya; Elhaj, Fareed; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2012-10-01

    Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of (13)C(1)-palmitate and (2)H(5)-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P<.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P<.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptin's effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL.

  3. Blood glucose prediction using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Chit Siang; Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Raveendran, P.; Soh, Phey Hong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2008-02-01

    We used neural network for blood glucose level determination in this study. The data set used in this study was collected using a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system with six laser diodes, each laser diode operating at distinct near infrared wavelength between 1500nm and 1800nm. The neural network is specifically used to determine blood glucose level of one individual who participated in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) session. Partial least squares regression is also used for blood glucose level determination for the purpose of comparison with the neural network model. The neural network model performs better in the prediction of blood glucose level as compared with the partial least squares model.

  4. Mathematical modeling on experimental protocol of glucose adjustment for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Min, Xiaolin; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Currently, blood glucose concentration levels from OGTT(Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) results are used to build PLS model in noninvasive blood glucose sensing by Near-Infrared(NIR) Spectroscopy. However, the univocal dynamic change trend of blood glucose concentration based on OGTT results is not various enough to provide comprehensive data to make PLS model robust and accurate. In this talk, with the final purpose of improving the stability and accuracy of the PLS model, we introduced an integrated minimal model(IMM) of glucose metabolism system. First, by adjusting parameters, which represent different metabolism characteristics and individual differences, comparatively ideal mediation programs to different groups of people, even individuals were customized. Second, with different glucose input types(oral method, intravenous injection, or intravenous drip), we got various changes of blood glucose concentration. And by studying the adjustment methods of blood glucose concentration, we would thus customize corresponding experimental protocols of glucose adjustment to different people for noninvasive blood glucose concentration and supply comprehensive data for PLS model.

  5. Glucose uptake saturation explains glucose kinetics profiles measured by different tests.

    PubMed

    Bizzotto, Roberto; Natali, Andrea; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Muscelli, Elza; Krssak, Martin; Brehm, Attila; Roden, Michael; Ferrannini, Ele; Mari, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    It is known that for a given insulin level glucose clearance depends on glucose concentration. However, a quantitative representation of the concomitant effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia on glucose clearance, necessary to describe heterogeneous tests such as euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps and oral tests, is lacking. Data from five studies (123 subjects) using a glucose tracer and including all the above tests in normal and diabetic subjects were collected. A mathematical model was developed in which glucose utilization was represented as a Michaelis-Menten function of glucose with constant Km and insulin-controlled Vmax, consistently with the basic notions of glucose transport. Individual values for the model parameters were estimated using a population approach. Tracer data were accurately fitted in all tests. The estimated Km was 3.88 (2.83-5.32) mmol/l [median (interquartile range)]. Median model-derived glucose clearance at 600 pmol/l insulin was reduced from 246 to 158 ml·min(-1)·m(-2) when glucose was raised from 5 to 10 mmol/l. The model reproduced the characteristic lack of increase in glucose clearance when moderate hyperinsulinemia was accompanied by hyperglycemia. In all tests, insulin sensitivity was inversely correlated with BMI, as expected (R(2) = 0.234, P = 0.0001). In conclusion, glucose clearance in euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps and oral tests can be described with a unifying model, consistent with the notions of glucose transport and able to reproduce the suppression of glucose clearance due to hyperglycemia observed in previous studies. The model may be important for the design of reliable glucose homeostasis simulators.

  6. Impact of glucose-lowering drugs on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-09-07

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by multiple pathophysiologic abnormalities. With time, multiple glucose-lowering medications are commonly required to reduce and maintain plasma glucose concentrations within the normal range. Type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals also are at a very high risk for microvascular complications and the incidence of heart attack and stroke is increased two- to three-fold compared with non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, when selecting medications to normalize glucose levels in T2DM patients, it is important that the agent not aggravate, and ideally even improve, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this review, we examine the effect of oral (metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, DPP4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors) and injectable (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and insulin) glucose-lowering drugs on established CVRFs and long-term studies of cardiovascular outcomes. Firm evidence that in T2DM cardiovascular disease can be reversed or prevented by improving glycaemic control is still incomplete and must await large, long-term clinical trials in patients at low risk using modern treatment strategies, i.e., drug combinations designed to maximize HbA1c reduction while minimizing hypoglycaemia and excessive weight gain.

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  8. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  9. Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that

  10. Prevalence of Sleep Abnormalities and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Asian Indians: Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES – 67)

    PubMed Central

    Roopa, Mahadevan; Deepa, Mohan; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the normal-weight urban South Indian population. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in 358 subjects aged 20–76 years randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study in South India. A validated questionnaire assessing various sleep abnormalities (snoring, daytime sleepiness, lack of refreshing sleep, and number of hours of sleep) was administered. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and anthropometric biochemical measurements were obtained to assess cardiometabolic risk factors including glucose intolerance. Diabetes risk was assessed using a previously validated Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS). Results The overall prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness was 40% and 59%, respectively. Snorers were more male, older, smokers, and had higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects with daytime sleepiness had higher body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. Both snoring (50.9% vs 30.2%, p < 0.001) and daytime sleepiness (68% vs 49.7%, p < 0.001) were more prevalent among subjects with impaired glucose metabolism compared to those with normal glucose metabolism. Both sleep measures were associated with higher diabetes risk scores, as assessed by the IDRS (snoring: trend χ2, 11.14, p = 0.001; daytime sleepiness: trend χ2, 5.12, p = 0.024). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with snoring even after adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol. Conclusion The prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness is high among urban South Indians and these two sleep measures are associated with glucose intolerance, MS, and higher diabetes risk scores. PMID:21129351

  11. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC50 = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU50 = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU50 = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  12. Vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory abnormalities in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Rizza, Stefano; Iantorno, Micaela; Campia, Umberto; Cardillo, Carmine; Lauro, Davide; Leo, Roberto; Turriziani, Mario; Cocciolillo, Giulio Cesare; Fusco, Angelo; Panza, Julio A; Scuteri, Angelo; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Renato; Quon, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory markers are among the earliest detectable abnormalities in people at risk for atherosclerosis. Accelerated atherosclerosis is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a complex genetic disorder. Therefore, we hypothesized that normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NOPD) may have impaired vascular and metabolic function related to an enhanced proinflammatory state. We compared NOPD (n = 51) with matched healthy control subjects without family history of diabetes (n = 35). Flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated brachial artery vasodilation were assessed by ultrasound to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular function. Each subject also underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to evaluate metabolic function. Fasting levels of plasma adiponectin and circulating markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD40 ligand, interleukin 1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intracellular adhesion molecule) were measured. Both NOPD and the control group had fasting glucose and insulin levels well within the reference range. However, results from oral glucose tolerance test and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index revealed that NOPD were insulin resistant with significantly impaired flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation compared with the control group. Adiponectin levels were lower, whereas many circulating markers of inflammation were higher, in NOPD compared with the control group. Normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have impaired vascular and metabolic function accompanied by an enhanced proinflammatory state that may contribute to their increased risk of diabetes and its vascular complications.

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide directly induces glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; Nelson, Emery M; Dyck, David J; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    Several gastrointestinal proteins have been identified to have insulinotropic effects, including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); however, the direct effects of incretins on skeletal muscle glucose transport remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of GIP on skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin signaling in rats. Relative to a glucose challenge, a mixed glucose+lipid oral challenge increased circulating GIP concentrations, skeletal muscle Akt phosphorylation, and improved glucose clearance by ∼35% (P < 0.05). These responses occurred without alterations in serum insulin concentrations. In an incubated soleus muscle preparation, GIP directly stimulated glucose transport and increased GLUT4 accumulation on the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin. Moreover, the ability of GIP to stimulate glucose transport was mitigated by the addition of the PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that signaling through PI3K is required for these responses. We also provide evidence that the combined stimulatory effects of GIP and insulin on soleus muscle glucose transport are additive. However, the specific GIP receptor antagonist (Pro(3))GIP did not attenuate GIP-stimulated glucose transport, suggesting that GIP is not signaling through its classical receptor. Together, the current data provide evidence that GIP regulates skeletal muscle glucose transport; however, the exact signaling mechanism(s) remain unknown.

  14. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose uptake to prevent hyperglycemia. Although the term homeostasis mostly refers to stable levels, the blood glucose concentrations fluctuate over the day/night cycle, with the highest concentrations occurring just prior to the activity period in anticipation of increased caloric need. In this chapter we describe how the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, is involved in both the daily rhythm of plasma glucose concentrations and acute glucose challenges.

  15. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  17. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno < 100 mg/dL, en quienes se realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p < 0.005, RR 4.2). Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que los pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos suelen cursar con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  18. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  19. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  20. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schütz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori; Foretz, Marc; Thorens, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditure, and insulin sensitivity were identical in LG2KO and control mice. Glucose tolerance was initially normal after Glut2 inactivation, but LG2KO mice exhibited progressive impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion even though β cell mass and insulin content remained normal. Liver transcript profiling revealed a coordinated downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in LG2KO mice that was associated with reduced hepatic cholesterol in fasted mice and reduced bile acids (BAs) in feces, with a similar trend in plasma. We showed that chronic BAs or farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist treatment of primary islets increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, an effect not seen in islets from Fxr(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data show that glucose sensing by the liver controls β cell glucose competence and suggest BAs as a potential mechanistic link.

  1. Relationship of ethnicity and CD4 Count with glucose metabolism among HIV patients on Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV patients on HAART are prone to metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and diabetes. This study purports to investigate the relationship of ethnicity and CD4+ T cell count attained after stable highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with glucose metabolism in hyperrtriglyceridemic HIV patients without a history of diabetes. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, endocrinologic, energy expenditure and metabolic measures were obtained in 199 multiethnic, healthy but hypertriglyceridemic HIV-infected patients [46% Hispanic, 17% African-American, 37% Non-Hispanic White (NHW)] on stable HAART without a history of diabetes. The relationship of glucose and insulin responses to ethnicity, CD4 strata (low (<300/cc) or moderate-to-high (≥ 300/cc)), and their interaction was determined. Results African-Americans had significantly greater impairment of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (P < .001) than either Hispanics or NHWs. In multivariate models, after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, HIV/HAART duration, smoking, obesity, glucose, insulin and lipids), African-Americans and Hispanics had significantly higher HbA1c and 2-hour glucose levels than NHW’s. Demonstrating a significant interaction between ethnicity and CD4 count (P = 0.023), African Americans with CD4 <300/cc and Hispanics with CD4 ≥300/cc had the most impaired glucose response following oral glucose challenge. Conclusions Among hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on HAART, African-Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Ethnicity also interacts with CD4+ T cell count attained on stable HAART to affect post-challenge glycemic response. PMID:23607267

  2. Glucose intolerance in uremic patients: the relative contributions of impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Alvestrand, A; Mujagic, M; Wajngot, A; Efendic, S

    1989-04-01

    Glucose tolerance and tissue sensitivity to insulin were examined in 19 renal failure patients on chronic regular hemodialysis (group U) and in 6 matched control subjects with normal renal function (group A). Based on glucose tolerance as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose tolerance was normal in 5 (group U:N), borderline in 5 (group U:BL) and decreased in 9 uremic subjects (group U:D). Compared with group A the uremics demonstrated significantly (p less than 0.01) impaired insulin sensitivity as assessed by a continuous mixed infusion of somatostatin, insulin and glucose (SIGIT). In addition 19 non-diabetic subjects with normal fasting blood glucose and normal renal function, matching the uremic patients with respect to glucose tolerance as assessed by OGTT, were studied (group B). In group B impairments in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity tended to be more pronounced in subjects with decreased OGTT as compared with those with borderline OGTT. In contrast, insulin resistance was present to a similar degree in uremic subjects of group U:N, U:BL and U:D. During SIGIT endogenous insulin, glucagon and growth hormone (GH) were suppressed in both uremic and control subjects. This implies that insulin resistance in uremia is most likely not due to hyperglucagonemia or abnormal GH metabolism. During OGTT subjects of group U:N had significantly higher insulin response than subjects of group U:BL (p less than 0.02) and group U:D (p less than 0.01). Insulinogenic index was significantly higher in group U:N than in group U:BL (p less than 0.02) and group U:D (p = 0.01) and was higher in group U:BL than in group U:D (p less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  5. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  6. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  7. Effect of malnutrition during the first year of life on adult plasma insulin and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    González-Barranco, J; Ríos-Torres, J M; Castillo-Martínez, L; López-Alvarenga, J C; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Bouchard, C; Deprès, J P; Tremblay, A

    2003-08-01

    There is evidence linking intrauterine growth retardation with increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes mellitus (DM) later in life. However, little is known about the association between malnutrition during the first year of life and metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of documented malnutrition during the first year of life on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in early adulthood, as well as to assess the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition on these variables. A study group of young men with a documented history of malnutrition during their first year of life was recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals in Mexico City and compared with a control group. Subjects included were 52 men, aged 20.2 +/- 3.6 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.0 +/- 0.7 kg and documented malnutrition in their first year of life; controls were 50 men, aged 23.3 +/- 1.8 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.2 +/- 0.5 kg. Insulin and glucose concentrations, fasting and in response to an oral glucose load, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and an insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were measured. The areas under the curves of glucose (AUCG) and insulin (AUCI) were significantly higher in cases (P =.012 and <.002, respectively), independent of birth weight, BMI, or age. BMI was significantly associated with fasting plasma insulin (FPI), AUCI, ISI, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations in cases, but not in controls. These data suggest that early malnutrition in extrauterine life, independently of birth weight, has an adverse effect on insulin metabolism and glucose tolerance in young men, and it worsens as body mass increases even within the normal range of BMI. Therefore, it is advisable to prevent obesity in individuals exposed to early malnutrition.

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children and Its Relationship to Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Micah L.; Maalouf, Naim M.; Oden, Jon D.; White, Perrin C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in obese and non-overweight children in North Texas, to examine relationships between dietary habits and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level in obese children, and to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D level and markers of abnormal glucose metabolism and blood pressure. Patients and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, dietary information, serum 25(OH)D, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h glucose from oral glucose tolerance test, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were recorded for 411 obese subjects (6–16 yr old) at an obesity referral clinic. 25(OH)D was also obtained from 87 control non-overweight subjects (6–16 yr old). Results: Ninety-two percent of obese subjects had a 25(OH)D level below 75 nmol/liter, and 50% were below 50 nmol/liter. Among non-overweight subjects, these frequencies were 68 and 22%, respectively (both P < 0.01 compared with obese subjects). 25(OH)D was negatively associated with soda intake (P < 0.001), juice intake (P = 0.009), and skipping breakfast (P < 0.001). 25(OH)D was negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.19; P = 0.001) and 2-h glucose (r = −0.12; P = 0.04) after adjustment for body mass index and age but was not correlated with hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure Z score, or diastolic blood pressure Z score. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children in this southern United States location and is significantly more prevalent in obese children. Lower 25(OH)D level is associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes in obese children. PMID:22072738

  9. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose A A A What's in this article? What ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  10. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state.

  11. Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: rates and risk factors from initial GDM and one abnormal GTT value.

    PubMed

    Nohira, Tomoyoshi; Kim, Seiichi; Nakai, Hiromi; Okabe, Kazuhiro; Nohira, Tomoo; Yoneyama, Kuniyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The recurrence rate of GDM among women in Japan who had GDM or one abnormal value on 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OAV) during an initial pregnancy is unclear. We therefore sought to determine the recurrence rate and risk factors of recurrent GDM by evaluating 32 patients with GDM and 37 with OAV in their index pregnancies. Medical records and chemical data were compared between patients with and without GDM in their subsequent pregnancies. The recurrence rate from index GDM and OAV were 65.6% and 40.5%. Age, BMI before pregnancy, an increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors for recurrence from the initial GDM. An increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors of development to GDM from the initial OAV. We concluded that the control of weight gain and interval between pregnancies could be important to reduce GDM recurrence.

  12. Lag time changes between capillary blood glucose and in-vivo interstitial glucose levels by HATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova

    2011-03-01

    Method of the lag/latency time (LT) measurement, calculation and interpretation can be simultaneously applied to study in vivo glucose diffusion from the capillary to the skin tissue, to calibrate spectroscopically measured glucose levels during real-time glucose monitoring of dynamic processes in the skin tissue and to study glucose optical properties in the living skin tissue. Based on previous reports on determining interstitial glucose levels and their LT's by HATR-FTIR spectroscopy, here the LT was calculated for each glucose absorbance level at about 1030-41, 1080, 1118 and 1153 cm-1 during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with different doses (5g, 20g, 75g). The LT showed dose-dependency and described intra-/inter-subject changes of skin glucose dynamics in healthy and diabetes subjects. The time required for glucose to diffuse from the capillary to the skin tissue was shorter in a diabetes subject, than in a healthy subject, independently on intaken dose of glucose. Nevertheless, in both subjects the LT changes ranged within 0-50 minutes. Measurement of the LT demonstrated a potential to provide insight to healthy and diabetic glucose dynamics between the blood and interstitial fluid compartments in the upper layer of the skin tissue. Also, the LT might be regarded as a method to calibrate dynamic measurements of glucose in vivo by this spectroscopy method and to characterize living skin tissue glucose optical properties.

  13. Acute effects of nicorandil on glucose tolerance in subjects with borderline fasting blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Boes, U; Wallner, S; Wascher, T C

    2001-02-15

    The acute effect of the anti-ischemic potassium channel opener nicorandil on glucose tolerance and post-challenge insulin levels was investigated in 11 subjects (6 males and 5 females, age 59 +/- 2 years) with borderline fasting blood glucose in a single blinded randomised study. All participants were submitted to two oral glucose tolerance tests in randomised order, once without any premedication and once 30 minutes after oral administration of 20 mg nicorandil. This single dose of nicorandil significantly increased blood glucose levels at 120 minutes (173 +/- 16 vs. 150 +/- 11 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) and 180 minutes (106 +/- 11 vs. 88 +/- 7 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) after ingestion of 75 mg of glucose. Serum insulin levels were not significantly altered. In conclusion we suggest that controlled studies in patients with coronary artery disease should be performed to investigate whether long term treatment with nicorandil increases progression rates from impaired glucose tolerance to type-II diabetes and/or from normal to impaired glucose tolerance with a possibly negative impact on the course of cardiovascular disease in comparison to conventional anti-anginal drugs.

  14. Glucose turnover and recycling in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kokal, W A; McCulloch, A; Wright, P D; Johnston, I D

    1983-11-01

    Glucose metabolism is affected by various pathologic states including tumors. In this project, glucose turnover and recycling rates in 11 patients with colorectal carcinoma were measured using a double-labelled 3-3H and 1-14C glucose injection technique. Fasting blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, plasma cortisol, and plasma insulin concentrations were also measured. No patient in the study had a history of diabetes mellitus or endocrine disorders, nor any abnormal liver function tests. The findings demonstrated a significantly elevated glucose turnover rate in patients with Dukes C and D lesions in comparison to patients with Dukes B lesions. Cori recycling rates were not significantly different between Dukes B vs. Dukes C and D patients. There were no differences between Dukes B and Dukes C and D patients in any of the metabolites measured. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in glucose turnover or recycling rates as a function of pre-illness weight loss. These data suggest that, when colorectal carcinoma extends beyond the limits of the bowel wall, glucose metabolism is significantly altered.

  15. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Review and Preview

    PubMed Central

    Saudek, Christopher D.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians inappropriately think of blood glucose as a stable value because technology reduces a continuously varying parameter into a point-in-time measurement. Continuous blood glucose monitoring (CBGM) will force us to change this bad habit. Data management principles are suggested which will be necessary for conceptualizing the new data. The physiology of normal blood glucose fluctuations will be studied for the first time and the diagnosis of diabetes will be duly defined. Most importantly, closed loop insulin delivery systems will be capable of correcting abnormal glucose metabolism in diabetes. Thus, the development of CBGM will change our concepts of physiology, disease and therapy.

  16. Why control blood glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  17. Evidence that humans can taste glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun

    2014-11-01

    The sense of taste is essential for identifying potential nutrients and poisons. Accordingly, specialized taste receptor cells are activated by food-derived chemicals. Because of its importance in the human diet, oral detection of starch, or its degradation products, would presumably be highly beneficial. Yet, it has long been assumed that simple sugars are the only class of carbohydrates that humans can taste. There is, however, considerable evidence that rodents can taste starch degradation products (i.e., glucose polymers composed of maltooligosaccharides with 3-10 glucose units and maltopolysaccharides with >10 glucose units) and that their detection is independent of the sweet taste receptor, T1R2/T1R3. The present study was designed 1) to measure individual differences in human taste perception of glucose polymers, 2) to understand individual differences in the activity of salivary α-amylase, and 3) to investigate the role that salivary α-amylase may play in the taste perception of glucose polymers. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste intensity of glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and glucose polymers of various chain lengths, while their noses were clamped. Saliva samples from the subjects were also collected and their salivary α-amylase activity was assayed. Results showed that the perceived intensities of glucose, sucrose, and NaCl were significantly correlated (r = 0.75-0.85, P < 0.001), but not with the longer chain glucose polymers, whereas intensity ratings of all glucose polymers were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.69-0.82, P < 0.001). Importantly, despite large individual differences in α-amylase activity among subjects, responsiveness to glucose polymers did not significantly differ between individuals with high and low α-amylase activity. A follow up experiment was conducted to quantify the concentrations of glucose and maltose that were inherently present in the glucose polymer stimuli and to determine whether the amounts were

  18. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  19. Quinidine Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Quinidine is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms. It works by making your heart more resistant to abnormal activity. Quinidine is also used to treat malaria.This medication is sometimes prescribed for ...

  20. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  1. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  2. 40 CFR 798.2650 - Oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clinical abnormalities, gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the...

  3. 40 CFR 798.2650 - Oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clinical abnormalities, gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the...

  4. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  5. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  6. Effect of Helicteres isora root extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sama; Dayanand Reddy, G; Reddy, Y S R; Sathyavathy, D; Madhava Reddy, B

    2004-06-01

    The ethanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of Helicteres isora root showed significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose loaded rats at a dose of 250 mg/kg. The butanol extract showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity and effect being comparable to that of glibenclamide.

  7. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  8. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. Following your health ...

  9. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Bar for Blood Glucose Meter Performance Recalls & Alerts Shasta Technologies GenStrip Blood Glucose Test Strips May ... Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA ...

  10. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  11. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  12. Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M; Krishnan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Mathan, M; Pulimood, A; Murthy, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Impaired colonocyte metabolism of butyrate has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Colonocyte butyrate metabolism was investigated in experimental colitis in mice.
METHODS—Colitis was induced in Swiss outbred white mice by oral administration of 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Colonocytes isolated from colitic and normal control mice were incubated with [14C]butyrate or glucose, and production of 14CO2, as well as of intermediate metabolites (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate), was measured. The effect of different substrate concentrations on oxidation was also examined.
RESULTS—Butyrate oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) was significantly reduced in DSS colitis, values on day 7 of DSS administration being 0.177 (0.007) compared with 0.406 (0.035) for control animals (p<0.001). Glucose oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) on day 7 of DSS administration was significantly higher than in controls (0.06 (0.006) v 0.027 (0.004), p<0.001). Production of β-hydroxybutyrate was decreased and production of lactate increased in DSS colitis compared with controls. Increasing butyrate concentration from 10 to 80 mM enhanced oxidation in DSS colitis (0.036 (0.002) to 0.285 (0.040), p<0.001), although it continued to remain lower than in controls. Surface and crypt epithelial cells showed similar ratios of butyrate to glucose oxidation. When 1 mM DSS was added to normal colonocytes in vitro, it did not alter butyrate oxidation. The initial histological lesion of DSS administration was very patchy and involved crypt cells. Abnormal butyrate oxidation became apparent only after six days of DSS administration, at which time histological abnormalities were more widespread.
CONCLUSIONS—Colonocyte metabolism of butyrate, but not of glucose, is impaired in DSS colitis, and may be important in pathophysiology. Histological abnormalities preceded measurable defects in butyrate

  13. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  14. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  15. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  16. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  17. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 15 All About Blood Glucose Keeping your blood glucose (sugar)in your target range can prevent or delay the health problems ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 1/15 Toolkit No.15: All About Blood Glucose continued team about when and ...

  18. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  19. Triphenyltin impairs insulin secretion by decreasing glucose-induced NADP(H) and ATP production in hamster pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshikazu; Hori, Yuichi; Kimura, Shinzo; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yuichirou; Inoue, Kenichi; Sawada, Tokihiko; Kubota, Keiichi

    2012-09-28

    Oral administration of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) (6 mg/100g body weight) inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing glucose-induced cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pancreatic β-cells of the hamster. To test the possibility that the abnormal level of the [Ca(2+)](i) induced by TPT administration could be due to a defect in the metabolic signal of glucose in the β-cells, we tested the effects of TPT administration on the glucose-induced NAD(P)H and ATP production, and on the changes of membrane potential and [Ca(2+)](i) by glucose and high K(+) in the β-cells. The [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in islet cells loaded with fura-2. TPT administration significantly reduced the NAD(P)H and ATP production, the depolarization of plasma membrane, and insulin secretion by 15 mM glucose in islet cells. TPT administration also reduced the insulin secretion by 10mM dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde. However, TPT administration did not affect the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) and the insulin secretion by 30 mMK(+) or 100 μM tolbutamide, and the membrane potential by 30 mMK(+), and the insulin secretion by 10mM α-ketoisocaproic acid and 0.5mM formycin A, an analog of ATP in the presence of 15 mM glucose. These results suggested that the pathogenesis of TPT-induced hyperglycemia in hamster involves the reduction of [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion in response to K(ATP) channel-dependent depolarization, which is related to the decrease of NAD(P)H and ATP production in pancreatic islet cells after glucose metabolism.

  20. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  1. Ambulatory glucose profile: Flash glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-12-01

    Ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is a novel way of assessing glycaemic levels on a 24 hour basis, through a minimally invasive method, known as flash glucose monitoring. This review describes the unique features of AGP, differentiates it from existing methods of glucose monitoring, and explains how it helps pursue the glycaemic pentad. The review suggests pragmatic usage of this technology, including pre-test, intra-test, and post-test counselling, and lists specific clinical scenarios where the investigation seems to be of immense benefit.

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  4. Human insulin B24 (Phe----Ser). Secretion and metabolic clearance of the abnormal insulin in man and in a dog model.

    PubMed Central

    Shoelson, S E; Polonsky, K S; Zeidler, A; Rubenstein, A H; Tager, H S

    1984-01-01

    We have already demonstrated that a hyperinsulinemic, diabetic subject secreted an abnormal insulin in which serine replaced phenylalanine B24 (Shoelson S., M. Fickova, M. Haneda, A. Nahum, G. Musso, E. T. Kaiser, A. H. Rubenstein, and H. Tager. 1983. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 80:7390-7394). High performance liquid chromatography analysis now shows that the circulating insulin in several other family members also consists of a mixture of the abnormal human insulin B24 (Phe----Ser) and normal human insulin in a ratio of approximately 9.5:1 during fasting. Although all affected subjects show fasting hyperinsulinemia, only the propositus and her father are overtly diabetic. Analysis of the serum insulin from two nondiabetic siblings revealed that normal insulin increased from approximately 2 to 15% of total serum insulin after the ingestion of glucose and that the proportion of the normal hormone plateaued or fell while the level of total insulin continued to rise. Animal studies involving the graded intraportal infusion of equimolar amounts of semisynthetic human [SerB24]-insulin and normal human insulin in pancreatectomized dogs (to simulate the secretion of insulin due to oral glucose in man) also showed both a rise in the fraction of normal insulin that reached the periphery and the attainment of a brief steady state in this fraction while total insulin levels continued to rise. Separate experiments documented a decreased hepatic extraction, a decreased metabolic clearance rate, and an increased plasma half-life of human [SerB24]-insulin within the same parameters as those determined for normal human insulin. These results form a basis for considering (a) the differential clearance of low activity abnormal insulins and normal insulin from the circulation in vivo, and (b) the causes of hyperinsulinemia in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals who secrete abnormal human insulins. PMID:6371057

  5. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela).

    PubMed Central

    Leatherdale, B A; Panesar, R K; Singh, G; Atkins, T W; Bailey, C J; Bignell, A H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of karela (Momordica charantia), a fruit indigenous to South America and Asia, on glucose and insulin concentrations was studied in nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics and six non-diabetic laboratory rats. A water-soluble extract of the fruits significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations during a 50 g oral glucose tolerance test in the diabetics and after force-feeding in the rats. Fried karela fruits consumed as a daily supplement to the diet produced a small but significant improvement in glucose tolerance. Improvement in glucose tolerance was not associated with an increase in serum insulin responses. These results show that karela improves glucose tolerance in diabetes. Doctors supervising Asian diabetics should be aware of the fruit's hypoglycaemic properties. PMID:6786635

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. A survey of equine oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James; Waldner, Cheryl; Grier, Candace; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-01-01

    Dental abnormalities in horses can lead to weight-loss, poor performance, pain, behavioral abnormalities, and illness. Despite this impact, the occurrence and type of dental disease in horse populations is infrequently reported in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey of horses presented for slaughter at a processing plant in Western Canada was to measure the prevalence of equine oral abnormalities, examine associations between the most common abnormalities, and consider the relationship between the age of horse and types of abnormalities observed. The horses used in this research consisted of a variety of ages, breeds, body conditions, and origins. Horses ranged in age from 18-months to 30-years (median = 11-years). The most common oral pathologies included sharp edges, buccal abrasions, calculus, lingual ulcers, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, ramps, and waves. Several types of pathology were strongly associated with other dental disorders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets, gingival recession, and waves was highest in older horses.

  8. Enhanced glucose tolerance by intravascularly administered piceatannol in freely moving healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Okitsu, Teru; Nishimura, Eisaku; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-02-12

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the seeds of passion fruit that has a hypoglycemic effect when orally administered. To elucidate the contribution of intact and metabolites of piceatannol after gastro-intestinal absorption to hypoglycemic effect, we examined the influence of piceatannol and isorhapontigenin on blood glucose concentrations during fasting and glucose tolerance tests by administering them intravascularly to freely moving healthy rats. We found that intravascularly administered piceatannol reduced the blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and glucose tolerance tests, but isorhapontigenin did not during either of them. Furthermore, we found that piceatannol increased the insulinogenic index during glucose tolerance tests and that piceatannol had no influence on insulin sensitivity by performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping tests. These results suggest that piceatannol orally intaken may enhance glucose tolerance by the effect of intact piceatannol through enhanced early-phase secretion of insulin. Therefore, oral intake of piceatannol might contribute to proper control of postprandial glycemic excursions in healthy subjects.

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  12. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  13. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  14. Glucose tolerance and insulin response to glucose load in body builders.

    PubMed

    Szczypaczewska, M; Nazar, K; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H

    1989-02-01

    To find out to what extent body composition affects glucose tolerance, blood glucose (BG) and insulin (IRI) responses to a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were compared in 10 male body builders, 11 untrained lean control subjects, and 11 mildly obese men, all of similar age (19-35 years). In comparison with the remaining two groups, the body builders had the lowest percentage of fat, although their lean body mass (LBM) in absolute terms did not differ from that in obese subjects. Both BG and IRI concentrations during the OGTT were the lowest in body builders, medium in controls, and the highest in obese men. The differences in glucose tolerance between the groups were also demonstrated by comparison of the subjects' BG levels during the OGTT with the respective mean BG values obtained in a reference group of 42 healthy nonobese men aged from 20 to 55 years. The data indicate that body builders show better glucose tolerance and improved insulin action in comparison with untrained, nonobese subjects of similar age and body weight. Lean body mass in absolute terms cannot, however, be considered as a sole determinant of the insulin action in the body since in mildly obese subjects glucose tolerance was considerably reduced in spite of the fact that their LBM was similar to that in body builders. Either muscle hypertrophy or reduced adiposity may account for the beneficial effects of body building on glucose metabolism.

  15. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  16. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  17. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, M.L.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Pekow, P.; Braun, B.; Markenson, G.; Dole, N.; Manson, J.E.; Solomon, C.G.; Carbone, E.T.; Chasan-Taber, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006–2011). Methods Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1–18 weeks) and mid-(mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1–26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0–6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5 mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β = 5.5; standard deviation = 2.8; P = 0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. Conclusion In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. PMID:24948416

  18. Oral lesions in haemopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Grande, M; Milano, V; Desiate, A; Martinelli, A; Iaffaldano, B

    1990-03-01

    This paper deals with the oral manifestations observed in patients with haemolymphopathies and oral complications associated with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We report the percentage of oral manifestations observed in 30 patients treated with cytotoxic drugs for malignant haemolymphopathies or other tumors after 2-4 cycles of systemic combinations chemotherapy. No sex or age differences were recorded except for abnormalities of taste present only in 13% treated patients older than 50. Stomatitis was more frequent in patients with malignant haemolymphopathies than in patient with other neoplastic diseases, probably due to the fact that in the former group neutropenia and thrombocytopenia induced by bone marrow infiltration or by more aggressive combination chemotherapy are most frequent. An oral care protocol for these patients is suggested.

  19. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates.

  20. Evaluation of a Standardized Extract from Morus alba against α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect and Postprandial Antihyperglycemic in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Li, Hong Mei; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of a standardized extract of the leaves of Morus alba (SEMA), the present study was designed to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect and acute single oral toxicity as well as evaluate blood glucose reduction in animals and in patients with impaired glucose tolerance in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. SEMA was found to inhibit α-glucosidase at a fourfold higher level than the positive control (acarbose), in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, blood glucose concentration was suppressed by SEMA in vivo. Clinical signs and weight changes were observed when conducting an evaluation of the acute toxicity of SEMA through a single-time administration, with clinical observation conducted more than once each day. After administration of the SEMA, observation was for 14 days; all of the animals did not die and did not show any abnormal symptoms. In addition, the inhibitory effects of rice coated with SEMA were evaluated in a group of impaired glucose tolerance patients on postprandial glucose and a group of normal persons, and results showed that SEMA had a clear inhibitory effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in both groups. Overall, SEMA showed excellent potential in the present study as a material for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27974904

  1. Diabetes and Altered Glucose Metabolism with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Egan, Josephine M.

    2013-01-01

    I. Synopsis Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance affect a substantial proportion of older adults. While the aging process can be associated with alterations in glucose metabolism, including both relative insulin resistance and islet cell dysfunction, abnormal glucose metabolism is not a necessary component of aging. Instead, older adults with diabetes and altered glucose status likely represent a vulnerable subset of the population at high-risk for complications and adverse geriatric syndromes such as accelerated muscle loss, functional disability, frailty, and early mortality. Goals for treatment of diabetes in the elderly include control of hyperglycemia, prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, avoidance of hypoglycemia and preservation of quality of life. Given the heterogeneity of the elderly population with regards to the presence of comorbidities, life expectancy, and functional status, an individualized approach to diabetes management is often appropriate. A growing area of research seeks to explore associations of dysglycemia and insulin resistance with the development of adverse outcomes in the elderly and may ultimately inform guidelines on the use of future glucose-lowering therapies in this population. PMID:23702405

  2. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  3. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  4. GLUT2, glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thorens, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The glucose transporter isoform GLUT2 is expressed in liver, intestine, kidney and pancreatic islet beta cells, as well as in the central nervous system, in neurons, astrocytes and tanycytes. Physiological studies of genetically modified mice have revealed a role for GLUT2 in several regulatory mechanisms. In pancreatic beta cells, GLUT2 is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In hepatocytes, suppression of GLUT2 expression revealed the existence of an unsuspected glucose output pathway that may depend on a membrane traffic-dependent mechanism. GLUT2 expression is nevertheless required for the physiological control of glucose-sensitive genes, and its inactivation in the liver leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, revealing a liver-beta cell axis, which is likely to be dependent on bile acids controlling beta cell secretion capacity. In the nervous system, GLUT2-dependent glucose sensing controls feeding, thermoregulation and pancreatic islet cell mass and function, as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques established that Glut2 (also known as Slc2a2)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius can be activated by hypoglycaemia to stimulate glucagon secretion. In humans, inactivating mutations in GLUT2 cause Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, which is characterised by hepatomegaly and kidney disease; defects in insulin secretion are rare in adult patients, but GLUT2 mutations cause transient neonatal diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have reported that GLUT2 variants increase the risks of fasting hyperglycaemia, transition to type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular diseases. Individuals with a missense mutation in GLUT2 show preference for sugar-containing foods. We will discuss how studies in mice help interpret the role of GLUT2 in human physiology.

  5. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  6. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  7. Effect of D-glucose feeding on mortality induced by sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Su; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the life-threatening response to infection which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. In the current study, the effect of orally administered D-glucose on the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by D-Galactosamine (GaLN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis was examined in ICR mice. After various amounts of D-glucose (from 1 to 8 g/kg) were orally fed, sepsis was induced by injecting intraperitoneally (i.p.) the mixture of GaLN /LPS. Oral pre-treatment with D-glucose dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level and caused a reduction of sepsis-induced mortality. The oral post-treatment with D-glucose (8 g/kg) up to 3 h caused an elevation of the blood glucose level and protected the mortality observed in sepsis model. However, D-glucose post-treated at 6, 9, or 12 h after sepsis induction did not affect the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by sepsis. Furthermore, the intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment once with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.1 µg/5 ml) for 6 days caused a reduction of D-glucose-induced protection of mortality and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, once the hypoglycemic state is continued up to 6 h after sepsis initiated, sepsis-induced mortality could not be reversed by D-glucose fed orally. Based on these findings, it is assumed that the hypoglycemic duration between 3 and 6 h after the sepsis induction may be a critical time of period for the survival. D-glucose-induced protective effect against sepsis-induced mortality appears to be mediated via activating PTX-sensitive G-proteins in the spinal cord. Finally, the production of hyperglycemic state may be critical for the survival against the sepsis-induced mortality. PMID:26807027

  8. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  9. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  10. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  11. High glucose-induced resistance to 5-fluorouracil in pancreatic cancer cells alleviated by 2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yao; Diao, Dongmei; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Qi; Wu, Xuandi; Song, Yongchun; Dang, Chengxue

    2014-03-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism from hyperglycemia or diabetes aggravates the progression of pancreatic cancer. It is unknown whether high glucose has an impact on the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and whether targeting aberrant glucose metabolism using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) may reverse this effect in high-glucose microenvironments. The cell viability of AsPC-1 and Panc-1 was analyzed by MTT assay following 5-Fu treatment at different glucose concentrations. Altered sensitivity to 5-Fu by 2-DG was also analyzed. LY294002 was used to inhibit PI3K-Akt signaling to determine the mechanism involved. In response to glucose, 5-Fu-induced cell growth inhibition was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied with activated p-Akt, while 2-DG enhanced 5-Fu-induced cell growth inhibition. Moreover, blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 effectively eliminated 2-DG-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, high glucose weakens the antitumor effect of 5-Fu via PI3K/Akt signaling. Using 2-DG in combination with 5-Fu significantly increased their therapeutic effectiveness in high-glucose microenvironments.

  12. Digoxin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). It helps the heart work better and it ... have or have ever had thyroid problems, heart arrhythmias, cancer, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if ...

  13. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  14. Impaired glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Fragachan, F; Perez-Acuña, F; Monsalve, P; Sanabria, A

    1990-01-01

    We have studied glucose tolerance under carefully controlled conditions in 79 patients with arterial hypertension. The results show that, in patients with arterial hypertension but without clinical diabetes mellitus, the glucose tolerance was abnormal in 77.3% and normal in 22.3%. The corresponding figure in the control group of normotensive subjects was 0%. In each test the responses to glucose administration were analyzed by plotting the logarithm of the blood glucose concentration against time. For the points between 60 and 120 min, corresponding to the periods following glucose administration, a linear relationship was obtained and showed a decline at an exponential rate, as noted by other observers. An estimate of the volume of distribution of glucose was obtained as follows. Values observed in hypertensives with a pathological percent fall in blood glucose per minute (Kg) were 29.8 +/- 12.0 (mean +/- SD) liters and those in normal subjects with normal Kg values had a mean of 14.35 +/- 2.98, the difference being highly significant (p less than 0.0001). The results of the theoretical glucose concentration are also presented. Those obtained from subjects with normal Kg values (359.0 +/- 58.4 mg/dl) are significantly higher than in subjects with pathological Kg values (257.6 +/- 51.3 mg/dl; p less than 0.0001). All patients with either pathological or normal Kg values had normal glucose concentration levels, fasting blood sugar and no glucose in the urine specimen. The difference between pathological Kg values (107.0 +/- 25.8 mg/dl) and normal Kg values (90.6 +/- 13.0 mg/dl) was not found to be statistically different (p greater than 0.05). The distribution and means of glucose half time in controls with normal Kg values and hypertensives with pathological Kg values were: 63.5 +/- 11.5 and 137.8 +/- 48.1 min, respectively. The difference between normal and pathological Kg values being statistically significant at a confidence level above 99.5%. We also studied

  15. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E. Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system. PMID:26940741

  16. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system.

  17. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  18. Postprandial blood glucose level in maintenance hemodialysis patients predicts post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus.

    PubMed

    Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H

    2010-03-01

    Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.

  19. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  20. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P < 0.05) but not in young lean subjects. We concluded that a short-term Bikram yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults.

  1. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  2. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  3. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Costa, Mônica R F; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Brito, Marcelo A M; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2014-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

  4. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients.

  5. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  6. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.

  7. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M; Knop, Filip K; Karlsson, Mats O; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose.

  8. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  9. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Care Professionals Community ... A transmitter sends information about glucose levels via radio waves from the sensor to a pagerlike wireless ...

  10. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  11. Glucose: Detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Galant, A L; Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D

    2015-12-01

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also plays a major role in modern food products, particularly where flavor and or structure are concerned. Over the years, many diverse methods for detecting and quantifying glucose have been developed; this review presents an overview of the most widely employed and historically significant, including copper iodometry, HPLC, GC, CZE, and enzyme based systems such as glucose meters. The relative strengths and limitations of each method are evaluated, and examples of their recent application in the realm of food chemistry are discussed.

  12. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  13. Glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio; Esposito, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Islet dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance are both present in type 2 diabetes and are both necessary for the development of hyperglycemia. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, large, prospective clinical studies have shown a strong relation between time-averaged mean values of glycemia, measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and vascular diabetic complications. These studies are the basis for the American Diabetes Association's current recommended treatment goal that HbA1c should be <7%. The measurement of the HbA1c concentration is considered the gold standard for assessing long-term glycemia; however, it does not reveal any information on the extent or frequency of blood glucose excursions, but provides an overall mean value only. Postprandial hyperglycemia occurs frequently in patients with diabetes receiving active treatment and can occur even when metabolic control is apparently good. Interventional studies indicate that reducing postmeal glucose excursions is as important as controlling fasting plasma glucose in persons with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Evidence exists for a causal relation between postmeal glucose increases and microvascular and macrovascular outcomes; therefore, it is not surprising that treatment with different compounds that have specific effects on postprandial glucose regulation is accompanied by a significant improvement of many pathways supposed to be involved in diabetic complications, including oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. The goal of therapy should be to achieve glycemic status as near to normal as safely possible in all 3 components of glycemic control: HbA1c, fasting glucose, and postmeal glucose peak.

  14. An acoustic glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-05-15

    In vivo glucose monitoring is required for tighter glycaemic control. This report describes a new approach to construct a miniature implantable device based on a magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS). A ≈ 600-800 nm thick glucose-responsive poly(acrylamide-co-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (poly(acrylamide-co-3-APB)) film was polymerised on the quartz disc (12 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm thick) of the MARS. The swelling/shrinking of the polymer film induced by the glucose binding to the phenylboronate caused changes in the resonance amplitude of the quartz disc in the MARS. A linear relationship between the response of the MARS and the glucose concentration in the range ≈ 0-15 mM was observed, with the optimum response of the MARS sensor being obtained when the polymer films contained ≈ 20 mol% 3-APB. The MARS glucose sensor also functioned under flow conditions (9 μl/min) with a response almost identical to the sensor under static or non-flow conditions. The results suggest that the MARS could offer a promising strategy for developing a small subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitor.

  15. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Spencer, Richard G; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-Na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared with both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD, whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared with SNCA mice (p < 0.007). At the age of 24 weeks SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared with WT (p < 0.03). At the age of 36 weeks, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared with WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p < 0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared with WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such

  16. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Spencer, Richard G.; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared to both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, MRI analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared to SNCA mice (p<0.007). At 24 weeks of age SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared to WT (p<0.03). At 36 weeks of age, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared to WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p<0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared to WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such metabolic abnormalities and providing an animal

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  19. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  20. [Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency].

    PubMed

    Cano, A; Ticus, I; Chabrol, B

    2008-11-01

    Impaired glucose transport across the blood brain barrier results in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency syndrome, first described in 1991. It is characterized by infantile seizures refractory to anticonvulsive treatments, microcephaly, delays in mental and motor development, spasticity, ataxia, dysarthria and other paroxysmal neurologic phenomena, often occurring prior to meals. Affected infants are normal at birth following an uneventful pregnancy and delivery. Seizures usually begin between the age of one and four months and can be preceded by apneic episodes or abnormal eyes movements. Patients with atypical presentations such as mental retardation and intermittent ataxia without seizures, or movement disorders characterized by choreoathetosis and dystonia, have also been described. Glucose is the principal fuel source for the brain and GLUT-1 is the only vehicle by which glucose enters the brain. In case of GLUT-1 deficiency, the risk of clinical manifestations is increased in infancy and childhood, when the brain glucose demand is maximal. The hallmark of the disease is a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid in a presence of normoglycemia (cerebrospinal fluid/blood glucose ratio less than 0.4). The GLUT-1 defect can be confirmed by molecular analysis of the SCL2A1 gene or in erythrocytes by glucose uptake studies and GLUT-1 immunoreactivity. Several heterozygous mutations, with a majority of de novo mutations, resulting in GLUT-1 haploinsufficiency, have been described. Cases with an autosomal dominant transmission have been established and adults can exhibit symptoms of this deficiency. Ketogenic diet is an effective treatment of epileptic manifestations as ketone bodies serve as an alternative fuel for the developing brain. However, this diet is not effective on cognitive impairment and other treatments are being evaluated. The physiopathology of this disorder is partially unclear and its understanding could explain the clinical

  1. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  2. Intestinal micropatches for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Wong, Jessica; Gogoi, Rohan; Brown, Tyler; Mitragotri, Samir

    2017-03-19

    Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health issue that has almost reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Injectable insulin has been typically utilized for the management of this chronic disease. However, lack of patient compliance with injectable formulations has spurred the development of oral insulin formulations, which although appealing, face several delivery challenges. We have developed novel mucoadhesive intestinal patches, several hundred micrometers in dimension (micropatches) that address the challenges of oral insulin delivery. The micropatches adhere to the intestinal mucosa, release their drug load rapidly within 30 min and are effective in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo. When insulin-loaded micropatches were administered with a permeation enhancer and protease inhibitor, a peak efficacy of 34% drop in blood glucose levels was observed within 3 h. Efficacy further improved to 41% when micropatches were administered in multiple doses. Here, we describe the design of micropatches as an oral insulin formulation and report their in vivo efficacy.

  3. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  4. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Heinz; Weisstanner, Christian; Hess, Christian W; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nirkko, Arto; Wiest, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal yawning is an underappreciated phenomenon in patients with ischemic stroke. We aimed at identifying frequently affected core regions in the supratentorial brain of stroke patients with abnormal yawning and contributing to the anatomical network concept of yawning control. Ten patients with acute anterior circulation stroke and ≥3 yawns/15 min without obvious cause were analyzed. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), symptom onset, period with abnormal yawning, blood oxygen saturation, glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed for all patients. MRI lesion maps were segmented on diffusion-weighted images, spatially normalized, and the extent of overlap between the different stroke patterns was determined. Correlations between the period with abnormal yawning and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the overlapping regions, total stroke volume, NIHSS and mRS were performed. Periods in which patients presented with episodes of abnormal yawning lasted on average for 58 h. Average GCS, NIHSS, and mRS scores were 12.6, 11.6, and 3.5, respectively. Clinical parameters were within normal limits. Ischemic brain lesions overlapped in nine out of ten patients: in seven patients in the insula and in seven in the caudate nucleus. The decrease of the ADC within the lesions correlated with the period with abnormal yawing (r = -0.76, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02). The stroke lesion intensity of the common overlapping regions in the insula and the caudate nucleus correlates with the period with abnormal yawning. The insula might be the long sought-after brain region for serotonin-mediated yawning.

  5. Effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism after the administration of sugar or food in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    D-allulose is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose and has recently been investigated for its hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, the effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism were evaluated in healthy dogs administrated sugar or food. The oral administrations of D-allulose decreased plasma glucose concentrations after oral glucose or maltose administration, with a diminished plasma insulin rise. The glucose suppressive effect of D-allulose was also observed after intravenous glucose administrations without increase in plasma insulin concentration. In contrast, D-allulose showed no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after feeding. The present results suggest that D-allulose administration may be beneficial in dogs with impaired glucose tolerance. Further studies investigating the therapeutic efficacy of D-allulose in diabetic dogs are required. PMID:27452736

  6. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  8. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Jithesh V; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2010-12-15

    In vivo continuous glucose monitoring has posed a significant challenge to glucose sensor development due to the lack of reliable techniques that are non- or at least minimally-invasive. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the development of a new glucose sensor protein, AcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry, and an optical sensor assembly, capable of generating quantifiable FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) signals for glucose monitoring. Our experimental data showed that the engineered glucose sensor protein can generate measurable FRET signals in response to glucose concentrations varying from 25 to 800 μM. The sensor developed based on this protein had a shelf-life of up to 3 weeks. The sensor response was devoid of interference from compounds like galactose, fructose, lactose, mannose, and mannitol when tested at physiologically significant concentrations of these compounds. This new glucose sensor protein can potentially be used to develop implantable glucose sensors for continuous glucose monitoring.

  9. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  10. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  11. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  12. Systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Sinawat, Suthasinee; Bunyavee, Chavisa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Supat; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada; Yospaiboon, Yosanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study the systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in patients aged ≤50 years with a particular emphasis on atherosclerotic diseases and thrombophilic disorders. Methods Medical charts of patients, aged ≤50 years whose diagnoses were retinal vein occlusions during the period 1995–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the number of systemic abnormalities associated with these patients. Secondary outcomes included types of retinal vein occlusion and sites of occlusion. Results Atherosclerotic diseases were the most common systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion and accounted for 55.1% of the patients in the study. Hypertension in 27.55%, diabetes mellitus in 16.33%, and 5.1% with dyslipidemia were noted. The number of thrombophilic disorders seemed to be less than expected and were noted in only 5.1%. Other systemic abnormalities included viral hepatitis infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral contraceptives were used by some patients. Conclusion Atherosclerotic diseases remained the most commonly associated systemic diseases in the majority of these patients. Approach to these patients should include a screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Thrombophilia should also be considered where no obvious atherosclerotic diseases are found or if the patient is <40 years old, a history of thrombosis or a family history of thrombosis is possible. PMID:28260858

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, Cynthia; Quinn, Laurie; Penckofer, Sue; Surdyk, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the experience of wearing a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The availability of CGM has provided patients and clinicians with the opportunity to describe the immediate effects of diet, exercise, and medications on blood glucose levels; however, there are few data examining patients’ experiences and acceptability of using CGM. Methods Thirty-five women with T2DM wore a CGM for 3 days. Semistructured interviews were conducted to capture the self-described experience of wearing a CGM. Three open-ended questions were used to guide the participants’ self-reflection. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Results The women verbalized both positive and negative aspects of needing to check their blood glucose more frequently and wearing the monitor. After viewing the results, most women were surprised by the magnitude and frequency of blood glucose excursions. They immediately examined their behaviors during the time they wore the CGM. Independent problem-solving skills became apparent as they attempted to identify reasons for hyperglycemia by retracing food intake, physical activity, and stress experiences during the period of CGM. Most important, the majority of women stated they were interested in changing their diabetes-related self-care behaviors, especially eating and exercise behaviors, after reviewing their CGM results. Conclusions CGM is generally acceptable to women with T2DM and offers patients and their health care practitioners a possible alternative to routine glucose monitoring for assessing the effects of real-life events on blood glucose levels. PMID:20016057

  14. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  15. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  16. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    García-Alcalá, Hector; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Hirales-Tamez, Omara; Salinas-Palma, Jorge; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC) survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population. Methods We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups). Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140–199 mg/dL), and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL). We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age. Results A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively) and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05). Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9.2 years) were older than those with impaired fasting glucose (46.19 ± 8.89 years), glucose intolerance (46.15 ± 10.9 years), and normal levels (41.9 ± 10.45 years, P < 0.05). We found a higher frequency of diabetes

  17. Redundancy in Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Amin; Varsavsky, Andrea; Ulloa, Johanna; Horsburgh, Jodie C.; McAuley, Sybil A.; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Colman, Peter G.; Ward, Glenn M.; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Shah, Rajiv; O’Neal, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current electrochemical glucose sensors use a single electrode. Multiple electrodes (redundancy) may enhance sensor performance. We evaluated an electrochemical redundant sensor (ERS) incorporating two working electrodes (WE1 and WE2) onto a single subcutaneous insertion platform with a processing algorithm providing a single real-time continuous glucose measure. Methods: Twenty-three adults with type 1 diabetes each wore two ERSs concurrently for 168 hours. Post-insertion a frequent sampling test (FST) was performed with ERS benchmarked against a glucose meter (Bayer Contour Link). Day 4 and 7 FSTs were performed with a standard meal and venous blood collected for reference glucose measurements (YSI and meter). Between visits, ERS was worn with capillary blood glucose testing ≥8 times/day. Sensor glucose data were processed prospectively. Results: Mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) for ERS day 1-7 (3,297 paired points with glucose meter) was (mean [SD]) 10.1 [11.5]% versus 11.4 [11.9]% for WE1 and 12.0 [11.9]% for WE2; P < .0001. ERS Clarke A and A+B were 90.2% and 99.8%, respectively. ERS day 4 plus day 7 MARD (1,237 pairs with YSI) was 9.4 [9.5]% versus 9.6 [9.7]% for WE1 and 9.9 [9.7]% for WE2; P = ns. ERS day 1-7 precision absolute relative deviation (PARD) was 9.9 [3.6]% versus 11.5 [6.2]% for WE1 and 10.1 [4.4]% for WE2; P = ns. ERS sensor display time was 97.8 [6.0]% versus 91.0 [22.3]% for WE1 and 94.1 [14.3]% for WE2; P < .05. Conclusions: Electrochemical redundancy enhances glucose sensor accuracy and display time compared with each individual sensing element alone. ERS performance compares favorably with ‘best-in-class’ of non-redundant sensors. PMID:26499476

  18. Difference between 2 h and 3 h 75 g glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): results from a national survey on prevalence of GDM.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Lian; Wei, Yu-Mei; Yang, Hui-Xia; Xu, Xian-Ming; Fan, Ling; He, Jing; Liu, Ning; Zhao, San-Cun; Hu, Ya-Li; Yang, Zi; Zhang, Yun-Ping; Liu, Xing-Hui; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Gou, Wen-Li; Xiao, Mei; Wu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2010-09-01

    The possibility of the 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as an alternative to the 3 h OGTT was investigated based on data from a national survey on pregnancy-associated diabetes. Data were retrieved from 4179 pregnant women who had OGTT performed after an abnormal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT). All of the 4 glucose levels during their OGTT were collected and analyzed. According to American Diabetes Association (ADA) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnostic criteria, among the 4179 pregnant women who required OGTT, 3429 (82.1%) were normal and 750 (17.9%) were diagnosed as GDM. If the 3rd h glucose levels were omitted from OGTT, 79 cases of GDM (10.5%) would be overlooked. No trend was shown where women with more risk factors were more likely to be overlooked if the 3rd h test was omitted (χ2 for trend=0.038, P>0.05). No significant differences were found in the rate of cesarean section (CS), preterm births or macrosomia between the 79 cases and those with normal OGTT results and in the gestational weeks when OGTT was performed. It shows that in order to diagnose one woman with GDM, another 52 pregnant women would have an innocent 3rd h glucose test. Omission of the 3rd h glucose test in OGTT might be reasonable due to its convenience, better compliance and a small number of possibly miss-diagnosed cases, and their pregnancy outcomes have no significant difference from those of normal pregnant women.

  19. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  20. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  1. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period. PMID:26258147

  2. Mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Campetelli, German; Basualdo, Marta; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization there are over 220 million people in the world with diabetes and 3.4 million people died in 2004 as a consequence of this pathology. Development of an artificial pancreas would allow to restore control of blood glucose by coupling an infusion pump to a continuous glucose sensor in the blood. The design of such a device requires the development and application of mathematical models which represent the gluco-regulatory system. Models developed by other research groups describe very well the gluco-regulatory system but have a large number of mathematical equations and require complex methodologies for the estimation of its parameters. In this work we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy rats. The proposed model consists of three differential equations and 8 parameters that describe the variation of: blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration and amount of glucose in the intestine. All parameters were obtained by setting functions to the values of glucose and insulin in blood obtained after oral glucose administration. In vivo and in silico validations were performed. Additionally, a qualitative analysis has been done to verify the aforementioned model. We have shown that this model has a single, biologically consistent equilibrium point. This model is a first step in the development of a mathematical model for the type I diabetic rat.

  3. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  4. The laforin-malin complex negatively regulates glycogen synthesis by modulating cellular glucose uptake via glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Sweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Lafora disease (LD), an inherited and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by increased cellular glycogen content and the formation of abnormally branched glycogen inclusions, called Lafora bodies, in the affected tissues, including neurons. Therefore, laforin phosphatase and malin ubiquitin E3 ligase, the two proteins that are defective in LD, are thought to regulate glycogen synthesis through an unknown mechanism, the defects in which are likely to underlie some of the symptoms of LD. We show here that laforin's subcellular localization is dependent on the cellular glycogen content and that the stability of laforin is determined by the cellular ATP level, the activity of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, and the affinity of malin toward laforin. By using cell and animal models, we further show that the laforin-malin complex regulates cellular glucose uptake by modulating the subcellular localization of glucose transporters; loss of malin or laforin resulted in an increased abundance of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and therefore excessive glucose uptake. Loss of laforin or malin, however, did not affect glycogen catabolism. Thus, the excessive cellular glucose level appears to be the primary trigger for the abnormally higher levels of cellular glycogen seen in LD.

  5. Prediabetes Phenotype Influences Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis with Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Eikenberg, Joshua D.; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L.; Davy, Kevin P.; Pownall, John; Baugh, Mary E.; Flack, Kyle D.; Boshra, Soheir; Winett, Richard A.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if prediabetes phenotype influences improvements in glucose homeostasis with resistance training (RT). Methods Older, overweight individuals with prediabetes (n = 159; aged 60±5 yrs; BMI 33±4 kg/m2) completed a supervised RT program twice per week for 12 weeks. Body weight and composition, strength, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance, and Matsuda-Defronza estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were assessed before and after the intervention. Participants were categorized according to their baseline prediabetes phenotype as impaired fasting glucose only (IFG) (n = 73), impaired glucose tolerance only (IGT) (n = 21), or combined IFG and IGT (IFG/IGT) (n = 65). Results Chest press and leg press strength increased 27% and 18%, respectively, following the 12-week RT program (both p<0.05). Waist circumference (-1.0%; pre 109.3±10.3 cm, post 108.2±10.6 cm) and body fat (-0.6%; pre 43.7±6.8%, post 43.1±6.8%) declined, and lean body mass (+1.3%; pre 52.0±10.4 kg, post 52.7±10.7 kg) increased following the intervention. Fasting glucose concentrations did not change (p>0.05) following the intervention. However, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance improved in those with IGT (pre 8.94±0.72 mmol/l, post 7.83±1.11 mmol/l, p<0.05) and IFG/IGT (pre 9.66±1.11mmol/l, post 8.60±2.00 mmol/l) but not in those with IFG (pre 6.27±1.28mmol/l, post 6.33± 1.55 mmol/l). There were no significant changes in ISI or glucose area under the curve following the RT program. Conclusions RT without dietary intervention improves 2-hr oral glucose tolerance in individuals with prediabetes. However, the improvements in glucose homeostasis with RT appear limited to those with IGT or combined IFG and IGT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01112709 PMID:26840904

  6. Chronic renin inhibition with aliskiren improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Marchionne, Elizabeth M; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie K; Prasonnarong, Mujalin; Henriksen, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with whole body and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Moreover, this obesity-associated insulin resistance is reduced by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers. However, it is currently unknown whether specific inhibition of renin itself, the rate-limiting step in RAS functionality, improves insulin action in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of chronic, selective renin inhibition using aliskiren on glucose tolerance, whole body insulin sensitivity, and insulin action on the glucose transport system in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. Obese Zucker rats were treated for 21 days with either vehicle or aliskiren (50 mg/kg body wt ip). Renin inhibition was associated with a significant lowering (10%, P < 0.05) of resting systolic blood pressure and induced reductions in fasting plasma glucose (11%) and free fatty acids (46%) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (13%). Glucose tolerance (glucose area under the curve) and whole body insulin sensitivity (inverse of the glucose-insulin index) during an oral glucose tolerance test were improved by 15% and 16%, respectively, following chronic renin inhibition. Moreover, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in isolated soleus muscle of renin inhibitor-treated animals was increased by 36% and was associated with a 2.2-fold greater Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. These data provide evidence that chronic selective inhibition of renin activity leads to improvements in glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. Importantly, chronic renin inhibition is associated with upregulation of insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport, and it may involve improved Akt signaling. These data support the

  7. Fabrication and characterization of spiral interdigitated electrodes based biosensor for salivary glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Kahar, S. M.; Huda, A. R. N.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-03-01

    This work introduces the non-invasive glucose monitoring technique by using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologically fabricated spiral Interdigitated Electrodes (IDE) based biosensor. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image explores the morphology of spiral IDE while Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) determines the elements induced in spiral IDE. Oral saliva of two patients are collected and tested on the spiral IDE sensor with electrical characterization as glucose detection results. However, both patients exhibit their glucose level characteristics inconsistently. Therefore, this work could be extended and enhanced by adding Glutaraldehyde in between 3-Aminoproply)triethoxysilane (APTES) modified and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme immobilized layer with FTIR validation for bonding attachment.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 42. Read More Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemoglobin Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics G6PD Deficiency Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  10. Consumption of a glucose diet enhances the sensitivity of pancreatic islets from adrenalectomized genetically obese (ob/ob) mice to glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Mistry, A M; Chen, N G; Lee, Y S; Romsos, D R

    1995-03-01

    Consumption of a glucose diet for 4 d markedly elevates plasma insulin concentrations in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice. The present study examined regulation of insulin secretion from perifused pancreatic islets of female adrenalectomized genetically obese (ob/ob) and lean mice fed a glucose diet for 4 d. These mice were fed a high carbohydrate commercial diet for 21 d, or the high carbohydrate commercial diet for 17 d and a purified high glucose diet for the last 4 d of the 21-d feeding period. Adrenalectomy equalized plasma insulin concentrations, pancreatic islet size, rates of insulin secretion in response to 20 mmol/L glucose and insulin mRNA relative abundance in ob/ob and lean mice fed the commercial diet, but the threshold for glucose-induced insulin secretion determined by a linear glucose gradient remained lower in islets from adrenalectomized ob/ob mice than in those from lean mice (3.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L glucose), and addition of acetylcholine to the perifusate lowered the threshold to only 2.0 +/- 0.1 mmol/L glucose in islets from ob/ob mice vs. 3.3 +/- 0.1 mmol/L glucose in lean mice. Switching from the commercial diet to the glucose diet for 4 d increased plasma insulin concentrations -10-fold in islets from adrenalectomized ob/ob mice without affecting islet size, 20 mmol/L glucose-induced insulin secretion or insulin mRNA abundance. Consumption of the glucose diet did, however, markedly lower the threshold for glucose-induced insulin secretion in islets from adrenalectomized ob/ob mice to approximate the abnormally low glucose thresholds in intact ob/ob mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  12. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  13. The pattern of sensory processing abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Garver, Carolyn R; Grannemann, Bruce D; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Johnson, Danny G; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2006-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nature of sensory dysfunction in persons with autism. The cross-sectional study examined auditory, visual, oral, and touch sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Profile, in 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3-56 years of age, gender-and age-matched to community controls. Persons with autism had abnormal auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory processing that was significantly different from controls. This finding was also apparent when the high and low thresholds of these modalities were examined separately. At later ages for the group with autism, lower levels of abnormal sensory processing were found, except for low threshold touch, which did not improve significantly. There was a significant interaction in low threshold auditory and low threshold visual, suggesting that the two groups change differently over time on these variables. These results suggest that sensory abnormalities in autism are global in nature (involving several modalities) but have the potential to improve with age.

  14. Wireless enzyme sensor system for real-time monitoring of blood glucose levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideaki; Yonemori, Yuki; Hibi, Kyoko; Ren, Huifeng; Hayashi, Tetsuhito; Tsugawa, Wakako; Sode, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Periodic checks of fish health and the rapid detection of abnormalities are thus necessary at fish farms. Several studies indicate that blood glucose levels closely correlate to stress levels in fish and represent the state of respiratory or nutritional disturbance. We prepared a wireless enzyme sensor system to determine blood glucose levels in fish. It can be rapidly and conveniently monitored using the newly developed needle-type enzyme sensor, consisting of a Pt-Ir wire, Ag/AgCl paste, and glucose oxidase. To prevent the effects of interfering anionic species, such as uric acid and ascorbic acid, on the sensor response, the Pt-Ir electrode was coated with Nafion, and then glucose oxidase was immobilized on the coated electrode. The calibration curve of the glucose concentration was linear, from 0.18 to 144mg/dl, and the detection limit was 0.18mg/dl. The sensor was used to wirelessly monitor fish glucose levels. The sensor-calibrated glucose levels and actual blood glucose levels were in excellent agreement. The fluid of the inner sclera of the fish eyeball (EISF) was a suitable site for sensor implantation to obtain glucose sample. There was a close correlation between glucose concentrations in the EISF and those in the blood. Glucose concentrations in fish blood could be monitored in free-swimming fish in an aquarium for 3 days.

  15. Chromium yeast supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose and LDL-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Ya-Yen; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2006-11-01

    Chromium yeast supplementation has been studied for its ability to improve carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities. There have been some earlier literature-reported studies involving chromium supplementation amongst patients suffering diabetes, but the results would appear to be somewhat varied. Forty male Wistar rats (ten weeks old, 300 g in average body mass) were divided into one of four groups, namely (i) controls; (ii) controls treated with chromium yeast; (iii) diabetic controls; and (iv) diabetic rats treated with chromium yeast. In the present investigation, the effect of a four-week oral administration of chromium yeast (600 microg of Cr/kg body mass/day, by gavage) upon the glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was assessed. Supplemental Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose amongst the STZ-diabetic rats. No significant difference was observed in plasma fructosamine levels of rats treated with chromium yeast compared to control rats. Supplemental Cr yeast did decrease the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level for the STZ-diabetic rats as compared to controls. We noted no significant effect of chromium supplementation upon plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol or triglycerides compared to controls. Treatment with chromium yeast significantly increased the blood and urine chromium levels for both the diabetic and normal rats compared to respective control groups. The results of these studies suggest that Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose and LDL-cholesterol levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. This raises the possibility that Cr yeast supplementation can be considered to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism amongst human patients featuring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG–LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG–LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  17. Control of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism by the Oral Hypoglycemic Sulfonylureas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-11

    another In vitro study, Vignerl, et al. (1982) were unable to detect any effect on Insulin binding to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, IM-9 human cultured...according to the method of Huljlng (1970). Aspirgillus niger amyloglucosidase (1,4 a- glucan glucohy- drolase; E.C. 3.2.1.3), (0.5 U) and 0.38 U of porcine...pancreatic a-amylase (1,6 a- glucan glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.1), in 1.0 ml of 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.8) were added to the glycogen 34

  18. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-15

    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients.

  19. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  20. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  1. Blood Glucose Measurement in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huong T.; Harris, Neil S.; Estilong, Abby J.; Olson, Arvid; Rice, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal glucose measurements are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients for numerous reasons and hypoglycemia is especially dangerous because these patients are often sedated and unable to relate the associated symptoms. Additionally, wide swings in blood glucose have been closely tied to increased mortality. Therefore, accurate and timely glucose measurement in this population is critical. Clinicians have several choices available to assess blood glucose values in the ICU, including central laboratory devices, blood gas analyzers, and point-of-care meters. In this review, the method of glucose measurement will be reviewed for each device, and the important characteristics, including accuracy, cost, speed of result, and sample volume, will be reviewed, specifically as these are used in the ICU environment. Following evaluation of the individual measurement devices and after considering the many features of each, recommendations are made for optimal ICU glucose determination. PMID:23567008

  2. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  3. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  4. Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia after orally administered acyclovir therapy.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L; Herbst, J S; Ablashi, D V; Atherton, S; Frank, B; Rosen, L; Horwitz, S N

    1988-01-15

    To define the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplakia, 13 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men with clinical and histologic evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia were enrolled in an open-label trial of orally administered acyclovir therapy (3.2 g/d for 20 days). Of six patients who received therapy, five exhibited clinical regression. Once therapy was discontinued, recurrences occurred in all responders. Among seven patients who refused therapy, no spontaneous remissions occurred. Before therapy, EBV replication within the leukoplakia was demonstrated by immunofluorescence tissue staining or electron microscopy in five patients who were studied. Human papillomavirus was not detected by immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy from tissue specimens of six patients. After therapy, biopsy specimens from two patients with complete responses revealed a normalization of histologic abnormalities and an inability to detect EBV in previously involved mucosa by immunofluorescence or in situ DNA hybridization assays. It was concluded that EBV replication within the epithelial cells of the tongue is necessary for the development of oral hairy leukoplakia.

  5. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  6. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  7. Loss of Sugar Detection by GLUT2 Affects Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, Emilie; Le Gall, Maude; Even, Patrick; Houllier, Anne; Serradas, Patricia; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Leturque, Armelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. Conclusions/Significance Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:18074013

  8. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

    2012-07-15

    Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety.

  9. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  10. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  11. Liver glucose metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Pérez-Felpete, Noemi; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Pazos-García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP–glucose. Minor amounts of UDP–glucose are used to form UDP–glucuronate and UDP–galactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glucose is present within the hepatocyte. Finally, glucose 6-phosphate may produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism supplies intermediates for glycosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins and lipids that modulates their activity. Congenital deficiency of phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-1 and PGM-3 is associated with impaired glycosylation. In addition to metabolize carbohydrates, the liver produces glucose to be used by other tissues, from glycogen breakdown or from de novo synthesis using primarily lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). PMID:27707936

  12. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  13. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenliang; Liu, Rong; Cui, Houxin; Xu, Kexin; Lv, Lina

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed, and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/l, respectively.

  15. Pregnane X receptor agonists impair postprandial glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rysä, J; Buler, M; Savolainen, M J; Ruskoaho, H; Hakkola, J; Hukkanen, J

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a randomized, open, placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate the effects of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist rifampin on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 healthy volunteers. The subjects were administered 600 mg rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days, and OGTT was performed on the eighth day. The mean incremental glucose and insulin areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC(incr)) increased by 192% (P = 0.008) and 45% (P = 0.031), respectively. The fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, were not affected. The glucose AUC(incr) during OGTT was significantly increased in rats after 4-day treatment with pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), an agonist of the rat PXR. The hepatic level of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) mRNA was downregulated by PCN. In conclusion, both human and rat PXR agonists elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, suggesting a detrimental role of PXR activation on glucose tolerance.

  16. Modulation of glucose transporters in rat diaphragm by sodium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Girón, M D; Caballero, J J; Vargas, A M; Suárez, M D; Guinovart, J J; Salto, R

    2003-05-08

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. We examined the effects of 6 weeks of oral administration of tungstate on glucose transporters (GLUT) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat diaphragm. Diabetes decreased GLUT4 expression while tungstate treatment normalized not only GLUT4 protein but also GLUT4 mRNA in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, treatment increased GLUT4 protein in plasma and internal membranes, suggesting a stimulation of its translocation to the plasma membrane. Tungstate had no effect on healthy animals. There were no differences in the total amount of GLUT1 transporter in any group. We conclude that the normoglycemic effect of tungstate may be partly due to a normalization of the levels and subcellular localization of GLUT4, which should result in an increase in muscle glucose uptake.

  17. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in C57BL6/J Mice: Partial Improvement with Cessation of the Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Jan; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Drager, Luciano F.; Undem, Clark; McHugh, Holly; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although several studies have suggested that intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea may induce abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, it remains to be determined whether these abnormalities improve after discontinuation of the exposure. The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of intermittent hypoxia on glucose homeostasis, beta cell function, and liver glucose metabolism and to investigate whether the impairments improve after the hypoxic exposure is discontinued. Interventions: C57BL6/J mice were exposed to 14 days of intermittent hypoxia, 14 days of intermittent air, or 7 days of intermittent hypoxia followed by 7 days of intermittent air (recovery paradigm). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to estimate whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculate measures of beta cell function. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue and glucose output from isolated hepatocytes were also assessed. Results: Intermittent hypoxia increased fasting glucose levels and worsened glucose tolerance by 67% and 27%, respectively. Furthermore, intermittent hypoxia exposure was associated with impairments in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, an increase in liver glycogen, higher hepatocyte glucose output, and an increase in oxidative stress in the pancreas. While fasting glucose levels and hepatic glucose output normalized after discontinuation of the hypoxic exposure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impairments in beta cell function persisted. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxia induces insulin resistance, impairs beta cell function, enhances hepatocyte glucose output, and increases oxidative stress in the pancreas. Cessation of the hypoxic exposure does not fully reverse the observed changes in glucose metabolism. Citation: Polak J; Shimoda LA; Drager LF; Undem C; McHugh H; Polotsky VY; Punjabi NM

  18. Glucose intolerance following cis-platinum treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R S; Mayor, G H; Rosenbaum, R W; Hook, J B; Santiago, J V; Bond, J T

    1982-01-01

    cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (cis-Pt) is a heavy metal complex used in cancer chemotherapy. Since this drug has been shown to induce hyperglycemia in rats, these studies were initiated to elucidate the effects of cis-Pt on carbohydrate tolerance and insulin and glucagon secretion. Two days following i.v. cis-Pt (2.5 or 7.5 mg/kg, 5 ml/kg) or vehicle administration to male F-344 rats, plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucagon (IRG) concentrations were determined in the basal state and serially following a glucose load (2 g/kg, i.p.). Since cis-Pt induces a dose-related anorexia, a pair-fed control group was also studied. Administration of 7.5 mg/kg cis-Pt was associated with plasma glucose concentrations 2.5-5 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls at every time point during the 2-h glucose tolerance test. Although basal plasma IRI concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were comparable to ad-libitum fed controls, they were significantly greater than those of pair-fed partners. Furthermore, the appropriate IRI response to a glucose stimulus observed in both controls and the 2.5-mg/kg group was absent in the 7.5-mg/kg group. Basal plasma IRG concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were approximately 3-4 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls and were not suppressed following a glucose load. These results suggest that cis-Pt induces marked glucose intolerance in association with an impaired IRI response and abnormal glucagon response to a glucose stimulus.

  19. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  20. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  1. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  2. First Clinical Evaluation of a New Percutaneous Optical Fiber Glucose Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background This article describes a new fiber-coupled, percutaneous fluorescent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system that has shown 14 days of functionality in a human clinical trial. Method The new optical CGM system (FiberSense) consists of a transdermal polymer optical fiber containing a biochemical glucose sensor and a small fluorescence photometer optically coupled to the fiber. The glucose-sensitive optical fiber was implanted in abdominal and upper-arm subcutaneous tissue of six diabetes patients and remained there for up to 14 days. The performance of the system was monitored during six visits to the study center during the trial. Blood glucose changes were induced by oral carbohydrate intake and insulin injections, and capillary blood glucose samples were obtained from the finger tip. The data were analyzed using linear regression and the consensus error grid analysis. Results The FiberSense worn at the upper arm exhibited excellent results during 14 wearing days, with an overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.3% and 94.6% of the data in zone A of the consensus error grid. At the abdominal application site, FiberSense resulted in a MARD of 11.4 %, with 93.8% of the data in zone A. Conclusions The FiberSense CGM system provided consistent, reliable measurements of subcutaneous glucose levels in human clinical trial patients with diabetes for up to 14 days. PMID:23439156

  3. Glyceollins, soy isoflavone phytoalexins, improve oral glucose disposal by stimulating glucose uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyceollins (glyceollin I, II, and III), isoflavone phytoalexins synthesized by soy in response to environmental stresses such as microbial infections. Glyceollins exhibited anti-cancer and anti-diabetes effects: previously we showed that glyceollins inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro and in viv...

  4. Contrasting effects of puerarin and daidzin on glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Meezan, Elias; Meezan, Elisabeth M; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan K

    2005-11-02

    Puerarin and daidzin are the major isoflavone glucosides found in kudzu dietary supplements. In this study, we demonstrated that puerarin significantly improves glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J-ob/ob mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, blunting the rise in blood glucose levels after i.p. administration of glucose. In contrast, daidzin, the O-glucoside, had a significant but opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance as compared to saline-treated controls. When they were administered i.p. with (14)C-glucose to C57BL/6J lean mice, puerarin inhibited glucose uptake into tissues and incorporation into glycogen, while daidzin stimulated glucose uptake, showing an opposite effect to puerarin. Puerarin also antagonized the stimulatory effect of decyl-beta-D-thiomaltoside, an artificial primer of glycogen synthesis, which increases (14)C-glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen in mouse liver and heart. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure was used to investigate the metabolism and bioavailability of puerarin and daidzin. The blood puerarin concentration-time curve by i.p. and oral administration indicated that puerarin was four times more bioavailable via i.p. injection than via the oral route of administration. This may account for the increased hypoglycemic effect seen in the i.p. glucose tolerance test vs that seen orally. Our results suggest that puerarin is rapidly absorbed from the intestine without metabolism, while daidzin is hydrolyzed to the aglycone daidzein. The opposing effects of puerarin and daidzin on glucose homeostasis may have implications for the activity of dietary supplements that contain both of these isoflavonoids.

  5. Glucose elicits cephalic-phase insulin release in mice by activating KATP channels in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Frim, Yonina G; Hochman, Ayelet; Lubitz, Gabrielle S; Basile, Anthony J; Sclafani, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the gustatory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647, or a nonmetabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1, and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP) channel and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic β-cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR.

  6. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  7. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  8. Robert K. Crane—Na+-glucose cotransporter to cure?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kirk L.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a “cotransport” of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physiological explanation for the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea and cholera when using oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT saves millions of lives each year. Certainly, humankind is better off because of Crane's hypothesis of the Na+-glucose cotransporter that he put forth over 50 years ago? PMID:23525627

  9. Mastocytosis: oral implications of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Rama, T A; Côrte-Real, I; Gomes, P S; Escribano, L; Fernandes, M H

    2011-07-01

    Mastocytosis encompasses a group of rare clinical entities, which are characterized by an abnormal growth and, usually, low accumulation of clonal and morphologically abnormal mast cells (MCs), within one or more organs. Clinical presentations are quite variable and symptoms are usually related to the release of mast cell mediators, tissue infiltration by MC (usually in the aggressive categories of the disease), or both. Mast cells are hematopoietic-derived cells that reach phenotypic maturity in the mucosa and peripheral connective tissues. These cells play an active role both on immunologic and non-immunologic processes. Within the oral cavity, MCs reside in the connective tissues, in physiologic conditions, and their number is elevated in pathologic situations resulting from immunoinflammatory processes, such as pulpal inflammation and periodontal disease. As MCs influence so many phenomena within the oral cavity, mastocytosis may manifest itself in the oral tissues. Patients with mastocytosis should be put under special care by dental professionals, in what concerns not only general patient management, but also drug prescription, as they are particularly prone to anaphylaxis and other peri and post-operative complications. Several allergens or mast cell activation triggers such as local anesthetics, zinc oxide, eugenol, penicilins, metals and oral hygiene products are frequently administered or prescribed by dentists. Patients with mastocytosis may also require stress management, during dental consultation. This review aims to briefly summarize the potential ways in which mast cell disease may affect the oral cavity and the dental management of mastocytosis affected patients.

  10. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T4) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T4-treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T4 treatment increased the influx of T4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis.

  12. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  13. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  14. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  15. [Hypoglycaemic coma due to falsely elevated glucose values in a patient with diabetes mellitus and peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, W A; Bruijns, R H J; Vastenburg, G; Wouters, R S M E

    2006-07-15

    A 45-year-old female diabetes-mellitus patient on peritoneal dialysis was admitted because of vertigo. During her stay in hospital she developed a comatose condition with abnormal head posture and deviation ofthe eyes to the left. Capillary blood from the fingertip showed a glucose value of 15.4 mmol/l. However, the automatically obtained glucose value delivered with a blood-gas analysis was found to be 1.2 mmol/l. The neurological state of the patient normalised fully after intravenous glucose administration. The glucose values were falsely elevated because the patient used a peritoneal dialysis fluid at night which contained icodextrin as an osmotic agent. Metabolites of icodextrin can influence blood-glucose measurements taken using analyzers that depend on the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. To prevent potentially life-threatening situations, the use of an adequate glucose meter is of paramount importance.

  16. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Paul, Robert H; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2012-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA (FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies.

  17. Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lansey, Melissa N; Walker, Natalie N; Hargett, Stefan R; Stevens, Joseph R; Keller, Susanna R

    2012-11-15

    Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. In cultured cells, Rab GAP AS160 controls GLUT4 intracellular retention and release to the cell surface and consequently regulates glucose uptake into cells. To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160(-/-)) mice. We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160(-/-) adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. No such abnormalities were found in isolated AS160(-/-) extensor digitorum longus muscles. In plasma membranes isolated from AS160(-/-) adipose tissue and gastrocnemius/quadriceps, relative GLUT4 levels were increased under basal conditions and remained the same after insulin treatment. Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160(-/-) adipocytes and normal in AS160(-/-) soleus under basal conditions. Insulin augmented cell surface-exposed GLUT4 in both. These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. In vivo studies revealed impaired insulin tolerance in the presence of normal (male) and impaired (female) glucose tolerance. Concurrently, insulin-elicited increases in glucose disposal were abolished in all AS160(-/-) skeletal muscles and liver but not in AS160(-/-) adipose tissues. This suggests AS160 as a target for differential manipulation of glucose homeostasis.

  18. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  19. Validation of Point-of-Care Glucose Testing for Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana; Radišić Biljak, Vanja; Božičević, Sandra; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ljubić, Spomenka

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) glucose technology is currently considered to be insufficiently accurate for the diagnosis of diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an innovative, interference-resistant POC glucose meter (StatStrip glucose hospital meter, Nova Biomedical, USA) in subjects with a previous history of dysglycaemia, undergoing a 75 g diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). Venous and capillary blood sampling for the reference laboratory procedure (RLP) and POC-glucose measurement was carried out at fasting and 2 h oGTT, and categories of glucose tolerance were classified according to 2006 WHO diagnostic criteria for the respective sample type. We found an excellent between-method correlation at fasting (r = 0.9681, P < 0.0001) and 2 h oGTT (r = 0.9768, P < 0.0001) and an almost perfect diagnostic agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.858). Within a total of 237 study subjects, 137 were diagnosed with diabetes with RLP, and only 6 of them were reclassified as having glucose intolerance with POC. The diagnostic performance of POC-fasting glucose in discriminating between the normal and any category of disturbed glucose tolerance did not differ from the RLP (P = 0.081). Results of this study indicate that StatStrip POC glucose meter could serve as a reliable tool for the diabetes diagnosis, particularly in primary healthcare facilities with dispersed blood sampling services.

  20. Hepatic overexpression of a constitutively active form of liver glycogen synthase improves glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ros, Susana; Zafra, Delia; Valles-Ortega, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Forrow, Stephen; Domínguez, Jorge; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2010-11-26

    In this study, we tested the efficacy of increasing liver glycogen synthase to improve blood glucose homeostasis. The overexpression of wild-type liver glycogen synthase in rats had no effect on blood glucose homeostasis in either the fed or the fasted state. In contrast, the expression of a constitutively active mutant form of the enzyme caused a significant lowering of blood glucose in the former but not the latter state. Moreover, it markedly enhanced the clearance of blood glucose when fasted rats were challenged with a glucose load. Hepatic glycogen stores in rats overexpressing the activated mutant form of liver glycogen synthase were enhanced in the fed state and in response to an oral glucose load but showed a net decline during fasting. In order to test whether these effects were maintained during long term activation of liver glycogen synthase, we generated liver-specific transgenic mice expressing the constitutively active LGS form. These mice also showed an enhanced capacity to store glycogen in the fed state and an improved glucose tolerance when challenged with a glucose load. Thus, we conclude that the activation of liver glycogen synthase improves glucose tolerance in the fed state without compromising glycogenolysis in the postabsorptive state. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the activation of liver glycogen synthase may provide a potential strategy for improvement of glucose tolerance in the postprandial state.

  1. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. Methods We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537). Results HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. Conclusions HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence

  2. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  4. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  5. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  6. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  7. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  8. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  9. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. Citation: Yang KI, Kim HK, Baek J, Kim DE, Park HK. Abnormal nocturnal behavior due to hypoglycemia in a patient with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):627–629. PMID:26943712

  10. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  11. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  12. [Glucose homeostasis in children. I. Regulation of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Otto Buczkowska, E; Szirer, G; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2001-01-01

    The amount of glucose in the circulation depends on its absorption from the intestine, uptake by and release from the liver and uptake by peripheral tissues. Insulin and glucagon together control the metabolities required by peripheral tissues and both are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein, lipid and glycogen. The key target tissues for insulin are liver, muscles and adipose tissue. Glucagon acts largely to increase catabolic processes. Between meals or during fast, the most tightly regulated process is the release of glucose from the liver. During fasting glucose is produced from glycogen and is formed by enzymes on the gluconeogenic pathway. Fetal metabolism is directed to ensure anabolism with formation of glycogen, fat and protein. Glucogen is stored in the liver and serves as the immediate source of new glucose during first few hours after birth. Glucose is the most important substrate for brain metabolism. Due to the large size of neonatal brain in relation to body weight cerebral glucose consumption is particularly high. Postnatal hormonal changes have a central role in regulating glucose mobilization through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The initial glucagon surge is the key adaptive change which triggers the switch to glucose production. The control of insulin and glucagon secretion is of fundamental importance during first hours after birth. Children have a decreased tolerance to starvation when compared with adults, they are more prone to develop hypoglycaemia after short fasting. The faster rate in the fall of blood glucose and gluconeogenic substrates and rapid rate of ketogenesis are characteristic features of fasting adaptation in children.

  13. Sex-related differences in peripheral glucose metabolism in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Paula, F J; Pimenta, W P; Saad, M J; Paccola, G M; Piccinato, C E; Foss, M C

    1990-01-01

    The metabolic response of muscle tissue to glucose ingestion was studied in 10 normal men (M) and women (F) by using the forearm balance technique and indirect calorimetry simultaneously. During the 3 hours after a 75 g--oral glucose load, glucose uptake per unit muscle mass was significantly higher in women than in men, F = 187.3 +/- 26.9 vs M = 116.7 +/- 9.5 mg/100 g forearm muscle (P less than 0.05). A significant difference in muscle glucose fate was also observed since the amount of glucose utilized through a nonoxidative pathway was significantly higher in women, F = 84.5 +/- 2.6% (161.8 +/- 27.3 mg/100 g forearm muscle) vs M = 75.3 +/- 2.2% (87.2 +/- 8.6 mg/100 g forearm muscle) (P less than 0.05), whereas the amount of glucose oxidized in relation to glucose uptake was significantly higher in men, M = 24.7 +/- 2.2% (28.2 +/- 3.2 mg/100 g forearm muscle) vs F = 15.5 +/- 2.6% (27.8 +/- 5.4 mg/100 g forearm muscle) (P less than 0.05). No significant differences in insulin response to glucose ingestion were detected between groups. The women showed greater suppression of serum free fatty acids (FFA) levels in relation to basal levels than men. We conclude that: 1) after ingesting 75 g glucose, normal women showed greater glucose uptake per unit muscle mass than normal men, 2) for 3 hours after the ingestion of 75 g glucose, the predominant tendency toward utilizing glucose by a nonoxidative pathway is more marked in normal women than in normal men, and 3) the higher glucose uptake per unit muscle mass in the female group in the presence of an insulin response not significantly different from that of the male group suggests that muscle insulin sensitivity is greater in normal women.

  14. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  15. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Jin, J Y; Baek, W K; Park, S H; Sung, H Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J; Song, D K

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia is a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption still requires confirmation. We report the effects of circulating green tea catechins on blood glucose and insulin levels. Oral glucose loading 1 h after GTE ingestion in humans led to higher blood glucose and insulin levels than in control subjects. Gallated catechins were required for these effects, although within the intestinal lumen they have been known to decrease glucose and cholesterol absorption. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate hindered 2-deoxyglucose uptake into liver, fat, pancreatic beta-cell, and skeletal muscle cell lines. The glucose intolerance was ameliorated by gallated catechin-deficient GTE or GTE mixed with polyethylene glycol, which was used as an inhibitor of intestinal absorption of gallated catechins. These findings may suggest that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect.

  16. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  17. Distribution of fasting plasma glucose and prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in the Mexican paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Violante, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2009-07-01

    Published data on the distribution of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in children are scarce. We therefore set out to examine the distribution of FPG and determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2-DM) in Mexican children aged 6-18 years in a community-based cross-sectional study. A total of 1534 apparently healthy children were randomly enrolled and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. IFG was defined by an FPG value between >or=100 and <126 mg/dL, IGT by glucose concentration 2-h post-load between >or=140 and <200 mg/dL, and T2-DM by glucose concentration 2-h post-load >or=200 mg/dL. The FPG level at the 75(th) percentile of distribution was 98.0, 100.0 and 99.0 mg/dL for children aged 6-9, 10-14 and 15-18 years, respectively; the 95(th) percentile of FPG was greater than 100 mg/dL for all the age strata. In the population overall, the prevalences of IFG, IGT, and T2-DM were 18.3%, 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. Among obese children and adolescents, the prevalences of IFG, IGT, IFG + IGT and T2-DM were 19.1%, 5.7%, 2.5% and 1.3%. Our study shows a high prevalence of prediabetes and is the first that reports the distribution of FPG in Mexican children and adolescents.

  18. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  19. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes. PMID:25068013

  20. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  1. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress.

  2. Acute elevation of endogenous prolactin does not influence glucose homeostasis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects.

  3. Influence of temperature on the precision of noninvasive glucose sensing by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Chen, Yun; Xu, Kexin

    2008-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the monitoring of blood glucose concentration is limited by many ambiguous factors, which leads to the prediction precision is not satisfied. Due to the weak interested signal and the difficulty to quantify the physiological noise directly, the absorbance induced by glucose concentration and temperature was analyzed based on Beer-Lambert Law and displacement between glucose and water. Then the transmittance of glucose aqueous solution in different temperatures was measured by spectrometer to investigate the influence of glucose concentration and temperature. As it's difficult to distinguish the influence of temperature from the diffuse reflectance, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to compute the light intensity induced by the change in glucose concentration and physiological temperature. Finally, the influence of actual physiological temperature on the prediction model of glucose concentration was estimated based on the oral glucose tolerance tests of two diabetics. The result showed that, near the normal physiological temperature, the intensity of diffuse reflectance caused by -0.1 °C change in temperature was equivalent to that caused by 2.7 mmol/L change in glucose concentration. Moreover, the proportion of prediction error induced by temperature to the total error was more than 50%.

  4. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  5. Fermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Massimino, S P; McBurney, M I; Field, C J; Thomson, A B; Keelan, M; Hayek, M G; Sunvold, G D

    1998-10-01

    Ileal proglucagon gene expression and postprandial plasma concentrations of proglucagon-derived peptides are reported to change with the type and quantity of dietary fiber ingested by rats. Within the intestine, proglucagon encodes several proglucagon-derived peptides known to modulate intestinal absorption capacity and pancreatic insulin secretion. To determine whether the chronic ingestion of fermentable dietary fiber regulates the expression and synthesis of proglucagon-derived peptides in the distal intestine to modulate glucose homeostasis, the following study was conducted: 16 adult dogs (23 +/- 2 kg) were fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing a mixture of high fermentable dietary fibers (HFF) or low fermentable (LFF) wood cellulose for 14 d in a randomized cross-over design. Food was withheld for 16 h before an oral glucose tolerance test was conducted supplying 2 g of glucose/kg body wt, and peripheral blood was collected via a hind-leg catheter at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)NH2 (GLP-1) analyses. Intestinal samples were collected after the second dietary treatment. Ileal proglucagon mRNA, intestinal (GLP-1) concentrations and the integrated area under the curves (AUC) for plasma GLP-1 and insulin were greater and plasma glucose AUC was reduced when dogs were fed the HFF diet compared to the LFF diet (P < 0.05). Intestinal villi heights, brush border and basolateral glucose transporter protein abundance and jejunal transport capacities were significantly greater when dogs were fed the HFF diet than when fed the LFF diet. In conclusion, improvements in glucose homeostasis are observed in healthy dogs when they ingest fermentable fibers.

  6. Identifying glucose thresholds for incident diabetes by physiological analysis: a mathematical solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Manca, Maria Laura

    2015-04-01

    Plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are currently based on outcome data (risk of retinopathy), an inherently ill-conditioned approach. A radically different approach is to consider the mechanisms that control plasma glucose, rather than its relation to an outcome. We developed a constraint optimization algorithm to find the minimal glucose levels associated with the maximized combination of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, the two main mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. We used a training cohort of 1,474 subjects (22% prediabetic, 7.7% diabetic) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the clamp technique and β-cell function was determined by mathematical modeling of an oral glucose tolerance test. Optimized fasting glucose levels were ≤ 87 and ≤ 89 mg/dl in ≤ 45-yr-old women and men, respectively, and ≤ 92 and ≤ 95 mg/dl in >45-yr-old women and men, respectively; the corresponding optimized 2-h glucose levels were ≤ 96, ≤ 98, ≤ 103, and ≤ 105 mg/dl. These thresholds were validated in three prospective cohorts of nondiabetic subjects (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study, Botnia Study, and Mexico City Diabetes Study) with baseline and follow-up oral glucose tolerance tests. Of 5,593 participants, 452 progressed to diabetes. Similarly, in the three cohorts, subjects with glucose levels above the estimated thresholds had an odds ratio of 3.74 (95% confidence interval = 2.64-5.48) of progressing, substantially higher than the risk carried by baseline conventionally defined prediabetes [odds ratio = 2.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.91-2.81)]. The concept that optimization of glucose concentrations by direct measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function identifies gender- and age-specific thresholds that bear on disease progression is proven in a physiologically sound, quantifiable manner.

  7. Common and unusual dental development abnormalities in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Răducanu, Anca Maria; Feraru, Ion Victor; Suciu, Ioana; Teodorescu, Elina; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Ionescu, Ileana; Ionescu, Ecaterina

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital abnormality of the heart. In this condition, instead of three cusps, the aortic valve has two cusps. Children with congenital heart diseases are at increased risk of developing oral diseases, such as: higher number of decayed teeth, developmental anomalies, periodontal disease, malocclusion, dental crowding, as well as susceptibility to develop infective endocarditis from bacteremia caused by chronic poor oral health. However, little information is available regarding oral manifestations and their management in patients with congenital heart defects, despite the importance of these diseases. This paper presents oral manifestations associated with BAV in a young patient, alongside the general features of the condition. The presented case with BAV brings together features of a complex pathology and multidisciplinary treatment, which was conducted over a long period of time and still continues nowadays.

  8. [Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism.

  9. Blood glucose clearance after feeding and exercise in polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    De La Corte, F D; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Hower-Moritz, M

    1999-07-01

    Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in Quarter Horses (QH) and QH crosses is a glycogen storage disorder in which blood glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity, following an i.v. or oral glucose challenge, are enhanced. Exercise is known also to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in many animal species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of exercise on glucose clearance in PSSM and control horses when an oral carbohydrate meal (8 Mcal sweet feed) was fed following either 12 h fasting alone (NEX protocol) or following fasting and a standard exercise protocol (EX protocol). In the NEX protocol, horses fasted 12 h and then were fed 8 megacalories (Mcal) of sweet feed (2.3 kg). In the EX protocol, horses were fed sweet feed 2 h after an exercise test (SET). Blood glucose was analysed for < 480 min after feeding. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the EX protocol. With the NEX protocol, the mean of all blood glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly lower in fed-PSSM horses than controls (P < 0.013). The EX protocol in control horses caused a less pronounced percentage change in glucose concentration from baseline following feeding compared to the NEX protocol (mean peak EX 26.5% vs. NEX 70.2%, respectively) (P < 0.0003). In PSSM horses, the EX protocol also resulted in a lower percent change in glucose concentration following feeding compared to the NEX protocol (44.7 vs. 67.5%, respectively) (P = 0.021). The magnitude of the difference in percentage change of blood glucose concentration with the EX protocol was less in PSSM than that seen for controls (mean peak PSSM-EX 44.7% vs. 26.5% for controls, respectively) (P < 0.006). No significant differences in the insulin:glucose ratios were found for control horses between NEX and EX. In PSSM horses, the insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased in the EX vs. NEX. In conclusion, exercise in normal horses results in enhanced glucose clearance following

  10. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood--developing dentition and oral habits: a current opinion.

    PubMed

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    As most of the etiologic factors of malocclusion are of genetic origin and thus cannot be prevented, environmental causative factors have become the focus for correction. Early interception of oral habits may be an important step in order to prevent occlusal disturbances in children. The identification of an abnormal habit and the assessment of its potential immediate and long-term effects on the dentition and potentially on the craniofacial complex should be made at an early stage. This paper focuses on the most common oral habits influencing dentofacial growth in childhood and management of these habits in the developing dentition.

  11. Assessment of dental abnormalities by full-mouth radiography in small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Geun; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate full-mouth radiographic findings to determine the prevalence of dental abnormalities and analyze the relationship between dental abnormalities and age in small breed dogs. Sixteen predetermined categories of abnormal radiographic findings were evaluated in 233 small breed dogs. In total, 9,786 possible permanent teeth could be evaluated. Of those, 8,308 teeth were evaluated and abnormal radiographic findings were found in 2,458 teeth (29.6%). The most common teeth with abnormal radiographic findings were the mandibular first molars (74.5% on the left and 63.9% on the right) and the maxillary fourth premolars (40.5% on the left and 38.2% on the right). Bone loss of any type (15.8%) was the most commonly detected radiographic abnormal finding among the 16 categories. Dental conditions with a genetic predisposition were frequently occurred in the mandibular premolar teeth. Shih tzu frequently had unerupted teeth and dentigerous cysts. Among the teeth with abnormal radiographic findings, 4.5%, 19.8%, and 5.3% were considered incidental, additional, and important, respectively. Findings that were only detected on radiographs, which were not noted on routine oral examination, were more common in older dogs. Full-mouth radiographic evaluation should be performed to obtain important information for making accurate diagnoses.

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in neurofibromatosis type 1 assessed with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET.

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, P; Lucignani, G; Fois, A; Magliani, L; Calistri, L; Grana, C; Di Bartolo, R M; Perani, D; Fazio, F

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral PET with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose has been performed in four patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to assess the relation between cerebral metabolic activity, MRI, and the presence of neurological symptoms, including seizures, as well as mental and language retardation. Widespread hypometabolism occurred in three of the patients. The lesions on MRI, which were localised in the subcortical white matter and grey structures, had normal rates of glucose metabolism. This finding suggests that the abnormalities seen on MRI are not due to defective blood supply, localised oedema, or grey matter heterotopic foci as previously hypothesised. The presence of the hypometabolic areas seems to be inconsistently related to the occurrence of seizures and is not proportional to the degree of mental impairment. This study provides evidence of a widespread cerebral hypometabolism that is not related to the presence of MRI abnormalities; conversely normal metabolism was present in the areas with an abnormal MRI signal. Images PMID:7798976

  13. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O

    1997-12-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.

  14. Effect of acipimox on plasma lipids and glucose/insulin in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vera, I; Bonet, B; Viana, M; Herrera, E; Indart, A

    2002-01-01

    To determine how a reduction in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late pregnancy may affect glucose/insulin relationships, pregnant and virgin rats were orally treated with acipimox, a potent antilipolytic agent. In 20-day pregnant rats receiving 80 mg of acipimox, plasma triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glycerol decreased more than in virgin rats shortly after the drug (up to 7 hours), when compared with animals treated with distilled water, whereas plasma glucose level was unaffected by the treatment in either group of rats. When acipimox was given every 12 hours from day 17 to day 20 of pregnancy, plasma TG, FFA, and glycerol levels progressively increased, whereas they either decreased or did not change in virgin rats receiving the same treatment, with no effect in plasma glucose levels in either group. Fetal body weight was lower than in controls in 20-day pregnant rats that received acipimox for 3 days. On day 20 of pregnancy, 3 hours after receiving acipimox or distilled water, rats received a 2 g glucose/kg oral load and it was found that the change in plasma glucose was similar in both groups, whereas the increase in plasma insulin was greater in pregnant rats treated with acipimox. However, no difference was found in either variable after the oral glucose load in virgin rats receiving acipimox or distilled water. No differences in plasma glucose levels were found after intravenous (i.v.) administration of insulin in pregnant rats treated or not treated with acipimox. In conclusion, present results show that administration of acipimox during the last days of gestation inhibited lipolysis and decreased fetal weight. Over a short period of time, in pregnant rats, reductions of plasma FFA and TG after acipimox treatment improved the glucose-induced insulin release, but did not seem to have any effect in peripheral insulin resistance.

  15. Sweet delusion. Glucose drinks fail to counteract ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals' performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N=115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications.

  16. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation.

  17. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Critical Role of Oral-Facial Growth: Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese children. Method: Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of data of long-term recurrence of OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Results: Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral-facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional reeducation with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Conclusion: Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral-facial growth. PMID:23346072

  18. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  19. Radiographic basal ganglia abnormalities secondary to nonketotic hyperglycemia with unusual clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ju Young; Park, Joon Min; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Jun Seok; Shin, Dong Wun; Kim, Hoon; Jeon, Woo Chan; Kim, Hyun Jong

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for altered consciousness and presented with a suspected basal ganglion hemorrhage detected on brain computed tomography. The patient was stuporous, but her vital signs were stable. Her initial blood glucose was 607 mg/dL, and a hyperdense lesion was found in the right basal ganglion on brain computed tomography. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity in the right basal ganglion. Electroencephalography showed no seizure activity. The patient was treated with a fluid infusion, and serum glucose level was controlled with insulin. The patient gradually recovered consciousness and was alert within 24 hours as serum glucose level normalized. The basal ganglion lesion caused by hyperglycemia was not accompanied by involuntary limb movement. This is the first report of a patient presenting with decreased consciousness and typical neural radiographic changes associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia but without movement abnormalities. PMID:28168232

  20. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.