Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal oral glucose

  1. Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Herdzik, E; Safranow, K; Ciechanowski, K

    2002-04-01

    New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l. In contrast to recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), WHO recommends using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in clinical practice. In this study. based on OGTT results and WHO 1998 criteria, we determined if measuring fasting capillary glycaemia (FCG) along with fructosamine and/or glycosylated haemoglobin allows the detection of glucose tolerance abnormalities better than FCG alone. OGTT was performed in 538 patients. Serum fructosamine was determined in 480 of the patients, and glycosylated haemoglobin in 234 of the patients. According to WHO 1998 criteria, the patients were divided into groups due to glucose tolerance abnormalities. Fructosamine correlated stronger with 2-h post-load glucose concentrations than with FCG. HbAlc correlated stronger with FCG than with 2-h post-load glucose. Combined use of fructosamine and FCG predicted 2-h post-load glucose better than combined use of FCG and HbA1c. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that FCG was the best criterion in discriminating diabetes. Combined use of FCG and fructosamine slightly improved the ability to discriminate glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. FCG is the most effective predictor of 2-h post-load glucose and the best criterion for discriminating diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. Fructosamine is a potentially useful post-load glycaemia index. OGTT is irreplaceable in identification of patients with high post-load glycaemia.

  2. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  3. Placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio are increased in diet- and exercise-treated gestational diabetes mellitus subjects but not in subjects with one abnormal value on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Mert; Doymaz, Fadime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio (PW/BW) increased in pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and diet- and exercise-treated, non-insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects. The 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) was administered to 324 pregnant women. Women with abnormal 50-g test received a 100-g, 3-h OGTT using National Diabetes Data Group criteria. Women with GDM and OAV were treated with diet and exercise. Twenty subjects who required insulin or met exclusion criteria were excluded from the study. After the exclusion of 20 subjects, the GDM group consisted of 30 (9.7%) pregnant women and the OAV group consisted of 32 (9.9%) pregnant women. The control group consisted of 242 pregnant women. Birth weight (GDM: 3288.3+/-364.2 g; OAV: 3278.1+/-409.9 g; control group: 3270.6+/-346.5 g) did not differ significantly between groups (P>.05). Significantly higher placental weights (GDM: 694.8+/-152.1 g; OAV: 622.2+/-105.3 g; control group: 610.2+/-116.6 g; P<.01) and PW/BW (GDM: 0.21+/-0.03; OAV: 0.193+/-0.04; control group: 0.188+/-0.04; P<.01) were observed in GDM group compared to OAV and control group. No significant difference was found for OAV group in terms of placental weight and PW/BW compared to the control group. Our data indicated that women with OAV delivered infants and placenta of similar weight to those of normal pregnancies.

  4. Analgesic Effect of Oral Glucose in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Jatana, S K; Dalal, S S; Wilson, C G

    2003-04-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain, has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience connected with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage". It was thought that the newborn baby does not experience pain because of incompletely developed nervous system. However, it has been shown that neurological system known to be associated with pain transmission and modulation, is intact and functional. A study was conducted in our center to study the analgesic effect of administration of oral glucose in various concentrations, in neonates undergoing heel punctures, for collection of blood for investigations. This was compared with the analgesic effects of breast milk (which contains lactose). 125 full term normal neonates with no history of birth asphyxia or underlying neurological abnormality, requiring heel punctures for collection of blood for various investigations were selected for the study. They were matched for gestational age, birth weight and sex distribution and divided into 5 groups of 25 each. One group comprised control subjects and was administered sterile water. 3 groups were administered 1 ml of varying strengths of glucose solutions i.e. 10%, 25% and 50% respectively. The last group was given 1 ml of expressed breast milk (EBM). Prior to heel pricks, state of arousal, baseline heart rate (HR) and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded by pulse oximeter in each neonate. Autolet, a mechanical device for capillary sampling, was used for heel pricks to give equal strength of painful stimulus in each procedure. Audio tape recorder was used to record the cry. The oral solution was administered slowly over 30 seconds by means of a syringe placed in the mouth. Heel puncture was done after 2 minutes, taking all aseptic precautions. HR and SpO2 were monitored using pulse oximeter. Pain response was assessed, by recording duration of crying, change in HR, change in SpO2 and facial action

  5. Monitoring breath during oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Tabucchi, S; Lomonaco, T; Di Francesco, F; Fuoco, R; Onor, M; Lenzi, S; Trivella, M G

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of breath composition during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) was analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 16 subjects and correlated to blood glucose levels. The glucose tolerance tests classified five of the subjects as diabetics, eight as affected by impaired glucose tolerance and three as normoglycaemic. Acetone levels were generally higher in diabetics (average concentration values: diabetics, 300 ± 40 ppbv; impaired glucose tolerance, 350 ± 30 ppbv; normoglycaemic, 230 ± 20 ppbv) but the large inter-individual variability did not allow us to identify the three groups by this parameter alone. The exhalation of 3-hydroxy-butan-2-one and butane-2,3-dione, likely due to the metabolization of glucose by bacteria in the mouth, was also observed. Future work will involve the extension of the analyses to other volatile compounds by attempting to improve the level of discrimination between the various classes of subjects. PMID:23446273

  6. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Tonoike, Mie; Kishimoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Yano, Tetsu; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications. We used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in pregnant women with glucose intolerance to achieve better glycemic control and to evaluate the maternal glucose fluctuations. We also used CGM in women without glucose intolerance (the control cases). Furthermore, the standard deviation (SD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were calculated for each case. For the control cases, the glucose levels were tightly controlled within a very narrow range; however, the SD and MAGE values in pregnant women with glucose intolerance were relativity high, suggesting postprandial hyperglycemia. Our results demonstrate that pregnant women with glucose intolerance exhibited greater glucose fluctuations compared with the control cases. The use of CGM may help to improve our understanding of glycemic patterns and may have beneficial effects on perinatal glycemic control, such as the detection of postprandial hyperglycemia in pregnant women. PMID:26949348

  7. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Bo, Qingyan; Orsenigo, Roberto; Wang, Junyi; Griffel, Louis; Brass, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D) and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries). This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025) as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%), and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08). Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had no impact on viral response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

  8. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuna; Ma, Guansheng; Zhai, Fengying; Li, Yanping; Hu, Yisong; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Information on dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the food factors and dietary pattern clusters. RESULTS Four dietary pattern clusters were identified (“Green Water,” “Yellow Earth,” “Western Adopter,” and “New Affluence”). The prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities ranged from 3.9% in the Green Water to 8.0% in the New Affluence. After adjustment for area, age, sex, current smoking, and physical activity, subjects in the Yellow Earth cluster (prevalence ratio 1.22 [95% CI 1.04–1.43]) and New Affluence cluster (2.05 [1.76–2.37]) had significantly higher prevalence rates compared with those for the Green Water cluster. After further adjustment for BMI and waist-to-height ratio, the elevated risk in the New Affluence remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Dietary patterns and food factors are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China, even independent of obesity. A New Affluence diet is an important modifiable risk factor, which needs attention from the prevention point of view. PMID:19675202

  9. Pancreatic islet hormone response to oral glucose in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sirinek, K R; O'Dorisio, T M; Howe, B; McFee, A S

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic islet peptides, as well as other gastrointestinal hormones, have been implicated in both the pathogenesis of obesity and the etiology of associated metabolic derangements. This study evaluated the pancreatic islet and gastrointestinal (GI) hormone response to oral glucose in 20 morbidly obese (151% above ideal body weight) patients. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinism, and exaggerated gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) release occurred following glucose ingestion. Significant release of PP occurred in 14 patients, while only six patients had release of somatostatin. No significant changes in plasma concentrations of glucagon occurred. Since GIP is insulinotropic in the presence of hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinism of morbid obesity may be secondary to the abnormally high glucose-stimulated GIP levels in these patients. Failure of glucagon suppression in response to oral glucose many contribute to the hyperglycemia noted. Somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide may be responsible for some of the metabolic derangements of morbid obesity. PMID:2860876

  10. Detection of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Africans Is Improved by Combining A1C With Fasting Glucose: The Africans in America Study

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Caroline K.; O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Ricks, Madia; Chung, Stephanie T.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Lozier, Jay N.; Sacks, David B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Abnormal glucose tolerance is rising in sub-Saharan Africa. Hemoglobin A1c by itself and in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is used to diagnose abnormal glucose tolerance. The diagnostic ability of A1C in Africans with heterozygous variant hemoglobin, such as sickle cell trait or hemoglobin C trait, has not been rigorously evaluated. In U.S.-based Africans, we determined by hemoglobin status the sensitivities of 1) FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L, 2) A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol), and 3) FPG combined with A1C (FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L and/or A1C ≥5.7% [39 mmol/mol]) for the detection of abnormal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 216 African immigrants (68% male, age 37 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], range 20–64 years). Abnormal glucose tolerance was defined as 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L. RESULTS Variant hemoglobin was identified in 21% (46 of 216). Abnormal glucose tolerance occurred in 33% (72 of 216). When determining abnormal glucose tolerance from the OGTT (2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L), sensitivities of FPG for the total, normal, and variant hemoglobin groups were 32%, 32%, and 33%, respectively. Sensitivities for A1C were 53%, 54%, and 47%. For FPG and A1C combined, sensitivities were 64%, 63%, and 67%. Sensitivities for FPG and A1C and the combination did not vary by hemoglobin status (all P > 0.6). For the entire cohort, sensitivity was higher for A1C than FPG and for both tests combined than for either test alone (all P values ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS No significant difference in sensitivity of A1C by variant hemoglobin status was detected. For the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance in Africans, the sensitivity of A1C combined with FPG is significantly superior to either test alone. PMID:25338926

  11. Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.

    PubMed

    Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R

    2005-01-01

    Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine.

  12. Preoperative glucose abnormalities in patients with pancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Durlik, Marek; Kałuża, Bernadetta; Milczarczyk, Alicja; Franek, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer is a neoplasm characterised by poor prognosis. The only effective, possible treatment is radical surgery, but most patients do not qualify for surgery because of delayed diagnosis. Aim To determine if assessment of endocrine pancreatic function could serve as a means of screening for pancreatic cancer. Material and methods This prospective study was conducted on a group of 50 patients diagnosed with pancreatic tumour, who were qualified for surgery. Results From 1.07.2010 to 4.07.2011 a further 50 patients were added to the study group. They had been admitted to the hospital with pancreatic tumours. During the preoperative period, nine of these people had been treated for diabetes, 14 were newly diagnosed with diabetes and 15 had been diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, but only 12 had a normal glucose profile. Afterwards, patients underwent the surgical treatment. Histopathological examination revealed that out of the 50 operated patients, 36 suffered from malignant disease, and of these only four had no impaired glucose tolerance before treatment. Conclusions In most cases, patients with pancreatic tumours have impaired glucose tolerance. Screening patients over 50 years of age could speed up diagnosis and surgical treatment. PMID:25061491

  13. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  14. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, M. Angelyn; Price, Hermione C.; Sourij, Harald; White, Sarah; Coleman, Ruth L.; Ring, Arne; Kennedy, Irene E.C.; Tucker, Lynne; Holman, Rury R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a disposable, self-administered, capillary blood sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) device in a community setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen healthy and 12 type 2 diabetic volunteers underwent six 75-g OGTTs using a prototype device in the following three settings: unaided at home (twice); unaided but observed in clinic (twice); and performed by a nurse with simultaneous laboratory glucose assays of 0- and 120-min venous plasma samples (twice). The device displayed no results. A detachable data recorder returned to the clinic provided plasma-equivalent 0- and 120-min glucose values and key parameters, including test date, start and end times, and time taken to consume the glucose drink. RESULTS The device was universally popular with participants and was perceived as easy to use, and the ability to test at home was well liked. Device failures meant that 0- and 120-min glucose values were obtained for only 141 (78%) of the 180 OGTTs performed, independent of setting. Device glucose measurements showed a mean bias compared with laboratory-measured values of +0.9 at 5.0 mmol/L increasing to +4.4 at 15.0 mmol/L. Paired device glucose values were equally reproducible across settings, with repeat testing showing no training effect regardless of setting order. CONCLUSIONS Self-administered OGTTs can be performed successfully by untrained individuals in a community setting. With improved device reliability and appropriate calibration, this novel technology could be used in routine practice to screen people who might need a formal OGTT to confirm the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. PMID:23321216

  15. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    PubMed Central

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) to stratify GDM population according to postpartum risk. Materials and methods Electronic medical records of an ethnically homogenous cohort of women diagnosed and treated for GDM in a single medical centre during the period 2005–2011 who completed postpartum oGTT up to 1 year after the index delivery were retrospectively analysed (N = 305). Results Postpartum glucose abnormality was detected in 16.7% subjects. Mid-trimester oGTT values, respective area under the curve and HbA1c were significantly associated with early postpartum glucose abnormality (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney) and exhibited significant predictive potential for postpartum glucose abnormality risk assessment. Optimal cut-off values for discrimination of at-risk sub-population were identified using ROC analysis and their comparison with WHO and IADPSG criteria exhibited superiority of IADPSG for risk-stratification of GDM population. Conclusion Risk-based stratification at the time of GDM diagnosis could improve efficiency of the post-gestational screening for diabetes. IADPSG criteria seem to optimally capture both perinatal and maternal metabolic risks and are therefore medically and economically justified. PMID:26526166

  16. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  17. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  18. Shifting from glucose diagnosis to the new HbA1c diagnosis reduces the capability of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) to screen for glucose abnormalities within a real-life primary healthcare preventive strategy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate differences in the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as a screening tool for glucose abnormalities after shifting from glucose-based diagnostic criteria to the proposed new hemoglobin (Hb)A1c-based criteria. Methods A cross-sectional primary-care study was conducted as the first part of an active real-life lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes within a high-risk Spanish Mediterranean population. Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years (n = 3,120) were screened using the FINDRISC. Where feasible, a subsequent 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c test were also carried out (n = 1,712). The performance of the risk score was calculated by applying the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic, using three sets of criteria (2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, HbA1c) and three diagnostic categories (normal, pre-diabetes, diabetes). Results Defining diabetes by a single HbA1c measurement resulted in a significantly lower diabetes prevalence (3.6%) compared with diabetes defined by 2-hour plasma glucose (9.2%), but was not significantly lower than that obtained using fasting plasma glucose (3.1%). The FINDRISC at a cut-off of 14 had a reasonably high ability to predict diabetes using the diagnostic criteria of 2-hour or fasting glucose (AUC = 0.71) or all glucose abnormalities (AUC = 0.67 and 0.69, respectively). When HbA1c was used as the primary diagnostic criterion, the AUC for diabetes detection dropped to 0.67 (5.6% reduction in comparison with either 2-hour or fasting glucose) and fell to 0.55 for detection of all glucose abnormalities (17.9% and 20.3% reduction, respectively), with a relevant decrease in sensitivity of the risk score. Conclusions A shift from glucose-based diagnosis to HbA1c-based diagnosis substantially reduces the ability of the FINDRISC to screen for glucose abnormalities when applied in this real-life primary-care preventive strategy. PMID

  19. The correlation between response to oral cyclosporin therapy and systemic inflammation, metabolic abnormality in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Tsutomu

    2008-11-01

    Psoriasis is a disease presenting cutaneous, immunological and vascular abnormalities. Oral cyclosporin therapy has been shown to be effective for the disease. Clinical and laboratory findings affecting the response of oral cyclosporin therapy in patients with psoriasis were studied. Forty-seven patients with psoriasis (male:female = 27:20, age 56.7 + 12.6 years) were studied. The response to oral cyclosporin therapy was categorized as excellent, good, fair and poor according to decrease of PASI score and decrease of cyclosporin dose. Clinical and laboratory findings including cyclosporin trough level and high sensitivity-CRP were statistically analyzed. Nine patients showed excellent response, 17 good response, 19 fair response and 2 poor response. High sensitivity-CRP (0.11 +/- 0.02 mg/dl) in fair response patients to oral cyclosporin therapy was significantly lower than those in excellent response patients (0.42 +/- 0.21 mg/dl) (P < or = 0.05). Body mass index (23.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)), HDL-cholesterol (57.1 +/- 3.6 mg/dl) and fasting plasma glucose (105 +/- 5 mg/dl) in fair response patients to oral cyclosporin therapy was significantly lower, higher and lower than those in excellent response patients (25.7 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2); 43.0 +/- 2.8, 140 +/- 20 mg/dl) (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05), respectively. No other clinical and laboratory findings showed statistical significance among excellent, good and fair response patients. These results showed the correlation between response of oral cyclosporin therapy and systemic inflammation, metabolic abnormality in patients with psoriasis.

  20. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of acromegalic patients with different abnormalities in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; González, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Sosa, Ernesto; Mercado, Moisés

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes, glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose in Mexican patients with acromegaly and establish associations with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables. 257 patients with acromegaly were evaluated by a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of both GH and glucose (0, 30, 60, 90 120 min) as well as baseline IGF-1. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes (DM) were defined based on the 2003 ADA criteria. NGT, IFG, IGT and DM were found in 27.6, 8.9, 31.6 and 31.9% of the subjects, respectively; 42 of the DM patients were unaware of the diagnosis. Patients with diabetes were older than subjects in the other 3 categories (P = 0.001), and the proportion of women was significantly higher in the DM (74%) and IGT (68%) groups than in the NGT group (52%) (P = 0.004). Odds ratio for the development of DM was 3.29 (95% CI 3.28-3.3). GH and IGF-1 levels were comparable among the different groups. In a multivariable analysis DM was significantly associated with age, presence of a macroadenoma, disease duration and a basal GH > 30 μg/dl. DM and probably IGT are more prevalent in acromegaly than in the general Mexican population. DM was more frequent in females of all ages, in subjects with severely elevated GH concentrations, in patients with macroadenomas, and long-standing disease duration. The odds ratio for DM in our subjects with acromegaly is more than 3 times higher than in the general population.

  1. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of abnormal oral mucosal smears.

    PubMed Central

    Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W

    1988-01-01

    In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic test for detecting early oral malignancy. PMID:3184106

  2. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Marraccini, Paolo; Neglia, Danilo; Natali, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min), and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p < 0.05), did not change in DCM-AGT, and slowly increased in DCM-NGT. DCM-AGT sustained the extra workload by increasing NEFA oxidation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 0.1 μmol/min/gO2 equivalents, p < 0.05), while DCM-NGT showed a delayed increase in glucose uptake. Substrate oxidation rates paralleled the metabolites data. The presence of AGT in patients with DCM exacerbates both the shift from fat to carbohydrates in resting myocardial metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217. PMID:26798650

  3. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Marraccini, Paolo; Neglia, Danilo; Natali, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min), and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p < 0.05), did not change in DCM-AGT, and slowly increased in DCM-NGT. DCM-AGT sustained the extra workload by increasing NEFA oxidation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 0.1 μmol/min/gO2 equivalents, p < 0.05), while DCM-NGT showed a delayed increase in glucose uptake. Substrate oxidation rates paralleled the metabolites data. The presence of AGT in patients with DCM exacerbates both the shift from fat to carbohydrates in resting myocardial metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  4. Abnormal DNA content in oral epithelial dysplasia is associated with increased risk of progression to carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G; Odell, E W; Raphael, S; Ho, J; Le, L W; Benchimol, S; Kamel-Reid, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a histologically detectable lesion that may progress to carcinoma but there are no accurate markers that predict progression. This study examined the development of carcinoma from oral dysplastic lesions, and the association between abnormal DNA content and progression to carcinoma. Methods: Epithelial dysplasias from the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service were matched against the Ontario Cancer Registry database to identify cases that progressed to carcinoma. A case–control study was conducted to compare DNA image cytometry of dysplasias that progressed with those that have not progressed. For a subset of the progressed dysplasias, DNA content of the carcinoma was also analysed. Results: A total of 8% of epithelial dysplasias progressed to carcinoma after 6–131 months. In all, 28 of 99 dysplasias showed abnormal DNA content by image cytometry. In multivariate analysis of time to progression, abnormal DNA content was a significant predictor with hazard ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–7.4) corrected for site and grade of dysplasia. Analysis of sequential samples of dysplasia and carcinoma suggested that epithelial cell populations with grossly abnormal DNA content were transient intermediates during oral cancer development. Conclusions: Abnormal DNA content is a significant biomarker of a subset of OED that progress to carcinoma. PMID:20859287

  5. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  6. A composite hydrogel system containing glucose-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-12-01

    Development of an oral delivery strategy for insulin therapeutics has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study, a glucose-responsive nanocarriers for loading of insulin has been prepared firstly. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited relative low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. In order to enhance the oral bioavailability of insulin, the insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers were further encapsulated into a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel environment for overcoming multiple barriers and providing multi-protection for insulin during the transport process. The hypoglycemic effect for oral delivery of insulin was studied in vivo. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from hydrogel systems containing insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers exhibited an effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with insulin-loaded nanocarriers. PMID:27612686

  7. Oxidative stress contributes to abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in two hyperlipidemia models

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiefei; Zheng, Shuang; Jiang, Dongdong; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yunshan; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Lipid metabolism disturbance can result in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance; however, the features of glucose metabolism are still elusive in different dyslipidemia. Our study intended to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of glucose metabolism abnormal in hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia models. Methods: Two mouse models were used in this study, one was lipoprotein lipase gene-deleted (LPL+/-) mice, and the other was high fat dietary (HFD) mice. Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (LDL-c) in serum were measured by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) levels in serum were measured by colorimetric determination. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2a) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) in liver, skeletal muscle, visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by Real-Time PCR. Results: Compared with HFD mice, the levels of serum TG were significantly higher in LPL+/- mice, whereas the levels of TC, HDL-c, LDL-c were significantly lower. The plasma glucose levels were increased at each time point of intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in both groups. Furthermore, the level of serum fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased with a decreased ISI in both groups. In addition, the plasma MDA of HFD group was higher than that of lipoprotein lipase-deficiency (LPL+/-) group, while the activity of T-SOD in HFD group was lower than that in LPL+/- group. Real-Time PCR revealed that the expressions of SOD1, CAT and Gpx1 in liver and

  8. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. PMID:26472183

  9. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  10. Are the WHO (1980) criteria for the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test appropriate for pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Cheng, L C; Salmon, Y M

    1993-07-01

    To assess the normal response to the 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal pregnant women, healthy Chinese and Malay women who had been referred to the antenatal clinic of the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Hospital, Singapore, were evaluated. The women were selected on the basis of having none of the generally accepted risk factors for diabetes mellitus: their age was 35 years, they weighed 80 kg, they did not have a personal history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, nor did they have a history of babies weighing 4000 gm at birth, still-births, neonatal deaths, congenital malformations, or recurrent miscarriages. All OGTTs were performed after 28 weeks of gestation. The fasting blood sample was taken from the antecubital vein. Further samples were taken 1 and 2 hours after the glucose drink. A glucose analyzer using 5 mcl of plasma was employed. The analytical method was based on the glucose oxidase/peroxidase/aminophenazone process. There was no significant difference in mean glucose levels at corresponding points of the OGTT in Chinese and Malay women. correlation calculations confirmed the absence of any influence of gestational age after 28 weeks on glucose tolerance. Of the 64 women, 47 were Chinese and 17 Malays; 20 wee nulliparous, and 44 were parous. Their mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-35). The mean birthweight of the infants was 3140 gm (range 2094-4240 gm). There were 33 female and 31 male infants. The mean apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 8.8 (range 7-9) and 9.0 (range 6-10). The mean values and the proposed upper limits of normality for the 75 gm OGTT were 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/1, respectively. 6 women had abnormal OGTT results according to the WHO criteria (fasting glucose 6 mmol/1; 2 hour glucose 8 mmol/1).

  11. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with (U-14C)glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 {plus minus} 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood {sup 14}Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to {approximately} 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 {plus minus} 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 {plus minus} 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and {sup 14}Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral {sup 14}Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no {sup 14}Cglucose, and (U-14C)lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of {sup 14}Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the {sup 14}Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 {plus minus} 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion.

  12. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Ertel, Karen A; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E; Solomon, Caren G; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Scores ≥13 indicated at least probable minor depression and scores ≥15 indicated probable major depression. AGT and IGT were diagnosed using American Diabetes Association criteria. In early pregnancy, 247 (26.5 %) participants experienced at least minor depression and 163 (17.4 %) experienced major depression. A total of 123 (13.2 %) were classified with AGT and 56 (6.0 %) were classified with IGT. In fully-adjusted models, the odds ratio for AGT associated with minor depression was 1.20 (95 % CI 0.77-1.89) and for major depression was 1.34 (95 % CI 0.81-2.23). The odds ratio for IGT associated with minor depression was 1.22 (95 % CI 0.62-2.40) and for major depression was 1.53 (95 % CI 0.73-3.22). We did not observe an association with continuous screening glucose measures. Findings in this prospective cohort of Hispanic women did not indicate a statistically significant association between minor or major depression in early pregnancy and AGT or screening glucose values in mid-pregnancy. Due to the small number of cases of IGT, our ability to evaluate the association between depression and IGT risk was constrained.

  13. Role of abnormal Langerhans cells in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shyamsundar Vidya; Aravindha, Babu; Leena, Sankari; Balachander, Nandagopal; Malathi, Letchumana Kumar; Masthan, Mahaboob Kadar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), although initiated by tobacco carcinogens, their progression is due to inability of Langerhans cells (LCs) to detect these abnormal cells and promote lymphocytes to destroy these cells. We assessed and quantified the tumor associated LCs and inflammation in OED and OSCC to understand their role. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five microscopic sections were assessed (27 OED and 28 OSCC). The LCs were detected using S-100 immunohistochemical marker. The number of tumor associated LCs were counted. The presence of abnormal appearing large cells and its relation to histopathologic grade and inflammation was assessed. Results: Significant increase in the LC count was observed in OSCC when compared to dysplasia. Large, abnormal appearing cells were observed in dysplasia and carcinomas however, these were more pronounced in moderate dysplasia and poorly-differentiated carcinomas. The presence of these abnormal appearing cells was associated with decrease in lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusion: The present study indicates more LC are recruited into the carcinoma. These accumulated nonfunctional LC in the tumor tissue are indicative of aggressive tumor with potential malignant transformation. PMID:26604600

  14. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  15. Failure of Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia to Compensate for Impaired Metabolic Response to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M; Janghorbani, M; Schuette, S; Considine, RV; Chisholm, RL; Mather, KJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the augmented insulin and glucose response to a glucose challenge is sufficient to compensate for defects in glucose utilization in obesity and type 2 diabetes, using a breath test measurement of integrated glucose metabolism. Methods Non-obese, obese normoglycemic and obese Type 2 diabetic subjects were studied on 2 consecutive days. A 75g oral glucose load spiked with 13C-glucose was administered, measuring exhaled breath 13CO2 as an integrated measure of glucose metabolism and oxidation. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed, measuring whole body glucose disposal rate. Body composition was measured by DEXA. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the determinants of the breath 13CO2. Results Breath 13CO2 was reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects despite hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The primary determinants of breath response were lean mass, fat mass, fasting FFA concentrations, and OGTT glucose excursion. Multiple approaches to analysis showed that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were not sufficient to compensate for the defect in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Conclusions Augmented insulin and glucose responses during an OGTT are not sufficient to overcome the underlying defects in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25511878

  16. Prevalence of malocclusion and abnormal oral habits in North Indian rural children.

    PubMed

    Guaba, K; Ashima, G; Tewari, A; Utreja, A

    1998-03-01

    This epidemiological investigation was conducted on a sample of 3164 rural children aged 6-15 years in Raipur Rani and Naraingarh blocks in the district of Ambala in Haryana. 29. 2 percent of rural children were found to have malocclusion whereas 70.8 per cent had normal occlusion. Class I malocclusion was found to be maximum in 14.4 per cent of children, while malocclusion with class II molar relationship was observed in 13.5 per cent of children. Malocclusion with Class III molar relationship was seen in 1.3 per cent of the population studied. Three per cent of rural children were found to have abnormal oral habits, predominantly tongue thrusting and thumb sucking. The frequency distribution of abnormal oral habits in children with malocclusion was found to be 10.3 per cent.

  17. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or (3-{sup 3}H)glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, (U-{sup 14}C)lactate or sodium ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ((6-{sup 3}H)glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of ({sup 14}C)glucose production or for dilution of {sup 14}C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from (U-{sup 14}C)-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for (U-{sup 14}C)lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. ({sup 14}C)-lactate as tracer). When (2-{sup 14}C)acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo.

  18. Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    DADGAR, Hooshang; HADIAN, Mohammad Reza; LIRA, Ortega Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of abnormal oral reflexes and speech sound production in children with severe cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods Seven oral reflexes such as, rooting, mouth-opening, biting, chewing, lip, tongue, and suckling were examined in 52Persian-speaking monolingual children with spastic cerebral palsy (ages 5-10 yr).Phonetic information tests were administered to investigate their ability for articulation of the speech sounds. Results A significant relationship between three (i.e. the chewing, lip, and biting reflexes) out of the seven abnormal oral reflexes and the speech articulation was noticed. The presence of the chewing reflex was associated with deficits in production of /s, z, š,č/ sounds. The lip reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /p, m, r, j, f, č/ sounds. The biting reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /z, l, y and š/ sounds. No significant relationship was found between the rooting, mouth-opening, tongue, and suckling reflexes and sound articulation. Conclusion The presence of abnormal reflexes in the children with spastic cerebral palsy would suggest a correlation between these reflexes and sound articulation in Iranian children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, these observations might suggest some disturbances in normal speech development. PMID:27375753

  19. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren K; Restaino, Robert M; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500 mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, and at 60 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized cross-over design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycaemia under the placebo condition (-32% at 60 min and -28% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (-4% at 60 min and +0.3% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  20. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  1. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Butler, Cleve; Tull, Eugene S; Chambers, Earle C; Taylor, Jerome

    2002-03-01

    The current study examined the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance in a population of Afro-Caribbean women aged 18 to 55. Also of interest was whether this relationship would be differentially influenced by the type of body fat distribution or confounded by the level of hostility. A total of 244 women were selected from a systematic sample of households on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Demographic data together with information on internalized racism were collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric information and fasting blood glucose were also measured. Women with high levels of internalized racism exhibited an increased risk of elevated fasting glucose compared to those with low levels of internalized racism (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.5). There was no difference in mean body mass index (BMI) by level of internalized racism. However those with high internalized racism had a significantly larger waist circumference after adjusting for age, education, hostility, and elevated fasting glucose status. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, hostility, and either weight or BMI, internalized racism remained independently associated with elevated fasting glucose. However, once waist circumference was included in the model, the relationship of internalized racism to elevated fasting glucose was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between internalized racism and abnormal levels of fasting glucose which may be mediated through abdominal fat. The exact nature of the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance may be an important area of future study.

  2. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, Swarnendu; Banerjee, Deb Ranjan; Basak, Amit; Das, Amit Kumar; Pal, Mousumi; Banerjee, Rita; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-04-17

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.

  3. Abnormal DNA content predicts the occurrence of carcinomas in non-dysplastic oral white patches.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Ried, T; Bryne, M; Kildal, W; Danielsen, H; Reith, A

    2001-10-01

    The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are preceded by visible changes in the oral mucosa, most often white patches. Although the histological finding of dysplasia in oral white patches signals increased risk of developing OSCC, this may also occur in non-dysplastic lesions. However, no reliable markers exist to predict the occurrence of OSCC in these patients. From a total of 263 patients diagnosed with oral white patches, biopsies from 45 patients were selected on the criteria that the patients had lesions histologically proven to be non-dysplastic. The lesions were analyzed with respect to their DNA content. The clinical outcome of the patients was known from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and these data were compared to the DNA content of their lesions. Among the 45 patients, five cases (11%) later developed an OSCC. Four of the cases that subsequently developed an OSCC were among the five aneuploid (abnormal) cases (P=0.001). One aneuploid lesion did not develop a carcinoma during a follow-up time of 120 months. The fifth case that subsequently developed an OSCC was diploid (normal), and developed into an OSCC after an observation time of 73 months (P=0.001). In conclusion, aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of OSCC in patients that otherwise would be regarded as at very low risk. Normal DNA content indicates low risk. PMID:11564576

  4. In search of a super solution: controlled trial of glycine-glucose oral rehydration solution in infantile diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Patra, F C; Mahalanabis, D; Jalan, K N; Sen, A; Banerjee, P

    1984-01-01

    In a double blind trial a glycine fortified oral glucose electrolyte solution was evaluated in a group of infants and small children (n=25) with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea, and was compared with a matched control group (n=26) receiving only glucose based oral rehydration solution. It is seen that the diarrhoea stool output, duration of diarrhoea, and volume of oral rehydration fluid required to achieve and maintain hydration are significantly lower in the group receiving glycine fortified glucose electrolyte solution. The possibility of developing an oral rehydration solution which could also act as an absorption promoting drug is discussed.

  5. Assessment of nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leonardo da Cunha Menezes; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Transmission and reception of mobile telephony signals take place through electromagnetic wave radiation, or electromagnetic radiofrequency fields, between the mobile terminal and the radio base station. Based on reports in the literature on adverse effects from exposure to this type of radiation, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of such exposure, by means of the micronucleus test on exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium. The sample included 45 individuals distributed in 3 groups according to the amount of time in hours per week (t) spent using mobile phones: group I, t > 5 h; group II, t > 1 h and ≤ 5 h; and group III, t ≤ 1 h. Cells from the oral mucosa were analyzed to assess the numbers of micronuclei, broken egg structures and degenerative nuclear abnormalities indicative of apoptosis (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis and pyknosis) or necrosis (karyolysis in addition to these changes). The occurrences of micronuclei and degenerative nuclear abnormalities did not differ between the groups, but the number of broken egg (structures that may be associated with gene amplification) was significantly greater in the individuals in group I (p < 0.05).

  6. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: enamel abnormalities and oral clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Ilaria; Nucci, Cesare; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Alkhamis, Nadia; Marchionni, Silvia; Piana, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a genetic disorder related to alterations in bones and teeth formation, due to low levels of phosphate in blood. Oral findings in XLH have been enamel and dentine abnormalities, high pulp horns, large pulp chambers, and some cases of periapical abscesses related to teeth without caries or traumatic injuries. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of enamel alterations, such as microclefts and/or structure defects in patients with XLH and give guidelines of prevention of XLH dental complications. History taking, oral clinical and radiological examination in 10 young patients affected by XLH (average age of 9) and in 6 patients without XLH (average age of 8). Impressions were performed on the vestibular surfaces of teeth in order to obtain replicas. The replicas were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared to replicas of control group. The images of replicas of XLH patients showed deep microclefts and irregular enamel surface structure compared to replicas of control group. The replica of a patient with spontaneous periapical abscesses showed numerous enamel crater-shaped depressions and deep microcleavages penetrating into the enamel thickness. In absence of caries or fractures, the abscesses pathogenesis may be related to microcleavages of the enamel and dentin, which allow bacterial invasion of the pulp. There could be a relationship between XLH disease and enamel abnormalities. PMID:24677288

  7. Valine Pyrrolidide Preserves Intact Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Improves Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Minipigs With Reduced β-Cell Mass

    PubMed Central

    Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla; Wilken, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Svendsen, Ove; Gotfredsen, Carsten F.; Carr, Richard David

    2003-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are important in blood glucose regulation.However, both incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition as a treatment for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced β-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)–treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg).VP did not significantly affect levels of intact GLP-1 but increased levels of intact GIP (from 4543 ± 1880 to 9208 ± 3267 pM × min; P<.01), thus improving glucose tolerance (area under the curve [AUC] for glucose reduced from 1904 ± 480 to 1582 ± 353 mM × min;P = .05).VP did not increase insulin levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but increased the insulinogenic index in normal animals (from 83 ± 42 to 192 ± 108; P < .05), but not after NIA + STZ, possibly because of less residual insulin secretory capacity in these animals. GIP seems to contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect of VP in this model; however, additional mechanisms for the effect of DPPIV inhibition cannot be excluded. The authors conclude that DPPIV inhibitors may be useful to treat type 2 diabetes, even when this is due to reduced β-cell mass. PMID:14630571

  8. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  9. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits. PMID:26486771

  10. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Bárbara Gastal Borges; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Silveira, Rita C.; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief. PMID:23525316

  11. Associations between Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration, and Abnormal Fasting Glucose. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jia; Wang, Rui; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: No data exist as to the role of ethnicity in the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep duration, and metabolic dysfunction. Objectives: To examine links between OSA, objectively measured habitual sleep duration, and fasting glucose in U.S. ethnic groups. Methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multisite community-based study that conducted polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. In 2,151 subjects (1,839 in fully adjusted models), the apnea–hypopnea index was used to classify OSA as none (0–4.9/h), mild (5–14.9/h), or moderate to severe (≥15/h). Actigraphic sleep duration was classified as short (≤5 h/night), intermediate (>5 and <8 h/night), or long (≥8 h/night). Subjects were classified as having normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dl and no hypoglycemic medication use) or abnormal fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dl and/or hypoglycemic medication use). Measurements and Main Results: The sample was 45.8% male, age 68.5 ± 9.2 (mean ± SD) years, and 27.3% African American, 37.2% white, 11.8% Chinese, and 23.8% Hispanic. The prevalence of abnormal fasting glucose was 40.2%. Relative to subjects without apnea, moderate-to-severe OSA was significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose in African Americans (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–4.08) and white participants (odds ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–6.75), but not among Chinese or Hispanic subjects, after adjusting for site, age, sex, waist circumference, and sleep duration (P = 0.06 for ethnicity-by-OSA severity interaction). In contrast, sleep duration was not significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose after considering the influence of OSA. Conclusions: This large multiethnic study confirmed previous reports of an independent association between OSA and metabolic dysfunction, and suggested that this association may vary by ethnicity. PMID:26084035

  12. Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Akiko; Yasutake, Yu; Higashi, Sen; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Chishaki, Sakura; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25230237

  13. Oral rehydration in infantile diarrhoea. Controlled trial of a low sodium glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, A; Mahalanabis, D; Jalan, K N; Maitra, T K; Agarwal, S K; Dutta, B; Khatua, S P; Bagchi, D K

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the first controlled trial of an oral glucose electrolyte solution designed on the basis of the optimum pathophysiological needs for rehydration in infantile diarrahoea. The solution, having a sodium concentration of 50 mmol/l, was tried in a group of 20 infants with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea and was compared with a matched group of 19 infants predominantly under 2 years of age taking a 'standard' oral solution with a sodium concentration of 90 mmol/l. They could be hydrated as well with a low sodium oral solution alone as with the standard solution. Intravenous fluid was not required in either group. The group treated with the high soldium 'standard' solution appeared to develop hypernatraemia and/or periorbital oedema more frequently than the other group. Also, the low sodium solution eliminated the need for additional free water orally. PMID:348125

  14. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), S I (Cau r = -0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.41, P < 0.01), Φ dynamic (Cau r = -0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.57, P < 0.01), and Φ oral (Cau r = -0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10-10.5 mmol L(-1) in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C

  15. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste.

  16. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  17. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  18. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

  19. The opposing effects of the flavonoids isoquercitrin and sissotrin, isolated from Pterospartum tridentatum, on oral glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Alexandra; Martins, Sofia; Branco, Pedro; Dias, Teresa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Teixeira, Adriano; Mota-Filipe, Hélder

    2008-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Pterospartum tridentatum on the blood glucose levels of normal Wistar rats was investigated in a situation of oral glucose challenge. The extract at 300 mg/kg showed an antihyperglycaemic effect in the first 30 min after glucose challenge but then the blood glucose levels rose above those of the control group, indicating the presence of compounds with different effects on glucose tolerance. Nine compounds of isoflavone and flavonol skeletons were identified in the extract by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), four of them being identified for the first time in this species. The isoflavone sissotrin and the flavonol derivative, isoquercitrin, were selected for the oral glucose tolerance test. Isoquercitrin (100 mg/kg) showed time-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity by delaying the post-oral glucose load glycaemic peak at 30 min, as did the sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (100 mg/kg). In contrast, sissotrin (100 mg/kg) showed an opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that the effect of the extract on blood glucose may be either antihyperglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. Additionally, as far as is known, these are the first in vivo results on the acute antihyperglycaemic potential of isoquercitrin.

  20. Peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in preterm baboons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Cynthia L; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Seidner, Steven R; McCurnin, Donald C; Leland, Michelle M; Anzueto, Diana G; Johnson, Marney C; Liang, Hanyu; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm baboons (67% gestation) had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5 ± 1.5 vs 21.8 ± 4.4 mg/kg · min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8 ± 2.6 vs 16.3 ± 4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold vs 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower glucose transporter-1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8%-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFAs) did not decrease in response to insulin, whereas FFAs decreased by greater than 80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFAs in the preterm animals was paired with a decreased glucose transporter-4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counterregulatory hormones are not major contributors.

  1. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  2. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. PMID:27255361

  3. Abnormalities of AMPK Activation and Glucose Uptake in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells from Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey E.; Jones, David E.; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects. Methods Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise. Results In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured. Conclusion EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25836975

  4. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and abnormal glucose metabolism in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Hadigan, Colleen; Kattakuzhy, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    As the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy has increased life expectancy for individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 2 diabetes mellitus and disorders of glucose metabolism have emerged as an important issue in the care of this population. Multiple mechanisms, both specific and nonspecific to HIV, underlie a significant prevalence. Although best-practice diagnostic testing remains unclear, the risks associated with diabetes in the setting of HIV are well characterized, ranging from organ-specific damage to socioeconomic decline. As population-specific treatment data are limited, current guidelines serve as a basis for ongoing management.

  5. Oral Administration of Collagen Hydrolysates Improves Glucose Tolerance in Normal Mice Through GLP-1-Dependent and GLP-1-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Iba, Yoshinori; Yokoi, Koji; Eitoku, Itsuka; Goto, Masaki; Koizumi, Seiko; Sugihara, Fumihito; Oyama, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of collagen hydrolysates (CHs). CHs exhibited dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity and stimulated glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. We also determined whether CHs improve glucose tolerance in normal mice. Oral administration of CHs suppressed the glycemic response during the oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and IPGTT), but the effects were weaker in IPGTT than in OGTT. CHs had no effect on the gastric emptying rate. A pretreatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39 (Ex9), partially reversed the glucose-lowering effects of CHs, but only when coadministered with glucose. CHs administered 45 min before the glucose load potentiated the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This potentiating effect on insulin secretion was not reversed by the pretreatment with Ex9, it appeared to be enhanced. These results suggest that CHs improve glucose tolerance by inhibiting intestinal glucose uptake and enhancing insulin secretion, and also demonstrated that GLP-1 was partially involved in the inhibition of glucose uptake, but not essential for the enhancement of insulin secretion. PMID:27540823

  6. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  7. [Role of classical oral glucose-lowering medications in current treatment].

    PubMed

    Carramiñana Barrera, F C

    2014-07-01

    Classical oral glucose were discovered in the mid twentieth century. Despite the time elapsed since then and the lack of large studies to support the use of some of these drugs, they continue to be employed, are indicated in all clinical practice guidelines and consensus documents and, overall, remain among the most widely prescribed drugs in the national health system. The main arguments for their continued use are their widespread and prolonged prescription, their effectiveness, and cost. Their main disadvantages have always been and continue to be their adverse gastrointestinal effects, weight gain, the risk of hypoglycemia and other adverse effects, which have encouraged the development of new glucose-lowering drugs with an improved pharmacological profile that would cover the various mechanisms of hyperglycemia. Currently, deep knowledge of glucose-lowering drugs is required in the patient-centered management of diabetes. Furthermore, this knowledge should be adapted to each individual patient to acquire the experience necessary to achieve effective metabolic control, delay the development of chronic complications, and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with diabetes.

  8. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    PubMed

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  9. Canine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: erythrocytic defects--osmotic fragility, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, P J; Forsyth, G W; Olexson, D W; Thatte, H S; Addis, P B

    1984-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed as malignant hyperthermia susceptible based on increased susceptibility (P less than 0.001) of biopsied muscle to caffeine-induced contracture. Erythrocytes from malignant hyperthermia and normal dogs were then examined for an antioxidant system deficiency. Values for serum muscle enzymes, reticulocytes and corpuscular hemoglobin were mildly elevated. Osmotic fragility was increased: hemolysis occurred at a NaCl concentration 10 mM higher than for normal dogs (P less than 0.001). A 35% glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (P less than 0.001) with a 40% compensatory increase (P less than 0.01) in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity was found. The membrane Ca2+-activated ATPase activity was abnormal: 100% increased with a 40% decreased Arrhenius activation energy (P less than 0.005) and increased thermostability. A 40% increased intracellular accumulation of total Ca2+ occurred in response to in vitro energy depletion in erythrocytes from one malignant hyperthermia dog (P less than 0.01). The multifactorial pattern of inheritance and the broad spectrum of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility are proposed to result from an antioxidant system deficit unmasking or aggravating an intrinsic muscle membrane anomaly. An individual from a family with a history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained anesthetic death should be considered malignant hyperthermia susceptible if erythrocyte osmotic fragility is abnormal and there is a mild, unexplained elevation in serum creatine kinase. PMID:6150753

  10. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  11. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Insulin resistance in the oral glucose tolerance test--a link with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Wibell, L

    1991-03-01

    Insulin resistance was evaluated in 807 middle-aged subjects at a health survey, with use of an index measured in 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests. The mean value of insulin resistance was higher in a hypertensive group than among the normotensives, independent of body mass index, physical activity, smoking sex, age, and thiazide treatment. One-third of the hypertensives had a high resistance value. Another third of the hypertensives, and also about one-third of the normotensives, had a slightly increased resistance. The remaining third of the hypertensives had a normal-low resistance. A high resistance was also independently related to obesity, low physical leisure time activity, and a family history of NIDDM, but not to a family history of hypertension. The statistical analysis implied a sequence of events: low physical activity might cause high resistance, which in turn might cause high blood pressure.

  13. L-asparaginase-induced abnormality in plasma glucose level in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted to a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Mousumee; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Panigrahi, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate any abnormal change in plasma glucose levels in patients treated with L-asparaginase (L-Asp)-based chemotherapy regimen in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in patients of ALL, admitted to the Clinical Haematology Department of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha from August 2014 to July 2015. Indoor records of 146 patients on multi-centered protocol-841 were evaluated for any alteration in plasma glucose level, time of onset of hypo/hyperglycemia, and persistence of plasma glucose alteration. Results: Twenty-one percent of patients showed abnormal plasma glucose level. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group, whereas a majority of higher age group patients developed hyperglycemia. In majority of the cases, abnormal glucose developed after three doses of L-Asp. Hypoglycemia subsided whereas hyperglycemia persisted till the end of our observation period. Conclusions: L-Asp produces more incidences of hypoglycemia than hyperglycemia in a good number of ALL patients towards which clinicians should be more vigilant. However, hyperglycemia persists for a longer duration than hypoglycemia. PMID:27721550

  14. Effects of oral glucose on exercise thermoregulation in men after water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, Alan S.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Greenleaf, John E.; Barnes, Paul R.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Breckler, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis elevated blood glucose would attenuate the rise in exercise rectal temperature, six men age 35 plus or minus S.D. 7 years participated in each of three trials by 4-hr water immersion to the neck: (1) 2.0 g/kg body wt of oral glucose (33.8 percent wt./vol.) was consumed followed by 80 min controlled rest (Glu/Rest), and 70 min horizontal supine cycle exercise at 62.8 percent plus or minus S.E. 0.5 percent (1.97 plus or minus 0.02 L/min) of peak O2 uptake followed by 10 min recovery (2) with (Glu/Ex) and (3) without prior flucose (No Glu/Ex). Blood samples were taken at -25, 0, 15, 45, and 68 min of exercise and after plus 10 min of recovery for measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood glucose. Both mean skin (T sub sk) (from six sites) and rectal temperatures (T sub re) were monitored continuously. Sweat rate was measured by resistanc hygrometry. The mean of delta PV for the exercise trials was -12.2 plus or minus 2.1 percent. Mean blood glucose for the Glu/Ex trial was higher than that of the No Glu/Ex trial was (108.4 equal or minus 3.9 and 85.6 plus or minus 1.6 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.05. At the end of exercise T(sub sk) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Ex(32.0 plus or minus 0.3 and 32.4 equals or minus 0.2 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); T(sub re) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Es (38.22 plus or minus 0.17 and 38.60 plus or minus 0.11 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); and forearm sweat rate for the Glu/Ex trial (0.34 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.43 plus or minus g/sq cm, respectively, P less than 0.05). These data suggest that elevation of blood glucose prior to horizontal exercise following hypohydration attenuates the increase in body temperature without altering heat production or exercise hypovolemia.

  15. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward.

  16. Identification of Differential Responses to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Ciara; O’Grada, Colm; Ryan, Miriam; Roche, Helen M.; Gibney, Michael J.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an individual’s ability to respond to an acute dietary challenge has emerged as a measure of their biological flexibility. Analysis of such responses has been proposed to be an indicator of health status. However, for this to be fully realised further work on differential responses to nutritional challenge is needed. This study examined whether metabolic phenotyping could identify differential responders to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and examined the phenotypic basis of the response. Methods and Results A total of 214 individuals were recruited and underwent challenge tests in the form of an OGTT and an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT). Detailed biochemical parameters, body composition and fitness tests were recorded. Mixed model clustering was employed to define 4 metabotypes consisting of 4 different responses to an OGTT. Cluster 1 was of particular interest, with this metabotype having the highest BMI, triacylglycerol, hsCRP, c-peptide, insulin and HOMA- IR score and lowest VO2max. Cluster 1 had a reduced beta cell function and a differential response to insulin and c-peptide during an OGTT. Additionally, cluster 1 displayed a differential response to the OLTT. Conclusions This work demonstrated that there were four distinct metabolic responses to the OGTT. Classification of subjects based on their response curves revealed an “at risk” metabolic phenotype. PMID:23991163

  17. The photodynamic detection of mucosal abnormality in oral cancer patients: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Martin; Ogden, Graham; McLaren, Stuart; Padgett, Miles

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have had one oral cancer are at increased risk of developing a semi-malignant tumour. The detecting of oral cancer is made difficult (and is often delayed) by the unknown appearance of the early oral lesion. A technique that could reliably detect early cancers would be useful to the oral and dental health specialist. One possible technique is the use of a photosensitiser that may be preferentially taken up by cancerous cells. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is one such drug that is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and fluoresces at 636nm when illuminated with light of wavelength 405nm. It has been hypothesized that cell inclined towards malignant change would have a higher metabolic rate, and thus convert more ALA into its metabolite PpIX. These drugs can then be detected using a technique called Photodynamic detection, through the analysis of their fluorescence spectra. We describe a pilot study that used a compact spectroscopic instrument designed to excite and measure fluorescence in the oral cavity. Some Inter-subject variation in PpIX time course characteristics may be evident in our volunteers, as has been reported by other researchers. The obtained data would suggest that this instrument may be a valuable tool for detecting early oral cancers. However, further studies are required, not least to ensure that these data are due to detection of ALA metabolite in cancer and not some other systemic effect.

  18. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  19. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F; Larsen, Marianne O; Jelic, Katarina; Carr, Richard D; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-07-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To explore this, we examined the release and inactivation of GIP and GLP-1 after administration of glucose with or without OA or WP through gastric gavage in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Insulin responses to glucose (75 mg) were 3-fold augmented by addition of WP (75 mg; P < 0.01), which was associated with enhanced oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01). The insulin response to glucose was also augmented by addition of OA (34 mg; P < 0.05) although only 1.5-fold and with no associated increase in glucose elimination. The slope of the glucose-insulin curve was increased by OA (1.7-fold; P < 0.05) and by WP (4-fold; P < 0.01) compared with glucose alone, suggesting potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release. WP increased GLP-1 secretion (P < 0.01), whereas GIP secretion was unaffected. OA did not affect GIP or GLP-1 secretion. Nevertheless, WP increased the levels of both intact GIP and intact GLP-1 (both P < 0.01), and OA increased the levels of intact GLP-1 (P < 0.05). WP inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in the proximal small intestine by 50% (P < 0.05), suggesting that luminal degradation of WP generates small fragments, which are substrates for dipeptidyl peptidase IV and act as competitive inhibitors. We therefore conclude that fat and protein may serve as exogenous regulators of secretion and inactivation of the incretin hormones with beneficial influences on glucose metabolism.

  20. Mild insulin resistance during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum levels of basal insulin and glucose-stimulated insulin, and to evaluate their correlations with androgen levels in women with acne. Serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IFG-1), and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured and compared in thirty women with moderate or severe acne and thirteen healthy controls. Serum FT, DHT and DHEA-S levels in the acne group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In the acne group, there were no significant correlations between insulin or IGF-1 levels and T, FT, DHT and SHBG, despite the positive correlation between insulin and IGF-1. In order to determine the effects of insulin secretion as a dynamic response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum androgen levels in acne patients, we examined the responses of serum insulin and androgen levels to a 75 g, 2 hour OGTT in the acne group and in the control group. Basal insulin levels were not significantly higher than those in the control group, but the summed insulin levels during the OGTT in the acne group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum T and FT levels in the acne group decreased during the OGTT, but these changes were not so significant when compared to normal controls. In conclusion, we tried to demonstrate mild insulin resistance during the OGTT in acne patients. However, postmeal transient hyperinsulinemia does not seem to play an important role in determining hyperandrogenemia in acne patients. PMID:8854583

  1. Novel Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Delivered Orally Reduces Postprandial Glucose Excursions in Porcine and Canine Models

    PubMed Central

    Eldor, Roy; Kidron, Miriam; Greenberg-Shushlav, Yael; Arbit, Ehud

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are associated with a gamut of physiological processes, including induction of insulin release, support of normoglycemia, β-cell function preservation, improved lipid profiles, and increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, GLP-1 harbors significant therapeutic potential for regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus, where its physiological impact is markedly impaired. To date, GLP-1 analogs are only available as injectable dosage forms, and its oral delivery is expected to provide physiological portal/peripheral concentration ratios while fostering patient compliance and adherence. Methods Healthy, fasting, enterically cannulated pigs and beagle canines were administered a single dose of the exenatide-based ORMD-0901 formulation 30 min before oral glucose challenges. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for evaluation of ORMD-0901 safety and efficacy in regulating postchallenge glucose excursions. Results Enterically delivered ORMD-0901 was well tolerated by all animals. ORMD-0901 formulations RG3 and AG2 led to reduced glucose excursions in pigs when delivered prior to a 5 g/kg glucose challenge, where area under the curve (AUC)0–120 values were up to 43% lower than in control sessions. All canines challenged with a glucose load with no prior exposure to exenatide, demonstrated higher AUC0–150 values than in their exenatide-treated sessions. Subcutaneous exenatide delivery amounted to a 51% reduction in mean glucose AUC0–150, while formulations AG4 and AG3 prompted 43% and 29% reductions, respectively. Conclusions When delivered enterically, GLP-1 (ORMD-0901) is absorbed from the canine and porcine gastrointestinal tracts and retains its biological activity. Further development of this drug class in an oral dosage form is expected to enhance diabetes control and patient compliance. PMID:21129350

  2. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  3. Return for Postpartum Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women who received a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test and to examine barriers as reported by women who failed to return for the test. Data were collected using a mobile phone-based short messaging service. Only 352 (81.9%) women returned for the test. Women who failed to return for the test were younger (30.1 vs 32.1, P = .003) and did not have a previous history of gestational diabetes (93.6% vs 84.9%, P = .043) compared to women who returned for the test. The commonest reasons given for not returning for the test was "Still waiting for the appointment date for the test" (37.2%), "had family/health problems" (11.5%), and "busy/no time" (10.3%). Flexible time for the test, active involvement from health care staff, and strengthening continuous care system were among the interventions needed to improve the return rate for this screening test.

  4. Return for Postpartum Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women who received a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test and to examine barriers as reported by women who failed to return for the test. Data were collected using a mobile phone-based short messaging service. Only 352 (81.9%) women returned for the test. Women who failed to return for the test were younger (30.1 vs 32.1, P = .003) and did not have a previous history of gestational diabetes (93.6% vs 84.9%, P = .043) compared to women who returned for the test. The commonest reasons given for not returning for the test was "Still waiting for the appointment date for the test" (37.2%), "had family/health problems" (11.5%), and "busy/no time" (10.3%). Flexible time for the test, active involvement from health care staff, and strengthening continuous care system were among the interventions needed to improve the return rate for this screening test. PMID:26041835

  5. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  6. Interstitial lactate levels in human skin at rest and during an oral glucose load: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L J

    1999-05-01

    In vitro data have suggested that the skin is a significant lactate source. The purpose of the present study was to measure lactate and glucose concentrations in intact human skin in vivo using the microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibres of 216 microns were inserted intradermally and perfused at a rate of 3 microliters min-1. In the first experimental protocol, dialysis fibres were calibrated by the method of no net flux in eight subjects. Skin lactate concentrations of 2.48 +/- 0.17 mmol l-1 were significantly greater than lactate concentrations of 0.84 +/- 0.15 mmol l-1 in venous plasma (P < 0.01). Glucose concentrations in skin and venous plasma were similar (5.49 +/- 0.18 vs. 5.26 +/- 0.24 mmol l-1). In the second experimental protocol, changes in lactate and glucose levels were studied in 10 subjects after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After the OGTT, plasma glucose and lactate levels increased by 54% and 39% to peak levels at 30 and 60 min respectively. In comparison, skin glucose and lactate increased by 41% and 18% at 60 and 90 min. No changes in skin blood flow were observed during the OGTT. The data suggest that resting skin is a significant lactate source with no significant lactate production during OGTT. The cellular source of lactate in the skin remains undetermined to date.

  7. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation.

  8. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)<160 or 90≤average diastolic BP (AvDBP)<100] and 12.64% (8.64–16.64) had stage-II (AvSBP≥160 or AvDBP≥160) hypertension. Based on FPG and HbA1c, 10.41% (6.74–14.08) were diabetic and 27.88% (22.49–33.27) were pre-diabetic. Overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.61% (11.25–19.98). Among pre-diagnosed cases, 46.43% (26.74–66.12) had uncontrolled AGM. With one year increase in age [Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.05(1.03–1.07)], retired subjects [OR = 9.14(1.72–48.66)], overweight[OR = 2.78(1.37–5.64)], ex-drinkers [OR = 4

  9. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    PubMed

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P < 0.001) within each of the investigated groups. In patients with the highest fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin

  10. A population-based case-control study of oral chlordiazepoxide use during pregnancy and risk of congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A E; Rockenbauer, M; Sørensen, H T; Olsen, J

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to check the human teratogenic potential of oral chlordiazepoxide treatment during pregnancy at the analysis of pairs of 22,865 cases with congenital abnormalities (CAs) and 38,151 matched healthy controls in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA) between 1980 and 1996. Two hundred and one (0.9%) case mothers and 268 (0.7%) control mothers had chlordiazepoxide treatment during pregnancy, respectively. Our analysis showed higher odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI; 2.5, 1.0-6.0) for chlordiazepoxide use during the 2nd-3rd month of gestation in the group of congenital cardiovascular malformations. However, this association was found when exposure data were based mainly on maternal self-reported chlordiazepoxide treatments (80% in cases and 71% in controls). There was no increase in the rate of any specific congenital cardiovascular malformation type. In conclusion, therapeutic doses of chlordiazepoxide during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk to the human fetus, although a somewhat higher rate of congenital cardiovascular malformations cannot be excluded.

  11. Glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects with different stages of glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose variability could be an independent risk factor for diabetes complications in addition to average glucose. The deficiency in islet β cell secretion and insulin sensitivity, the two important pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes, are responsible for glycemic disorders. The oral disposition index evaluated by product of insulin secretion and sensitivity is a useful marker of islet β cell function. The aim of the study is to investigate glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects across a range of glucose tolerance from the normal to overt type 2 diabetes. Methods 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in total 220 subjects: 47 with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 52 with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM, 8 with isolated impaired fasting glucose [IFG], 18 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and 26 with combined IFG and IGT), 61 screen-diagnosed diabetes by isolated 2-h glucose (DM2h) and 60 newly diagnosed diabetes by both fasting and 2-h glucose (DM). Insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30), and integrated β cell function measured by the oral disposition index (ΔI30/ΔG30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 hours. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SD), mean of blood glucose (MBG), high blood glucose index (HBGI), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA1), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). Results From the NGR to IGM to DM2h to DM group, the respective values of SD (mean ± SD) (0.9 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.5, 1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/), MBG (5.9 ± 0.5, 6.7 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 1.0 and 8.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L), HGBI [median(Q1–Q3)][0.8(0.2–1.2), 2.0(1.2–3.7), 3

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intensive Behavior Education Program in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Women Designed to Improve Glucose Levels on the 2-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Durnwald, Celeste P; Kallan, Michael J; Allison, Kelly C; Sammel, Mary D; Wisch, Susan; Elovitz, Michal; Parry, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    Objective To evaluate whether women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) enrolled in an intensive behavior education program (IBEP) demonstrate lower mean fasting glucose levels on the 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2-hour OGTT) at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum compared with women who undergo routine GDM management. Study Design A prospective randomized controlled trial of women diagnosed with GDM was conducted. Exclusion criteria were GDM diagnosis ≥ 33 weeks or < 20 weeks. Women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: (1) routine GDM management or (2) an IBEP. Women underwent a 2-hour OGTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Fisher exact test, t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used as appropriate. Results Of the 101 women randomized, 49 were assigned to IBEP and 52 received routine GDM management. There was no difference in mean fasting and 2-hour glucose levels on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT between the IBEP and routine management group (88.5 ± 22.9 mg/dL vs. 85.2 ± 13.3 mg/dL, p = 0.49 and 109.8 ± 38.5 mg/dL vs. 109.4 ± 40.8 mg/dL, p = 0.97, respectively). Conclusion GDM women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle intervention program did not demonstrate lower glucose values on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT.

  13. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin with the oral glucose tolerance test. A study in subjects with normoglycemia, glucose intolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Ronquist, G; Wibell, L

    1984-10-01

    At a health survey of 819 subjects, 47-54 years old, the rate of glucose intolerance (GI) was 6.2% (51 subjects) according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and WHO criteria. In GI-subjects, the mean HbA1 was 7.3% (10th-90th percentile range 6.2-8.3%), and significantly higher than the mean HbA1 in 150 subjects with normal OGTT, which was 6.5% (10th-90th percentile range 5.7-7.4%). With an upper normal limit of 7.8% (mean + 2 SD) only 20% of all GI-subjects had a raised HbA1. The differences between 31 GI-subjects, with low HbA1 (mean 6.9%), and 20 GI-subjects, with relatively high HbA1 (mean 7.9%), were not significant with respect to fasting and 2-hour blood glucose, area under glucose curve, body mass index, index of physical activity, rate of hypertension or rate of first degree relatives with diabetes. In an unselected group of 157 subjects, sampled consecutively during the first part of the survey, the mean HbA1 was 6.6% (10th-90th percentile range 5.8-7.5 %) 150 subjects were those with normal OGTT, 6 subjects had GI and only one subject had previously unknown diabetes. No distinct correlations between HbA1 and OGTT fasting or 2 hour values were found in this sample. No correlation was found within the separate groups of 51 GI-subjects and 150 normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. PMID:26069091

  15. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score.

    PubMed

    Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2014-04-01

    Breed-related differences may occur in the innate insulin sensitivity (SI) of horses and ponies, an important factor believed to be associated with the risk of laminitis. The aim of this study was to measure the glucose and insulin responses of different breeds of horses and ponies in moderate body condition to a glucose-containing meal and to compare these responses with the indices of SI as determined by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Eight Standardbred horses, 8 mixed-breed ponies, and 7 Andalusian-cross horses with a mean ± SEM BCS 5.0 ± 0.3 of 9 were used in this study. Each animal underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they were fed a fiber-based ration (2.0 g/kg BW) containing 1.5 g/kg BW added glucose, as well as a standard FSIGT with minimal model analysis. The glucose response variables from the OGTT were similar between groups; however, the peak insulin concentration was higher in ponies (94.1 ± 29.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.003) and Andalusians (85.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (21.2 ± 3.5). The insulin area under the curve was also higher in ponies (13.5 ± 3.6 IU · min · L(-1); P = 0.009) and Andalusians (15.0 ± 2.7; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (3.1 ± 0.6). Insulin sensitivity, as determined by the FSIGT, was lower in Andalusians (0.99 ± 0.18 × 10(-4)/[mIU · min]) than in Standardbreds (5.43 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) and in ponies (2.12 ± 0.44; P = 0.003) than in Standardbreds. Peak insulin concentrations from the OGTT were negatively correlated with SI (P < 0.001; rs = -0.75). These results indicate that there are clear breed-related differences in the insulin responses of horses and ponies to oral and intravenous glucose. All animals were in moderate body condition, indicating that breed-related differences in insulin dynamics occurred independent of obesity. PMID:24308928

  16. Abnormal temporal lobe response in Alzheimer's disease during cognitive processing as measured by /sup 11/C-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; de Leon, M.J.; Ferris, S.H.; Kluger, A.; George, A.E.; Reisberg, B.; Sachs, H.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-04-01

    Elderly controls and probable Alzheimer's disease patients underwent serial positron emission tomography (PET) studies during a baseline condition and while performing a verbal memory task. For the temporal lobes, all 7 Alzheimer patients demonstrated a relative shift in glucose metabolic rates to the right hemisphere during the memory condition relative to baseline, and 5 of 7 controls showed a shift to the left hemisphere. Baseline absolute regional metabolic rates replicate previous findings and were somewhat less useful than the memory challenge in differentiating patients from controls. These results indicate that a temporal lobe abnormality in Alzheimer's disease is related to memory performance.

  17. Cross-arch arrangement in complete denture prosthesis to manage an edentulous patient with oral submucous fibrosis and abnormal jaw relation

    PubMed Central

    Tambe, Abhijit; Patil, Sanjayagouda B; Bhat, Sudhakara; Badadare, Mokshada M

    2014-01-01

    A patient with oral submucous fibrosis and resorbed ridges poses a challenge for prosthodontic rehabilitation because of the limited mouth opening and fibrotic mucosa. The fabrication of prosthesis is very difficult due to abnormal jaw relations, influencing the long-term prognosis of the patient. To present a case of oral submucous fibrosis with severely resorbed edentulous ridges which was successfully managed by adopting a modified technique in fabricating a complete denture prosthesis. A 55-year-old female patient with completely edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis was rehabilitated with complete dentures by recording neutral zone for resorbed mandibular ridge and by arranging the posterior teeth in cross arch relation for compensation of the abnormal jaw relations. The cross-arch arrangement of posterior teeth provides a more stable and retentive complete denture prosthesis for patients with severely resorbed ridges and a wider mandibular arch. PMID:25239981

  18. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675. PMID:27648290

  19. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675.

  20. An inverse U-shaped association of late and peak insulin levels during an oral glucose load with glucose intolerance in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Katakami, Naoto; Matsuoka, Taka-Aki; Noguchi, Midori; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of post-load insulin levels with glucose tolerance in a Japanese population. A total of 1450 Japanese employees who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were included. Glucose tolerance was assessed by 120-min glucose levels during a 75-g OGTT. A penalized cubic regression spline model analysis revealed that the 60- and 120-min insulin levels, but not 0- or 30-min insulin levels, had an inverse U-shaped relationship to the 120-min glucose level. Furthermore, peak insulin level followed an inverse U shape in relation to the 120-min glucose level, whereas the peak of insulin appeared at a later point in time as the 120-min glucose level increased. These associations were similarly observed in both obese and non-obese subgroups, although obesity was associated with higher insulin levels. Peak insulin levels also demonstrated an inverse U shape in association with 0-min glucose levels and indices of β cell function, assessed by the disposition index and the β-cell function index. In conclusion, peak insulin levels followed an inverse U shape in relation to glucose intolerance in a Japanese population, whereas the impairment of glucose tolerance was associated with a delay in the time to reach peak insulin levels.

  1. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  2. Modeling insulin kinetics: responses to a single oral glucose administration or ambulatory-fed conditions.

    PubMed

    Lenbury, Y; Ruktamatakul, S; Amornsamarnkul, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear mathematical model of the glucose-insulin feedback system, which has been extended to incorporate the beta-cells' function on maintaining and regulating plasma insulin level in man. Initially, a gastrointestinal absorption term for glucose is utilized to effect the glucose absorption by the intestine and the subsequent release of glucose into the bloodstream, taking place at a given initial rate and falling off exponentially with time. An analysis of the model is carried out by the singular perturbation technique in order to derive boundary conditions on the system parameters which identify, in particular, the existence of limit cycles in our model system consistent with the oscillatory patterns often observed in clinical data. We then utilize a sinusoidal term to incorporate the temporal absorption of glucose in order to study the responses in the patients under ambulatory-fed conditions. A numerical investigation is carried out in this case to construct a bifurcation diagram to identify the ranges of parametric values for which chaotic behavior can be expected, leading to interesting biological interpretations. PMID:11226623

  3. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  4. Oral vanadate and Tiron in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats: improvement of glucose homeostasis and negative side-effects.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Sanchez, D J; Gomez, M; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-12-01

    It has been shown that improvement of glucose homeostasis by oral vanadate or vanadyl treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is accompanied by severe negative side effects (some deaths, decreased weight gain, alteration in renal function as well as tissue vanadium accumulation) which argue against the use of vanadium compounds in diabetes treatment. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness in alleviating some signs of diabetes in streptozotocin-treated rats with oral therapy with sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) and sodium 4,5 dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron), a chelating agent effective in mobilizing vanadium. In a preliminary experiment, diabetic rats were given aqueous solutions of 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml for 4 days. Vanadium-treated rats which showed blood glucose levels significantly lower (p < 0.001) than vanadate-untreated diabetic rats were selected for subsequent experiments. These animals were given 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml in drinking water and 0, 125.6, 314 or 628 mg Tiron/kg/d by gavage for 2 w. Although most of the animals did not become normoglycemic, several characteristic signs of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hyperphagia and polydipsia) were alleviated by the NaVO3 treatment. The administration of 314 mg Tiron/kg/d (approximately 1 NaVO3: 5 Tiron, mole ratio) did not diminish the ameliorative effects of NaVO3 with respect to diabetes, but significantly decreased the level of vanadium accumulation in target organs. These results show that some of the beneficial effects of NaVO3 are maintained in diabetic animals given Tiron, while the administration of the chelator results in a significant decrease in tissue vanadium accumulation. Accordingly, this would diminish the possibility of toxic side effects derived from prolonged oral vanadium administration.

  5. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P < 0.05 or 0.001). These results suggested that RRDY and yam dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models. PMID:27499387

  6. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mougi, M.; Hendawi, A.; Koura, H.; Hegazi, E.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we reported that standard oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is not as effective as a reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS for the treatment of children with acute noncholera diarrhoea: with standard ORS the diarrhoea lasts longer, stool output is greater, serum sodium is higher, and there is more need for supplemental intravenous infusion. We studied a reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin (MD)-based ORS to determine whether it had similar benefits, and also the effect of sugar malabsorption on the efficacy of standard and MD-based ORS. A total of 90 boys aged 3-24 months with acute noncholera diarrhoea and moderate dehydration were randomly assigned to either standard ORS (glucose 20 g/l, osmolarity 311 mmol/l) or MD-ORS (MD 50 g/l, osmolarity 227 mmol/l). There were no differences in treatment results. Some 46% of subjects had a high total stool output (> 300 g/kg), which was unrelated to the type of ORS given. High stool output was significantly associated with a longer duration of diarrhoea (33 vs. 15 hours; P < 0.001), a persistently elevated serum sodium (149 vs. 144 mmol/l at 24 h; P < 0.02), the need for intravenous infusion (11/41 vs. 0/48; P < 0.002), and an increase in faecal reducing substances (10.8 vs. 3.4 g/l at 24 h; P < 0.001). We conclude that some children given standard ORS develop osmotic diarrhoea owing to the combined effect of transient sugar malabsorption and slight hypertonicity of the ORS. Earlier studies show that this adverse outcome can largely be avoided when extra water is given in reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS. Reduced osmolarity has no benefit, however, when glucose is replaced by maltodextrin, probably because the sugars released by hydrolysis of MD, when malabsorbed, raise the intraluminal osmolarity to equal or exceed that of standard ORS. Thus, reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS is superior to both standard ORS and reduced-osmolarity solutions based on maltodextrin and probably other complex carbohydrates

  7. Effect of long-term oral administration of green tea extract on weight gain and glucose tolerance in Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Portocarrero, Carla; Zhu, Yongxin; Zhou, Qin

    2005-01-01

    There have been some claims that green tea reduces weight and lowers blood glucose in diabetes. Intraperitoneal injections of green tea catechins in diabetic rats have shown beneficial effects. To determine if oral administration of green tea would prevent development of diabetes, young Zucker diabetic rats were dosed with green tea extract containing 50-125 mg/kg of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) starting at 7 weeks of age, before the appearance of excessive weight gain and glucose elevation. While there was a trend toward lower weight gain and average daily glucose, there was no statistically significant difference.

  8. The long term oral regulation of blood glucose in diabetic patients by using of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 expressing CTB-IGF-1 hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Bazi, Zahra; Jalili, Mahsa; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-11-01

    Regarding to the high prevalence and comorbidities of chronic high blood glucose in diabetic patients and the limited efficacy and current painful treatments. It is necessary to improve new treatments that are non-invasive and long-term for controlling blood glucose. Recent studies have shown that the healthy microflora in different body organs can perform as the gene vectors for expressing different types of gene therapies in situ. We have proposed that by constructing a recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 that expresses CTB-IGF-1 hybrid gene under control of ompC glucose sensitive promoter, the intestinal glucose level can be regulated. This method in comparison with other methods is a non-invasive way to control the blood glucose orally and it can be used for all types of diabetes. PMID:24074833

  9. Chronic Superantigen Exposure Induces Systemic Inflammation, Elevated Bloodstream Endotoxin, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Rabbits: Possible Role in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Bao G.; Stach, Christopher S.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Excessive weight and obesity are associated with the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMII) in humans. They also pose high risks of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and overt infections. S. aureus causes a wide range of severe illnesses in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens are essential for pathogenicity. In this study, we show that rabbits that are chronically exposed to S. aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) experience impaired glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, and elevated endotoxin levels in the bloodstream, all of which are common findings in DMII. Additionally, such DMII-associated findings are also seen through effects of TSST-1 on isolated adipocytes. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to S. aureus superantigens facilitates the development of DMII, which may lead to therapeutic targeting of S. aureus and its superantigens. PMID:25714716

  10. Glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast: oral insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating agent: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Mizrahi, Tal; Raz, Itamar; Mirsky, Nitsa

    2012-09-01

    In search for an effective oral treatment for diabetes, we examined the capacity of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) extracted from yeast and administered orally to reduce hyperglycaemia in rat models exhibiting insulin deficiency. The cellular effect of GTF on the insulin signalling pathway was investigated in vitro. GTF (oral bolus), insulin (intraperitoneal) or their combination was administered to streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or hyperglycaemic Cohen diabetic-sensitive (hyp-CDs) rats. Blood glucose (BG) and insulin levels were measured in the postprandial (PP) state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Deoxy-glucose transport and insulin signal transduction were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and myoblasts incubated with the GTF. Low dose of insulin produced a 34 and 12·5 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. GTF induced a 33 and 17 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. When combined with insulin, a respective decrease (58 and 42 %) in BG levels was observed, suggesting a partially additive (hyp-CDs) or synergistic (STZ rats) effect of the GTF and insulin. GTF did not induce insulin secretion in hyp-CDs rats, yet it lowered their BG levels, proposing an effect on glucose clearance by peripheral tissues. GTF induced a dose-dependent increase in deoxy-glucose transport into myoblasts and fat cells similar to insulin, while the combined treatment resulted in augmented transport rate. GTF induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of insulin receptor phosphorylation. GTF exerts remarkable insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating effects, both in vivo and in vitro. It produces an insulin-like effect by acting on cellular signals downstream of the insulin receptor. These results demonstrate a potential source for a novel oral medication for diabetes.

  11. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  12. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  13. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia. PMID:23514230

  14. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  15. Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinlong; Pang, Wensheng; Shi, Wentao; Yang, Bin; Kan, Yongjun; He, Zhaodong; Hu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 10⁴ Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes ((99m)Tc-pertechnetate). (99m)Tc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of (99m)Tc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination. PMID:27649122

  16. Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing identifies HIV+ infected women with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) not captured by standard DM definition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H; Tien, Phyllis C

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may have differential risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population, and the optimal diagnostic algorithm for DM in HIV+ persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the utility of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for DM diagnosis in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV infection. Methods Using American Diabetic Association DM definitions, DM prevalence and incidence were assessed among women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. DM was defined by 2-hour OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL (DM_OGTT) or a clinical definition (DM_C) that included any of the following: (i) anti-diabetic medication use or self-reported DM confirmed by either fasting glucose (FG) ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, (ii) FG ≥ 126 mg/dL confirmed by a second FG ≥ 126 mg/dL or HbA1c 6.5%, or (iii) HbA1c 6.5% confirmed by FG ≥ 126 mg/dL cohort. Results Overall, 390 women (285 HIV+, median age 43 years; 105 HIV−, median age 37 years) were enrolled between 2003-2006. Over half of all women were African American. Using DM_C, DM prevalence rates were 5.6% and 2.8% among HIV+ and HIV− women, respectively. Among HIV+ women, adding DM_OGTT to DM_C increased DM prevalence from 5.6% to 7.4%, a 31% increase in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed (p=0.02). In HIV− women, no additional cases were diagnosed by DM-OGTT. Conclusion In HIV+ women, OGTT identified DM cases that were not identified by a standardized clinical definition. Further investigation is needed to determine whether OGTT should be considered as an adjunctive tool for DM diagnosis in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:27066296

  17. Abnormal COX2 Protein Expression May Be Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Oral Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hong-Bo; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prognostic significance of COX2 for survival of patients with oral cancer remains controversial. Thus, the meta-analysis was performed in order to identify COX2 expression impact on prognosis of oral cancer. Method. Relevant literatures were searched using the following electronic databases without any language restrictions: Web of Science, the Cochrane Library Database, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CBM. Version 12.0 STATA software (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA) was used for the current meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were also calculated to clarify the correlation between COX2 expression and prognosis of oral cancer. Results. Final analysis of 979 oral cancer patients from 12 clinical cohort studies was performed. The meta-analysis results show that COX2 expression in cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in normal and benign tissues (all P < 0.05). Combined HR of COX2 suggests that positive COX2 expression has a shorter overall survival (OS) than those of negative COX2 expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The meta-analysis study shows that elevated COX2 expression may be associated with the pathogenesis of oral cancer and with a worse prognosis in oral cancer patients. PMID:25028647

  18. Glucose-Reducing Effect of the ORMD-0801 Oral Insulin Preparation in Patients with Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Eldor, Roy; Arbit, Ehud; Corcos, Asher; Kidron, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The unpredictable behavior of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes often involves frequent swings in blood glucose levels that impact maintenance of a daily routine. An intensified insulin regimen is often unsuccessful, while other therapeutic options, such as amylin analog injections, use of continuous glucose sensors, and islet or pancreas transplantation are of limited clinical use. In efforts to provide patients with a more compliable treatment method, Oramed Pharmaceuticals tested the capacity of its oral insulin capsule (ORMD-0801, 8 mg insulin) in addressing this resistant clinical state. Eight Type I diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c: 7.5–10%) were monitored throughout the 15-day study period by means of a blind continuous glucose monitoring device. Baseline patient blood glucose behavior was monitored and recorded over a five-day pretreatment screening period. During the ensuing ten-day treatment phase, patients were asked to conduct themselves as usual and to self-administer an oral insulin capsule three times daily, just prior to meal intake. CGM data sufficient for pharmacodynamics analyses were obtained from 6 of the 8 subjects. Treatment with ORMD-0801 was associated with a significant 24.4% reduction in the frequencies of glucose readings >200 mg/dL (60.1±7.9% pretreatment vs. 45.4±4.9% during ORMD-0801 treatment; p = 0.023) and a significant mean 16.6% decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC) (66055±5547 mg/dL/24 hours vs. 55060±3068 mg/dL/24 hours, p = 0.023), with a greater decrease during the early evening hours. In conclusion, ORMD-0801 oral insulin capsules in conjunction with subcutaneous insulin injections, well tolerated and effectively reduced glycemia throughout the day. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867594. PMID:23593142

  19. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  20. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  1. Relation between Delayed Superfluous Insulin Secretion during An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Metabolic Disorders in Obese Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toru; Harada, Waka; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ito, Sueshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relation between postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders in obese children. Twenty-eight obese Japanese children (8.8-16.2 yr) were divided into four groups: without impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group A), with impaired liver function (Group B), with dyslipidemia (Group C), and with impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group D). The levels of PG, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and serum C-peptide (CPR) were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The subjects had delayed superfluous insulin and CPR secretion during the OGTT compared with healthy references. In regard to the insulin secretion pattern, Group A's response peaked at 60 min and then decreased gradually until 120 min, Group B's response peaked at 60 min, remained at the peak until 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, Group C's response peaked at 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, and Group D's response peaked at 120 min and remained at the peak until 180 min. These results suggest that delayed superfluous insulin secretion during an OGTT is related to metabolic disorders in obese Japanese children and that these patients will experience a vicious cycle of postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders. It is important to prevent healthy children from becoming obese and to improve management of childhood obesity.

  2. [Angiodysplasia of moya-moya type disclosed by choreic unvoluntary abnormal movements during oral contraception. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Cabanot, C; Lévrier, O; Thuillier, J N; Chérif, A A

    1997-07-01

    Two seventeen year-old women, developed acute onset left choreic movements following two months and two weeks use of oral contraceptives. Left hemiparesia appeared a few days later, while involuntary movements discontinued. Cranial CT scan and MRI showed bilateral ischemic lesion in the frontal region for the first case and isolated lesion in the right centrum ovale for the second. Angiography showed nearly complete obstruction of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery with an outline Moya-Moya network. After discontinuing oral contraceptives, there has been no relapse of neurologic dysfunction for more than three years for the first case and twelve months for the second one. The role of perfusion insufficiency in limb-shaking carotid transient ischemic attack is discussed and the possible relations between oral contraceptives, chorea and angiographic features resembling Moya-Moya disease are evaluated. PMID:9684005

  3. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  4. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Juliane; Finger, Flavio; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Borgeaud, Sandrine; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Blokesch, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings. PMID:25474211

  5. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    PubMed Central

    Færch, Kristine; Pacini, Giovanni; Nolan, John J.; Hansen, Torben; Tura, Andrea; Vistisen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS With validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs. RESULTS More rapid glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P < 0.001). All OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, but only one of three measures of β-cell function, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests. CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when estimating β-cell function from OGTTs in epidemiological studies. PMID:24062321

  6. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral single gavage administration of C. indicum flower oil. There were no mortality and clinical signs of toxicity at 2,000 mg/kg body weight/day of C. indicum flower oil throughout the 15 day period. Micronucleated erythrocyte cell counts for all treated groups were not significantly different between test and control groups. Levels of 15.63~500 μg C. indicum flower oil/plate did not induce mutagenicity in S. Typhimurium and E. coli, with or without the introduction of a metabolic activation system. These results indicate that ingesting C. indicum flower oil produces no acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation. PMID:24471119

  7. Drug-drug interactions with sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, new oral glucose-lowering agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

  8. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  9. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results. PMID:26962830

  10. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, free cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin responses following oral glucose challenge in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied men.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Jones, L M; Legge, M; Elder, P A

    2010-11-01

    Circulating cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured retrospectively in plasma samples following the oral glucose tolerance test in 20 spinal cord-injured men and 20 able-bodied controls. Plasma-free cortisol responses attenuated more rapidly in the able-bodied men, compared to spinal cord-injured subjects, due to significant rise in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin whereas changes in total plasma cortisol were similar in both groups. The changes in plasma-free cortisol in both groups paralleled changes in insulin and glucose and show that spinal cord-injured men had heightened exposure to free cortisol during this dynamic test. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of abdominal obesity and the propensity towards insulin resistance in spinal cord-injured men could be subtly mediated by perturbations in free cortisol. There were no significant changes in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin in either group.

  11. Abnormal urinary bile acids in a patient suffering from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis during oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Koopman, B J; Wolthers, B G; van der Molen, J C; Nagel, G T; Kruizinga, W

    1987-02-14

    The urinary bile acid profile, obtained by capillary gas chromatography, of a patient suffering from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and treated with ursodeoxycholic acid demonstrated, besides the occurrence of 23-norcholic acid and (23R)-hydroxycholic acid (as a consequence of this disease), six additional unknown bile acids and three known bile acids, viz. ursodeoxycholic acid, hyocholic acid and omega-muricholic acid. The structure of two of the unknown bile acids were elucidated and proven by organic syntheses. These were 23-norursodeoxycholic acid and 3 beta-ursodeoxycholic acid. The structures of three bile acids were tentatively elucidated as being 1 beta-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid, 21-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid and 22-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid, and the possibility that the structure of the remaining bile acid is that of 5-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid is discussed. Two of these bile acids (1 beta-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid and 5-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid) also occurred in urine of a healthy individual during oral ursodeoxycholic acid treatment, whereas 23-norcholic acid, 23-norursodeoxycholic acid, (23R)-hydroxycholic acid, 21-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid and 22-hydroxyursodeoxycholic acid were only present in urine of the patient suffering from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. The metabolism of ursodeoxycholic acid, both in the normal state and in the cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, is discussed.

  12. Effect of Oral Sebacic Acid on Postprandial Glycemia, Insulinemia, and Glucose Rate of Appearance in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iaconelli, Amerigo; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Chiellini, Chiara; Gniuli, Donatella; Favuzzi, Angela; Binnert, Christophe; Macé, Katherine; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dicarboxylic acids are natural products with the potential of being an alternate dietary source of energy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sebacic acid (a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid; C10) ingestion on postprandial glycemia and glucose rate of appearance (Ra) in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the effect of C10 on insulin-mediated glucose uptake and on GLUT4 expression was assessed in L6 muscle cells in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects ingested a mixed meal (50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, and 35% lipids) containing 0 g (control) or 10 g C10 in addition to the meal or 23 g C10 as a substitute of fats. RESULTS In type 2 diabetic subjects, the incremental glucose area under the curve (AUC) decreased by 42% (P < 0.05) and 70% (P < 0.05) in the 10 g C10 and 23 g C10 groups, respectively. At the largest amounts used, C10 reduced the glucose AUC in healthy volunteers also. When fats were substituted with 23 g C10, AUC of Ra was significantly reduced on the order of 18% (P < 0.05) in both healthy and diabetic subjects. The insulin-dependent glucose uptake by L6 cells was increased in the presence of C10 (38.7 ± 10.3 vs. 11.4 ± 5.4%; P = 0.026). This increase was associated with a 1.7-fold raise of GLUT4. CONCLUSIONS Sebacic acid significantly reduced hyperglycemia after a meal in type 2 diabetic subjects. This beneficial effect was associated with a reduction in glucose Ra, probably due to lowered hepatic glucose output and increased peripheral glucose disposal. PMID:20724647

  13. Limitations in the use of indices using glucose and insulin levels to predict insulin sensitivity: impact of race and gender and superiority of the indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Pisprasert, Veeradej; Ingram, Katherine H; Lopez-Davila, Maria F; Munoz, A Julian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the utility of commonly used insulin sensitivity indices in nondiabetic European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-hundred forty nondiabetic participants were studied. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was the gold standard approach to assess glucose disposal rates (GDR) normalized by lean body mass. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated from fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FIL). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine Matsuda index, the simple index assessing insulin sensitivity (SI(is)OGTT), Avignon index, and Stomvoll index. Relationships among these indices with GDR were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS GDR values were similar in EA and AA subgroups; even so, AA exhibited higher FIL and were insulin-resistant compared with EA, as assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Matsuda index, SI(is)OGTT, Avignon index, and Stumvoll index. In the overall study population, GDR was significantly correlated with all studied insulin sensitivity indices (/r/ = 0.381-0.513); however, these indices were not superior to FIL in predicting GDR. Race and gender affected the strength of this relationship. In AA males, FIL and HOMA-IR were not correlated with GDR. In contrast, Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT were significantly correlated with GDR in AA males, and Matsuda index was superior to HOMA-IR and QUICKI in AAs overall. CONCLUSIONS Insulin sensitivity indices based on glucose and insulin levels should be used cautiously as measures of peripheral insulin sensitivity when comparing mixed gender and mixed race populations. Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT are reliable in studies that include AA males.

  14. Anti-proliferative activity of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents on human vascular smooth muscle cells: thiazolidinediones (glitazones) have enhanced activity under high glucose conditions

    PubMed Central

    Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin; de Dios, Stephanie T; Cemerlang, Nelly; Ballinger, Mandy; Nigro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) proliferation by oral anti-hyperglycemic agents may have a role to play in the amelioration of vascular disease in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibit vSMC proliferation but it has been reported that they anomalously stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We investigated three TZDs, two biguanides and two sulfonylureas for their ability of inhibit vSMC proliferation. People with diabetes obviously have fluctuating blood glucose levels thus we determined the effect of media glucose concentration on the inhibitory activity of TZDs in a vSMC preparation that grew considerably more rapidly under high glucose conditions. We further explored the mechanisms by which TZDs increase [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Methods VSMC proliferation was investigated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Activation and inhibition of thymidine kinase utilized short term [3H]-thymidine uptake. Cell cycle events were analyzed by FACS. Results VSMC cells grown for 3 days in DMEM with 5% fetal calf serum under low (5 mM glucose) and high (25 mM glucose) increased in number by 2.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone showed modest but statistically significantly greater inhibitory activity under high versus low glucose conditions (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). We confirmed an earlier report that troglitazone (at low concentrations) causes enhanced incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA but did not increase cell numbers. Troglitazone inhibited serum mediated thymidine kinase induction in a concentration dependent manner. FACS analysis showed that troglitazone and rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone placed a slightly higher percentage of cells in the S phase of a growing culture. Of the biguanides, metformin had no effect on proliferation assessed as [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell numbers whereas phenformin was inhibitory in both assays albeit at high concentrations

  15. Oral supplements of aqueous extract of tomato seeds alleviate motor abnormality, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone in mice: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Krishna; Muralidhara

    2014-07-01

    Although tomato seeds (an industrial by-product) are known to contain several bioactive compounds, studies describing their health effects are limited. Previously, we evidenced that aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) markedly attenuated rotenone (ROT)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila system. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of TSE in a chronic ROT model of neurotoxicity in mice. Initially, we assessed the potential of oral supplements of TSE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers of oxidative stress in brain regions of mice. Subsequently, employing a co-exposure paradigm, the propensity of TSE (100 mg/kg bw, 3 weeks) to attenuate ROT-induced behavioral phenotype (gait abnormalities, anxiety-like state), oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity was examined. We found that mice provided with TSE supplements exhibited progressive improvement in gait pattern and exploratory behavior. TSE markedly offset ROT-induced oxidative impairments, restored reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and protein carbonyls content in brain regions. Specifically, TSE effectively diminished ROT induced elevation in the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and restored the dopamine levels in striatum. Interestingly, in mitochondria, TSE was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes and redox state. Collectively, our findings in the chronic ROT model demonstrate the ability of TSE to alleviate behavioral phenotype, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Further studies in dopaminergic cell models are necessary to understand the precise molecular mechanism/s by which tomato seed bioactives offer significant neuroprotection. PMID:24831121

  16. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug.

  17. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  19. Influence of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs on Hyperglycemic Response to Foods in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Peterson; Chlup, Rudolf; Jana, Zapletalova; Kohnert, Klaus Dieter; Kudlova, Pavla; Bartek, Josef; Nakladalova, Marie; Doubravova, Blanka; Seckar, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective open-label trial was (1) to assess the influence of oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) on the glycemic index (GI), glucose response curves (GRCs), daily mean plasma glucose (MPG) and (2) to compare the GI of foods in persons with OAD-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the respective GI in healthy persons (HP). Methods Tested foods containing 50 g of carbohydrates were eaten for breakfast and dinner after 10 and 4 h of fasting, respectively. Glycemic index, GRC, and MPG were obtained using the CGMS®System Gold™ (CGMS). In T2DM patients [n = 16; age (mean ± standard error) 56.0 ± 2.25 years], foods were tested four times: tests 1, 2, and 3 were performed within one week in which placebo was introduced on day 2, and test 4 was carried out five weeks after reintroduction of OAD. Glycemic indexes, GRC, and MPG from tests 1, 2, 3, and 4 were compared. In a control group of 20 HP (age 24.4 ± 0.71 years), the mean GIs were calculated as the mean from 20 subject-related GIs. Results In T2DM patients, subject-related assessment of GIs, GRC, and MPG distinguished persons with and without OAD effect. Nevertheless, the group-related GIs and the MPG on days 2, 8, and 39 showed no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the GIs in OAD-treated T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP (except in apple baby food). Glucose response curves were significantly larger in T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP. Conclusions Determination of GRC and subject-related GI using the CGMS appears to be a potential means for the evaluation of efficacy of OAD treatment. Further studies are underway. PMID:20663465

  20. Detection of orally administered inositol stereoisomers in mouse blood plasma and their effects on translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-22

    Simple pharmacological studies on inositol stereoisomers are presented in this study. Male ICR mice were orally administered 1 g/kg BW of three inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol (MI), d-chiro-inositol (DCI), and scyllo-inositol (SI), and blood plasma samples and skeletal muscle fractions were prepared after an hour. The plasma samples were subjected to gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. None of the three stereoisomers was seen in untreated samples, but substantial amounts ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mM were detected only after administration, indicating that orally administered inositol stereoisomers were readily absorbed and their levels elevated in the bloodstream. In addition, plasma of SI-administered animals contained substantial MI, suggesting a possible metabolic conversion of SI to MI. In the skeletal muscle fractions, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) content in the plasma membrane increased, indicating that inositol stereoisomers stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

  1. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  2. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  3. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Eik, W; Marcon, S S; Krupek, T; Previdelli, I T S; Pereira, O C N; Silva, M A R C P; Bazotte, R B

    2016-07-11

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  4. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  5. Monogenic syndromes of abnormal glucose homeostasis: clinical review and relevance to the understanding of the pathology of insulin resistance and ß cell failure

    PubMed Central

    Porter, J; Barrett, T

    2005-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and ß cell failure. The polygenic nature of type 2 diabetes has made it difficult to study. Although many candidate genes for this condition have been suggested, in most cases association studies have been equivocal. Monogenic forms of diabetes have now been studied extensively, and the genetic basis of many of these syndromes has been elucidated, leading to greater understanding of the functions of the genes involved. Common variations in the genes causing monogenic disorders have been associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in several populations and explain some of the linkage seen in genome-wide scans. Monogenic disorders are also helpful in understanding both normal and disordered glucose and insulin metabolism. Three main areas of defect contribute to diabetes: defects in insulin signalling leading to insulin resistance; defects of insulin secretion leading to hypoinsulinaemia; and apoptosis leading to decreased ß cell mass. These three pathological pathways are reviewed, focusing on rare genetic syndromes which have diabetes as a prominent feature. Apoptosis seems to be a final common pathway in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Study of rare forms of diabetes may help ion determining new therapeutic targets to preserve or increase ß cell mass and function. PMID:15772126

  6. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kum-Bing; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Ku, Dong-Chi; Liang, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP) with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%). None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated risk of PCOS amongst

  7. Insulin and glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2002-08-01

    Abnormally high or low blood glucose and insulin concentrations after standardized glucose tolerance tests can reflect disorders such as pituitary dysfunction, polysaccharide storage myopathies, and other clinical disorders. Glucose and insulin responses, however, are modified by the diet to which the animal has adapted, time since it was last fed, and what it was fed. Body fat (obesity), fitness level, physiologic status, and stress also alter glucose and insulin metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consider these factors when evaluating glucose and insulin tests, especially if only one sample it taken. This article describes the factors affecting glucose and insulin metabolism in horses and how they might influence the interpretation of standardized tests of glucose tolerance.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Distribution of proteins similar to IIIManH and IIIManL of the Streptococcus salivarius phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system among oral and nonoral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, M; Frenette, M; Vadeboncoeur, C

    1995-01-01

    In Streptococcus salivarius, the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system, which concomitantly transports and phosphorylates mannose, glucose, fructose, and 2-deoxyglucose, is composed of the general energy-coupling proteins EI and HPr, the specific membrane-bound IIIMan, and two forms of a protein called IIIMan, with molecular weights of 38,900 (IIIManH) and 35,200 (IIIManL), that are found in the cytoplasm as well as associated with the membrane. Several lines of evidence suggest that IIIManH and/or IIIManL are involved in the control of sugar metabolism. To determine whether other bacteria possess these proteins, we tested for their presence in 28 oral streptococcus strains, 3 nonoral streptococcus strains, 2 lactococcus strains, 2 enterococcus strains, 2 bacillus strains, 1 lactobacillus strain, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Three approaches were used to determine whether the IIIMan proteins were present in these bacteria: (i) Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, using anti-IIIManH and anti-IIIManH rabbit polyclonal antibodies; (ii) analysis of PEP-dependent phosphoproteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and (iii) inhibition by anti-IIIMan antibodies of the PEP-dependent phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose (a mannose analog) by crude cellular extracts. Only the species S. salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis possessed the two forms of IIIMan. Fifteen other streptococcal species possessed one protein with a molecular weight between 35,200 and 38,900 that cross-reacted with both antibodies. In the case of 9 species, a protein possessing the same electrophoretic mobility was phosphorylated at the expense of PEP. No such phosphoprotein, however, could be detected in the other six species. A III(Man)-like protein with a molecular weight of 35,500 was also detected in Lactobacillus casei by Western blot experiments as well as by PEP-dependent phosphoprotein analysis, and a

  10. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  11. The oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in patients during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The appropriateness of the routine performance of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen for diabetes mellitus (DM) during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization is still under debate. Methods A systematic search of databases (MEDLINE [1985 to March 2012], EMBASE [1985 to March 2012]) was conducted. All prospective cohort studies assessing the accuracy or reproducibility of an OGTT in ACS or non-ACS individuals were included. A bivariate model was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results Fifteen studies with 8,027 participants were included (10 ACS and 5 non-ACS studies). The pooled results on SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, and DOR were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60-0.78), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.94), 7.6 (95% CI, 4.9-11.7), 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.45), and 23 (95% CI, 12–41), respectively. The OGTT has a slightly lower SPE in diagnosing DM in ACS than in non-ACS patients (0.86 [95% CI 0.81-0.92] versus 0.95 [95% CI 0.93-0.98], p<0.01), while the SEN values are comparable (0.71 [95% CI 0.60-0.82] versus 0.67 [95% CI 0.54-0.81], p=0.43). After adjusting the interval between repeated tests and age, the meta-regression did not show a difference in DOR between ACS and non-ACS studies. Conclusions Despite the discrepancy in the interval between the two OGTTs, performing an OGTT in patients with ACS provides accuracy that is similar to that in in non-ACS patients. It is reasonable to screen patients hospitalized for ACS for previously undiagnosed DM using an OGTT. PMID:23270530

  12. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  13. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  14. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  17. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  18. Oral administration of SR-110, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances glucose homeostasis, insulin signaling, and islet architecture in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Sakineh; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Kwon, Guim

    2016-04-15

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. As a follow-up study to our previous work on SR-135 (Arch Biochem Biophys 577-578: 49-59, 2015), we provide evidence that this series of compounds are effective when administered orally, and their mechanisms of actions extend to the peripheral tissues. A more soluble analogue of SR-135, SR-110 (from a new class of Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes) was orally administered for 2 weeks to B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Mice fed a HFD for 4 months gained significantly higher body weights compared to lean diet-fed mice (52 ± 1.5 g vs 34 ± 1.3 g). SR-110 (10 mg/kg daily) treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control or vehicle (peanut butter) group. SR-110 treatment enhanced insulin signaling in the peripheral organs, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, SR-110 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst is effective in improving glucose homeostasis and restoring islet morphology and β-cell insulin content under nutrient overload. PMID:26970045

  19. Diagnostic effectiveness of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test for gestational diabetes in India based on the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Nikhat, Irfana; Nirmalan, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the diagnostic effectiveness of the fasting and one-hour plasma glucose levels for gestational diabetes (GDM) based on International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Methods A Cross-sectional study that included 2348 pregnant women booked for antenatal care in 2011 at a tertiary care perinatal institute. Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Outcome measures include the incidence of GDM based on the IADPSG criteria and the diagnostic effectiveness of the recommended fasting and one-hour plasma glucose cut-off if used in isolation. Results The incidence of GDM was 21.81% (n = 520, 95% CI: 20.15, 23.57) with the IADPSG criteria. A fasting plasma glucose cut-off 92 mg/dL, in isolation, correctly classified 87.16% of GDM, with a specificity of 96.08%, clinically significant positive likelihood ratio (14.08) and a post-test probability of 79.71%. The one-hour 75 g test, in isolation, correctly classified 85.74% of GDM, had specificity of 99.68% and clinically significant positive likelihood ratio (111.12) and post-test probability of 96.87%. The application of the World Health Organization criteria would misclassify 11.91% (95% CI: 10.66, 13.26) of GDM as normal. Conclusions Additional testing of plasma glucose levels can be avoided for 18.25% (n = 435, 95% CI: 16.73, 19.84) if the IADPSG diagnostic criteria for GDM are applied with exit on a positive fasting or one-hour test result.

  20. 55-week treatment of mice with the unani and ayurvedic medicine pomegranate flower ameliorates ageing-associated insulin resistance and skin abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Rong, Xianglu; Um, Irene S I; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2012-01-01

    PPARs play a pivotal role in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis and are involved in diverse biological activities in skin. Pomegranate flower (PGF, an antidiabetic therapy in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines) has been previously demonstrated to activate both PPARalpha/gamma. Here, we found that treatment of mice with the diet containing PGF powder over 55 weeks attenuated ageing-induced abnormal increases in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glucose concentrations during oral glucose tolerance test, and adipose insulin resistance index. The diet tended to decrease the excessive peri-ovary fat mass. It, however, increased the thinned subcutaneous fat thickness. In addition, the diet restored decreases in skin water content, epidermis thickness, and collagen density in corium. Thus, our results demonstrate that long-term treatment with the Unani and Ayurvedic therapy ameliorates ageing-induced insulin resistance, which is associated with reversal of ageing-induced fat redistribution. Further, PGF attenuates ageing-mediated undesirable skin abnormalities. PMID:22253646

  1. Impact of smoking on the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated oral cells: a comparative study with different cigarette types.

    PubMed

    Nersesyan, Armen; Muradyan, Rafael; Kundi, Michael; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the impact of tar and nicotine contents of cigarettes on chromosomal damage in oral mucosa cells of smokers. We monitored the effect of smoking different cigarette types (i.e., of ultralight filter, light filter, medium filter and unfiltered cigarettes) on induction of nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), broken eggs (BE), binucleates (BN), condensed chromatin (CC), karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL) and pyknosis (P) in exfoliated buccal cells. The cells were collected from 83 healthy heavy smokers (n=15-25/group) consuming a similar number of cigarettes (26-33) per day and from never smokers as controls (n=20). The frequencies of KR, CC, KL, BE and BN were increased significantly only in smokers of medium (MF) and non-filtered (NF) types of cigarettes while MN levels were only elevated (p < 0.0001) in the group that smoked NF cigarettes. Since BN and BE were increased (p < 00001) as a consequence of exposure to lower levels of toxic constituents in tobacco, it suggests that these endpoints, which both reflect DNA damage, are more sensitive than MN, which is the only parameter scored in most earlier studies. The induction of MN, BN, KR and KL increased significantly with daily tar exposure and decreased simultaneously with daily nicotine uptake (in all cases, P was < 0.0001). These findings also suggest that nicotine potentially protects cells against DNA reactive carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke although earlier in vitro and animal studies showed that the alkaloid induces DNA damage per se. A significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of endpoints such as cells with MN (- 1.56), MN (-1.69), BN (-1.36), KR (-1.10) and KL (-1.87) with the nicotine levels in cigarettes was found. However, this observation requires further verification by a controlled intervention study. In case it can be substantiated it will have an impact on the ongoing discussion of the health risks associated with

  2. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  3. Evolution of Glucose Tolerance After Treatment of Acromegaly: A Study in 57 Patients.

    PubMed

    Jonas, C; Maiter, D; Alexopoulou, O

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the evolution of glucose metabolism in 57 patients after treatment of their acromegaly and to determine risk factors for the persistence of abnormal glucose tolerance. Therefore, we performed IGF-I measurements, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), and HOMA to evaluate insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) at diagnosis and at last visit (median follow-up 7 years). At diagnosis of acromegaly, 14 patients (25%) were diabetic and 15 (26%) had impaired glucose tolerance, whereas at the last visit, 32% were diabetic and 26% remained glucose intolerant. There was a decrease in fasting glucose (median - 7.0 mg/dl) in the 20 patients cured by surgery, whereas it increased in the 28 patients controlled under medical therapy (median + 2.0 mg/dl; p<0.05 vs. cured group) and in the 9 patients with active disease (median + 4.0 mg/dl). Loss of β-cell function was more pronounced in the patients under medical treatment (median - 87.9%) vs. the cured group (median - 30.4%; p<0.05). There was a decrease in HbA1c between diagnosis and last visit in patients under pegvisomant (mean - 19.2 mmol/mol) vs. a small increase in patient treated by somatostatin analogues (+ 3.4 mmol/mol; p<0.05). Independent risk factors for persistent abnormal glucose tolerance were the glucose tolerance status at diagnosis and ongoing treatment with somatostatin analogues. In conclusion, we found that more than 50% of patients still have IGT or diabetes after treatment of acromegaly. Improvement of glucose metabolism is mainly observed in cured patients and in patients treated with pegvisomant. PMID:26849822

  4. Dose selection using a semi-mechanistic integrated glucose-insulin-glucagon model: designing phase 2 trials for a novel oral glucokinase activator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Schneck, Karen; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Yeo, Kwee Poo; Heathman, Michael; Sinha, Vikram

    2013-02-01

    Selecting dosing regimens for phase 2 studies for a novel glucokinase activator LY2599506 is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling and assessing hypoglycemia risk. A semi-mechanistic integrated glucose-insulin-glucagon (GIG) model was developed in NONMEM based on pharmacokinetic, glucose, insulin, glucagon, and meal data obtained from a multiple ascending dose study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with LY2599506 for up to 26 days. The series of differential equations from the NONMEM model was translated into an R script to prospectively predict 24-h glucose profiles following LY2599506 treatment for 3 months for a variety of doses and dosing regimens. The reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the end of the 3-month treatment was estimated using a transit compartment model based on the simulated fasting glucose values. Two randomized phase 2 studies, one with fixed dosing and the other employing conditional dose titration were conducted. The simulation suggested that (1) Comparable HbA1c lowering with lower hypoglycemia risk occurs with titration compared to fixed-dosing; and (2) A dose range of 50-400 mg BID provides either greater efficacy or lower hypoglycemia incidence or both than glyburide. The predictions were in reasonable agreement with the observed clinical data. The model predicted HbA1c reduction and hypoglycemia risk provided the basis for the decision to focus on the dose-titration trial and for the selection of doses for the demonstration of superiority of LY2599506 to glyburide. The integrated GIG model represented a valuable tool for the evaluation of hypoglycemia incidence. PMID:23263772

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  6. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  7. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials. PMID:2345922

  8. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials.

  9. Prognosis of Pregnant Women with One Abnormal Value on 75g OGTT.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Shigeru; Horinouchi, Takashi; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Hori, Daizo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Yamada, Kentaro; Ushijima, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors to allow us to detect patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy, among Japanese pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT). A total of 118 pregnant women with OAV on a previous 75-g OGTT between 1997 and 2010 were studied. We identified the factors which can predict patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy among Japanese pregnant women with OAV, by comparing severe abnormal glucose tolerance (insulin treatment; n=17) with mild glucose tolerance patients (diet only; n=101). The following factors were examined; plasma level of glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) at fasting, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after loading glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index-composite (ISI composite), and HbA1c at the time of the 75-g OGTT. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and 2-h PG value, 0.5-h and 1-h IRI values, AUC-IRI and insulinogenic index (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the PG 2-h value and insulinogenic index were independent predictive factors of insulin therapy. A 2-h PG ≥153 mg / dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 had a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 83.8%, a positive predictive value of 60.0% and a negative predictive value of 93.9% for the prediction of patients who required insulin therapy among pregnant women with OAV. These results suggest that a level of 2-h PG ≥153 mg/dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 on 75-g OGTT are predictive factors for insulin therapy in Japanese pregnant women with OAV.

  10. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and glucose management.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2011-09-01

    Although metabolic abnormalities have been linked with poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage, there are limited data addressing the impact of glycemic control or benefits of glucose management after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A systematic literature search was conducted of English-language articles describing original research on glycemic control in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case reports and case series were excluded. A total of 22 publications were selected for this review. Among the 17 studies investigating glucose as an outcome predictor, glucose levels during hospitalization were more likely to predict outcome than admission glucose. In general, hyperglycemia was linked to worse outcome. While insulin therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was shown to effectively control plasma glucose levels, plasma glucose control was not necessarily reflective of cerebral glucose such that very tight glucose control may lead to neuroglycopenia. Furthermore, tight glycemic control was associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia which was linked to worse outcome. PMID:21850563

  11. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  12. Oral administration of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose suppresses triple-negative breast cancer xenograft growth and metastasis in strong association with JAK1-STAT3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Seo, Nam-Jun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Park, Yongjin; Jung, Deok-Beom; Koh, Wonil; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ok; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Lü, Junxuan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    There is an urgent clinical need for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive drugs for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBCa). Extending on our recent work, we hypothesize that the herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of TNBCa xenograft and target Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-signaling axis. Daily oral gavage of 10 mg PGG/kg body wt decreased MDA-MB-231 xenograft weight by 49.3% (P < 0.01) at 40 days postinoculation, whereas weekly intraperitoneal injections of Taxol at the same dosage resulted in a 21.4% reduction (P > 0.1). PGG treatment also decreased the incidence of lung metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining detected decreased Ki-67 (proliferation) index and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (apoptosis) index in PGG-treated and Taxol-treated xenografts. However, the CD34 (angiogenesis) index was decreased only in PGG-treated xenografts along with decreased phospho-STAT3. In cell culture of MDA-MB-231 cells, PGG decreased pSTAT3 and its downstream target proteins, decreased its upstream kinase pJAK1 and induced the expression of SHP1, a JAK1 upstream tyrosine phosphatase, within as early as 1 h of exposure. The phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate reversed the PGG-induced downregulation of pSTAT3 and caspase activation. Orally administered PGG can inhibit TNBCa growth and metastasis, probably through anti-angiogenesis, antiproliferation and apoptosis induction. Mechanistically, PGG-induced inhibition of JAK1-STAT3 axis may contribute to the observed in vivo efficacy and the effects on the cellular processes.

  13. [Neonatal diarrhea due to congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption: report of seven cases].

    PubMed

    Chedane-Girault, C; Dabadie, A; Maurage, C; Piloquet, H; Chailloux, E; Colin, E; Pelatan, C; Giniès, J-L

    2012-12-01

    Congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which presents as a protracted diarrhea in early neonatal life. We describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of 7 children with CGGM in western France. There were 4 girls and 3 boys from 5 families, born between 1984 and 2010. The principal complaint was a neonatal onset of watery and acidic severe diarrhea complicated by hypertonic dehydration. The diarrhea stopped with fasting. In 2 cases, the family history supported the diagnosis. In the other cases, elimination of glucose and galactose (lactose) from the diet resulted in the complete resolution of diarrhea symptoms. In 2 cases, the H2 breath tests were positive. In 2 cases, the HGPO or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) demonstrated an abnormal curve with glucose and a normal curve with fructose. DNA sequencing was not used. When glucose and galactose were eliminated from the diet, the infants had normal growth and development. In conclusion, CGGM is a rare etiology of neonatal diarrhea; however, the diagnosis is easy to make and the prognosis is excellent. PMID:23107089

  14. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  15. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  16. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  17. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  18. Glucose and insulin metabolism in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Petrides, A S; DeFronzo, R A

    1989-01-01

    Glucose intolerance, overt diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance are characteristic features of patients with cirrhosis. Insulin secretion, although increased in absolute terms, is insufficient to offset the presence of insulin resistance. The defect in insulin-mediated glucose disposal involves peripheral tissues, primarily muscle, and most likely reflects a disturbance in glycogen synthesis. Hepatic glucose production is normally sensitive to insulin; at present, it is unknown whether hepatic glucose uptake is impaired in cirrhosis. One of the more likely candidates responsible for the insulin-resistant state is insulin itself. The hyperinsulinemia results from three abnormalities: diminished hepatic extraction, portosystemic/intrahepatic shunting, and enhanced insulin secretion. PMID:2646365

  19. Glucose control.

    PubMed

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  20. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 2 (SREBF-2) predicts 7-year NAFLD incidence and severity of liver disease and lipoprotein and glucose dysmetabolism.

    PubMed

    Musso, Giovanni; Cassader, Maurizio; Bo, Simona; De Michieli, Franco; Gambino, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    We prospectively assessed the impact of a sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2) polymorphism on the risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and on liver histology and lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in biopsy-proven NAFLD. In a population-based study, we followed 175 nonobese, nondiabetic participants without NAFLD or metabolic syndrome at baseline, characterized for the SREBF-2 rs133291 C/T polymorphism, dietary habits, physical activity, adipokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and endothelial adhesion molecules. A comparable cohort of NAFLD patients underwent liver biopsy, an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis to yield glucose homeostasis parameters, and an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokeratin-18 fragments. After 7 years, 27% of subjects developed NAFLD and 5% developed diabetes. SREBF-2 predicted incident NAFLD and diabetes and CRP and endothelial adhesion molecule changes. In biopsy-proven NAFLD patients, SREBF-2 predicted nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (odds ratio 2.92 [95% CI 2.08-4.18], P = 0.002) and the severity of tissue insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and oral fat intolerance (characterized by higher postprandial lipemia, cholesterol enrichment of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and oxidized LDLs, HDL cholesterol fall, adipokine imbalance, and postprandial apoptosis activation). An SREBF-2 polymorphism predisposes individuals to NAFLD and associated cardiometabolic abnormalities and affects liver histology and glucose and lipid metabolism in biopsy-proven NAFLD.

  1. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  2. Prevalence of Sleep Abnormalities and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Asian Indians: Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES – 67)

    PubMed Central

    Roopa, Mahadevan; Deepa, Mohan; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the normal-weight urban South Indian population. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in 358 subjects aged 20–76 years randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study in South India. A validated questionnaire assessing various sleep abnormalities (snoring, daytime sleepiness, lack of refreshing sleep, and number of hours of sleep) was administered. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and anthropometric biochemical measurements were obtained to assess cardiometabolic risk factors including glucose intolerance. Diabetes risk was assessed using a previously validated Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS). Results The overall prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness was 40% and 59%, respectively. Snorers were more male, older, smokers, and had higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects with daytime sleepiness had higher body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. Both snoring (50.9% vs 30.2%, p < 0.001) and daytime sleepiness (68% vs 49.7%, p < 0.001) were more prevalent among subjects with impaired glucose metabolism compared to those with normal glucose metabolism. Both sleep measures were associated with higher diabetes risk scores, as assessed by the IDRS (snoring: trend χ2, 11.14, p = 0.001; daytime sleepiness: trend χ2, 5.12, p = 0.024). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with snoring even after adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol. Conclusion The prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness is high among urban South Indians and these two sleep measures are associated with glucose intolerance, MS, and higher diabetes risk scores. PMID:21129351

  3. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs: glucose control and hypoglycaemia in a randomized controlled trial (EDITION JP 2)

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, M.; Cheng, X.; Takahashi, Y.; Riddle, M. C.; Bolli, G. B.; Hirose, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla‐300) with glargine 100 U/ml (Gla‐100) in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus oral antihyperglycaemic drug(s) [OAD(s)]. Methods The EDITION JP 2 study (NCT01689142) was a 6‐month, multicentre, open‐label, phase III study. Participants (n = 241, male 61%, mean diabetes duration 14 years, mean weight 67 kg, mean body mass index 25 kg/m2, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.02 %, mean basal insulin dose 0.24 U/kg/day) were randomized to Gla‐300 or Gla‐100, while continuing OAD(s). Basal insulin was titrated to target fasting self‐monitored plasma glucose 4.4−5.6 mmol/l. The primary efficacy endpoint was HbA1c change over 6 months. Safety endpoints included hypoglycaemia and weight change. Results Gla‐300 was non‐inferior to Gla‐100 for HbA1c reduction [least squares (LS) mean difference 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.08, 0.27) %]. The mean HbA1c at month 6 was 7.56 and 7.52 % with Gla‐300 and Gla‐100, respectively. Nocturnal confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia risk was 38% lower with Gla‐300 versus Gla‐100 [relative risk 0.62 (95% CI 0.44, 0.88)]; annualized rates were 55% lower at night [rate ratio 0.45 (95% CI 0.21, 0.96)] and 36% lower at any time [24 h; rate ratio 0.64 (95% CI 0.43, 0.96)]. Severe hypoglycaemia was infrequent. A significant between‐treatment difference in weight change favoured Gla‐300 [LS mean difference −1.0 (95% CI −1.5, −0.5) kg; p = 0.0003]. Adverse event rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus OAD(s) experienced less hypoglycaemia with Gla‐300 than with Gla‐100, while glycaemic control did not differ. PMID:26662838

  4. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26800576

  5. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  8. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  9. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno < 100 mg/dL, en quienes se realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p < 0.005, RR 4.2). Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que los pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos suelen cursar con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  11. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  15. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  16. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  17. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  18. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  19. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  20. Developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs endocrine pancreas and leads to long-term adverse effects on glucose homeostasis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Wei, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Zhao; Song, Liqiong; Wei, Zhengzheng; Lv, Ziquan; Chen, Xi; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2011-09-01

    -Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is widely used as plasticizer. DEHP exposure in humans is virtually ubiquitous, and those undergoing certain medical procedures can be especially high. In this study, we investigated whether developmental DEHP exposure disrupted glucose homeostasis in the rat and whether this was associated with the early impairment in endocrine pancreas. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered DEHP (1.25 and 6.25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or corn oil throughout gestation and lactation by oral gavage. Body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and β-cell morphometry and function were examined in offspring during the growth. In this study, developmental DEHP exposure led to abnormal β-cell ultrastructure, reduced β-cell mass, and pancreatic insulin content as well as alterations in the expression of genes involved in pancreas development and β-cell function in offspring at weaning. At adulthood, female DEHP-exposed offspring exhibited elevated blood glucose, reduced serum insulin, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion. Male DEHP-exposed offspring had increased serum insulin, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose at fasting and during glucose tolerance test. In addition, both male and female DEHP-exposed offspring had significantly lower birth weight and maintained relatively lower body weight up to 27 wk of age. These results suggest that developmental exposure to DEHP gives rise to β-cell dysfunction and the whole body glucometabolic abnormalities in the rat. DEHP exposure in critical periods of development can be a potential risk factor, at least in part, for developing diabetes.

  1. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  2. Glucose Homeostatic Law: Insulin Clearance Predicts the Progression of Glucose Intolerance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Shinsuke; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Iwaki, Toshinao; Fukuzawa, Hiroki; Komori, Yasunori; Fujii, Masashi; Toyoshima, Yu; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Wataru; Kuroda, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic control of blood glucose is regulated by a complex feedback loop between glucose and insulin, of which failure leads to diabetes mellitus. However, physiological and pathological nature of the feedback loop is not fully understood. We made a mathematical model of the feedback loop between glucose and insulin using time course of blood glucose and insulin during consecutive hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 113 subjects with variety of glucose tolerance including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analyzed the correlation of the parameters in the model with the progression of glucose intolerance and the conserved relationship between parameters. The model parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion significantly declined from NGT to IGT, and from IGT to T2DM, respectively, consistent with previous clinical observations. Importantly, insulin clearance, an insulin degradation rate, significantly declined from NGT, IGT to T2DM along the progression of glucose intolerance in the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was positively correlated with a product of insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp analysis or determined with the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was correlated negatively with postprandial glucose at 2h after oral glucose tolerance test. We also inferred a square-law between the rate constant of insulin clearance and a product of rate constants of insulin sensitivity and secretion in the model, which is also conserved among NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. Insulin clearance shows a conserved relationship with the capacity of glucose disposal among the NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. The decrease of insulin clearance predicts the progression of glucose intolerance. PMID:26623647

  3. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  4. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  5. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  7. Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Woojung; Kim, Su-Nam; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2015-03-01

    Despite increased total food intake in healthy, late-stage pregnant women, their peak postprandial blood sugar levels are normally much lower than the levels seen in healthy nonpregnant women. In this study, we sought to determine whether estriol (E3), an endogenous estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, contributes to the regulation of the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy normal rats. In vivo studies using rats showed that E3 blunted the speed and magnitude of the blood glucose rise following oral glucose administration, but it did not appear to affect the total amount of glucose absorbed. E3 also did not affect insulin secretion, but it significantly reduced the rate of intestinal glucose transport compared with vehicle-treated animals. Consistent with this finding, expression of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and 2 was significantly downregulated by E3 treatment in the brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane, respectively, of enterocytes. Most of the observed in vivo effects were noticeably stronger with E3 than with 17β-estradiol. Using differentiated human Caco-2 enterocyte monolayer culture as an in vitro model, we confirmed that E3 at physiologically relevant concentrations could directly inhibit glucose uptake via suppression of glucose transporter 2 expression, whereas 17β-estradiol did not have a similar effect. Collectively, these data showed that E3 can blunt the postprandial glycemic surge in rats through modulating the level of intestinal glucose transporters.

  8. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  9. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H.; Nauck, M.A.

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  12. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  13. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  16. Glucose, memory, and aging.

    PubMed

    Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-04-01

    Circulating glucose concentrations regulate many brain functions, including learning and memory. Much of the evidence for this view comes from experiments assessing stress-related release of epinephrine with subsequent increases in blood glucose concentrations. One application of this work has been to investigate whether age-related memory impairments result from dysfunctions in the neuroendocrine regulation of the brain processes responsible for memory. Like humans, aged rodents exhibit some memory impairments that can be reversed by administration of epinephrine or glucose. In elderly humans, ingestion of glucose enhances some cognitive functions, with effects best documented thus far on tests of verbal contextual and noncontextual information. Glucose also effectively enhances cognition in persons with Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. Although earlier evidence suggested that glucose does not enhance cognitive function in healthy young adults, more recent findings suggest that glucose is effective in this population, provided the tests are sufficiently difficult. In college students, glucose consumption significantly enhanced memory of material in a paragraph. Glucose also appeared to enhance attentional processes in these students. Neither face and word recognition nor working memory was influenced by treatment with glucose. The neurobiological mechanisms by which glucose acts are under current investigation. Initial evidence suggests that glucose or a metabolite may activate release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in rats when they are engaged in learning. Consequently, the issue of nutrition and cognition becomes increasingly important in light of evidence that circulating glucose concentrations have substantial effects on brain and cognitive functions.

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  20. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  1. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  2. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  3. Enhanced glucose tolerance by intravascularly administered piceatannol in freely moving healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Okitsu, Teru; Nishimura, Eisaku; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-02-12

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the seeds of passion fruit that has a hypoglycemic effect when orally administered. To elucidate the contribution of intact and metabolites of piceatannol after gastro-intestinal absorption to hypoglycemic effect, we examined the influence of piceatannol and isorhapontigenin on blood glucose concentrations during fasting and glucose tolerance tests by administering them intravascularly to freely moving healthy rats. We found that intravascularly administered piceatannol reduced the blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and glucose tolerance tests, but isorhapontigenin did not during either of them. Furthermore, we found that piceatannol increased the insulinogenic index during glucose tolerance tests and that piceatannol had no influence on insulin sensitivity by performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping tests. These results suggest that piceatannol orally intaken may enhance glucose tolerance by the effect of intact piceatannol through enhanced early-phase secretion of insulin. Therefore, oral intake of piceatannol might contribute to proper control of postprandial glycemic excursions in healthy subjects.

  4. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  5. Ophthalmologic abnormalities on FDG-PET/CT: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Razi; Shousha, Mohamed A.; Sarajlic, Lejla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) diagnoses, stages, and restages many cancers and is often better than anatomic imaging alone. However, abnormalities within the orbit present a challenge in evaluation, mainly due to the subtle findings on PET/computed tomography (CT). In addition, this region is typically at the edge of the field of view for the standard base of skull to upper thigh FDG-PET/CT scans. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate several subtle and apparent abnormalities within the orbit that can have a profound impact on patient management and follow-up. PMID:23524026

  6. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease. PMID:19092995

  7. Novel oral contraceptive for heavy menstrual bleeding: estradiol valerate and dienogest

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Sally; Borgelt, Laura; Koepf, Erin R; Temple-Cooper, Mary E; Lehman, K Joy

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is associated with significant direct medical costs and impacts both society and the quality of life for individual women. Heavy menstrual bleeding, a subset of AUB, also referred to as menorrhagia, is defined as menstrual blood loss greater than 80 mL or the patient’s perception of excessive blood loss. The newest treatment option available is a novel combination oral contraceptive product containing estradiol valerate (E2V) and dienogest (DNG). As with other combination oral contraceptives, E2V/DNG works primarily by preventing ovulation. However, in contrast with other combination oral contraceptives, it is the progestin component of E2V/DNG that is responsible for endometrial stabilization. Use of E2V/DNG for six months has led to significant reductions in heavy menstrual bleeding with an average 65% reduction in mean blood loss. Approximately half of the women with heavy menstrual bleeding who received E2V/DNG for six months demonstrated an 80% reduction in mean blood loss. Additionally, significant improvements in hematologic indicators (ie, ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit) have been shown. Based on its chemical properties, E2V/DNG may have fewer adverse effects on lipid and glucose metabolism and reduced risk of thromboembolic complications compared with other combination oral contraceptives. This has not yet been shown in clinical trials and until then it should be assumed that E2V/DNG has a safety profile similar to other combination oral contraceptives containing 35 μg or less of ethinyl estradiol. E2V/DNG has been compared with another combination oral contraceptive in healthy women without heavy menstrual bleeding and demonstrated improved bleeding patterns. E2V/DNG has not been compared with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device or other treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding. When compared with some other treatment options for AUB, E2V/DNG provides the added advantage of effective contraception. PMID:23788843

  8. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  9. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD

    PubMed Central

    Hannukainen, J. C.; Lautamäki, R.; Mari, A.; Pärkkä, J. P.; Bucci, M.; Guzzardi, M. A.; Kajander, S.; Tuokkola, T.; Knuuti, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results: We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia. PMID:27045985

  10. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) in people whose diabetes cannot ... helps your body regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of ...

  11. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  12. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia. PMID:27319094

  13. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  14. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  15. Digoxin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). It helps the heart work better and it ... have or have ever had thyroid problems, heart arrhythmias, cancer, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if ...

  16. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

  17. Acute and chronic effects of glyceryl trinitrate therapy on insulin and glucose regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Parker, John D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of acute and sustained transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy on insulin and glucose regulation. Totally, 12 males (18-30 years) underwent a glucose tolerance test at baseline (visit 1), 90 minutes after acute transdermal GTN 0.6 mg/h (visit 2), following 7 days of continuous GTN (visit 3), and 2 to 3 days after stopping GTN (visit 4). At each visit, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g oral glucose load. Indices of glucose metabolism that were examined included the insulin sensitivity index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the insulinogenic index. The acute administration of GTN had no effect on glucose and insulin responses (visit 2). However, after 7 days of GTN exposure (visit 3) there was an increase in the mean glucose concentration measured after the oral glucose load. On visit 1, the mean glucose concentration (± standard deviation) following the 75 g oral glucose challenge was 5.7 ± 0.5 µmol/L. On visit 3, after 7 days of transdermal GTN therapy, the mean glucose concentration after the oral glucose was significantly higher; 6.2 ± 0.5 µmol/L (P < .015; 95% confidence intervals 0.25-0.77). There was also an increase in the HOMA-IR index; on visit 1, the median HOMA-IR (interquartile range) was 5.2 (3.9) versus 6.9 (6.8) on visit 3 (P < .015). Other indices of glucose metabolism did not change. These observations document that GTN therapy modifies glucose metabolism causing evidence of increased insulin resistance during sustained therapy in normal humans.

  18. Diabetes and Altered Glucose Metabolism with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Egan, Josephine M.

    2013-01-01

    I. Synopsis Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance affect a substantial proportion of older adults. While the aging process can be associated with alterations in glucose metabolism, including both relative insulin resistance and islet cell dysfunction, abnormal glucose metabolism is not a necessary component of aging. Instead, older adults with diabetes and altered glucose status likely represent a vulnerable subset of the population at high-risk for complications and adverse geriatric syndromes such as accelerated muscle loss, functional disability, frailty, and early mortality. Goals for treatment of diabetes in the elderly include control of hyperglycemia, prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, avoidance of hypoglycemia and preservation of quality of life. Given the heterogeneity of the elderly population with regards to the presence of comorbidities, life expectancy, and functional status, an individualized approach to diabetes management is often appropriate. A growing area of research seeks to explore associations of dysglycemia and insulin resistance with the development of adverse outcomes in the elderly and may ultimately inform guidelines on the use of future glucose-lowering therapies in this population. PMID:23702405

  19. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  20. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  2. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  4. Chromosomal aberrations in oral solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Bodner, Lipa

    2007-04-15

    The results of cytogenetic analysis of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the oral cavity in a 43-year-old man is reported. The abnormal cells carried a complex translocation with the karyotype 46,XY [15 cells]/46,XYt(1;17;18)(p13;q11.2;q21)[5 cells]. This is the first case reporting chromosomal aberrations in an oral SFT.

  5. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  10. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  11. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  12. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  13. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  14. Correlation between glycated haemoglobin and glucose testing for diabetes mellitus screening.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nandini; Joshi, Sandeep; Deshpande, V K; Biswas, D A

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C is used to screen and diagnose diabetes but measurement of glucose in the blood is subject to several limitations, many of which are not widely appreciated. Blood glucose testing should be taken into consideration before taking the patient to be diabetic on the basis of abnormal HbA1c values.

  15. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  16. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  17. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  19. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients.

  20. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  1. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  2. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system. PMID:26940741

  4. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system.

  5. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  6. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  7. Quantifying the extent to which random plasma glucose underestimates diabetes prevalence in the Nauruan population.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Dowse, G K; Collins, V R; Zimmet, P Z

    1990-10-01

    The extent to which random plasma glucose levels underestimate the true prevalence of diabetes has been determined in Micronesian Nauruans. In 337 individuals who were screened on the basis of their random plasma glucose levels, the age-standardised prevalence based on a cut-off of 11.1 mmol/l underestimated the population prevalence based on a complete oral glucose tolerance test by 42% in males and 63% in females. At a cut-off level of 7.8 mmol/l the true age-standardised prevalence was underestimated by 16 and 38%, in males and females, respectively. The use of random plasma glucose concentrations to determine the prevalence of diabetes, as currently defined, seems inappropriate. Performing oral glucose tolerance tests on smaller representative population samples should provide more accurate data at less expense than through large-scale screening utilizing random glucose levels.

  8. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P < 0.05) but not in young lean subjects. We concluded that a short-term Bikram yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults. PMID:24138995

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus at diagnosis of acromegaly: a study in 148 patients.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulou, Orsalia; Bex, Marie; Kamenicky, Peter; Mvoula, Augustine Bessomo; Chanson, Philippe; Maiter, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    Acromegaly is frequently associated with alterations of glucose metabolism but factors predisposing these patients to exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes at diagnosis are poorly understood. This study included 148 patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (80 men; mean age: 45 ± 20 year). All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), unless already treated for diabetes. Insulin sensitivity (S) and β-cell function (B) were also evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was observed in 67 patients (46 %), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or glucose tolerance (IGT) were found in 39 (26 %), and diabetes mellitus (DM) in 42 (28 %). NGT patients were 10 years younger than patients with abnormal glucose metabolism (p < 0.001) and diabetic patients had a higher BMI (p < 0.05). While HOMA-S was similar, HOMA-B was reduced in the IFG/IGT group (p < 0.05) and further in the DM group (p < 0.001). IGF-I z-score was higher in IFG/IGT (5.2 ± 1.4) and DM patients (5.4 ± 1.3) than in NGT patients (4.4 ± 1.3; p < 0.05), but fasting and post-OGTT GH levels were not different between groups. In multivariate analyses, family history of diabetes and IGF-I were associated with hyperglycaemia, BMI and IGF-I predicted insulin resistance, and age was inversely correlated with β-cell function. Impaired glucose metabolism is present in more than 50 % of patients at diagnosis of acromegaly, and is associated with an older age, a higher BMI, a family history of diabetes and a higher IGF-I z-score, but not with fasting or post-OGTT GH levels.

  10. High prevalence of NIDDM and impaired glucose tolerance in Indian, Creole, and Chinese Mauritians. Mauritius Noncommunicable Disease Study Group.

    PubMed

    Dowse, G K; Gareeboo, H; Zimmet, P Z; Alberti, K G; Tuomilehto, J; Fareed, D; Brissonnette, L G; Finch, C F

    1990-03-01

    Mauritius, a multiethnic island nation in the southwestern Indian Ocean, has one of the world's highest diabetes mortality rates. The prevalence of both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated in 5080 Muslim and Hindu Indian, Creole (mixed African, European, and Indian origin), and Chinese Mauritian adults aged 25-74 yr who were selected by random cluster sampling. Based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of IGT was significantly greater in women (19.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 18.1-21.2) than in men (11.7%, CI 10.5-12.8). By contrast, the prevalence of NIDDM was similar in men (12.1%, CI 10.9-13.4) and women (11.7%, CI 10.5-12.8) for all ethnic groups combined. The sex difference in IGT prevalence was seen in all ethnic groups, but for NIDDM, the sex difference was not consistent across ethnic groups. However, age- and sex-standardized prevalence of IGT and NIDDM was remarkably similar across ethnic groups (16.2 and 12.4% in Hindu Indians, 15.3 and 13.3% in Muslim Indians, 17.5 and 10.4% in Creoles, and 16.6 and 11.9% in Chinese, respectively). Three new cases of diabetes were diagnosed for every two known cases. The high prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in Indian subjects is consistent with studies of other migrant Indian communities, but the findings in Creole and, in particular, Chinese subjects are unexpected. Potent environmental factors shared between ethnic groups in Mauritius may be responsible for the epidemic of glucose intolerance.

  11. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Identifies Small-Fiber Neuropathy in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance Who Develop Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Shazli; Ferdousi, Maryam; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Ponirakis, Georgios; Alam, Uazman; Fadavi, Hassan; Asghar, Omar; Marshall, Andrew; Atkinson, Andrew J.; Jones, Wendy; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Tavakoli, Mitra; Jeziorska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) through to type 2 diabetes is thought to confer a continuum of risk for neuropathy. Identification of subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, hence, worsening neuropathy would allow identification and risk stratification for more aggressive management. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty subjects with IGT and 17 age-matched control subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, assessment of neuropathic symptoms and deficits, quantitative sensory testing, neurophysiology, skin biopsy, and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD), and fiber length (CNFL) at baseline and annually for 3 years. RESULTS Ten subjects who developed type 2 diabetes had a significantly lower CNFD (P = 0.003), CNBD (P = 0.04), and CNFL (P = 0.04) compared with control subjects at baseline and a further reduction in CNFL (P = 0.006), intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) (P = 0.02), and mean dendritic length (MDL) (P = 0.02) over 3 years. Fifteen subjects who remained IGT and 5 subjects who returned to normal glucose tolerance had no significant baseline abnormality on CCM or IENFD but had a lower MDL (P < 0.0001) compared with control subjects. The IGT subjects showed a significant decrease in IENFD (P = 0.02) but no change in MDL or CCM over 3 years. Those who returned to NGT showed an increase in CNFD (P = 0.05), CNBD (P = 0.04), and CNFL (P = 0.05), but a decrease in IENFD (P = 0.02), over 3 years. CONCLUSIONS CCM and skin biopsy detect a small-fiber neuropathy in subjects with IGT who develop type 2 diabetes and also show a dynamic worsening or improvement in corneal and intraepidermal nerve morphology in relation to change in glucose tolerance status. PMID:25877814

  12. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  13. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Spencer, Richard G; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-Na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared with both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD, whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared with SNCA mice (p < 0.007). At the age of 24 weeks SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared with WT (p < 0.03). At the age of 36 weeks, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared with WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p < 0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared with WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  15. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  16. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  17. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  18. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable.

  19. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  20. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  1. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  2. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  3. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Heinz; Weisstanner, Christian; Hess, Christian W; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nirkko, Arto; Wiest, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal yawning is an underappreciated phenomenon in patients with ischemic stroke. We aimed at identifying frequently affected core regions in the supratentorial brain of stroke patients with abnormal yawning and contributing to the anatomical network concept of yawning control. Ten patients with acute anterior circulation stroke and ≥3 yawns/15 min without obvious cause were analyzed. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), symptom onset, period with abnormal yawning, blood oxygen saturation, glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed for all patients. MRI lesion maps were segmented on diffusion-weighted images, spatially normalized, and the extent of overlap between the different stroke patterns was determined. Correlations between the period with abnormal yawning and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the overlapping regions, total stroke volume, NIHSS and mRS were performed. Periods in which patients presented with episodes of abnormal yawning lasted on average for 58 h. Average GCS, NIHSS, and mRS scores were 12.6, 11.6, and 3.5, respectively. Clinical parameters were within normal limits. Ischemic brain lesions overlapped in nine out of ten patients: in seven patients in the insula and in seven in the caudate nucleus. The decrease of the ADC within the lesions correlated with the period with abnormal yawing (r = -0.76, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02). The stroke lesion intensity of the common overlapping regions in the insula and the caudate nucleus correlates with the period with abnormal yawning. The insula might be the long sought-after brain region for serotonin-mediated yawning.

  4. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  5. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  6. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  7. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  8. Glucose: Detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Galant, A L; Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D

    2015-12-01

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also plays a major role in modern food products, particularly where flavor and or structure are concerned. Over the years, many diverse methods for detecting and quantifying glucose have been developed; this review presents an overview of the most widely employed and historically significant, including copper iodometry, HPLC, GC, CZE, and enzyme based systems such as glucose meters. The relative strengths and limitations of each method are evaluated, and examples of their recent application in the realm of food chemistry are discussed.

  9. Glucose sensing based on Pt-MWCNT and MWCNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasomayajula, Lavanya; Xie, Jining; Wang, Shouyan; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    It is known that multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is an excellent materials for biosensing applications and with the introduction of Pt nanoparticles (Pt-MWCNTs) of about 3nm in diameter in MWCNTs greatly increases the current sensitivity and also the signal to noise ratio. We fabricated the CNT- based glucose sensor by immobilization the bio enzyme, glucose oxidase (GoX), on the Pt-MWCNT and electrode were prepared. The sensor has been tested effectively for both the abnormal blood glucose levels- greater than 6.9 mM and less than 3.5 mM which are the prediabetic and diabetic glucose levels, respectively. The current signal obtained from the Pt-MWCNT was much higher compared to the MWCNT based sensors.

  10. An acoustic glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-05-15

    In vivo glucose monitoring is required for tighter glycaemic control. This report describes a new approach to construct a miniature implantable device based on a magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS). A ≈ 600-800 nm thick glucose-responsive poly(acrylamide-co-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (poly(acrylamide-co-3-APB)) film was polymerised on the quartz disc (12 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm thick) of the MARS. The swelling/shrinking of the polymer film induced by the glucose binding to the phenylboronate caused changes in the resonance amplitude of the quartz disc in the MARS. A linear relationship between the response of the MARS and the glucose concentration in the range ≈ 0-15 mM was observed, with the optimum response of the MARS sensor being obtained when the polymer films contained ≈ 20 mol% 3-APB. The MARS glucose sensor also functioned under flow conditions (9 μl/min) with a response almost identical to the sensor under static or non-flow conditions. The results suggest that the MARS could offer a promising strategy for developing a small subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitor.

  11. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

  12. Oral vanadyl sulfate in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramanadham, S; Mongold, J J; Brownsey, R W; Cros, G H; McNeill, J H

    1989-09-01

    Recent reports have suggested that vanadium in the form of vanadyl (+IV) possesses insulin-like activity. Therefore, in the present study we examined the effects of administering oral vanadyl to diabetic animals. Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and age-matched controls were maintained for 10 wk in the absence and presence of vanadyl sulfate trihydrate in the drinking water. In the presence of vanadyl, decreases in rate of growth and circulating levels of insulin were the only significant alterations recorded in control animals. In contrast, diabetic animals treated with vanadyl, despite having lower body weights and insulin levels, had normal plasma concentrations of glucose, lipid, creatinine, and thyroid hormone. In addition, abnormalities in isolated working heart function and glycerol output from adipose tissue of diabetic animals were also corrected after vanadyl treatment. These results suggest that vanadium when used in the vanadyl form is effective in diminishing the diabetic state in the rat by substituting for and replacing insulin or possibly by enhancing the effects of endogenous insulin.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-07-25

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  15. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  16. Use of deuterium labelled glucose in evaluating the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.N.; Masuoka, L.K.; deRopp, J.S.; Jones, A.D.

    1989-03-15

    Deuterium labelled glucose has been used to study the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis during the fasted-refed transition in rats. Deuterium enrichment of liver glycogen was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectroscopy. Sixty minutes after oral administration of deuterated glucose to fasted rats, the portal vein blood was fully enriched with deuterated glucose. Despite this, less than half of the glucose molecules incorporated into liver glycogen contained deuterium. The loss of deuterium label from glucose is consistent with hepatic glycogen synthesis by an indirect pathway requiring prior metabolism of glucose. The use of deuterium labelled glucose may prove to be a useful probe to study hepatic glycogen metabolism. Its use may also find application in the study of liver glycogen metabolism in humans by a noninvasive means.

  17. Oral disease in terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M P; Bagg, J; Baxter, W P; Aitchison, T C

    1998-03-01

    Xerostomia is common among patients with advanced cancer and is likely to contribute to oral disease. This study determined the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms among a group of 70 terminally ill cancer patients [25 male, 45 female; age range 42-88 (mean 66) years] complaining of oral dryness, and examined the associated oral microflora. Imprint cultures for yeasts, coliforms and staphylococci were collected from the tongue and, in denture wearers, from the plate and denture fitting surface. A swab was collected for culture of herpes simplex virus. 68 patients (97%) complained of oral dryness during the day and 59 patients (84%) complained of oral dryness at night. Oral soreness was reported by 22 patients (31%). 46 patients (66%) had difficulty talking and 36 (51%) reported difficulty eating. Of the 56 denture wearers, 40% complained of denture problems. On examination, 63 (90%) of the patients had clinically dry mouths. Oral mucosal abnormalities were detected in 45 patients (65%), most commonly erythema (20%), coated tongue (20%), atrophic glossitis (17%), angular cheilitis (11%) and pseudomembraneous candidosis (9%). 47 (67%) of the patients carried yeasts, 18 (26%) were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and 13 (19%) carried coliforms. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from 5 patients, of whom 2 had herpetic stomatitis. Oral complications and abnormalities of the oral microflora can be detected among significant numbers of terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

  18. Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M; LaCasse, L

    1997-09-15

    Murderers pleading not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) are thought to have brain dysfunction, but there have been no previous studies reporting direct measures of both cortical and subcortical brain functioning in this specific group. Positron emission tomography brain imaging using a continuous performance challenge task was conducted on 41 murderers pleading not guilty by reason of insanity and 41 age- and sex-matched controls. Murderers were characterized by reduced glucose metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, superior parietal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and the corpus callosum, while abnormal asymmetries of activity (left hemisphere lower than right) were also found in the amygdala, thalamus, and medial temporal lobe. These preliminary findings provide initial indications of a network of abnormal cortical and subcortical brain processes that may predispose to violence in murderers pleading NGRI.

  19. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  20. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-02

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  1. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  2. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  3. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  4. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  5. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  6. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Jithesh V; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2010-12-15

    In vivo continuous glucose monitoring has posed a significant challenge to glucose sensor development due to the lack of reliable techniques that are non- or at least minimally-invasive. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the development of a new glucose sensor protein, AcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry, and an optical sensor assembly, capable of generating quantifiable FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) signals for glucose monitoring. Our experimental data showed that the engineered glucose sensor protein can generate measurable FRET signals in response to glucose concentrations varying from 25 to 800 μM. The sensor developed based on this protein had a shelf-life of up to 3 weeks. The sensor response was devoid of interference from compounds like galactose, fructose, lactose, mannose, and mannitol when tested at physiologically significant concentrations of these compounds. This new glucose sensor protein can potentially be used to develop implantable glucose sensors for continuous glucose monitoring.

  7. Adiposity and Insufficient MVPA Predict Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Snih, Soham Al; Stoddard, Jonathan; McClain, James; Lee, IMin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the extent to which different combinations of objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity contribute to cardiometabolic health. Design and Methods A population representative sample of 5,268 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2003-2006 NHANES datasets. Activity categories were created on the combined basis of objectively measured SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) tertiles. Cardiometabolic abnormalities included elevated blood pressure, levels of triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance value, and low HDL-cholesterol level. BMI, and DXA-derived percent body fat (% BF) and android adiposity were also compared across groups. Predictors for a metabolically abnormal phenotype (≥3 cardiometabolic abnormalities, or insulin resistance) were determined. Results Adults with the least SB and greatest MVPA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest MVPA were older and had elevated risk. Time spent in SB was not a predictor of the metabolically abnormal phenotype when MVPA was accounted for. Adults with the highest MVPA across SB tertiles did not differ markedly in prevalence of obesity, adiposity, and/or serum cardiometabolic risk factors; however, less MVPA was associated with substantial elevations of obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Android adiposity (per kilogram) was independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype in both men (OR: 2.36 [95% CI, 1.76-3.17], p<0.001) and women (OR: 2.00 [95% CI, 1.63-2.45], p<0.001). Among women, greater SB, and less lifestyle moderate activity and MVPA were each independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype, whereas only less MVPA was associated with it in men. Conclusions MVPA is a strong predictor of cardiometabolic health among adults, independent of time spent in SB. PMID

  8. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-02-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG-LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG-LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  9. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  10. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  11. Oral rehydration of children with acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Westley, T A

    1972-09-01

    A simple, reproducible method for preparing glucose-electrolyte solution for oral rehydration of infantile diarrhea victims is presented briefly in this letter. Using reagent-grade materials and a nested set of measuring spoons labeled as to content, the following measurements are made: sodium chloride, 1/2 teaspoon; sodium bicarbonate, 1/2 teaspoon; potassium chloride, 1/4 teaspoon; and glucose, 2 tablespoons. Combine these powders in a plastic vial and cap; when ready for use, dissolve in 1 liter of solution. This method was tested 10 times with a range of error of only +/-5% of the mean.

  12. Basal and glucose-suppressed GH levels less than 1 microg/L in newly diagnosed acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Freda, Pamela U; Reyes, Carlos M; Nuruzzaman, Abu T; Sundeen, Robert E; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2003-01-01

    The development of highly sensitive and specific GH assays has necessitated a critical re-evaluation of the biochemical criteria needed for the diagnosis of acromegaly. Use of these assays has revealed that GH levels after oral glucose in healthy subjects and postoperative patients with active acromegaly can be significantly less than previously recognized with older GH assays. In order to assess GH criteria for newly diagnosed acromegaly with a modern assay we have evaluated GH levels in 25 patients referred to our Neuroendocrine Unit for evaluation of untreated acromegaly. All patients underwent measurement of basal GH and IGF-I levels and 15 of these patients also underwent oral glucose tolerance testing for GH suppression (OGTT). Basal GH levels were < 1.0 microg/L at diagnosis in 5 of these 25 patients. Nadir GH levels were less than 1 microg/L also in 5 of 15 patients, and as low as 0.42 microg/L. All patients had elevated IGF-I levels preoperatively and pathological confirmation of a GH secreting pituitary tumor at the time of transsphenoidal surgery. The clinical presentations of these patients was variable. Most patients presented with classical manifestations of acromegaly, but 3 of the 5 patients with low nadir GH values had only very subtle signs of acromegaly. Although most newly diagnosed patients have classically elevated GH levels and obvious clinical features of acromegaly, early recognition of disease may uncover patients with milder biochemical and clinical abnormalities. The diagnosis should not be discounted in patients who have elevated IGF-I levels, but have basal or nadir GH levels less than 1 microg/L. Conventional GH criteria for the diagnosis of acromegaly cannot be applied to the use of modern sensitive and specific GH assays. PMID:15237928

  13. FADD is essential for glucose uptake and survival of thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Yang, Bing-Ya; Wang, Jia-Yu; Mo, Xuan; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-08-22

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) has been implicated in T lymphocytes, but the nature of FADD-dependent mechanism in early T cell development has not been completely elucidated. In this study, using T-cell specific deletion mice, we observed that FADD deficiency in thymocytes led to increased apoptosis and reduced cell numbers, which may be attributed to the reduction of Glut1 expression and correspondingly decreased glucose uptake. Furthermore, an abnormal transduction of Akt signaling was discovered in FADD(-/-) thymocytes, which may be responsible for the declined Glut1 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate the new function of FADD in glucose metabolism and survival of early T cells.

  14. Prediabetes Phenotype Influences Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis with Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Eikenberg, Joshua D.; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L.; Davy, Kevin P.; Pownall, John; Baugh, Mary E.; Flack, Kyle D.; Boshra, Soheir; Winett, Richard A.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if prediabetes phenotype influences improvements in glucose homeostasis with resistance training (RT). Methods Older, overweight individuals with prediabetes (n = 159; aged 60±5 yrs; BMI 33±4 kg/m2) completed a supervised RT program twice per week for 12 weeks. Body weight and composition, strength, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance, and Matsuda-Defronza estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were assessed before and after the intervention. Participants were categorized according to their baseline prediabetes phenotype as impaired fasting glucose only (IFG) (n = 73), impaired glucose tolerance only (IGT) (n = 21), or combined IFG and IGT (IFG/IGT) (n = 65). Results Chest press and leg press strength increased 27% and 18%, respectively, following the 12-week RT program (both p<0.05). Waist circumference (-1.0%; pre 109.3±10.3 cm, post 108.2±10.6 cm) and body fat (-0.6%; pre 43.7±6.8%, post 43.1±6.8%) declined, and lean body mass (+1.3%; pre 52.0±10.4 kg, post 52.7±10.7 kg) increased following the intervention. Fasting glucose concentrations did not change (p>0.05) following the intervention. However, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance improved in those with IGT (pre 8.94±0.72 mmol/l, post 7.83±1.11 mmol/l, p<0.05) and IFG/IGT (pre 9.66±1.11mmol/l, post 8.60±2.00 mmol/l) but not in those with IFG (pre 6.27±1.28mmol/l, post 6.33± 1.55 mmol/l). There were no significant changes in ISI or glucose area under the curve following the RT program. Conclusions RT without dietary intervention improves 2-hr oral glucose tolerance in individuals with prediabetes. However, the improvements in glucose homeostasis with RT appear limited to those with IGT or combined IFG and IGT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01112709 PMID:26840904

  15. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. PMID:20335011

  16. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  17. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  18. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  19. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  20. Mechanisms of impaired fasting glucose and glucose intolerance induced by an approximate 50% pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Butler, Peter C

    2006-08-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) often coexist and as such represent a potent risk factor for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. beta-Cell mass is approximately 50% deficient in IFG and approximately 65% deficient in type 2 diabetes. To establish the effect of a approximately 50% deficit in beta-cell mass on carbohydrate metabolism, we performed a approximately 50% partial pancreatectomy versus sham surgery in 14 dogs. Insulin secretion was quantified from insulin concentrations measured in the portal vein at 1-min sampling intervals under basal conditions, after a 30-g oral glucose, and during a hyperglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with isotope dilution. Partial pancreatectomy resulted in IFG and IGT. After partial pancreatectomy both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were decreased through the mechanism of a selective approximately 50 and approximately 80% deficit in insulin pulse mass, respectively (P < 0.05). These defects in insulin secretion were partially offset by decreased hepatic insulin clearance (P < 0.05). Partial pancreatectomy also caused a approximately 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.05), insulin sensitivity after partial pancreatectomy being related to insulin pulse amplitude (r = 0.9, P < 0.01). We conclude that a approximately 50% deficit in beta-cell mass can recapitulate the alterations in glucose-mediated insulin secretion and insulin action in humans with IFG and IGT. These data support a mechanistic role of a deficit in beta-cell mass in the evolution of IFG/IGT and subsequently type 2 diabetes. PMID:16873700

  1. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-15

    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. PMID:26725934

  3. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  4. Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

  5. [Oral pain].

    PubMed

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  6. [Oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  7. Blood Glucose Measurement in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huong T.; Harris, Neil S.; Estilong, Abby J.; Olson, Arvid; Rice, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal glucose measurements are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients for numerous reasons and hypoglycemia is especially dangerous because these patients are often sedated and unable to relate the associated symptoms. Additionally, wide swings in blood glucose have been closely tied to increased mortality. Therefore, accurate and timely glucose measurement in this population is critical. Clinicians have several choices available to assess blood glucose values in the ICU, including central laboratory devices, blood gas analyzers, and point-of-care meters. In this review, the method of glucose measurement will be reviewed for each device, and the important characteristics, including accuracy, cost, speed of result, and sample volume, will be reviewed, specifically as these are used in the ICU environment. Following evaluation of the individual measurement devices and after considering the many features of each, recommendations are made for optimal ICU glucose determination. PMID:23567008

  8. Oral cavity lipoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Gi; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Jun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral lipomas are a rare clinical entity, comprising only 0.1% to 5% of all benign tumors in the intraoral cavity. A 56-year-old woman suffering from diabetes presented with this relatively rare intraoral lipoma and was treated by surgical excision under general anesthesia. Because the mass was located adjacent to the mental foramen, a precise dissection was necessary to ensure minimal nerve damage. No abnormalities or recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up and the patient did not complain of numbness. We studied the occurrence of oral lipoma in this diabetic patient and reviewed the relationship between oral lipoma and diabetes in the literature. PMID:26339582

  9. Comparison of blood glucose concentrations after administration of a glucose solution via the jugular vein and portal vein in cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Heusmann, B; Camenzind, D; Haessig, M

    2007-10-01

    The goals of the present study were to determine whether the infusion of a glucose solution into the portal vein is tolerated in cows and whether the glucose concentration differs after administration of glucose into the jugular vein and portal vein. Fifteen healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows were used. An indwelling catheter was placed in both jugular veins and a balloon-tipped indwelling catheter with a diameter of 2 mm was placed in the portal vein under the guidance of ultrasonography. Three cows received 500 ml of 20% glucose solution over 60 min via the left jugular vein. Three other cows received the same solution over 60 min via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 24 h after the infusion of glucose for the determination of the concentrations of glucose and bilirubin and the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Infusion via the portal vein did not result in abnormalities in the general condition of the cows or increases in the concentration of bilirubin or the activities of liver enzymes. The blood glucose concentration increased to the same extent after both intraportal and intrajugular infusion. Over a 12-h period, three cows received 10 l of 20% glucose solution via the left jugular vein and three others received the same solution over a 12-h period via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 30 h after the start of infusion. Infusion via the portal vein did not affect the general condition of the cows or the activities of the liver enzymes. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose concentration between the two groups throughout the study.

  10. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

    2012-07-15

    Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety.

  11. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  12. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  13. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Andalib, Iman; Shah, Hiral; Bal, Bikram S.; Shope, Timothy R.; Finelli, Frederick C.; Koch, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n = 63; 60 females; 3 males; mean age 49 years) who had gastric bypass surgery and then glucose breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. Results. Among 63 postoperative individuals, 51 (81%) had a late rise (≥45 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane, supporting glucose malabsorption; 46 (90%) of these 51 subjects also had an early rise (≤30 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane supporting upper gut bacterial overgrowth. Glucose malabsorption was more frequent in subjects with upper gut bacterial overgrowth compared to subjects with no evidence for bacterial overgrowth (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These data support the presence of intestinal glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth in individuals with abdominal symptoms after gastric bypass surgery. Breath hydrogen testing after oral glucose should be considered to evaluate potential malabsorption in symptomatic, postoperative individuals. PMID:26538792

  14. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  15. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  16. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  17. The nature of control of oral development by the micronucleus in sexual reproduction of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Chau, M F; Ng, S F

    1988-07-01

    Twelve laser-irradiated cell lines and eight cis. platin-treated cultures possessing defective micronuclei exhibited micronuclear and oral abnormalities during autogamy. Micronuclear abnormalities were characterized by the failure of some of the cells to complete the micronuclear cycle resulting in the absence of either micronuclei or macronuclear anlagen, or both. Oral abnormalities included reduction in the length of the buccal cavity and oral membranelles, abnormal oral membranellar patterns and arrest of oral development at early and late stages. The present study demonstrated a close relationship between micronuclear and stomatogenic abnormalities during sexual reproduction. It is concluded that the micronucleus plays an important role in the specification of a normal oral pattern during sexual reproduction. The participation of postzygotic micronuclear activities in the control of sexual stomatogenesis is discussed. In contrast to the situation in sexual reproduction, the development of the oral apparatus was normal during asexual propagation of the cell lines possessing defective micronuclei. This paradoxical situation forms the basis of speculations on the nature of micronuclear control of oral development in sexual reproduction. It is probable that micronuclear genes are involved. PMID:23195213

  18. Pretreatment glucose status determines HCC development in HCV patients with mild liver disease after curative antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Feng; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Cing-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Ko, Yu-Min; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-07-01

    Although diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the impact of dynamic glucose status on HCC occurrence in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients receiving antiviral therapy is unclear. In total, 1112 biopsy-proven patients treated with peginterferon/ribavirin were enrolled in this study. Both pretreatment and post-treatment glucose status, including 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were measured to evaluate the association between glucose status and the development of HCC. Of the 1112 patients evaluated, 93 (8.4%) developed HCC >5183.8 person-years of follow-up (annual incidence rate: 1.79%). DM only influenced the risk of developing CC in patients with mild liver disease (F0-2) and a sustained virological response (SVR) but not in other patient subpopulations. Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that the strongest factor associated with HCC in patients with mild liver disease and SVR was the presence of DM (hazard ratio [HR]/95 % confidence intervals [CI]: 3.79/1.420-10.136, P = 0.008), followed by age (HR/CI: 1.06/1.001-1.117, P = 0.046) and platelet count (HR/CI: 0.989/0.979-1.000, P = 0.05). The percentages of SVR patients with F0-2 with normoglycemia, pre-DM, sub-DM (pre-sDM), and DM before treatment were 45.3% (n = 267), 29.9% (n = 176), 15.6% (n = 92), and 9.2% (n = 54), respectively. The percentages of HCC in patients with normoglycemia, pre-sDM, and DM were 1.1%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively (trend P < 0.001). Sixteen of the 19 (84.2 %) HCC patients possessed glucose abnormality (including 6 patients with DM and 10 patients with pre-sDM) before antiviral therapy. Compared to patients with normoglycemia, the incidence of HCC increased gradually from pre-sDM (HR: 3.6, P = 0.05) to DM (HR: 11.6, P = 0.001) (adjusted trend P = 0.004). We concluded that DM is a critical determinant for the development of HCC in SVR patients with mild liver disease. Pre-sDM status

  19. Food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Thondre, Pariyarath Sangeetha

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. Food plays an important role in the management of blood glucose and associated complications in diabetes. This is attributed to the ability of food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose without causing any adverse health consequences. This chapter focuses on four important food groups such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and spices that have active ingredients such as soluble dietary fiber, polyphenols, and antinutrients with the ability to reduce glycemic and insulin response in humans. Other food ingredients such as simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and some proteins are also discussed in moderation.

  20. Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose and Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Ingrid M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Bartucci, Andrea; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Robertson, Robert; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether elevated fasting or 2-h plasma glucose and/or insulin better reflects the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers in an overweight pediatric population with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 151 overweight youths (8–17 years old) were evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and measurement of CVD risk factors. The study population was categorized according to quartiles of fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin levels. ANCOVA, adjusted for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, and percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), was used to compare metabolic variables between the quartiles of glucose and insulin groups. RESULTS Increasing quartiles of fasting and 2-h insulin were associated with increasing CVD risk factors. Glucose quartiles on the other hand, either fasting or at 2 h, were not. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be the earliest and/or primary metabolic alteration in childhood associated with risk markers for CVD. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:21115769

  1. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  2. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    PubMed Central

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  3. Decoding Alzheimer's disease from perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism: implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhichun; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which severely impacts on the global economic development and healthcare system. Though AD has been studied for more than 100 years since 1906, the exact cause(s) and pathogenic mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. Also, the efficient disease-modifying treatment and ideal diagnostic method for AD are unavailable. Perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, an invariant pathophysiological feature of AD, may be a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of this disease. In this review, we firstly discussed the features of cerebral glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions. Then, we further reviewed the contribution of glucose transportation abnormality and intracellular glucose catabolism dysfunction in AD pathophysiology, and proposed a hypothesis that multiple pathogenic cascades induced by impaired cerebral glucose metabolism could result in neuronal degeneration and consequently cognitive deficits in AD patients. Among these pathogenic processes, altered functional status of thiamine metabolism and brain insulin resistance are highly emphasized and characterized as major pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, considering the fact that AD patients exhibit cerebral glucose hypometabolism possibly due to impairments of insulin signaling and altered thiamine metabolism, we also discuss some potential possibilities to uncover diagnostic biomarkers for AD from abnormal glucose metabolism and to develop drugs targeting at repairing insulin signaling impairment and correcting thiamine metabolism abnormality. We conclude that glucose metabolism abnormality plays a critical role in AD pathophysiological alterations through the induction of multiple pathogenic factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and so forth. To clarify the causes, pathogeneses and consequences of cerebral hypometabolism in AD will help break the bottleneck of current AD study in finding

  4. Decoding Alzheimer's disease from perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism: implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhichun; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which severely impacts on the global economic development and healthcare system. Though AD has been studied for more than 100 years since 1906, the exact cause(s) and pathogenic mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. Also, the efficient disease-modifying treatment and ideal diagnostic method for AD are unavailable. Perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, an invariant pathophysiological feature of AD, may be a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of this disease. In this review, we firstly discussed the features of cerebral glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions. Then, we further reviewed the contribution of glucose transportation abnormality and intracellular glucose catabolism dysfunction in AD pathophysiology, and proposed a hypothesis that multiple pathogenic cascades induced by impaired cerebral glucose metabolism could result in neuronal degeneration and consequently cognitive deficits in AD patients. Among these pathogenic processes, altered functional status of thiamine metabolism and brain insulin resistance are highly emphasized and characterized as major pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, considering the fact that AD patients exhibit cerebral glucose hypometabolism possibly due to impairments of insulin signaling and altered thiamine metabolism, we also discuss some potential possibilities to uncover diagnostic biomarkers for AD from abnormal glucose metabolism and to develop drugs targeting at repairing insulin signaling impairment and correcting thiamine metabolism abnormality. We conclude that glucose metabolism abnormality plays a critical role in AD pathophysiological alterations through the induction of multiple pathogenic factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and so forth. To clarify the causes, pathogeneses and consequences of cerebral hypometabolism in AD will help break the bottleneck of current AD study in finding

  5. First Clinical Evaluation of a New Percutaneous Optical Fiber Glucose Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background This article describes a new fiber-coupled, percutaneous fluorescent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system that has shown 14 days of functionality in a human clinical trial. Method The new optical CGM system (FiberSense) consists of a transdermal polymer optical fiber containing a biochemical glucose sensor and a small fluorescence photometer optically coupled to the fiber. The glucose-sensitive optical fiber was implanted in abdominal and upper-arm subcutaneous tissue of six diabetes patients and remained there for up to 14 days. The performance of the system was monitored during six visits to the study center during the trial. Blood glucose changes were induced by oral carbohydrate intake and insulin injections, and capillary blood glucose samples were obtained from the finger tip. The data were analyzed using linear regression and the consensus error grid analysis. Results The FiberSense worn at the upper arm exhibited excellent results during 14 wearing days, with an overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.3% and 94.6% of the data in zone A of the consensus error grid. At the abdominal application site, FiberSense resulted in a MARD of 11.4 %, with 93.8% of the data in zone A. Conclusions The FiberSense CGM system provided consistent, reliable measurements of subcutaneous glucose levels in human clinical trial patients with diabetes for up to 14 days. PMID:23439156

  6. The metabolic impact of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Burkman, R T

    1992-10-01

    The hormonal components of oral contraceptives exert major effects on plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Estrogens may increase production of plasma triglycerides, leading to increased levels of very low-density lipoproteins, but they may also reduce levels of cholesterol-enriched and potentially atherogenic intermediate- and low-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, estrogens increase levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particularly the HDL2 subspecies, an effect linked to reduced mortality rates from cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. All combination oral contraceptives in use in the United States tend to raise levels of plasma triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL3 to varying degrees. In contrast, changes in HDL and HDL2 reflect the combined effects of estrogen dose and relative androgenicity of the progestin component. Although in general, the lipoprotein changes are greater in magnitude with higher dose oral contraceptive preparations, they can be significant in lower dose preparations as well. Oral contraceptives also affect carbohydrate metabolism, primarily through the activity of progestin. Studies have demonstrated insulin resistance, rises in plasma insulin, and relative glucose intolerance by means of curve analysis of glucose tolerance tests. These effects are far less pronounced with lower dose preparations and with formulations using the newer progestins.

  7. [High frequency of thyroid abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calvar, Cecilia E; Bengolea, Sonia V; Deutsch, Susana I; Hermes, Ricardo; Ramos, Gustavo; Loyato, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities (TA) has not been sufficiently assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to evaluate this relationship. In this prospective study 194 women were included. The PCOS group consisted of 142 patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and the control group included 52 age-matched healthy women. Fasting blood samples were drawn for free T4, thyrotropin, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), fasting insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were calculated. A total of 52 PCOS patients had either autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT+) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) (36.6%) (thyroid abnormalities:TA+) compared with 7 women of the control group (13.5%), accounting for more than a five fold higher prevalence of TA in PCOS patients, compared with the age-matched controls (adjusted odds ratio: 5.6; CI 95%: 2.1 -14.9; p<0.001). TA+ patients had significantly higher FI and HOMA-IR values than patients without thyroid abnormalities (p<0.05). These results demonstrate a high rate of TA in young PCOS women, associated with higher levels of FI and HOMA-IR. As PCOS, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity may have a profound impact on reproductive health, our data indicate that PCOS patients should be screened for TA. PMID:26339875

  8. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765

  10. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  11. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  12. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  13. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  14. Population screening for glucose intolerant subjects using decision tree analyses.

    PubMed

    Barriga, K J; Hamman, R F; Hoag, S; Marshall, J A; Shetterly, S M

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of screening for impaired glucose tolerance and previously undiagnosed NIDDM that could be used preliminary to the administration of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for final classification of glucose tolerance status. The purpose of a preliminary screening of this type would be to reduce the number of OGTT's needed to identify cases of IGT and NIDDM in the population. We used NIDDM risk indicators and decision tree analysis methods (CART software) to identify subgroups of the population at increased risk. We examined a population of Hispanic (n = 583) and non-Hispanic white (n = 768) subjects without a prior history of diabetes. Subjects were classified as normal, IGT or NIDDM (WHO criteria) based on results from a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE) of the CART models were calculated using the OGTT as the 'gold standard.' Two approaches to screening were simulated. In the simultaneous approach all risk variables were entered into CART models at once. In the serial approach, risk variables were grouped according to degree of effort required for data collection, and were entered into CART models in stages. Fasting glucose, age and body mass index (BMI) were selected as risk variables by CART when simulating the simultaneous approach (SEN = 91%, SPE = 55%). In the serial approach, CART used age and BMI to eliminate 35% of the population from further screening, and then used fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin, age and BMI to classify the remaining higher risk subjects (SEN = 85%, SPE = 64%). These models suggest that screening for IGT and previously undiagnosed NIDDM can be based on measurement of relatively simple indicators, and yet maintain a level of both sensitivity and specificity acceptable for this type of preliminary screening. PMID:9015666

  15. Metabolic differentiation and classification of abnormal Savda Munziq's pharmacodynamic role on rat models with different diseases by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics

    PubMed Central

    Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Results: Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda. PMID:26600713

  16. Metabolic abnormalities in adult and geriatric major depression with and without comorbid dementia.

    PubMed

    Blank, Karen; Szarek, Bonnie L; Goethe, John W

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increasingly have been linked to depression. The authors studied examined inpatients 35 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD) to determine the prevalence of component metabolic abnormalities and the full MetS with age, treatment, and comorbid dementia. Data analysis involved retrospective cross-sectional review from a nonprofit psychiatry inpatient service of all discharges 35 years and older with a diagnosis of MDD during a 3 year period (April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2006) (N=1718). Metabolic measures included waist circumference, lipid measurements, glucose, and hypertension diagnosis. Abnormal metabolic measures and MetS were highly prevalent in both young and old patients with MDD: one or more component was present in 87.6% of older (65-99 years old) and 79.9% of younger patients. Full MetS was present in 31.5% of older and 28.9% of younger patients (not significant, P=0.85). Metabolic abnormalities were not associated with atypical antipsychotics after controlling other variables. One-quarter (n=79, 24.9%) of older inpatients had a dementia co-diagnosis. Older patients with MDD and dementia had greater risk of elevated glucose while younger patients were more often hypertensive. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relationships of MDD with or without dementia with these highly prevalent abnormal metabolic measures and MetS.

  17. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. Citation: Yang KI, Kim HK, Baek J, Kim DE, Park HK. Abnormal nocturnal behavior due to hypoglycemia in a patient with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):627–629. PMID:26943712

  18. Acidosis effects on insulin response during glucose tolerance tests in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Bigner, D R; Goff, J P; Faust, M A; Burton, J L; Tyler, H D; Horst, R L

    1996-12-01

    The effect of metabolic alkalosis and acidosis on insulin response to glucose tolerance tests was determined for cows fed a high cation diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The anion diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The glucose tolerance test (500 mg of glucose/kg of BW infused i.v. over 10 min) caused a rapid increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Plasma glucose concentrations were highest, and plasma insulin concentrations were lowest, during metabolic acidosis. These results suggest that insulin secretion is impaired during metabolic acidosis, which may reduce tissue uptake of glucose. Correction of metabolic acidosis by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate prior to glucose tolerance testing increased blood pH and bicarbonate concentrations and partially restored insulin response to the glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, sodium bicarbonate also caused an elevation in plasma cortisol concentrations. We concluded that glucose utilization is altered in cows with metabolic acidosis. The correction of acidosis associated with diseases such as diarrhea and ketosis may improve the therapeutic benefit of glucose infusions used to treat these diseases.

  19. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  20. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  1. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  2. Comparison of single and combination diuretics on glucose tolerance (PATHWAY-3): protocol for a randomised double-blind trial in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thiazide diuretics are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. This risk may arise from K+-depletion. We hypothesised that a K+-sparing diuretic will improve glucose tolerance, and that combination of low-dose thiazide with K+-sparing diuretic will improve both blood pressure reduction and glucose tolerance, compared to a high-dose thiazide. Methods and analysis This is a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, comparing hydrochlorothiazide 25–50 mg, amiloride 10–20 mg and combination of both diuretics at half these doses. A single-blind placebo run-in of 1 month is followed by 24 weeks of blinded active treatment. There is forced dose-doubling after 3 months. The Primary end point is the blood glucose 2 h after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink (OGTT), following overnight fasting. The primary outcome is the difference between 2 h glucose at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Secondary outcomes include the changes in home systolic blood pressure (BP) and glycated haemoglobin and prediction of response by baseline plasma renin. Eligibility criteria are: age 18–79, systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥140 mm Hg and home BP ≥130 mm Hg and one component of the metabolic syndrome additional to hypertension. Principal exclusions are diabetes, estimated-glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min, abnormal plasma K+, clinic SBP >200 mm Hg or DBP >120 mm Hg (box 2). The sample size calculation indicates that 486 patients will give 80% power at α=0.01 to detect a difference in means of 1 mmol/L (SD=2.2) between 2 h glucose on hydrochlorothiazide and comparators. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY-3 was approved by Cambridge South Ethics Committee, number 09/H035/19. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Trial registration numbers Eudract number 2009-010068-41 and clinical trials registration number: NCT02351973. PMID:26253567

  3. Improvements in blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipoprotein lipids after aerobic exercise plus weight loss in obese, hypertensive middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Hagberg, J M; Pratley, R E; Rogus, E M; Goldberg, A P

    1998-09-01

    The clustering of metabolic abnormalities often associated with hypertension, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia, in middle-aged men may be the result of a decrease in cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and the accumulation of body fat with aging. This study examines the effects of a 6-month program of aerobic exercise training plus weight loss (AEX+WL) on VO2max, body composition, blood pressure (BP), glucose and insulin responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose infusion rates (GIR) during 3-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at insulin infusion rates of 120, 600, and 3,000 pmol x m(-2) x min(-1), and plasma lipoprotein levels. Compared with eight non-obese, normotensive, sedentary men (age, 62+/-2 years; 19%+/-2% fat; BP, 117+/-4/72+/-2 mm Hg), the nine obese, hypersensitive, sedentary men studied (age, 56+/-1 year; 32%+/-1% body fat; BP, 147+/-3/93+/-2 mm Hg) initially had a larger waist girth and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and were more hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant with lower GIR at the two lower insulin infusion rates of the clamp and had a 2.9-fold higher EC50, the insulin concentration producing a half-maximal increase in GIR. They had higher triglyceride (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The AEX+WL intervention reduced body weight by 9%, percent body fat by 21%, waist girth by 9%, and WHR by 3%, and increased VO2max by 16% (P < .01 for all). This was associated with decreases of 14+/-3 mm Hg in systolic and 10+/-2 mm Hg in diastolic BP, significant changes in GIR at the low (+42%) and intermediate (+39%) insulin infusion rates and EC50 (-39%) and in glucose (-21%) and insulin (-51%) responses during OGTT (P < .02 for all). AEX+WL also lowered total cholesterol by 14% and TG by 34%, and raised HDL2-C levels twofold (P < .01 for all). Thus, a 6-month AEX+WL intervention substantially lowers BP and improves glucose and lipid metabolism in obese, sedentary

  4. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  5. Prediabetes is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Greenway, F L; Cornelissen, G; Pan, W; Halberg, F

    2008-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits a circadian variation characterized by a morning increase, followed by a small postprandial valley and a deeper descent during nocturnal rest. Although abnormal 24-h variability (abnormal circadian variability (ACV)) predicts adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, a 7-day automatic ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and subsequent chronobiologic analysis of the gathered data, permits identification of consistency of any abnormal circadian variation. To test whether normal overweight healthy men and women with prediabetes differed from subjects with normoglycemia in having ACV with a 7-day ABPM. Consent for a 7-day ABPM was obtained from subjects with family history of diabetes mellitus, who were participating in the screening phase for a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled weight loss trial in prediabetics to prevent progression to diabetes mellitus. The automatic 7-day ABPM device recorded BP and heart rate every 30 min during the day and every 60 min during the night. Normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects matched for age, sex, race, BP, BMI, waist circumference and glycemic control, differed statistically significantly only in their fasting and/or 2-h postprandial serum glucose concentrations. Chronobiologically-interpreted 7-day ABPM uncovered no abnormalities in normoglycemics, whereas prediabetics had a statistically significantly higher incidence of high mean BP (MESOR-hypertension), excessive pulse pressure and/or circadian hyper-amplitude-tension (CHAT) (P<0.001). ACV detected with 7-day ABPM may account for the enhanced CVD risk in prediabetes. These findings provide a basis for larger-scale studies to assess the predictive value of 7-day ABPM over the long term. PMID:18480832

  6. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood--developing dentition and oral habits: a current opinion.

    PubMed

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    As most of the etiologic factors of malocclusion are of genetic origin and thus cannot be prevented, environmental causative factors have become the focus for correction. Early interception of oral habits may be an important step in order to prevent occlusal disturbances in children. The identification of an abnormal habit and the assessment of its potential immediate and long-term effects on the dentition and potentially on the craniofacial complex should be made at an early stage. This paper focuses on the most common oral habits influencing dentofacial growth in childhood and management of these habits in the developing dentition.

  7. Glucose disturbances in first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia: Relationship to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Yun-Long; An, Hui-Mei; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Huang, Xu-Feng; Soares, Jair C

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows abnormal glucose metabolism in schizophrenia, even at the onset of psychosis. This study aims to examine the glucose and lipid metabolism in first-episode and drug naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia and to explore their relationships with psychopathology, which have been under-investigated. Fasting glucose and lipid profiles, as well as homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were determined in 120 never-medicated first-episode and 31 healthy control subjects matched for gender and age. The schizophrenia symptomatology was assessed by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Our results showed that schizophrenia patients had a significantly higher level of fasting plasma glucose (p<0.0001) and insulin (p=0.038). HOMA, an indicator of insulin resistance was higher in the patients than in the healthy controls (p=0.008). No differences were found between the patients and healthy subjects in the levels of plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein, except that the cholesterol level was higher in the patients than health subjects (p=0.016). A significant negative association between plasma glucose levels and the PANSS positive symptom subscores was observed (p=0.013). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified insulin resistance, insulin and the PANSS positive symptom subscore as significant predictor factors for glucose level. These results suggest that abnormal glucose metabolism may be associated with the pathogenesis and psychopathology of schizophrenia in the early phases of the disease process.

  8. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  9. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  10. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  11. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  12. Optical monitoring of glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. N.; Mbanu, A.

    1985-02-01

    A device for the monitoring of blood glucose levels is investigated. It measures the sugar concentration using the effect of the glucose on the optical refractive index. Light is transmitted along an optical fibre, and, as most of the internal rays are incident at the fibre surface at an angle less than the critical angle, the refractive index of the surrounding liquid can be calculated. The device can measure glucose concentrations with a sensitivity of better than 0.1%.

  13. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  14. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Critical Role of Oral-Facial Growth: Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese children. Method: Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of data of long-term recurrence of OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Results: Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral-facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional reeducation with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Conclusion: Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral-facial growth. PMID:23346072

  15. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  16. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    PubMed

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  17. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  18. Impaired glucose utilization in man during acute exposure to environmental heat.

    PubMed

    Tatár, P; Vigas, M; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D; Strec, V; Palát, M

    1985-12-01

    In 6 healthy males the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after the administration of 100 g glucose during the hyperthermic Finnish sauna bath (85 degrees C) of 30 min duration. The lowered insulin response (P less than 0.001) to glucose challenge during heating and the subsequent prolonged hyperglycemia (P less than 0.001) after heating were observed, when compared to OGTT under thermoneutral conditions (23 degrees C). It is suggested that the heat-induced decrease in visceral blood flow and stimulation of sympathoadrenomedullary and pituitary activity may be responsible for this effect. PMID:3910408

  19. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity.

  20. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) and GIP (Delta(0-30)) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY(3-36) (Delta(0-30)) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  1. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  2. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O

    1997-12-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.

  3. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Jin, J Y; Baek, W K; Park, S H; Sung, H Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J; Song, D K

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia is a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption still requires confirmation. We report the effects of circulating green tea catechins on blood glucose and insulin levels. Oral glucose loading 1 h after GTE ingestion in humans led to higher blood glucose and insulin levels than in control subjects. Gallated catechins were required for these effects, although within the intestinal lumen they have been known to decrease glucose and cholesterol absorption. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate hindered 2-deoxyglucose uptake into liver, fat, pancreatic beta-cell, and skeletal muscle cell lines. The glucose intolerance was ameliorated by gallated catechin-deficient GTE or GTE mixed with polyethylene glycol, which was used as an inhibitor of intestinal absorption of gallated catechins. These findings may suggest that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect.

  4. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women.

    PubMed

    Phipps, K; Barker, D J; Hales, C N; Fall, C H; Osmond, C; Clark, P M

    1993-03-01

    A follow-up study was carried out to determine whether reduced fetal growth is associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance in men and women aged 50 years. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out on 140 men and 126 women born in Preston (Lancashire, UK) between 1935 and 1943, whose size at birth had been measured in detail. Those subjects found to have impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had lower birthweight, a smaller head circumference and were thinner at birth. They also had a higher ratio of placental weight to birthweight. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes fell from 27% in subjects who weighed 2.50 kg (5.5 pounds) or less at birth to 6% in those who weighed more than 3.41 kg (7.5 pounds) (p < 0.002 after adjusting for body mass index). Plasma glucose concentrations taken at 2-h in the glucose tolerance test fell progressively as birthweight increased (p < 0.004), as did 2-h plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.001). The trends with birthweight were independent of duration of gestation and must therefore be related to reduced rates of fetal growth. These findings confirm the association between impaired glucose tolerance in adult life and low birthweight previously reported in Hertfordshire (UK), and demonstrate it in women as well as men. It is suggested that the association reflects the long-term effects of reduced growth of the endocrine pancreas and other tissues in utero. This may be a consequence of maternal undernutrition. PMID:8462770

  5. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration.

  6. Acute elevation of endogenous prolactin does not influence glucose homeostasis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects. PMID:8130181

  7. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress. PMID:10984077

  8. Review of Glucose Oxidases and Glucose Dehydrogenases: A Bird's Eye View of Glucose Sensing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Stefano; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The evolution from first-generation through third-generation glucose sensors has witnessed the appearance of a number of very diverse oxidoreductases, which vary tremendously in terms of origin, structure, substrate specificity, cofactor used as primary electron acceptor, and acceptable final electron acceptor. This article summarizes our present knowledge of redox enzymes currently utilized in commercially available glucose monitoring systems to promote a fuller appreciation of enzymatic properties and principles employed in blood glucose monitoring to help avoid potential errors. PMID:22027299

  9. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  10. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  11. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  12. Influence of temperature on the precision of noninvasive glucose sensing by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Chen, Yun; Xu, Kexin

    2008-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the monitoring of blood glucose concentration is limited by many ambiguous factors, which leads to the prediction precision is not satisfied. Due to the weak interested signal and the difficulty to quantify the physiological noise directly, the absorbance induced by glucose concentration and temperature was analyzed based on Beer-Lambert Law and displacement between glucose and water. Then the transmittance of glucose aqueous solution in different temperatures was measured by spectrometer to investigate the influence of glucose concentration and temperature. As it's difficult to distinguish the influence of temperature from the diffuse reflectance, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to compute the light intensity induced by the change in glucose concentration and physiological temperature. Finally, the influence of actual physiological temperature on the prediction model of glucose concentration was estimated based on the oral glucose tolerance tests of two diabetics. The result showed that, near the normal physiological temperature, the intensity of diffuse reflectance caused by -0.1 °C change in temperature was equivalent to that caused by 2.7 mmol/L change in glucose concentration. Moreover, the proportion of prediction error induced by temperature to the total error was more than 50%.

  13. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  14. Nighttime Administration of Nicotine Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism via the Hypothalamic Orexin System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagata, Takashi; Fujita, Mikio; Kon, Kanta; Wu, Naizhen; Takatsuki, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Wada, Tsutomu; Nishijo, Hisao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is known to affect the metabolism of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we here investigated whether nicotine promoted the central regulation of glucose metabolism, which is closely linked to the circadian system. The oral intake of nicotine in drinking water, which mainly occurred during the nighttime active period, enhanced daily hypothalamic prepro-orexin gene expression and reduced hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice without affecting body weight, body fat content, and serum levels of insulin. Nicotine administered at the active period appears to be responsible for the effect on blood glucose, because nighttime but not daytime injections of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels in db/db mice. The chronic oral treatment with nicotine suppressed the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver of db/db and wild-type control mice. In the pyruvate tolerance test to evaluate hepatic gluconeogenic activity, the oral nicotine treatment moderately suppressed glucose elevations in normal mice and mice lacking dopamine receptors, whereas this effect was abolished in orexin-deficient mice and hepatic parasympathectomized mice. Under high-fat diet conditions, the oral intake of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels at the daytime resting period in wild-type, but not orexin-deficient, mice. These results indicated that the chronic daily administration of nicotine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis via the hypothalamic orexin-parasympathetic nervous system. Thus, the results of the present study may provide an insight into novel chronotherapy for type 2 diabetes that targets the central cholinergic and orexinergic systems. PMID:26492471

  15. Nighttime Administration of Nicotine Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism via the Hypothalamic Orexin System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagata, Takashi; Fujita, Mikio; Kon, Kanta; Wu, Naizhen; Takatsuki, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Wada, Tsutomu; Nishijo, Hisao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is known to affect the metabolism of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we here investigated whether nicotine promoted the central regulation of glucose metabolism, which is closely linked to the circadian system. The oral intake of nicotine in drinking water, which mainly occurred during the nighttime active period, enhanced daily hypothalamic prepro-orexin gene expression and reduced hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice without affecting body weight, body fat content, and serum levels of insulin. Nicotine administered at the active period appears to be responsible for the effect on blood glucose, because nighttime but not daytime injections of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels in db/db mice. The chronic oral treatment with nicotine suppressed the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver of db/db and wild-type control mice. In the pyruvate tolerance test to evaluate hepatic gluconeogenic activity, the oral nicotine treatment moderately suppressed glucose elevations in normal mice and mice lacking dopamine receptors, whereas this effect was abolished in orexin-deficient mice and hepatic parasympathectomized mice. Under high-fat diet conditions, the oral intake of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels at the daytime resting period in wild-type, but not orexin-deficient, mice. These results indicated that the chronic daily administration of nicotine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis via the hypothalamic orexin-parasympathetic nervous system. Thus, the results of the present study may provide an insight into novel chronotherapy for type 2 diabetes that targets the central cholinergic and orexinergic systems.

  16. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  17. High Frequency of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Marli S.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Costa, Mônica R. F.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Brito, Marcelo A. M.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Alecrim, Maria G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase–deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. PMID:24865682

  18. Oral candidiasis mimicking an oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Paiva, Helena Borges; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; da Silva, Fernanda Bragança Monteiro; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2012-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is a significant problem in immune-compromised patients. The most common forms of mucosal candidiasis are oropharyngeal, oesophageal and vaginal, and more than 90% of HIV positive persons will manifest at least one episode of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Local and systemic factors such as uninterrupted daily use of a prosthesis by patients, smoking habit, as well as high glucose intake may contribute to the development of the lesion. The aim of this article is to report an uncommon case of oral candidiasis presenting an aggressive clinical behaviour in a 64-year-old male patient, with a significant smoking habit and a medical history of non-controlled diabetes. The lesion affected the hard and soft palate of the right side, revealing erythematous and ulcerated areas, elevated borders and central portions resembling necrosis, mimicking the clinical features of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correct diagnosis of oral candidiasis was obtained after histopathological and cytological examinations and the patient was easily treated with traditional antifungal drugs and correction of his glucose levels.

  19. Identifying glucose thresholds for incident diabetes by physiological analysis: a mathematical solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Manca, Maria Laura

    2015-04-01

    Plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are currently based on outcome data (risk of retinopathy), an inherently ill-conditioned approach. A radically different approach is to consider the mechanisms that control plasma glucose, rather than its relation to an outcome. We developed a constraint optimization algorithm to find the minimal glucose levels associated with the maximized combination of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, the two main mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. We used a training cohort of 1,474 subjects (22% prediabetic, 7.7% diabetic) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the clamp technique and β-cell function was determined by mathematical modeling of an oral glucose tolerance test. Optimized fasting glucose levels were ≤ 87 and ≤ 89 mg/dl in ≤ 45-yr-old women and men, respectively, and ≤ 92 and ≤ 95 mg/dl in >45-yr-old women and men, respectively; the corresponding optimized 2-h glucose levels were ≤ 96, ≤ 98, ≤ 103, and ≤ 105 mg/dl. These thresholds were validated in three prospective cohorts of nondiabetic subjects (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study, Botnia Study, and Mexico City Diabetes Study) with baseline and follow-up oral glucose tolerance tests. Of 5,593 participants, 452 progressed to diabetes. Similarly, in the three cohorts, subjects with glucose levels above the estimated thresholds had an odds ratio of 3.74 (95% confidence interval = 2.64-5.48) of progressing, substantially higher than the risk carried by baseline conventionally defined prediabetes [odds ratio = 2.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.91-2.81)]. The concept that optimization of glucose concentrations by direct measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function identifies gender- and age-specific thresholds that bear on disease progression is proven in a physiologically sound, quantifiable manner.

  20. Identifying glucose thresholds for incident diabetes by physiological analysis: a mathematical solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Manca, Maria Laura

    2015-04-01

    Plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are currently based on outcome data (risk of retinopathy), an inherently ill-conditioned approach. A radically different approach is to consider the mechanisms that control plasma glucose, rather than its relation to an outcome. We developed a constraint optimization algorithm to find the minimal glucose levels associated with the maximized combination of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, the two main mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. We used a training cohort of 1,474 subjects (22% prediabetic, 7.7% diabetic) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the clamp technique and β-cell function was determined by mathematical modeling of an oral glucose tolerance test. Optimized fasting glucose levels were ≤ 87 and ≤ 89 mg/dl in ≤ 45-yr-old women and men, respectively, and ≤ 92 and ≤ 95 mg/dl in >45-yr-old women and men, respectively; the corresponding optimized 2-h glucose levels were ≤ 96, ≤ 98, ≤ 103, and ≤ 105 mg/dl. These thresholds were validated in three prospective cohorts of nondiabetic subjects (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study, Botnia Study, and Mexico City Diabetes Study) with baseline and follow-up oral glucose tolerance tests. Of 5,593 participants, 452 progressed to diabetes. Similarly, in the three cohorts, subjects with glucose levels above the estimated thresholds had an odds ratio of 3.74 (95% confidence interval = 2.64-5.48) of progressing, substantially higher than the risk carried by baseline conventionally defined prediabetes [odds ratio = 2.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.91-2.81)]. The concept that optimization of glucose concentrations by direct measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function identifies gender- and age-specific thresholds that bear on disease progression is proven in a physiologically sound, quantifiable manner. PMID:25552659

  1. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  3. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  4. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  5. Glucose metabolism in Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, J; Ettlinger, L

    1977-08-26

    Acetobacter aceti NCIB 8554 grows on a minimal medium with ethanol but not with glucose as carbon and energy source. Addition of glucose to a wild type culture on ethanol has no influence on growth of the organism. Growth of a glucose sensitive mutant A5 is inhibited by the addition of glucose until all glucose has disappeared from the medium. In order to determine the routes by which glucose is metabolised in wild type and mutant, radiorespirometric, enzymatic, and uptake experiments have been performed. For the radiorespirometric experiments of the "continuous substrate feeding" type as apparatus has been constructed. Of the glucose entering the cells about 30% is excreted as gluconate and 6% metabolised with liberation of C-1 as CO2. The rest is accumulated intracellularly. No differences were found between wild type and mutant. Under different growth conditions and with different enzymatic assay methods no pyruvate kinase activity (EC 2.7.1.40) could be detected. This might explain the inability of A. aceti to grow on glucose.

  6. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes. PMID:25068013

  7. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  8. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  9. Bibliography on Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waserman, Manfred J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers articles and books dealing with oral history published between 1950 and 1970. In addition to works treating oral history as a methodology for historical discovery, the guide includes a separate annotated list of twenty selected books that use oral history material in the development of their themes and…

  10. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  12. Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Cullen, D R; Brown, M J

    1979-12-01

    A coagulation screen consisting of measurement of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, kaolin caphalin clotting time, platelet count, plasma fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation products and ethanol gelation test was performed on 24 patients with impairment of consciousness due to acute diabetic metabolic decompensation at the start of treatment and 24 hours later. 22 out of 24 patients showed at least one coagulation abnormality on admission of which the commonest were a prolonged prothrombin time, shortened kaolin cephalin clotting.time and raised plasma fibrinogen level. After 24 hours of treatment these values were more normal but 20 out of 22 patients still displayed some abnormality. 15 patients had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission including 3 patients with haematological abnormalities suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation. This group was older and had higher blood ureas than those with fewer abnormalities, but plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels were similar in both groups of patients. All 5 patients with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma and all 3 patients who died without recovering consciousness had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission.

  13. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  14. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  15. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  16. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  17. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. PMID:26943712

  18. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-01-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  19. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  20. KDT501, a Derivative from Hops, Normalizes Glucose Metabolism and Body Weight in Rodent Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Veera R.; Desai, Anuradha; Darland, Gary; Grayson, Neile; Bland, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis We developed KDT501, a novel substituted 1,3-cyclopentadione chemically derived from hop extracts, and evaluated it in various in vitro and in vivo models of diabetes and insulin sensitivity. Methods KDT501 was evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in monocyte/macrophage cells; agonistic activity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR); lipogenesis and gene expression profile in human subcutaneous adipocytes. Body composition, glucose, insulin sensitivity, and lipids were assessed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats after oral administration. Results KDT501 mediated lipogenesis in 3T3L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes; however, the gene expression profile of KDT501 differed from that of the full PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that KDT501 has pleiotropic biological activities. In addition, KDT501 showed only modest, partial PPARγ agonist activity and exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in monocytes/macrophages that were not observed with rosiglitazone. In a DIO mouse model, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed blood glucose, glucose/insulin AUC following an oral glucose bolus, and body fat. In ZDF rats, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glucose AUC after an oral glucose bolus. Significant, dose-dependent reductions of plasma hemoglobin A1c, weight gain, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed in animals receiving KDT501. Conclusion These results indicate that KDT501 produces a unique anti-diabetic profile that is distinct in its spectrum of pharmacological effects and biological mechanism from both metformin and pioglitazone. KDT501 may thus constitute a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and associated conditions. PMID:24498211

  1. Individual differences in oral thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

    2006-07-30

    Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Renal Tubular Glucose Absorption after Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Eliopoulos, Dimitris; Hardy, Thomas; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2014-01-01

    A partial differential Progressive Tubular Reabsorption (PTR) model, describing renal tubular glucose reabsorption and urinary glucose excretion following a glucose load perturbation, is proposed and fitted to experimental data from five subjects. For each subject the Glomerular Filtration Rate was estimated and both blood and urine glucose were sampled following an Intra-Venous glucose bolus. The PTR model was compared with a model representing the conventional Renal Threshold Hypothesis (RTH). A delay bladder compartment was introduced in both formulations. For the RTH model, the average threshold for glycosuria varied between 9.90±4.50 mmol/L and 10.63±3.64 mmol/L (mean ± Standard Deviation) under different hypotheses; the corresponding average maximal transport rates varied between 0.48±0.45 mmol/min (86.29±81.22 mg/min) and 0.50±0.42 mmol/min (90.62±76.15 mg/min). For the PTR Model, the average maximal transports rates varied between 0.61±0.52 mmol/min (109.57±93.77 mg/min) and 0.83±0.95 mmol/min (150.13±171.85 mg/min). The time spent by glucose inside the tubules before entering the bladder compartment varied between 1.66±0.73 min and 2.45±1.01 min. The PTR model proved much better than RTH at fitting observations, by correctly reproducing the delay of variations of glycosuria with respect to the driving glycemia, and by predicting non-zero urinary glucose elimination at low glycemias. This model is useful when studying both transients and steady-state glucose elimination as well as in assessing drug-related changes in renal glucose excretion. PMID:24489817

  3. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  4. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation. PMID:26616219

  5. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation.

  6. Accuracy of a Novel Noninvasive Multisensor Technology to Estimate Glucose in Diabetic Subjects During Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Sandra I.; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Vyas, Nisarg; Andre, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach of multisensor technology with integrated data analysis in an armband system (SenseWear® Pro Armband, SWA) can provide estimates of plasma glucose concentration in diabetes. In all, 41 subjects with diabetes participated. On day 1 subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and on day 2 a 60-minute treadmill test (TT). SWA plasma glucose estimates were compared against reference peripheral venous glucose concentrations. A continuous glucose monitoring device (CGM) was also placed on each subject to serve as a reference for clinical comparison. Pearson coefficient, Clarke error grid (CEG), and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analyses were used to compare the performance of plasma glucose estimation. There were significant correlations between plasma glucose concentrations estimated by the SWA and the reference plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT (r = .65, P < .05) and the TT (r = .91, P < .05). CEG analysis revealed that during the OGTT, 93% of plasma glucose concentration readings were in the clinically acceptable zone A+B for the SWA and 95% for the CGM. During the TT, the SWA had 96% of readings in zone A+B, compared to 97% for the CGM. During OGTTs, MARDs for the SWA and CGM were 26% and 18%, respectively. During TTs, MARDs were 16% and 12%, respectively. Plasma glucose concentration estimation by the SWA’s noninvasive multisensor approach appears to be feasible and its performance in estimating glucose approaches that of a CGM. The success of this pilot study suggests that multisensor technology holds promising potential for the development of a wearable, noninvasive, painless glucose monitor. PMID:24876538

  7. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased.

  8. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  9. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  10. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  11. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    PubMed

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  12. MCH receptor deletion does not impair glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Adamantidis, Antoine; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The post-oral actions of glucose stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in rodents. Hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons are implicated in sugar reward, and this study investigated their involvement in glucose preference conditioning in mice. In Exp. 1 MCH receptor 1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice learned to prefer 8% glucose over an initially more-preferred non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose+saccharin (S+S) solution. In contrast, the KO and WT mice preferred S+S to 8% fructose, which is consistent with this sugar's weak post-oral reinforcing action. In Exp. 2 KO and WT mice were trained to drink a flavored solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 16% glucose and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water. Both groups drank more CS+ than CS- in training and preferred the CS+ to CS- in a 2-bottle test. These results indicate that MCH receptor signaling is not required for flavor preferences conditioned by the post-oral actions of glucose. This contrasts with other findings implicating MCH signaling in other types of sugar reward processing. PMID:27195455

  13. Imaging evalution of the gingival fibromatosis and dental abnormalities syndrome

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Neto, PE; dos Santos, LAN; Coletta, RD; Laranjeira, AL; de Oliveira Santos, CC; Bonan, PR; Martelli-Júnior, H

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentomaxillofacial imaging features of one family affected by the gingival fibromatosis (GF) and dental abnormalities (DA) syndrome. Methods Conventional radiographs (periapical and panoramic) and cone beam CT (CBCT) were performed in nine members of this family: four were affected by the syndrome and five were not. Results The four affected members demonstrated mild generalized GF in association with DA, including hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, intrapulpal calcifications, delay on tooth eruption and pericoronal radiolucencies in unerupted teeth. None of these oral changes were identified in the five unaffected members. All nine members presented alterations in the paranasal sinuses and mucosal thickening of the maxillary sinus was the most common finding. Conclusion Family members not affected by the syndrome showed similar alterations in the paranasal sinuses and CBCT was useful to characterize the dentomaxillofacial features of this new syndrome associating GF and DA. PMID:21493880

  14. Coenzyme Q10 prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sekizaki, Naoto; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Wada, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kimura, Ikuko; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2007-07-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. Although some clinical evidences suggest the use of an antioxidant reagent coenzyme Q10 in diabetes with hypertension, the direct effect of coenzyme Q10 on the endothelial functions has not been examined. In the present study, we therefore investigated the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) exhibited abnormal properties, including the morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, activation of protein kinase Cbeta2, and increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 strongly inhibited these changes in HUVEC under high glucose condition. In addition, coenzyme Q10 inhibited high glucose-induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an endogenous caspase-3 substrate. These results suggest that coenzyme Q10 prevents reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, consistent with previous reports, high glucose caused upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVEC, and promoted the adhesion of U937 monocytic cells. Coenzyme Q10 displayed potent inhibitory effects against these endothelial abnormalities. Thus, we provide the first evidence that coenzyme Q10 has a beneficial effect in protecting against the endothelial dysfunction by high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

  15. CD226 reduces endothelial cell glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions with inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zilong; Zhang, Jinxue; Sun, Yizheng; Jin, Boquan; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuzhong; Zhuang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    CD226 is a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule found on immune and endothelial cells. Here, we evaluated a possible role for CD226 in inhibiting glucose uptake in isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in wild-type (WT) and CD226 knockout (KO) mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CD226 expression increased under hyperglycemic conditions in the presence of TNF-α. Furthermore, CD226 knockdown improved glucose uptake in endothelial cells, and CD226 KO mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance. Levels of soluble CD226 in plasma were higher in T2DM patients following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than under fasting conditions. Our results indicate that low-grade inflammation coupled with elevated blood glucose increases CD226 expression, resulting in decreased endothelial cell glucose uptake in T2DM. PMID:26910838

  16. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  17. Antithrombin abnormalities and perinatal management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-08-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is an important regulator of the coagulation cascade because of its ability to efficiently inhibit proteases such as Factor (F) Xa and thrombin. Type I hereditary AT deficiency is characterized by a quantitative deficiency in the antigen and activity of AT to about 50% of normal. Type II hereditary AT deficiency is characterized by a normal antigenic level of AT, with a low level of activity due to a dysfunctional protein. Impaired synthesis, consumptive coagulopathy including pregnancy-induced AT deficiency in multiple pregnancies, and urinary protein loss are associated with acquired AT deficiencies. Inherited thrombophilias are the leading cause of maternal thromboembolism and are associated with increased risk of second- and third-trimester fetal loss, abruptions, severe intrauterine growth restriction, and early-onset severe preeclampsia. Among thrombophilias, AT deficiency has long been associated with a significant thrombotic tendency throughout gestation and the puerperium. Treatment for this disorder includes antithrombotic therapy with unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin, followed by an oral vitamin K antagonist, such as warfarin. Some patients with very low AT levels may be resistant to heparin therapy and may require increased doses of heparin or AT concentrates. In addition, an acquired decrease of AT plasma levels is a common finding in patients with preeclampsia. It is suggested that the administration of AT concentrates improves uteroplacental circulation and influence the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that hereditary AT deficiency is associated with fetal loss. In women with a severe thrombotic tendency and recurrent fetal loss, thromboprophylaxis may offer more benefits.

  18. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  19. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  20. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  1. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  2. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Perry, I J

    2002-11-01

    Glucose intolerance represents a spectrum of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is a major public health challenge worldwide, with rapidly increasing prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This global epidemic of diabetes is largely driven by the globalisation of Western culture and lifestyles. Specifically, there is now evidence from large-scale observational studies, and from intervention studies, of powerful synergistic interactions between diet, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol in the development of glucose intolerance. It is estimated that >90% of cases of type 2 diabetes in the population could be prevented with the adoption of a prudent diet (high in cereal fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in trans-fatty acids and glycaemic load), avoidance of overweight and obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2), engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 0.5 h/d, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption. These findings are biologically plausible and have major public health implications. They form the basis for a clear, simple and coherent message for health promotion and public policy. However, to make progress on these issues health will need to be placed at the centre of public policy and relevant vested interests tackled, notably in the food, entertainment, tobacco and automobile industries. PMID:12691184

  3. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  4. Facilitative glucose transporters: Implications for cancer detection, prognosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Barron, Carly C; Bilan, Philip J; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2016-02-01

    It is long recognized that cancer cells display increased glucose uptake and metabolism. In a rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins facilitate glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. Fourteen members of the GLUT protein family have been identified in humans. This review describes the major characteristics of each member of the GLUT family and highlights evidence of abnormal expression in tumors and cancer cells. The regulation of GLUTs by key proliferation and pro-survival pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), Ras, c-Myc and p53 pathways is discussed. The clinical utility of GLUT expression in cancer has been recognized and evidence regarding the use of GLUTs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers is presented. GLUTs represent attractive targets for cancer therapy and this review summarizes recent studies in which GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT5 and others are inhibited to decrease cancer growth. PMID:26773935

  5. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Perry, I J

    2002-11-01

    Glucose intolerance represents a spectrum of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is a major public health challenge worldwide, with rapidly increasing prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This global epidemic of diabetes is largely driven by the globalisation of Western culture and lifestyles. Specifically, there is now evidence from large-scale observational studies, and from intervention studies, of powerful synergistic interactions between diet, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol in the development of glucose intolerance. It is estimated that >90% of cases of type 2 diabetes in the population could be prevented with the adoption of a prudent diet (high in cereal fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in trans-fatty acids and glycaemic load), avoidance of overweight and obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2), engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 0.5 h/d, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption. These findings are biologically plausible and have major public health implications. They form the basis for a clear, simple and coherent message for health promotion and public policy. However, to make progress on these issues health will need to be placed at the centre of public policy and relevant vested interests tackled, notably in the food, entertainment, tobacco and automobile industries.

  6. Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes Based on the 2013 WHO Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Benhalima, Katrien; Jegers, Katleen; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Aims Uncertainty exists on the prevalence of glucose intolerance in women with a recent diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) based on a two-step screening strategy and the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of postpartum screening, the prevalence and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of GDM. Methods Retrospective analysis of the medical records of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed in a universal two-step screening strategy with the 2013 WHO criteria. All women with a history of GDM are advised to undergo a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) around 12 weeks postpartum. Indices of insulin sensitivity (the Matsuda index and the reciprocal of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, 1/HOMA-IR) and an index of beta-cell function, the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) were calculated based on the OGTT postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders such as age, BMI, ethnicity and breastfeeding. Results Of the 191 women with GDM, 29.3% (56) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. These women had a higher BMI (28.6 ±6.8 vs. 26.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.015), were more often from an ethnic minority (EM) background (41.1% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.029) and smoked more often during pregnancy (14.3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.001) than women who attended the OGTT postpartum. Of all women (135) who received an OGTT postpartum, 42.2% (57) had prediabetes (11.9% impaired fasting glucose, 24.4% impaired glucose tolerance and 5.9% both impaired fasting and impaired glucose tolerance) and 1.5% (2) had overt diabetes. Compared to women with a normal OGTT postpartum, women with glucose intolerance were older (32.5±4.3 vs. 30.8±4.8 years, p = 0.049), were more often obese (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.023), were more often from an EM background (33.9% vs. 18.4%, p = 0.040), less often breastfed (69.5% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.041) and had more often an

  7. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  8. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  9. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

  10. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  11. Impaired Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Moderate-Severe CKD.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Zelnick, Leila; Afkarian, Maryam; Ayers, Ernest; Curtin, Laura; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Ikizler, T Alp; Kahn, Steven E; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Utzschneider, Kristina

    2016-09-01

    Kidney disease leads to clinically relevant disturbances in glucose and insulin homeostasis, but the pathophysiology in moderate-severe CKD remains incompletely defined. In a cross-sectional study of 59 participants with nondiabetic CKD (mean eGFR =37.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and 39 healthy control subjects, we quantified insulin sensitivity, clearance, and secretion and glucose tolerance using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests. Participants with CKD had lower insulin sensitivity than participants without CKD (mean[SD] 3.9[2.0] versus 5.0 [2.0] mg/min per µU/ml; P<0.01). Insulin clearance correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.72; P<0.001) and was also lower in participants with CKD than controls (876 [226] versus 998 [212] ml/min; P<0.01). Adjustment for physical activity, diet, fat mass, and fatfree mass in addition to demographics and smoking partially attenuated associations of CKD with insulin sensitivity (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 0.0 mg/min per µU/ml) and insulin clearance (adjusted difference, -85; 95% confidence interval, -160 to -10 ml/min). Among participants with CKD, eGFR did not significantly correlate with insulin sensitivity or clearance. Insulin secretion and glucose tolerance did not differ significantly between groups, but 65% of participants with CKD had impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, moderate-severe CKD associated with reductions in insulin sensitivity and clearance that are explained, in part, by differences in lifestyle and body composition. We did not observe a CKD-specific deficit in insulin secretion, but the combination of insulin resistance and inadequate augmentation of insulin secretion led to a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. Rab GAPs AS160 and Tbc1d1 play nonredundant roles in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Keller, Susanna R

    2016-02-15

    The related Rab GTPase-activating proteins (Rab GAPs) AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 that controls glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells and glucose homeostasis. AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice exhibit different adipocyte- and skeletal muscle-specific defects in glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression and trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. A recent study analyzed male mice with simultaneous deletion of AS160 and Tbc1d1 (AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice). Herein, we describe abnormalities in male and female AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice on another strain background. We confirm the earlier observation that GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake defects of single-knockout mice join in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice to affect all skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. In large mixed fiber-type skeletal muscles, changes in relative basal GLUT4 plasma membrane association in AS160(-/-) and Tbc1d1(-/-) mice also combine in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. However, we found different glucose uptake abnormalities in isolated skeletal muscles and adipocytes than reported previously, resulting in different interpretations of how AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. In support of a larger role for AS160 in glucose homeostasis, in contrast with the previous study, we find similarly impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) and AS160(-/-) mice. However, in vivo glucose uptake abnormalities in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) skeletal muscles differ from those observed previously in AS160(-/-) mice, indicating additional defects due to Tbc1d1 deletion. Similar to AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice, AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show sex-specific abnormalities in glucose and energy homeostasis. In conclusion, our study supports nonredundant functions for AS160 and Tbc1d1. PMID:26625902

  13. Rab GAPs AS160 and Tbc1d1 play nonredundant roles in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Keller, Susanna R

    2016-02-15

    The related Rab GTPase-activating proteins (Rab GAPs) AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 that controls glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells and glucose homeostasis. AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice exhibit different adipocyte- and skeletal muscle-specific defects in glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression and trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. A recent study analyzed male mice with simultaneous deletion of AS160 and Tbc1d1 (AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice). Herein, we describe abnormalities in male and female AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice on another strain background. We confirm the earlier observation that GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake defects of single-knockout mice join in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice to affect all skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. In large mixed fiber-type skeletal muscles, changes in relative basal GLUT4 plasma membrane association in AS160(-/-) and Tbc1d1(-/-) mice also combine in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. However, we found different glucose uptake abnormalities in isolated skeletal muscles and adipocytes than reported previously, resulting in different interpretations of how AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. In support of a larger role for AS160 in glucose homeostasis, in contrast with the previous study, we find similarly impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) and AS160(-/-) mice. However, in vivo glucose uptake abnormalities in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) skeletal muscles differ from those observed previously in AS160(-/-) mice, indicating additional defects due to Tbc1d1 deletion. Similar to AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice, AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show sex-specific abnormalities in glucose and energy homeostasis. In conclusion, our study supports nonredundant functions for AS160 and Tbc1d1.

  14. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Qinna, Nidal A; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL), noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were altered when different initial blood glucose levels of STZ diabetic rats were selected for testing. Such findings emphasize the importance of selecting predefined and unified glucose levels when using STZ as a diabetogenic agent in experimental protocols evaluating new antidiabetic agents

  15. A thiamin derivative inhibits oxidation of exogenous glucose at rest, but not during exercise.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsumae, Haruka; Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Hatta, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B(1)) is known to activate carbohydrate metabolism in part through activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), a thiamin derivative, on utilization of exogenous glucose by measuring oxidation of (13)C-glucose at rest and during prolonged exercise in mice under normal dietary conditions. Mice orally ingested TTFD (0.1 mg/g BW [body weight]) and (13)C-glucose (0.8 mg/g BW) or (13)C-lactate (0.1 mg/g BW) plus glucose (0.8 mg/g BW) at rest or before endurance running. The average percent of (13)C atoms in total (12)C+(13)C ((13)C atom%) in expired air after ingestion of (13)C-glucose at rest was significantly lower in the TTFD group than in the control group. No significant difference was found in (13)C atom% in expired air after ingestion of (13)C-glucose and prolonged exercise. In addition, no significant effect of TTFD was found in expired (13)C atom% after ingestion of (13)C-lactate plus glucose at rest. TTFD also had no effect on concentrations of muscle or liver glycogen at rest. These results suggest that TTFD, which is a thiamin derivative, decreases oxidation of exogenous glucose at rest, but not during exercise. PMID:20354340

  16. Association of fasting glucose with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in older adults without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sims, R. C.; Katzel, L. I.; Lefkowitz, D. M.; Siegel, E.L.; Rosenberger, W.F.; Manukyan, Z.; Whitfield, K.E.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine how fasting glucose and glucose tolerance are related to magnetic resonance imaging-assessed indicators of subclinical cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy and their variation according to age, sex and education. Methods Participants in the present study were 172 healthy, community-dwelling older adults. An oral glucose tolerance test was administered and magnetic resonance imaging performed. Fasting, 2-h, and 2-h area-under-the-curve glucose levels, their associations with subclinical cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy, and their respective interactions with age, sex and education were examined. Results A positive association between fasting glucose and subclinical cerebrovascular disease (but not brain atrophy) emerged; this association was more pronounced for participants with < 12 years of education; however, glucose tolerance was not related to subclinical cerebrovascular disease or brain atrophy. Conclusions Findings revealed a potential link between fasting glucose levels and the presence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease indicators — white matter hyperintensities and silent brain infarction — in older adults without diabetes and with an education level below high school. Additional research is needed to confirm these associations and to determine the need for interventions aimed at closely monitoring and preventing elevated glucose levels in this population to reduce the prevalence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease. PMID:24344757

  17. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

    2013-07-01

    We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings.

  18. Comparison of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition with Glucose or Amino Acid Mixtures in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; Qin, Dan-Ping; Tan, Rong-Shao; Zhong, Xiao-Shi; Zhou, Dao-Yuan; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Xuan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term maintenance hemodialysis patients have symptoms of protein-energy wasting caused by malnutrition. Each session of hemodialysis removes about 10 to 12 g of amino acids and 200 to 480 kcal of energy. Patients receiving hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease may be undernourished for energy, protein consumption, or both. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were randomized to three treatment groups: oral supplementation, oral supplementation plus high-concentration glucose solution (250 mL containing 50% glucose) and these two interventions plus 8.5% amino acids solution. The post-treatment energy status of the glucose group was significantly higher than its baseline level, whereas the control group's status was significantly lower. The glucose group had significantly higher concentrations of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and lysine after treatment. All treatment groups had significantly increased hemoglobin levels but significantly decreased transferrin levels after treatment compared to baseline. After treatment, the amino acid group had significantly higher albumin level compared to the glucose group (p = 0.001) and significantly higher prealbumin level compared to the control group (p = 0.017). In conclusion, long-term intervention with high-concentration glucose solution at each hemodialysis session is a simple and cheap method that replenished energy stores lost during hemodialysis of non-diabetic patients. PMID:27271658

  19. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (P<0.05) negative and non-linear correlation with fasting glucose levels in berberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  20. Comparison of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition with Glucose or Amino Acid Mixtures in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; Qin, Dan-Ping; Tan, Rong-Shao; Zhong, Xiao-Shi; Zhou, Dao-Yuan; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Xuan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term maintenance hemodialysis patients have symptoms of protein-energy wasting caused by malnutrition. Each session of hemodialysis removes about 10 to 12 g of amino acids and 200 to 480 kcal of energy. Patients receiving hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease may be undernourished for energy, protein consumption, or both. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were randomized to three treatment groups: oral supplementation, oral supplementation plus high-concentration glucose solution (250 mL containing 50% glucose) and these two interventions plus 8.5% amino acids solution. The post-treatment energy status of the glucose group was significantly higher than its baseline level, whereas the control group’s status was significantly lower. The glucose group had significantly higher concentrations of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and lysine after treatment. All treatment groups had significantly increased hemoglobin levels but significantly decreased transferrin levels after treatment compared to baseline. After treatment, the amino acid group had significantly higher albumin level compared to the glucose group (p = 0.001) and significantly higher prealbumin level compared to the control group (p = 0.017). In conclusion, long-term intervention with high-concentration glucose solution at each hemodialysis session is a simple and cheap method that replenished energy stores lost during hemodialysis of non-diabetic patients. PMID:27271658

  1. Altered glucose tolerance in women with deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Westling, Sofie; Ahrén, Bo; Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Träskman-Bendz, Lil

    2009-07-01

    Disturbances in glucose metabolism are of importance for violent behaviour in men, but studies in women are lacking. We used the 5h-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in this study of 17 female psychiatric patients, selected for violent behaviour directed against themselves (deliberate self-harm) and 17 healthy controls matched for age and BMI. Following OGTT, patients had higher glucose levels at 30 min (p=0.007) and increased glucagon area under the curve (p=0.011). Since a co-morbid eating disorder might affect results, we as a post-hoc analysis subgrouped the patients and found that the increased glucagon levels only were present in patients with an eating disorder. In contrast, those without an eating disorder showed a significantly lower p-glucose nadir (p=0.015) and unaltered glucagon levels compared to controls. There were no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide levels between patients and controls. We conclude that deliberate self-harm in women may be associated with alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in certain groups. Eating disorder is a confounding factor.

  2. Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted. PMID:25427911

  3. Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted.

  4. [HbA1c is not enough in screening for impaired glucose metabolism. Glucose tolerance tests are also needed, as shown in Swedish prospective epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Margareta; Daka, Bledar; Larsson, Charlotte

    2015-09-29

    An HbA1c threshold of ≥ 42 mmol/mol has been proposed to diagnose prediabetes. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the proposed threshold for detection of individuals with prediabetes was examined in a study of 573 randomly selected individuals from Vara and Skövde. In addition, the utility of the FINDRISC questionnaire and of a fasting glucose test in combination with three short questions concerning BMI, heredity for type 2 diabetes and known hypertension was examined. Results from an oral glucose tolerance test were used as reference. The sensitivity of HbA1c and FINDRISC to detect individuals with IGT was 16 and 26 per cent respectively. Questions regarding BMI, heredity and hypertension together with a fasting glucose test yielded a sensitivity of 50%, but a lower specificity and positive predictive value. We conclude that HbA1c inefficiently detected individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and that oral glucose tolerance tests can still preferably be recommended.

  5. [Contribution of the kidney to glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three major mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption, and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most important physiological functions of the kidney, allowing full recovery of filtered glucose, elimination of glucose from the urine, and prevention of calorie loss. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycemia, the kidney continues to reabsorb glucose, thus maintaining hyperglycemia. Most of the renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by SGLT2. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24444521

  6. [Contribution of the kidney to glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three major mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption, and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most important physiological functions of the kidney, allowing full recovery of filtered glucose, elimination of glucose from the urine, and prevention of calorie loss. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycemia, the kidney continues to reabsorb glucose, thus maintaining hyperglycemia. Most of the renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by SGLT2. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in exercise-trained versus untrained men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Yoshida, Shou; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2015-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia increases arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness and insulin resistance are lower in exercise-trained humans than in untrained humans. However, the effect of exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young adults remains unknown. The present study investigates the effect of regular aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young males. Ten exercise-trained males (age, 20.8 ± 0.2 years; ETR) and 9 healthy untrained males (age, 22.2 ± 0.7 years; UTR) participated in this study. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle blood pressure (BP), heart rate (oscillometric device and electrocardiography), and blood glucose (glucose oxidase method) were measured at 30 min before (baseline) and 30, 60, and 120 min after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Leg PWV at 30 min after glucose ingestion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the UTR group than in the ETR group. Ankle systolic BP at 30 min after glucose ingestion was also significantly higher in the UTR group than in the ETR group (P < 0.05). Blood glucose increased from baseline at 30 min (P < 0.01) and 60 min (P < 0.05) after glucose ingestion in both groups. Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, and brachial systolic BP did not change from baseline after glucose ingestion in both groups. The present findings indicate that leg PWV and ankle systolic BP after glucose ingestion were significantly lower in the ETR group than in the UTR group. PMID:26444929

  9. Featured Article: Inhibition of diabetic cataract by glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast.

    PubMed

    Mirsky, Nitsa; Cohen, Revital; Eliaz, Anat; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes leads to many complications; among them is the development of cataract. Hyperglycemia brings to increased polyol concentration in the lens, to glycation of lens proteins, and to elevated level of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) causing oxidative stress. The glucose tolerance factor (GTF) was found by several groups to decrease hyperglycemia and oxidative stress both in diabetic animals and humans. The aim of our study was to explore the damages induced by high glucose to the eye lens and to assess the protective effects of GTF both in vivo and in vitro The in vivo study included control healthy rats, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic untreated rats, and STZ diabetic rats orally treated with 15 doses of GTF. The diabetic untreated rats developed cataracts, whereas the development of cataract was totally or partially prevented in GTF treated animals. In vitro studies were done on bovine lenses incubated for 14 days. Half of the lenses were incubated in normal glucose conditions, and half in high glucose conditions (450 mg%). To one group of the normal or high glucose condition GTF was added. The optical quality of all the lenses was measured daily by an automated scanning laser system. The control lenses, whether with or without GTF addition, did not show any reduction in their quality. High glucose conditions induced optical damage to the lenses. Addition of GTF to high glucose conditions prevented this damage. High glucose conditions affected the activity of aldose reductase and sodium potassium ATPase in lens epithelial cell. Addition of GTF decreased the destructive changes induced by high glucose conditions. The amount of soluble cortical lens proteins was decreased and structural changes were detected in lenses incubated in high glucose medium. These changes could be prevented when GTF was added to high glucose medium. Our findings demonstrate the anticataractogenic potential of GTF. PMID:26825353

  10. Featured Article: Inhibition of diabetic cataract by glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Revital; Eliaz, Anat; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes leads to many complications; among them is the development of cataract. Hyperglycemia brings to increased polyol concentration in the lens, to glycation of lens proteins, and to elevated level of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) causing oxidative stress. The glucose tolerance factor (GTF) was found by several groups to decrease hyperglycemia and oxidative stress both in diabetic animals and humans. The aim of our study was to explore the damages induced by high glucose to the eye lens and to assess the protective effects of GTF both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study included control healthy rats, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic untreated rats, and STZ diabetic rats orally treated with 15 doses of GTF. The diabetic untreated rats developed cataracts, whereas the development of cataract was totally or partially prevented in GTF treated animals. In vitro studies were done on bovine lenses incubated for 14 days. Half of the lenses were incubated in normal glucose conditions, and half in high glucose conditions (450 mg%). To one group of the normal or high glucose condition GTF was added. The optical quality of all the lenses was measured daily by an automated scanning laser system. The control lenses, whether with or without GTF addition, did not show any reduction in their quality. High glucose conditions induced optical damage to the lenses. Addition of GTF to high glucose conditions prevented this damage. High glucose conditions affected the activity of aldose reductase and sodium potassium ATPase in lens epithelial cell. Addition of GTF decreased the destructive changes induced by high glucose conditions. The amount of soluble cortical lens proteins was decreased and structural changes were detected in lenses incubated in high glucose medium. These changes could be prevented when GTF was added to high glucose medium. Our findings demonstrate the anticataractogenic potential of GTF. PMID:26825353

  11. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  12. Arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in exercise-trained versus untrained men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Yoshida, Shou; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2015-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia increases arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness and insulin resistance are lower in exercise-trained humans than in untrained humans. However, the effect of exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young adults remains unknown. The present study investigates the effect of regular aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young males. Ten exercise-trained males (age, 20.8 ± 0.2 years; ETR) and 9 healthy untrained males (age, 22.2 ± 0.7 years; UTR) participated in this study. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle blood pressure (BP), heart rate (oscillometric device and electrocardiography), and blood glucose (glucose oxidase method) were measured at 30 min before (baseline) and 30, 60, and 120 min after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Leg PWV at 30 min after glucose ingestion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the UTR group than in the ETR group. Ankle systolic BP at 30 min after glucose ingestion was also significantly higher in the UTR group than in the ETR group (P < 0.05). Blood glucose increased from baseline at 30 min (P < 0.01) and 60 min (P < 0.05) after glucose ingestion in both groups. Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, and brachial systolic BP did not change from baseline after glucose ingestion in both groups. The present findings indicate that leg PWV and ankle systolic BP after glucose ingestion were significantly lower in the ETR group than in the UTR group.

  13. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  14. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10–0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04–0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05–0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09–0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  15. Advances in Oral Coagulants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews current and future treatment practices concerning oral anticoagulants. In the second decade of the 21st millennium clinicians can finally treat thrombotic disease with long-awaited new oral anticoagulant medications. In addition, improvements have been made in managing warfarin, the traditional but far from obsolete medication. The first part of this review will cover current advances with warfarin treatment. The second portion will discuss specific active coagulation factor inhibitors, the new oral anticoagulants.

  16. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  17. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The effect of oral physiotherapy on dilantin gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Hawes, R R; Bibby, B G

    1976-01-01

    Gingival hyperplasia was studied in 13 boys with epilepsy living in a state hospital. Boys were selected on the basis of having gingival hyperplasia, having all teeth between cuspids (upper and lower), having no occlusal abnormality and being cooperative. After gingivectomy, regrowth of gingiva was compared around lateral incisors on one side of the mouth having operator-assisted oral hygiene with that around lateral incisors on the other side of the mouth without operator-assisted oral hygiene. Regrowth of tissue was documented by precise photogrammetry. Oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and crevicular fluid were monitored. Less inflammation, less crevicular fluid and less regrowth of gingival tissues occurred around teeth subjected to good oral hygiene. Precise periodic photographic documentation of the clinical status of patients during studies such as this is considered very valuable.

  19. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  20. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  1. Control of development of the oral apparatus of Paramecium during sexual reproduction: an embryological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, S F; Fujishima, M

    1989-08-01

    This study shows that development of the new soma during sexual reproduction in ciliates can be conceptualized on the same basis as embryogenesis in multicellular organisms. In conjugating Paramecium, development of a new oral apparatus takes place during fertilization and the first three divisions of the zygotic nucleus and completes well before the postsexual cell undergoes the first cell fission. The control of oral development is analyzed by microsurgical removal of the zygotic nucleus or the postzygotic nuclei from conjugants. The enucleated exconjugants can pass through an early hurdle in oral development (the initiation of oral membranelle assembly) and subsequently develop an oral apparatus. Such oral apparatuses nevertheless exhibit structural and functional abnormalities including fragmentation and misalignment of oral membranelles, absence of the postoral microtubular bundle, reduction in the length of buccal cavity, and impaired phagocytosis. Other stomatogenic aspects, such as the arrangement of basal bodies in the oral membranelles, remain unaffected. The two groups of exconjugants, one derived from cells enucleated at the zygotic stage, and the other at the postzygotic stage, exhibit the same types of oral abnormality. We conclude that (i) the zygotic nucleus is not essential for the initiation of oral membranelle assembly. The existence of zygotic signals for subsequent oral development is not ruled out, but these are insufficient. (ii) Postzygotic nuclei, as well as maternal nuclei (the old somatic nucleus and meiotic derivatives of the germ nucleus), control oral development. This reveals a parallelism between postsexual development in ciliates and the early embryology of multicellular organisms, in their reliance on information provided by maternal, as well as early postzygotic nuclei. (iii) The activity of the old somatic nucleus alone is not sufficient for the later stages of oral development. Probably, some stomatogenic functions of the old

  2. Portal Vein Glucose Sensors Do Not Play a Major Role in Modulating Physiological Responses to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paolo; Porcellati, Francesca; Lucidi, Paola; Busciantella Ricci, Natalia; Candeloro, Paola; Cioli, Patrizia; Santeusanio, Fausto; Bolli, Geremia B.; Fanelli, Carmine G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Experimental data from animal studies indicate that portal vein glucose sensors play a key role in the responses to slow-fall hypoglycemia. However, their role in modulating these responses in humans is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to examine in humans the potential role of portal vein glucose sensors in physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia mimicking the slow fall of insulin-treated diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Ten nondiabetic subjects were studied on two different occasions during intravenous insulin (2 mU · kg−1 · min−1) plus variable glucose for 160 minutes. In both studies, after 60 min of normal plasma glucose concentrations, hypoglycemia (47 mg/dl) was induced slowly (60 min) and maintained for 60 min. Hypoglycemia was preceded by the ingestion of either oral placebo or glucose (28 g) given at 30 min. RESULTS—Plasma glucose and insulin were not different with either placebo or glucose (P > 0.2). Similarly, counterregulatory hormones, substrates, and symptoms were not different with either placebo or glucose. The Stroop color and colored words subtest of the Stroop test deteriorated less (P < 0.05) with glucose than placebo. CONCLUSIONS—In contrast to animals, in humans, prevention of portal hypoglycemia with oral glucose from the beginning of insulin-induced slow-fall hypoglycemia has no effect on sympathoadrenal and symptomatic responses to hypoglycemia. PMID:18852332

  3. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  5. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  6. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  8. The lack of long-range negative correlations in glucose dynamics is associated with worse glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hitomi; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Tsuchita, Takeshi; Kusaka, Ikuyo; Ishibashi, Shun; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Hamano, Kumiko; Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-07-01

    Glucose dynamics measured in ambulatory settings are fluid in nature and exhibit substantial complexity. We recently showed that a long-range negative correlation of glucose dynamics, which is considered to reflect blood glucose controllability over a substantial period, is absent in patients with diabetes mellitus. This was demonstrated using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), a modified random-walk analysis method for the detection of long-range correlations. In the present study, we further assessed the relationships between the established clinical indices of glycemic or insulinogenic control of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and urine C-peptide immunoreactivity and the recently proposed DFA-based indices obtained from continuous glucose monitoring in 104 Japanese diabetic patients. Significant correlations between the following parameters were observed: (1) HbA(1c) and the long-range scaling exponent α(2) (r = 0.236, P < .05), (2) GA and α(2) (r = 0.254, P < .05), (3) GA and the short-range scaling exponent α(1) (r = 0.233, P < .05), and (4) urine C-peptide immunoreactivity and the mean glucose fluctuations (r = -0.294, P < .01). Therefore, we concluded that increases in the long-range DFA scaling exponent, which are indicative of the lack of a long-range negative correlation in glucose dynamics, reflected abnormalities in average glycemic control as clinically determined using HbA(1c) and GA parameters.

  9. Studies on the safety of glucose and paraben-containing neostigmine for intrathecal administration.

    PubMed

    Gurun, M S; Leinbach, R; Moore, L; Lee, C S; Owen, M D; Eisenach, J C

    1997-08-01

    Initial toxicity testing of neostigmine for intrathecal (IT) injection was performed with preservative-free isobaric solution, yet currently available formulations contain the preservatives methyl- and propylparaben and are usually mixed with glucose to yield hyperbaric solutions. Since it has been proposed that preservatives and hyperbaricity increase the risk of neurotoxicity after IT injection, we examined the safety of chronically administered IT neostigmine containing these additives in sheep and rats. Rats receiving daily IT injections of glucose alone or of glucose with preservative-containing neostigmine, 5 and 10 microg, exhibited dose-related antinociception, tremor, and rigidity. In comparison to our previously published study of neostigmine injection in solution without glucose, rats receiving IT neostigmine with glucose displayed less rigidity, tremor, and salivation. Sheep receiving daily injection of glucose alone or with preservative-containing neostigmine, 1 mg, for 14 days exhibited no histologic evidence of neurotoxicity, nor did they exhibit abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid chemistry aside from those caused by inflammation. Spinal cord histologic examination in both species revealed fibrosis and inflammation secondary to the catheter without evidence of neuronal damage. These studies support the safety of paraben- and glucose-containing IT neostigmine.

  10. Sex-specific effects of prenatal stress on glucose homoeostasis and peripheral metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paula J; Sullivan, Katie M; Kerrigan, David; Russell, John A; Seckl, Jonathan R; Drake, Amanda J

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoid overexposure during pregnancy programmes offspring physiology and predisposes to later disease. However, any impact of ethologically relevant maternal stress is less clear, yet of physiological importance. Here, we investigated in rats the short- and long-term effects in adult offspring of repeated social stress (exposure to an aggressive lactating female) during late pregnancy on glucose regulation following stress, glucose-insulin homoeostasis and peripheral expression of genes important in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and glucocorticoid action. Prenatal stress (PNS) was associated with reduced birth weight in female, but not male, offspring. The increase in blood glucose with restraint was exaggerated in adult PNS males compared with controls, but not in females. Oral glucose tolerance testing showed no effects on plasma glucose or insulin concentrations in either sex at 3 months; however, at 6 months, PNS females were hyperinsulinaemic following an oral glucose load. In PNS males, plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased, with reduced hepatic mRNA expression of 5α-reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα (Ppara)) and a strong trend towards reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (Pgc1α (Ppargc1a)) and Pparγ (Pparg) expression, whereas only Pgc1α mRNA was affected in PNS females. Conversely, in subcutaneous fat, PNS reduced mRNA expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βhsd1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck (Pck1)), adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2) in females, but only Pepck mRNA expression was reduced in PNS males. Thus, prenatal social stress differentially programmes glucose homoeostasis and peripheral metabolism in male and female offspring. These long-term alterations in physiology may increase susceptibility to metabolic disease.

  11. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Improvement in Glucose Disposal and Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Jiang, Boyi; Breton, Marc; Patrie, James; Barrett, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults. Methods: Subjects (n = 18; age 49 ± 14 y; fasting glucose 105 ± 11 mg/dL; 2 h glucose 170 ± 32 mg/dL) completed a peak O2 consumption/lactate threshold (LT) protocol plus three randomly assigned conditions: 1) control, 1 hour of seated rest, 2) MIE (at LT), and 3) HIE (75% of difference between LT and peak O2 consumption). One hour after exercise, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were sampled at 5- to 10-minute intervals at baseline, during exercise, after exercise, and for 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Total, early-phase, and late-phase area under the glucose and insulin response curves were compared between conditions. Indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) were derived from OGTT data using the oral minimal model. Results: Compared with control, SI improved by 51% (P = .02) and 85% (P < .001) on the MIE and HIE days, respectively. No differences in SI were observed between the exercise conditions (P = .62). Improvements in SI corresponded to significant reductions in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide area under the curve values during the late phase of the OGTT after HIE (P < .05), with only a trend for reductions after MIE. Conclusion: These results suggest that in prediabetic adults, acute exercise has an immediate and intensity-dependent effect on improving postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24243632

  12. The Effect of Gastrin on Basal- and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Jens F.; Stadil, Flemming

    1973-01-01

    The effect of gastrin on basal- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was studied in 32 normal, young subjects. The concentration of gastrin and insulin in serum was measured radioimmunochemically. Maximal physiologic limit for the concentration of gastrin in serum was of the order of 160 pmol per liter as observed during a protein-rich meal. Oral ingestion of 50 g glucose produced a small gastrin response from 28±3 to 39±5 pmol per liter (mean ±SEM, P < 0.01). Intravenous injection or prolonged infusion of gastrin increased the concentration of insulin in peripheral venous blood to a maximum within 2 min followed by a decline to basal levels after a further 10 min. The minimum dose required to induce a significant insulin response (31.2 ng gastrin per kg) increased the gastrin level in serum above the physiologic range. Maximum effect was obtained with 500 ng gastrin per kg. When 15.6 ng (7.1 pmol) gastrin per kg body weight and 25 g glucose were injected simultaneously, the glucose-induced insulin response was potentiated (from 2.32±0.33 to 4.33±0.98 nmol per liter per 20 min, P < 0.02), even though gastrin concentrations only increased to 71.2±6.6 pmol per liter. No effect, however, was noted on glucose disposal. 15.6 ng gastrin per kg given i.v. 30 min before an i.v. glucose tolerance test was without significant effect on the insulin response. The results indicate that gastrin can stimulate a rapid and short-lived release of insulin. In physiologic concentrations gastrin potentiates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is without effect on basal insulin secretion. A small release of gastrin during oral glucose ingestion may to a limited extent contribute to the nonglycemic insulin secretion. During protein ingestion, gastrin probably stimulates insulin secretion significantly. Images PMID:4703228

  13. Impaired Glucose Regulation is Associated with Poorer Performance on the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Gluck, Marci E.; Ziker, Cindy; Schwegler, Matthew; Thearle, Marie; Votruba, Susanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for development of cognitive dysfunction. Impairments in glucose regulation have been associated with poorer performance on tests of executive function and information processing speed. Methods We administered the Stroop Color Word Task, where higher interference scores are indicative of decreased selective attention, to 98 non-diabetic volunteers (64m; %fat=37±12; age=36±9 y, race=41 NA/30 C/13 H/14 AA) on our inpatient unit. After 3d on a weight maintaining diet, % body fat was measured by DXA and a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered. Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was defined as: fasting plasma glucose ≥100 and ≤125 mg/dL and/or 2h plasma glucose between ≥140 and ≤199 mg/dL (IGR; n = 48; NGR; n = 50). Total and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for insulin and glucose were calculated. Results Stroop interference scores were not significantly associated with any measure of adiposity or insulin concentrations. Individuals with IGR had significantly higher interference scores than those with normal glucose regulation (NGR; p=0.003). Higher interference scores were significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (r=0.26, p = 0.007) and total glucose AUC (r=0.30, p = 0.02) and only trending so for iAUC and 2h plasma glucose (r=0.18, p=0.08; r=0.17, p=0.09 respectively). In separate multivariate linear models, fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.002) and total glucose AUC (p = 0.0005) remained significant predictors of Stroop interference scores, even after adjustment for age, sex, race, education and %fat. Conclusions Individuals with IGR had decreased performance on a test of selective attention. Fasting plasma glucose was more strongly associated with lower performance scores than 2h plasma glucose. Our results indicate that even mild hyperglycemia in the non-diabetic range is associated with attentional processing difficulties in a sample of younger adults. Whether

  14. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  15. Polyamines alter intestinal glucose transport.