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Sample records for abnormal pap smear

  1. Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rask, Marie; Swahnberg, Katarina; Lindell, Gunnel; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To describe women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear result. Ten women were recruited from a women's health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis. The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused. In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women's situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  3. Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Non-Human Papillomavirus Pap Smear Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Menhaji, Kimia; Harvie, Heidi S; Cheston, Emily; Levin, Pamela J; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and non-human papillomavirus (HPV) Papanicolaou (Pap) smear abnormalities. This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 40 to 70 years who presented for consultation at our institution between 2010 and 2015 and had results of a Pap smear and HPV test available within 5 years of their visit. We extracted demographic information, medical and social history, Pap smear, and HPV results from the electronic medical record. Associations between the presence of POP and non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities were estimated using univariable and multivariable analyses. We reviewed 1590 charts and excluded 980 women, leaving 610 women in the study: 183 with POP and 427 without POP. Women with POP were significantly older (58.2 ± 7.2 vs 55.6 ± 6.6, P < 0.01) and more likely to have a remote (>10 year) history of abnormal Pap smear (24.0% vs 14.8%, P < 0.01). The rate of non-HPV-associated abnormal Pap smears was higher in the POP group than in the non-POP group (12/183 [6.6%] vs 12/427 [2.8%], P = 0.029). In the POP group, the rate of non-HPV Pap smear abnormality was significantly associated with increasing prolapse stage (stage 1: 0/16 [0%], stage 2: 5/77 [6.5%], stage 3: 3/73 [4.1%], stage 4: 4/17 [23.5%]; P = 0.02). After controlling for age and remote history of abnormal Pap smear, the odds ratio for non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities in the POP group remained significant (2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.79). Human papillomavirus-negative Pap smear abnormalities may be related to POP. Our findings have important implications for surgeons seeking to leave the cervix in situ in women with POP.

  4. Women with abnormal Pap smear result: a qualitative study of Swedish healthcare professionals' experiences.

    PubMed

    Rask, M; Oscarsson, M; Lindell, G; Swahnberg, K

    2016-11-01

    A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear can be used to detect pre-cancerous cellular changes, so that they can be treated before they develop into cervical cancer. When the results of a Pap smear test are abnormal, women need further investigation, treatment and follow-up. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are in a position to care for these women with abnormalities. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of HCPs in caring for women with abnormal Pap smear results. In total, 20 HCPs from two counties in south-eastern Sweden participated in individual interviews, based on two open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The results showed that HCPs experienced that abnormal Pap smear results created anxiety in women, who often sought information from the Internet as a way to cope. Furthermore, the HCPs thought that it was a problem that women chose not to attend investigation, treatment and follow-ups. However, information about the seriousness of abnormal Pap smear results causes women to participate. It is a challenge for HCPs to inform in a reassuring manner. Finally, HCPs should collaborate with women to meet their information needs and to also provide support regarding finding and filtering reliable information on the Internet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Do health care providers have a lower prevalence of abnormal pap smears than the general public?

    PubMed

    Suwannarurk, Komsun; Bhamarapravatana, Konkarn; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Thaweekul, Yuttadej; Mairaing, Karicha; Poomtavorn, Yenrudee; Pattaraarchachai, Junya

    2010-12-01

    Most Thai people believe that health care providers have a lower risk of any disease than their patients. This belief may lull Thai health care providers into accepting the false belief that they are at a lower risk of having the precancerous conditions that lead to cervical cancer. This study compares the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears from health care providers (HC) and non health care providers (NHC) by using the standard liquid-based Pap smear processing at Thammasat University Hospital's pathology department, Thailand. Both health care providers (HC) and non health care providers (NHC) were patients at the outpatient clinic, Thammasat University Hospital. They were screened for cervical cancer by using liquid-based Pap smear (LBP). Cytological diagnoses and specimen adequacy were classified using the Bethesda system 2001. All subjects who had abnormal cytology more than atypical squamous cells or atypical glandular cells were counseled to have performed a colposcopic directed biopsy for confirmation of pathology. A total of 250 liquid-base Pap smears were processed and evaluated at the Gynecology clinic, Thammasat University Hospital from April 2008 to May 2008. The groups of HC and NHC consisted of 122 and 128 women, respectively. In general, both the HC and NHC groups were similar in their age, religion, income and education level distributions. The range of ages was between 16 and 75 years, with the mean age equal to 40.2 +/- 10.5 years. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 9.8% in HC and 9.4% in NHC (p-value = 0.90). HC showed atypical change (ASC, AGC), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) at 0.8%, 1.6% and 7.4%, respectively. NHC had an incidence of atypical change, LSIL and HSIL at 0.8%, 0.8% and 7.8%. HC had an equal incidence of abnormal Pap smears prevalence to NHC. Further, the percentage of HC and NHC groups with histological confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1

  6. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection.

  7. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  8. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in a consecutive and previously unscreened population in Romania.

    PubMed

    Stolnicu, Simona; Musca, Simona; Micu, Dorian; Micu, Luminita; Moldovan, Cosmin; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical smears in a previously unscreened and asymptomatic population in Romania and to compare the data with those from other countries in Europe. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from smears obtained from women in Romania who had been referred to the gynecologist between January 2006 and December 2011. The smears were collected through 3 regional opportunistic programs of cervical screening and were classified according to the Bethesda system. During the study period, 50536 smear tests were carried out. Of these, 100 smears (0.2%) were unsatisfactory and excluded from the study. Among the remaining 50436 smears, 2965 patients (5.9%) had abnormal epithelial changes. Most of the abnormal smears were represented by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (2.6% of all smears). The data confirmed that there is a high prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial squamous-type lesions (0.9% of all smears) in Romania, and of abnormal smears in women younger than 25years of age (14.0% of all abnormal smears). The data show that there is a high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities among cervical smears in Romania compared with other European countries that run a national screening program. © 2013.

  9. Pap smear in incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, in 2012, 6.4% of the prison population was made up of women. The aim of the study was to verify the coverage of the Pap smear according to sociodemographic characteristics and health problems reported among incarcerated women. Cross-sectional study conducted from August 2012 to July 2013, considering the records of 702 inmates aged between 25 and 64 years and the duration of imprisonment (not less than 12 months). The average age of the women surveyed was 34.7 years. The performance of cervical cytology was reported by 26.3% of inmates. There were no difference in prevalence according to selected variables. The containment condition enables the implementation of preventive measures such as offering and realization of Pap smear for most inmates. The observed results are worrying and differ significantly from those presented in the national diagnosis on the health of incarcerated women.

  10. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  11. Time to clinical investigation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Queensland women after a high grade abnormal Pap smear, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter D; Brotherton, Julia Ml; Canfell, Karen; Cunningham, Joan; Gertig, Dorota; Lokuge, Kamalini; Garvey, Gail; Moore, Suzanne P; Diaz, Abbey; O'Connell, Dianne L; Valery, Patricia; Roder, David M; Condon, John R

    2017-02-06

    To investigate time to follow-up (clinical investigation) for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women in Queensland after a high grade abnormality (HGA) being detected by Pap smear. Population-based retrospective cohort analysis of linked data from the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, and the Queensland Cancer Registry. 34 980 women aged 20-68 years (including 1592 Indigenous women) with their first HGA Pap smear result recorded on the PSR (index smear) during 2000-2009 were included and followed to the end of 2010. Time from the index smear to clinical investigation (histology test or cancer diagnosis date), censored at 12 months. The proportion of women who had a clinical investigation within 2 months of a HGA finding was lower for Indigenous (34.1%; 95% CI, 31.8-36.4%) than for non-Indigenous women (46.5%; 95% CI, 46.0-47.0%; unadjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.60-0.71). This difference remained after adjusting for place of residence, area-level disadvantage, and age group (adjusted IRR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.81). However, Indigenous women who had not been followed up within 2 months were subsequently more likely to have a clinical investigation than non-Indigenous women (adjusted IRR for 2-4 month interval, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36); by 6 months, a similar proportion of Indigenous (62.2%; 95% CI, 59.8-64.6%) and non-Indigenous women (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.2-63.3%) had been followed up. Prompt follow-up after a HGA Pap smear finding needs to improve for Indigenous women. Nevertheless, slow follow-up is a smaller contributor to their higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality than their lower participation in cervical screening.

  12. A Study of Pap Smear in HIV-Positive Females.

    PubMed

    Madan, Apeksha; Patil, Sunita; Nakate, Leena

    2016-12-01

    HIV-positive females are more likely to have abnormal Pap smears than HIV-negative women. These abnormal Pap smears are usually associated with low CD4 cell counts and human papilloma virus infection. This was a prospective hospital-based study from April 2013 till March 2014. A total of 250 (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) HIV-positive females were examined in Gynaecology OPD at R.C.S.M. G.M.C and C.P.R. Hospital, Kolhapur, and their cervical smears were taken. They were categorized as per modified Bethesda system 2001. The findings in HIV-positive women were correlated with risk factors (age, disease duration, CD4 count and ART use). To study the spectrum of cytological abnormalities on Pap smear in HIV-positive females and classify precancerous and cancerous lesions in HIV-positive females according to Bethesda system 2001 and to be familiar with terminology and morphological criteria of Bethesda system 2001. To study the association of Pap smears abnormalities among HIV-positive women with their immune status (CD4 count). NILM is the commonest finding (83.2 %) which is subdivided into non-inflammatory, non-specific and specific inflammatory and atrophic smears. Candida vaginitis was the commonest cause of specific inflammatory condition accounted for (2.52 %) of all inflammatory smears. The percentage of squamous cell abnormalities was 12 %: ASCUS + ASC-H-6.22 %, LSIL-2.10 %, HSIL-3.4 % and SCC-0.8 %. The highest incidence of intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive females was in the age group 31-40 years. There is no association of Pap smear abnormalities among HIV-positive women with their immune status (CD4 count) and duration of ART. Periodic, regular gynaecologic and Pap smear examination would help in early detection of intraepithelial lesions and their treatment so as to prevent invasive malignancy and mortality.

  13. Cervical screening program and the psychological impact of an abnormal Pap smear: a self-assessment questionnaire study of 590 patients.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Einzmann, Thomas; Bergauer, Florian; Patzke, Jan; Schmidt-Petruschkat, Silke; Theune, Monika; Engel, Katja; Puppe, Julian; Richters, Lisa; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-02-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is today the fourth most common cancer of women in western civilization. Screening programs have led to a continuously decrease. Nevertheless, both screening and a positive test result are known to be associated with a negative psychological impact. Screening programs in European countries differ and thus psychological impact might as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of women with an abnormal Pap smear in a German cohort. Between July 2013 and May 2014, a self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to 595 patients that were referred to a special clinic for cervical dysplasia for further evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. Patients were recruited in five different centers. Most patients (45.9 %) were informed about the test result via phone call by their doctor. 68.8 % of the patients felt anxious and 26.3 % even felt panic. After having talked to their physician, 51.4 % of our cohort still felt worried and only 24.4 % felt reassured. Concerning disease management, 48.4 % underwent a control Pap smear in 6 months. The preferred information source was the physician (63.9 %). Compared to the results in other European countries, our study cohort showed differences concerning age distribution, patients living in a partnership, number of children and especially disease management. Cancer screening itself and abnormal test results have an impact on patient's feelings. To reduce the psychological impact, patients need to be better informed about the risks and benefits of cancer screening programs and in case of cervical cancer screening about the meaning of an abnormal test result. Our results underline the importance of a trustful physician-patient relationship in that matter.

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, Alex; Cornelissen, Tine; Leuridan, Elke; Bogers, Johannes; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Benoy, Ina; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre

    2016-06-07

    Although female sex workers (FSWs) are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group) between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.4). Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0-21.2). Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2-33.8). In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8(th) and 7(th) most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  15. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  16. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    PubMed Central

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined. Methods In an urban community randomized trial of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention in Peru, 6712 randomly selected women between the ages of 18 and 29 from 20 cities were interviewed regarding having had cervical Pap smears. Results Among women sampled, only 30.9% had had a Pap smear. By multivariate analysis, the main predictors of having a Pap smear were having had sex, having had children, completion of secondary education and increasing age. Regional variations were also found: women from the highlands and rainforest were less likely to have had Pap smears than women from the coast. Conclusion A norm of seeking and receiving Pap smears has not been established among sexually active young Peruvian women. To improve Pap smear coverage in Peru, promotion efforts should target underserved women and regions with less coverage. PMID:18653515

  17. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  18. The Effect of History of Abnormal Pap Smear or Preceding HPV infection on the Humoral Immune Response to Quadrivalent Human Papilloma virus (qHPV) Vaccine in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Dhar, J Patricia; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Dhar, Renee; Magee, Ardella; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2018-04-30

    To determine if natural human papillomavirus (HPV) infection would induce an anamnestic response to quadrivalent (qHPV) vaccine in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Thirty four women (19-50 years) with mild to moderate and minimally active or inactive SLE received standard qHPV vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers to HPV 6, 11, 16 and18 were evaluated pre- and post- vaccine using HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay. For each HPV type, logistic regressions were performed to explore the relationship between a positive titer at baseline with their final geometric mean titer and with the rise in titer. Fisher's Exact Test was used to assess the association of at least one positive HPV antibody test at baseline and history of abnormal pap. History of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia occurred in 52.9%. Baseline anti HPV antibody titers: 21% = negative for all 4 HPV types, 79% = positive for ≥1 of the HPV types. Statistical analysis showed: those with a history of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia were likely to have a positive anti-HPV antibody result pre-vaccine to ≥ 1 of the 4 types, p = 0.035 Fisher's Exact Test. In general, HPV exposed women showed higher post vaccine GMTs than HPV unexposed women with higher point estimates. However, when examining the rise in titers using logistic regression, there was no evidence of an anamnestic response. Prior HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in SLE are linked with no anamnestic response to HPV vaccine. This supports not checking HPV-antibodies pre-vaccine. Women with SLE should be vaccinated for HPV.

  19. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in <21 years age groups. From the questionnaires, the possible risk factors related to the higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in Akha women were early age at marriage (≤17 years), high frequency pregnacies and high parity and no/low education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  20. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  1. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  2. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears, genital tract infections, and contraception.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J W; Matteson, P S; Mersha, G

    1999-01-01

    Cervical cancer ranks second among all cancers in women world-wide, and the rate of invasive cervical cancer among women under 50 is rising in the United States. Risk factors for abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and invasive cervical cancer include genital tract infections. This study was designed to compare the rates of genital tract infections and the contraceptive choices of a random sample of 800 women, using an ex post facto design. The Pap positive women had a significantly higher rate of genital tract infections than did the Pap negative women but did not differ significantly in use of contraceptive methods. Findings support those of other researchers suggesting genital tract infections as risk factors for abnormal Pap smears and are consistent with the literature in suggesting a role for oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in acquisition of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Caregivers can help empower women to reduce their risks through informed choices about protection and sexual behaviors.

  3. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women’s health behaviors during women’s visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. PMID:21464205

  4. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-07-01

    Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay) spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032) and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2). Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ(2) = 1.5; P = 0.2). Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  5. Young Singaporean women's knowledge of cervical cancer and pap smear screening: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shea, Juanna; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Mackey, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    To assess the knowledge of young female Singaporeans regarding cervical cancer and pap smear, the intention to participate in pap smear and whether there is any relationship between knowledge and intention to participate in pap smear screening. While cervical cancer has poor prognosis in the later stages, pap smear is effective in identifying precancerous lesions, which are more treatable. Pap smear screening is available to women in Singapore, but its uptake is opportunistic. Research has shown that knowledge about pap smear and cervical cancer is important determinant of screening behaviour in Singaporean women. Cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. Three hundred and ninety-three young Singaporean undergraduates, aged 18-25 years, were recruited via convenience sampling from a local university over a four-month period. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the participants knew the term 'pap smear' and its function. However, knowledge of the risk factors for cervical cancer was lacking among the young women. Knowledge of pap smear and cervical cancer had a weak correlation with the intention to go for the future uptake of pap smear. Educational efforts among younger Singaporean women on the knowledge of pap smear and risk factors for cervical cancer are needed. Improving knowledge will enable them to understand the importance of reducing exposure to risk factors and regular pap smear screening. All health professionals working with young Asian women should be prepared to educate and counsel young women to participate in pap smear screening according to current guidelines. In particular, knowledge of the age to attend the first pap smear and the recommended frequency for screening need to be targeted for health education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Pap smear for mass screening: Results of an African experiment].

    PubMed

    Somé, O-R; Zongo, N; Ka, S; Wardini, R; Dem, A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of smear test in the fight against cervix uteri cancer in Senegal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 1836 Pap smears performed in patients over 15 years during several screening campaigns in Senegal conducted between June 2010 and June 2012. We analyzed epidemiological data, pathological smears, and the proposed management. In 69% of cases, the women were less than 45 years old. They were mostly multiparous and did not use contraceptive methods before. The smears were interpreted in 91.4% (n=1661) and were pathological in 5.2% of cases. They revealed mainly atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, squamous intraepithelial low-grade lesions, and squamous intraepithelial high-grade lesions, respectively in 2.5% (n=46), 1.7% (n=30) and 1% (n=19) of cases. Multiparity, early marriages were the main risk factors. Patients with pathological smars had colposcopy with cryotherapy (23 cases), and colposcopy and biopsy (13 cases). A hysterectomy was performed in 4 cases. The pathological smear rate found in this study confirms the interest to continue cervical cancer screening with this practice. Strengthening of its geographical and financial access through a national prevention program will effectively help to lower cases of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  8. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  9. Confusion about Pap smears: lack of knowledge among high-risk women.

    PubMed

    Daley, Ellen; Perrin, Kay; Vamos, Cheryl; Hernandez, Natalie; Anstey, Erica; Baker, Elizabeth; Kolar, Stephanie; Ebbert, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear on the prevention of cervical cancer is one of the greatest public health success stories. However, it is not clear if women understand the purpose of the Pap smear despite recent advancements and national attention over cervical cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine Pap smear knowledge among three high-risk populations at different points in time. Women from three separate human papillomavirus (HPV) psychosocial studies completed surveys assessing Pap smear knowledge: (1) HPV-positive women (prevaccine population in 2005-2006, n=154, mean age 23.5), (2) college women (postvaccine population in 2008, n=276, mean age 18.9), and (3) minority college women (postvaccine population in 2011, n=711, mean age 23.3). Frequencies and logistic regression were employed to examine associations between demographic factors and accurate knowledge of Pap smear testing within each study. Approximately one quarter of participants across all three samples did not know that the Pap smear is a test for cervical cancer. Participants also incorrectly believed that the Pap smear tests for HPV (82%-91%), vaginal infections (76%-92%), yeast infections (65%-86%), gonorrhea (55%-81%), herpes (53%-80%), HIV/AIDS (22%-59%), and pregnancy (17%-38%). Among all three studies, older age was the only factor significant with higher Pap knowledge. Higher HPV knowledge scores were significantly associated with higher Pap knowledge in studies 2 and 3 only. Knowledge about the purpose of the Pap smear remains low. Findings underscore the significant need for clear and consistent messages among high-risk women regarding the prevention of cervical cancer and other reproductive health conditions.

  10. Vaginal flora changes on Pap smears after insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Berger, Judith; Heuninckx, Hélène; Bellen, Gert; Cornelis, Ann

    2011-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) combines a uterine foreign body and the continuous release of low-dose levonorgestrel for contraception. Its influence on the rate of vulvovaginal infections and flora disturbance is insufficiently known, but important for contraceptive advice in women, especially those who develop recurrent vaginosis or Candida vulvovaginitis. Slides of 286 women who had a Pap smear taken before and 1 to 2 years after placement of a LNG-IUS were blindly reviewed for the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and Candida vaginitis (CV). Prior to insertion, there were no differences in vaginal flora abnormalities between women using different kinds of contraception. LNG-IUS users did not have different rates of AVF, BV, AV or CV, but the general risk to develop any infection was increased. Uterine bleeding after insertion did not seem to predict a different flora type. We found that Pap smears suggested more vaginal infections after 1 year of LNG-IUS use than prior to insertion of the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acculturation and Pap smear screening practices among college-aged Vietnamese women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yi, J K

    1998-10-01

    The purposes of this study were both to gather information on the prevalence of Pap smear screening among college-aged Vietnamese women and to identify predictive factors that influence Vietnamese women to engage in early cervical cancer detection behavior. This study also examines the role of acculturation in explaining cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were collected through mail and telephone surveys. Of those respondents (n = 207), approximately one-third (36.8%) reported having had a Pap smear. More than one-third (39.3%) of sexually active respondents reported never having had a Pap smear. Acculturated women were more likely to be sexually active and to be obtaining regular Pap smears. In the logistic regression model, marital status, sexual activity, and a belief that only married women should have a Pap smear were important predictors of prior reported Pap smear experience. These study findings suggest that less-acculturated women appear to have the belief that cervical cancer screening is more important for married women than for unmarried women, regardless of their sexual activity. The existence of such misconceptions underscores the importance of offering culturally relevant cancer education that addresses related misconceptions.

  12. The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-04-12

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, and less likely to use preventive health care and health promotion activities. There were also to demonstrate that people with visual impairment has less access to appropriate healthcare services and is less likely to receive screening examinations. In Taiwan, there was no study to explore utilization of Pap smear, associated factors and use barriers about Pap smear screening test among women with visual impairment. The purpose is to explore the utilization and barriers of using Pap smear for women with visual impairment in Taiwan. To identify the barriers of women with visual from process of receiving Pap smear screening test. The cross-sectional study was conducted and the totally 316 participators were selected by stratified proportional and random sampling from 15 to 64 year old women with visual impairment who lived in Taipei County during December 2009 to January 2010. The data was been collected by phone interview and the interviewers were well trained before interview. The mean age was 47.1 years old and the highest percentage of disabled severity was mile (40.2 %). Totally, 66.5 % of participators were ever using Pap smear and 38.9 % used it during pass 1 year. Their first time to accept Pap smear was 38.8 year old. There was near 50 % of them not to be explained by professionals before accepting the Pap smear. For non-using cases, the top two percentage of barriers were "feel still younger" (22.3 %), the second was "there's no sexual experience" (21.4 %). We found the gynecology experiences was key factor for women with visual impairment to use Pap smear, especially the experiences was during 1 year (OR = 4). Associated factors and barriers to receive Pap smear screening test for women with visual impairment can be addressed through interventions

  13. Association between Pap smear screening and job stress in Taiwanese nurses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiang-Yuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Huang, Nicole; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-02-01

    Nursing is a professional job characterized by high stress. Stress could be associated with less practice of health promoting behaviors; however, no study has investigated the relationship between job stress and health screening behaviors among nurses. This study aimed to describe the rate of Pap smears in hospital nurses and examine the effects of job stress on receiving a Pap smear. This study was a cross-sectional survey. The study participants were 30,681 full-time female nurses who were at least 30 years of age working in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. The study participants filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire from May to July, 2011. The outcome variable was having a Pap test during the previous 3 years. The level of stress was measured by a 19-item scale, with higher scores indicating higher stress levels. About 62.4% of the nurses had a Pap smear during the previous three years. Each point increase in the stress score decreased the likelihood of Pap smears (OR = .997, 95% CI: .995-.999), after adjustment for participant characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and hospital characteristics. Despite more knowledge and higher accessibility, nurses were less likely to have Pap smear screening than the general population. A higher level of job stress was associated with a lower likelihood of having a Pap smear. Hospital administrators could help decrease work-related stress and improve stress adaption among nurses in order to improve their health screening behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to Follow-Up for Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears among Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Devora; Calderon, Martha; Solari, Vicky; Alarcon, Patricia; Zunt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Peruvian women. Female sex workers (FSW) in Peru are at elevated risk for HPV infection, and receive annual Papanicolaou screening. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to follow-up for abnormal Pap smears among FSW in Peru. 97 FSW attending the Alberto Barton Health Center in Lima were surveyed regarding their STI screening history. 17 women with a history of an abnormal Pap smear were interviewed about their experiences regarding follow-up care. Of the 27 HPV-positive women, only 8 (30%) received follow-up treatment. Of the 19 women who did not receive follow-up, 7 (37%) had not been informed of their abnormal result. Qualitative interviews revealed that the major barrier to follow-up was lack of knowledge about HPV and potential health consequences of an abnormal Pap smear. HPV infection is highly prevalent in Peruvian FSW, yet only 30% of FSW with abnormal Pap smears receive follow-up care. The predominant barriers to follow-up were lack of standardization in recording and communicating results and insufficient FSW knowledge regarding health consequences of HPV infection. Standardization of record-keeping and distribution of educational pamphlets have been implemented to improve follow-up for HPV.

  15. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Women using Liquid Base Pap Smear in Rasht, Northern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehran, Seyed Mohamad Mohseni; Ghanaei, Mandana Mansour; Mojtehadi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about its prevalence in the female population in Rasht, Northern of Iran. The aim of this study was to find the incidences of HPV viruses in high-risk women in Rasht by wet Pap smear from 2010 to 2015. This cross-sectional study investigated HPV prevalence and its genotype distribution among 103 apparently healthy and non- healthy women with abnormal cells in pap exam. DNA samples were extracted by boiling and phenol - chloroform methods, then used as template for amplifying of specific fragment of HPV genome by PCR using GP5+ / GP6+ primers. PCR products were electrophoresed in 1.5% agarose gel (Roche, Germany) containing Sybrsafe. DNA ladder (Roche Co, Germany) was used to detect the molecular weights of observed bands under UV lamp. Overall, 4/98 women (4.08%) with normal cells and 1/5 women (20%) with abnormal cells were positive for at least one of the high risk HPV types in wet Pap smear. The most HPV infection was found in 26 to 39-year-old individuals. We evidenced a moderate prevalence of HPV infection but needs to be given more attention because in apparently healthy women also, HPV infection was observed. Health officials should conduct the study and wider screening of this infection occurring in this province. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region.

  16. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  17. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, p<.01) as likely to self-report Pap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis software for vulvovaginal candidiasis detection from Pap smear images.

    PubMed

    Momenzadeh, Mohammadreza; Vard, Alireza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Mehri Dehnavi, Alireza; Rabbani, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecologic infection and it occurs when there is overgrowth of the yeast called Candida. VVC diagnosis is usually done by observing a Pap smear sample under a microscope and searching for the conidium and mycelium components of Candida. This manual method is time consuming, subjective and tedious. Any diagnosis tools that detect VVC, semi- or full-automatically, can be very helpful to pathologists. This article presents a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) software to improve human diagnosis of VVC from Pap smear samples. The proposed software is designed based on phenotypic and morphology features of the Candida in Pap smear sample images. This software provide a user-friendly interface which consists of a set of image processing tools and analytical results that helps to detect Candida and determine severity of illness. The software was evaluated on 200 Pap smear sample images and obtained specificity of 91.04% and sensitivity of 92.48% to detect VVC. As a result, the use of the proposed software reduces diagnostic time and can be employed as a second objective opinion for pathologists. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    PubMed

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Process improvement of pap smear tracking in a women's medicine center clinic in residency training.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Byron C; Goode, Jeff; Simmons, Kathy

    2011-11-01

    Application of Six-Sigma methodology and Change Acceleration Process (CAP)/Work Out (WO) tools to track pap smear results in an outpatient clinic in a hospital-based residency-training program. Observational study of impact of changes obtained through application of Six-Sigma principles in clinic process with particular attention to prevention of sentinel events. Using cohort analysis and applying Six-Sigma principles to an interactive electronic medical record Soarian workflow engine, we designed a system of timely accession and reporting of pap smear and pathology results. We compared manual processes from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 to automated processes from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Using the Six-Sigma principles, CAP/WO tools, including "voice of the customer" and team focused approach, no outlier events went untracked. Applying the Soarian workflow engine to track prescribed 7 day turnaround time for completion, we identified 148 pap results in 3,936, 3 non-gynecological results in 15, and 41 surgical results in 246. We applied Six-Sigma principles to an outpatient clinic facilitating an interdisciplinary team approach to improve the clinic's reporting system. Through focused problem assessment, verification of process, and validation of outcomes, we improved patient care for pap smears and critical pathology. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  1. PAP SMEAR RECEIPT AMONG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T.; Woodall, Erica; Hoai, H.; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J. Carey

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. Design We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington. A total of 1,532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Results Eighty-one percent of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Conclusion Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing. PMID:19626504

  2. Pap test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pap; Low-grade Pap; High-grade Pap; Carcinoma in situ - Pap; CIS - Pap; ASCUS - Pap; Atypical glandular cells - ... to cervical cancer is greater with HSIL. CARCINOMA IN SITU (CIS): This result most often means the abnormal ...

  3. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers or if they are seen in the premenstrual and the menstrual phases. The neutrophils which are adherent to the squamous cells are called “cannon balls” or “pus balls”, which are common in the Chlamydia infection. This case is being presented because of the presence of these rare morphological structures i.e. “cannon balls” or “pus balls”. PMID:24086888

  4. How group education impacts female factory workers' behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear.

    PubMed

    Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

  5. Pap Smears

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  6. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  7. The Lived Experience of Women With Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears Receiving Care in a Military Health Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    importance of routine cervical cytologic screening has been demonstrated. It is estimated that the rate of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced...low risk of developing invasive cervical cancer when detection, surveillance, and treatment occur early in the course of cervical pathology...cervical cancer . Despite the effectiveness of this screening tool, patient compliance with treatment recommendations for abnormal Pap smears remains low

  8. Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Yarnall, Kimberly S H; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Moorman, Patricia G; Sellers, Denethia; Reid, LaVerne

    2005-08-01

    Middle-aged African American women have the highest incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and the lowest adherence to pap smear screening. In 2001, we identified factors associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations using three focus group interviews and subsequently developed a questionnaire administered to 144 African American women aged 45 to 65 years. The perception that the Pap test was painful was associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 1.67-13.7). Difficulty to pay for the office visit coupled with perceived pain was associated with a nearly sixfold increase in risk of non-adherence (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 2.8-15.5). Previously identified barriers to screening including lower education and socioeconomic status, poor access to care, knowledge of and exposure to known risk factors of invasive cervical cancer, cancer fatalism, and perceived racism were not independently associated with non-adherence. These data suggest that, among middle-aged African American women, future interventions addressing pain during a Pap test will likely increase acceptability of and adherence to cervical cancer screening. Pain could be addressed either by providing information during the pap test and/or using smaller lubricated speculums.

  9. Factors Associated with a Lack of Pap Smear Utilization in Women Exposed In Utero to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Elizabeth A.; Prehn, Angela W.; Shen, Ji; Herbst, Arthur L.; Strohsnitter, William C.; Hobday, Christopher D.; Robboy, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women in the1940s–1960s were prescribed diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen, to prevent miscarriages, but the practice was terminated after it was discovered that the daughters so exposed in utero were at increased risk for developing clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina or cervix at early ages. Pap smear screening is one of the principal methods used to identify tumor development and is necessary in this group of women to maintain their health. Currently, little is known about the factors associated with nonutilization of this screening tool in this high-risk population of women. Methods: National cohort data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DES Combined Cohort Follow-up Study during 1994, 1997, 2001, and 2006 were used to determine which factors were associated with Pap smear screening nonutilization in 2006 among DES-exposed and unexposed women. Self-reported questionnaire data from 2,861 DES-exposed and 1,027 unexposed women were analyzed using binary logistic regression models. Results: DES exposure, not having a previous gynecologic dysplasia diagnosis, lack of insurance, originating cohort, increasing age, and previous screening behavior were all factors associated with not reporting a Pap smear examination in the 2006 questionnaire, although college education reduced nonutilization. Conclusions: Understanding which factors are associated with not acquiring a screening exam can help clinicians better identify which DES-exposed women are at risk for nonutilization and possibly tailor their standard of care to aid in the early detection of cervical and vaginal adenocarcinomas in this high-risk group. PMID:25768943

  10. [Verification of doubtful PAP smear results of women included in the screening program in the Podlaskie province].

    PubMed

    Błońska, Ewa; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Verification of uncertain PAP-smear results in a group of women covered by the cervical screening program in the Podlaski province. The main aim of the study was to identify CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) lesions present, with varying degrees of severity in women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and ASC-H (atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The study evaluated 101 cervical smears taken from the vaginal part of the cervix in a group of screened women in the Podlaski province. Cytological evaluation was performed according the Bethesda System. We analyzed abnormal smears selected from a total of 7296 cytological examinations performed during 2012 at the University Center for Pathomorphological and Genetic - Molecular Diagnosis, Medical University in Białystok. The cytological results which were of interest to us included 19 cases with ASCUS, 59 with LSIL, and 23 with ASC-H, as well as with morphological features of the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Staining was performed using CINtecPLUS test according to the manufacturer's instructions. CINtecPLUS is a immunocytochemical test based on specially designed monoclonal antibodies (E6H4TM) that let us identify protein p16ink4a within the cervical smear Additionally the diagnostic kit was provided with antibodies for diagnosing the presence of Ki-67 protein, a known marker of cell proliferation. The result was considered positive when staining of the nucleus and the cytoplasm appeared in red and brown, respectively. All abnormal results were eventually verified by histological examination of the tissue taken from cervical lesions by diagnostic-therapeutic procedure following colposcopic evaluation of cervical lesion topography In the group of cytological smears with ASCUS, the diagnosis was positive in 5 cases (26.3%), negative in 14 (73

  11. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-01-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC PMID:25573002

  12. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  13. ThinPrep Pap-smear and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in reproductive-aged Thai women.

    PubMed

    Rugpao, S; Koonlertkit, S; Ruengkrist, T; Lamlertkittikul, S; Pinjaroen, S; Limtrakul, A; Werawatakul, Y; Sinchai, W

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology by ThinPrep Pap-tests and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young adult reproductive-aged Thai women. A total of 1254 women distributed in all regions of Thailand were monitored from 2002 through 2004. Women were screened for abnormal cervical cytology using the ThinPrep method every 6 months. Interpretation of cervical cytology was based on the Bethesda system, version 2001. Women who had the ThinPrep Pap results as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse underwent colposcopic examination. The ThinPrep and all cervical tissue samples obtained from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were analyzed and reviewed by Covance Central Laboratory Service, Inc., Indianapolis, USA. The cumulative incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-tests was as follows: 15.3 per 100 woman years (WY) (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3, 18.9) at 6 months; 12.3 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.3, 14.6) at 12 months; and 11.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.0, 13.5) at 18 months. Of 1448.6 woman years of follow up, the incidence of CIN1 was 4.1 per 100 WY (95% CI 3.2, 5.3); CIN2 0.8 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.4, 1.4); and CIN3 0.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.3, 1.2). The incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-test and CIN in young adult Thai women had been reported. No comparable data is available.

  14. Knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’s support of Pap smear among multiparous women which have Pap’s smear examination in Aviati clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyawati, L.; Anggraini, D. R.; Fitrie, A. A.; Anggreini, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious health problem and stated as the second cause of death of woman worldwide. Several studies have noted a higher incidence of cervical cancer with increasing parity. Early detection with Pap smear is proven to reduce mortality of patients. Knowledge, attitude and husband’s support contributed to theled womanto follow Pap smear examination. This study explores the knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’ s support of Pap smearin multiparous women that have Pap smear examination. This research is a quantitative study with cross sectional approach recruited 50 respondents as multiparous women that have Pap smear examination inAviati Clinic, Padang Bulan, Medan. The data were collected by self-reports using structured objectives by questionnaires. The result of this study showed that 66% respondents have high knowledge of cervical cancer and 76% respondents have ahigh attitude of Pap smear, but they almost have low husband’s support of Pap smear including information support (62%), emotional support (46%) and real support (50%). This study has revealed that multiparous women that had Pap smear examination generally had high knowledge about cervical cancer and positive attitude about Pap smear, even most of them had low husband’s support.

  15. Significance of the Cytological Signs of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Anal Pap Smears of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed

    Okayama, Kaori; Okodo, Mitsuaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Itoda, Ichiro

    2017-11-26

    Purpose: The incidence of invasive anal cancer (IAC) has been increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Although cytological diagnosis is the modality of choice for screening cases of IAC, it is associated with lower sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate new cytological signs of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that may contribute to improving anal cytology. Methods: Anal cytology and HPV testing were performed using SurePath liquid-based cytology on samples obtained from 37 HIV-positive Japanese MSM. Subsequently, a histological biopsy based on high-resolution anoscopy was performed in MSM with abnormal cytological findings indicative of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) +. Also, anal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were performed to determine cellularity, presence of dysplastic squamous cells, and other cytological signs of HPV infection. Results: Of the 37 MSM who underwent anal cytology, six tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, three cases exhibited ASC-US, 17 exhibited low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), nine exhibited high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and two remained undiagnosed. The anal Pap smears of 28 (96.6%) of the 29 MSM with abnormal cytological findings of ASC-US+ exhibited anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), as revealed by histological biopsy. The median value (minimum–maximum) of the cellularity of anal Pap smears was 12 (0–70.5) nsc/hpf. In 26 MSM with LSIL and HSIL, the median dysplastic squamous cells count was 14 (2–152) dsc/smear and the cytological sign of HPV infection was 11 (2–71) hpv/smear. Of all anal Pap smears that revealed ASC-US+, 96.6% exhibited cytological signs of HPV infection. Compression-positive binucleated cells were the most prevalent among all cytological signs of HPV infection. Conclusion: For anal cytology, instead of considering a small number of

  16. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  17. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    PubMed

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  18. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  19. Screening for cervical cancer using automated analysis of PAP-smears.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Ewert; Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease.

  20. The psychosocial impact of an abnormal cervical smear result.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François; Ferenczy, Alex; Fisher, William; Mansi, James A

    2012-10-01

    Data on the impact of abnormal cervical smear results on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) are scarce. We aimed to (i) prospectively assess the HrQoL of women who were informed of an abnormal smear result; (ii) identify predictors of greater negative psychosocial impact of an abnormal result; and (iii) prospectively estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost following an abnormal result. Between 08/2006 and 08/2008, 492 women with an abnormal result and 460 women with a normal result, frequency matched for age and clinic, were recruited across Canada. HrQoL was measured at recruitment and 4 and 12 weeks later with the EuroQol, Short Form-12, short Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and HPV Impact Profile. Three blocks of potential predictors of higher psychosocial impact were tested by hierarchical modeling: (i) socio-demographics; (ii) sexual activity; and (iii) smear result severity, communication, and understanding. Receiving an abnormal result significantly increased anxiety (STAI mean difference between both groups = 8.3). Initial anxiety decreased over time for the majority of women. However, 35% of women had clinically meaningful anxiety at 12 weeks (i.e. STAI scores ≥0.5 standard deviation of the controls). These women reported a lower socio-economic level, did not completely understand the information about their result and perceived themselves at higher risk of cancer. QALY lost following an abnormal result were between 0.007 and 0.009. Receiving an abnormal smear has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful negative impact on mental health. However, this negative impact subsides after 12 weeks for the majority of women. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Region-based multifocus image fusion for the precise acquisition of Pap smear images.

    PubMed

    Tello-Mijares, Santiago; Bescós, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    A multifocus image fusion method to obtain a single focused image from a sequence of microscopic high-magnification Papanicolau source (Pap smear) images is presented. These images, captured each in a different position of the microscope lens, frequently show partially focused cells or parts of cells, which makes them unpractical for the direct application of image analysis techniques. The proposed method obtains a focused image with a high preservation of original pixels information while achieving a negligible visibility of the fusion artifacts. The method starts by identifying the best-focused image of the sequence; then, it performs a mean-shift segmentation over this image; the focus level of the segmented regions is evaluated in all the images of the sequence, and best-focused regions are merged in a single combined image; finally, this image is processed with an adaptive artifact removal process. The combination of a region-oriented approach, instead of block-based approaches, and a minimum modification of the value of focused pixels in the original images achieve a highly contrasted image with no visible artifacts, which makes this method especially convenient for the medical imaging domain. The proposed method is compared with several state-of-the-art alternatives over a representative dataset. The experimental results show that our proposal obtains the best and more stable quality indicators. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  2. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  3. Triage of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Apgar, B S; Zoschnick, L B

    1998-06-01

    Triage of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy requires colposcopic evaluation and directed biopsy. If histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is confirmed, the patient can be managed with observations and can be re-evaluated in the postpartum period. If evidence of microinvasion is present, conization must be performed. For patients with invasive disease, a delay in therapy until fetal maturity is achieved does not compromise survival.

  4. Development of a risk index for prediction of abnormal pap test results in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Dejana; Antic, Ljiljana; Vasiljevic, Mladenko; Antic, Dragan; Matejic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Serbia is one of the countries with highest incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer in Central and South Eastern Europe. Introducing a risk index could provide a powerful means for targeting groups at high likelihood of having an abnormal cervical smear and increase efficiency of screening. The aim of the present study was to create and assess validity ofa index for prediction of an abnormal Pap test result. The study population was drawn from patients attending Departments for Women's Health in two primary health care centers in Serbia. Out of 525 respondents 350 were randomly selected and data obtained from them were used as the index creation dataset. Data obtained from the remaining 175 were used as an index validation data set. Age at first intercourse under 18, more than 4 sexual partners, history of STD and multiparity were attributed statistical weights 16, 15, 14 and 13, respectively. The distribution of index scores in index-creation data set showed that most respondents had a score 0 (54.9%). In the index-creation dataset mean index score was 10.3 (SD-13.8), and in the validation dataset the mean was 9.1 (SD=13.2). The advantage of such scoring system is that it is simple, consisting of only four elements, so it could be applied to identify women with high risk for cervical cancer that would be referred for further examination.

  5. Pap smear in the prevention of HPV-related anal cancer: preliminary results of the study in a male population at risk.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Luigi; Tiradritti, Luana; Lorenzoni, Elisa; Zuccati, Giuliano; Matucci, Marzia; Butera, Daniela; Foxi, Prassede; Confortini, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and anal cytology, considering a population of HIV-positive and negative men who have sex with men (MSM), at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), in order to ascertain which of the methods examined is the best screening strategy for the prevention of anal cancer. In the period 06/2013-07/2014 at the "MTS Centre" of the University of Florence, 87 male patients, homo/bi-sexual, of which 46 HIV-negative and 41 HIV-positive, were recruited for anal Pap smear and HPV testing. All patients with an "abnormal" cytological result underwent anoscopy with possible biopsy. HPV testing was positive in 73 patients (83.6%). Cytology was negative in 50 patients (57.5%), inconclusive in 14 patients (16.1%), abnormal in 23 patients (26.4%): 14 ASC-US (19.2%), 4 ASC-H (5.5%), 5 L-SIL (6.8%), 0 H-SIL. Anoscopy with biopsy led to diagnosis of AIN I in 10 cases, of which 6 ASC-US+ and 4L-SIL+, AIN II in only 1 case, LS-IL+. Anal HPV testing, when used in primary screening, lead to a high number of "false positives", given the too high prevalence of HPV infection in MSM, the highest risk population targeted for screening. So we propose a screening program with anal cytology which has a high sensitivity for detection of AIN while is a poor predictor of the severity of these lesions; therefore, all patients with abnormal anal Pap smear should undergo anoscopy with biopsy.

  6. Barriers to Pap Smear Test for the Second Time in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in the South of Tehran: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Laleh; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a regular screening program. Many studies have reported a large number of barriers that women had for the first time, but this study decided to find other barriers for the second time pap smear. Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and expressed through conventional content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 15 women with family profile at 30 health care centers who lived in the south of Tehran and had done Pap smear for one time but didn’t do it for the second time. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: negative experiences of the first Pap test were as follows: results of the first time test, readiness for performing the test, getting the test itself, and the site of the first Pap test. Personal barriers to getting the second Pap test were: inattention to time, physical barriers to the second Pap test, and inhibitory beliefs. Perceived social barriers to getting the second Pap test with two sub-themes included social supports and abstract norms. Conclusion: This study provided other barriers about Pap smear including lack of the spouse’s support, the role of health care providers and physicians in screening program for early diagnosis in women. PMID:29043283

  7. [Influence of vaginal microflora on the presence of persistent atypical squamous cells and atypical glandular cells in pap smear--a 3-year study].

    PubMed

    Ludwin, Inga; Ludwin, Artur; Basta, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    the evaluation of influence of abnormal vaginal biocoenosis on presence and maintenance ASC and AGC in Pap smears. The study group consisted of 242 non-pregnant women (25-65 years of age): 207 women (4.96%) with atypical sqamous cells and 35 (0.7%) with atypical glandular cells. In all women the vaginal flora was assessed by Nugent scale. Vaginal flora was normal in 157 (75.8%) and pathological in 50 (24.1%) women with ASC. In the ASC subgroup, the highest proportion of physiological vaginal flora was observed in 151 patients (77.4%) with ASC-US, in comparison to 44 (22.6%) with ASC-H, in which the percentage of women with normal or abnormal flora was the same (50% vs 50%). This difference was statistically significant. In case of AGC, vaginal culture was physiological in 23 (65.7%) women, and in 12 (34.3%) abnormal vaginal flora with features of the inflammation. The statistically significant influence of abnormal vaginal flora on the presence of atypical endometrial and endocervical cells was not observed. We did not observed any influence of abnormal vaginal flora on the presence, regression and progression of ASC and AGC.

  8. Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants and abnormal Pap test results.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Denise J; Terrell, Metrecia L; Aguocha, Nnenna N; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Marcus, Michele

    2011-09-01

    This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests.

  9. Dietary Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardants and Abnormal Pap Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Denise J.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Aguocha, Nnenna N.; Small, Chanley M.; Cameron, Lorraine L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Methods Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Results Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). Conclusions It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests. PMID:21797757

  10. Virologic versus cytologic triage of women with equivocal Pap smears: a meta-analysis of the accuracy to detect high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Buntinx, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Dillner, Joakim

    2004-02-18

    The appropriate management of women with minor cytologic lesions in their cervix is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as an alternative to repeat cytology in women who had equivocal results on a previous Pap smear. Data were extracted from articles published between 1992 and 2002 that contained results of virologic and cytologic testing followed by colposcopically directed biopsy in women with an index smear showing atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Fifteen studies were identified in which HPV triage and the histologic outcome (presence or absence of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade II or worse [CIN2+]) was documented. Nine, seven, and two studies also documented the accuracy of repeat cytology when the cutoff for abnormal cytology was set at a threshold of ASCUS or worse, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or worse, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse, respectively. Random-effects models were used for pooling of accuracy parameters in case of interstudy heterogeneity. Differences in accuracy were assessed by pooling the ratio of the sensitivity (or specificity) of HPV testing to that of repeat cytology. The sensitivity and specificity were 84.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 77.6% to 91.1%) and 72.9% (95% CI = 62.5% to 83.3%), respectively, for HPV testing overall and 94.8% (95% CI = 92.7% to 96.9%) and 67.3% (95% CI = 58.2% to 76.4%), respectively, for HPV testing in the eight studies that used the Hybrid Capture II assay. Sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology at a threshold for abnormal cytology of ASCUS or worse was 81.8% (95% CI = 73.5% to 84.3%) and 57.6% (95% CI = 49.5% to 65.7%), respectively. Repeat cytology that used higher cytologic thresholds yielded substantially lower sensitivity but higher specificity than triage with the Hybrid Capture II assay. The ratio of the sensitivity of the Hybrid Capture II

  11. Cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test experiences among women living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wigfall, Lisa T.; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Bond, Sharon M.; Lazenby, Gweneth B.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA’s cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. Methods We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern United States between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n=3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n=14), and observations with missing data (n=22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Results Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3±10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One-third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83%) had a Pap test <1 year ago and 84% knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p=0.001). Conclusions For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  12. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  13. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to evaluate the effect of a call-recall program in enhancing Pap smear practice: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a call-recall approach in enhancing Pap smear practice by changes of motivation stage among non-compliant women. A cluster randomized controlled trial with parallel and un-blinded design was conducted between January and November 2010 in 40 public secondary schools in Malaysia among 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test. A cluster randomization was applied in assigning schools to both groups. An intervention group received an invitation and reminder (call-recall program) for a Pap test (20 schools with 201 participants), while the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program (20 schools with 202 participants). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of the intervention program on the action stage (Pap smear uptake) at 24 weeks. In both groups, pre-contemplation stage was found as the highest proportion of changes in stages. At 24 weeks, an intervention group showed two times more in the action stage than control group (adjusted odds ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.29-4.62). The positive effect of a call-recall approach in motivating women to change the behavior of screening practice should be appreciated by policy makers and health care providers in developing countries as an intervention to enhance Pap smear uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30–59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities. PMID:28282430

  15. Analysis of 13 million individual patient records pertaining to Pap smears, colposcopies, biopsies and surgery on the uterine cervix (Belgium, 1996-2000).

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Simoens, Cindy; Van Oyen, Herman; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Goffin, Frédéric; Simon, Philippe; Fabri, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Cervical cancer screening by surveys overestimate coverage because of selection and reporting biases. The prepared Inter-Mutualistic Agency dataset has about 13 million records from Pap smears, colposcopies, cervical biopsies and surgery, performed in Belgium between 1996 and 2000. Cervical cancer screening coverage was defined as the proportion of the target population (women of 25-64 years) that has had a Pap smear taken within the last 3 years. Proportions and incidence rates were computed using official population data of the corresponding age group, area and calendar year. Cervical cancer screening coverage, in the period 1998-2000, was 59% at national level, for the target age group 25-64 years. Differences were small between the 3 regions. Variation ranged from 39% to 71%. Coverage was 64% for 25-29 year old women, 67% for those aged 30-39 years, 56% for those aged 50-54. The modal screening interval was 1 year. In the 3-year period 1998-2000, 3 million smears were taken from the 2.7 million women in the age group 25-64. Only 1.6 million women of the target group got one or more smears in that period and 1.1 million women had no smears, corresponding to an average of 1.88 smears per woman. Coverage reached only 59%, but the number of smears used was sufficient to cover more than 100% of the target population. Structural reduction of overuse and extension of coverage is warranted.

  16. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    PubMed Central

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-01-01

    Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  17. [Abnormalities in cervical smears stored in plastic bags: potential cause of false negatives].

    PubMed

    Ortega-González, Patricia; González-Bravo, Margarita S; Jiménez-Muñoz-Ledo, Gustavo; Macías, Alejandro E

    2011-01-01

    Cervical smear is the most economic and efficient diagnostic tool for the screening of cervical cancer. However, since plastic bags have been used in Guanajuato to transport and store smears, we have observed cytological abnormalities which difficult the diagnosis and lead to false negatives. To describe those abnormalities. Out of 340 women registered in a primary care center in Mexico, 68 were selected through systematic random sampling during 2007. A cervical smear was obtained and placed on two slides. The first sample was allowed to dry but the second one was placed into the plastic bag immediately after fixation. After 15 days all the smears were stained with the Papanicolaou technique. A certified pathologist, blinded about the variable of study, interpreted the samples according to the Bethesda system, and evaluated the presence of necrosis, edema, holes, and opportunistic microorganisms. Of the 68 smears exposed to a humid storage, 36 (53%) were inadequate for diagnosis (Fisher's exact probability < 0.001). From them, 36 (53%) had holes or lagoons, 34 (50%) had edema, 31 (46%) had necrosis, and 15 (22%) had fungus. On the other hand, the 68 dried cervical smears were all adequate for diagnosis and none had the changes or cytological abnormalities. The humid transport and storage of cervical smears produced abnormalities in the normal morphology that could lead to false negative results. The guideline for the handling of cervical smears must stress the importance of allowing the smears to dry completely after fixation and before storing them in plastic bags.

  18. The agreement between self-reported cervical smear abnormalities and screening programme records.

    PubMed

    Canfell, Karen; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane; Cameron, Rebecca; Baker, Krys; Brown, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Million Women Study is a cohort study of women aged 50-64 years in England and Scotland. As a component of the follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate if they had an abnormal cervical smear in the previous five years. This study compared self-reported cervical abnormalities with screening records obtained from the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. For 1944 randomly selected Million Women Study participants in Oxfordshire, screening records were assessed over a six-year period prior to the date of self-reporting. The six-year period was chosen to allow for errors in the recall of timing of abnormal smears. A total of 68 women (3.5%) had a record of at least one equivocal or abnormal smear within the last six years, whereas 49 women (2.5%) self-reported an abnormality. There was a strong trend for an increased probability of self-reporting a history of an abnormal smear as the severity of the recorded abnormality increased (P <0.001). For women with an NHS record of borderline dyskaryosis, mild dyskaryosis, or moderate dyskaryosis/severe dyskaryosis/invasive cancer, the proportions reporting an abnormality were 40%, 58% and 77%, respectively. For women with negative and inadequate smears, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality were 0.6% and 0.7%, respectively. These results indicate that among women whose screening programme records show an abnormal smear, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality increases with the severity of the recorded lesion. Almost all women with a record of negative or inadequate smear(s) correctly interpret the result and do not self-report an abnormality.

  19. The effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of free Pap smear among female teachers in Birnin-Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adamu, A N; Abiola, A O; Ibrahim, Mto

    2012-01-01

    The Routine Pap smear test has successfully reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the presence of a proper structure for its implementation. This study was designed to assess the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of Pap smear among female teachers. It was a quasi-experimental, controlled study with a pre-test, post-test design. A total of 100 respondents were recruited for each of the intervention and control groups, by the multistage sampling technique. The mean knowledge score of cervical cancer was low in both the interventions (25.5% ± 10.5) and control groups (18.9% ± 10.0) at baseline; a significant rise to 57.2% ± 20.7 was recorded after the intervention in the Intervention group (P<0.0001). The baseline mean attitude score was also low in the intervention and control groups (17.1% ± 6.3 and 14.1% ± 6.4, respectively); post intervention there was a significant rise of up to 28.0% ± 12.8 in the Intervention group (P<0.0001). The proportion of respondents with a reported practice of Pap smear was low and similar in both the groups at baseline (1.1 and 4.9% in the intervention and control groups, respectively, P=0.16). Uptake of free Pap smear was poor at the post-intervention phase in both the groups (P=0.45). Reported reasons for poor uptake included the respondents' dislike for the test (38.4%) and the belief that the test was not necessary (24.4%). About 20% of the respondents did not have any reason at all. Health education had no significant effect on the uptake of a free Pap smear among teachers. Despite the significant improvement in the attitude toward the test, many respondents did not like the test after than before the intervention. Sociocultural issues such as the gender of the sample collector, and system factors like few service delivery points, and the time required to access the service could have contributed to the poor uptake recorded in this study. A program designed to improve routine

  20. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Kaur, M; Gupta, N; Kumar, A; Goyal, K; Sharma, A; Majumdar, M; Gupta, M; Ratho, R K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs) due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) approach. The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01). The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5%) FSW versus 23/98 (23.5%) HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  1. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  2. [Cervical Pap smear in an epidemiologically exposed population: ideas, facts and arguments].

    PubMed

    Doris, B; Boyer, L; Lavoué, V; Riou, F; Henno, S; Tas, P; Sévène, L; Levêque, J

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the prevalence of abnormal papsmears in a primary care center and the screening practices. Single-center retrospective study on 1,430 FCU performed in 1,251 patients between January 2009 and December 2011 with analysis of demographic, clinical and epidemiological chararacteristics of the women, and the monitoring of the patients with pathological papsmears. The study population was predominantly young (under 25), unmarried, nulliparous, and using contraception. Among the 1,244 FCU, nearly 90% of them were interpretable with the junction area interested. Nine percent were pathological with mainly ASC-US and L-SIL (3.5% and 4.5%) with no difference between more and less than 25years. Two factors were significantly associated with the presence of pathological papsmear: first intercourse before age 14 and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Monitoring of patients with a pathological papsmear showed that 33% of patients had not an appropriate follow-up especially younger patients. To perform papsmear before 25 years because the patient has associated high risk HPV co-factors does not appear justified by the severity or frequency of cytological lesions, especially as it increases the financial cost and is responsible of potential deleterious actions such as conizations probably excessive among the youngest patients. Personalized monitoring of these patients with a pathological papsmear is required. The French practice recommendations on cervical cancer screening (first screening at age 25, 26 years cytological control then every 3 years up to 65 years in patients who have or have had sex) deserve to be applied in young and disadvantaged patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a posterior neck dedifferentiated liposarcoma with MDM2 fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on a Pap-stained smear.

    PubMed

    Zreik, Riyam; Soyalp, Krystal; Ruiz, Steve; Ward, Russell; Dobin, Sheila; Chen, Xiangbai; Liu, Lina; Rao, Arundhati

    2015-04-01

    Head and neck liposarcomas, while rare, tend to be subcutaneous and well-differentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas of the head and neck are exceedingly rare in the literature. We present a case of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma arising in the soft tissue of the posterior neck of an 86-year-old man and diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Aspirate smears showed a dual population of atypical lipomatous and spindled cells. MDM2 (murine double minute 2) amplification was demonstrated on a Pap-stained smear using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MDM2 FISH amplification in a liposarcoma performed on an aspirate smear. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Abnormal pap tests among women living in a Hispanic migrant farmworker community: A narrative of health literacy.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Proctor, Sara; Wells, Kristen J; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-08-01

    This study explored narrative responses following abnormal Pap tests among Hispanic migrant farmworkers ( N = 18; ages 22-50 years) via in-depth interviews in Florida. Qualitative analyses utilized health literacy domains (obtain/process/understand/communicate) as a conceptual framework. Participants described how they (1) obtained information about getting a Pap test, (2) processed positive and negative reactions following results, (3) understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and (4) communicated and received social support. Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.

  5. Depression and anxiety diagnoses are not associated with delayed resolution of abnormal mammograms and pap tests among vulnerable women.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Andrea C; Freund, Karen M; Heeren, Tim; Beaver, Kristine A; Flynn, Mary; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2012-04-01

    Delays in care after abnormal cancer screening contribute to disparities in cancer outcomes. Women with psychiatric disorders are less likely to receive cancer screening and may also have delays in diagnostic resolution after an abnormal screening test. To determine if depression and anxiety are associated with delays in resolution after abnormal mammograms and Pap tests in a vulnerable population of urban women. We conducted retrospective chart reviews of electronic medical records to identify women who had a diagnosis of depression or anxiety in the year prior to the abnormal mammogram or Pap test. We used time-to-event analysis to analyze the outcome of time to resolution after abnormal cancer screening, and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to control for confounding. Women receiving care in six Boston-area community health centers 2004-2005: 523 with abnormal mammograms, 474 with abnormal Pap tests. Of the women with abnormal mammogram and pap tests, 19% and 16%, respectively, had co-morbid depression. There was no difference in time to diagnostic resolution between depressed and not-depressed women for those with abnormal mammograms (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.1) or Pap tests (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.3). An active diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety in the year prior to an abnormal mammogram or Pap test was not associated with a prolonged time to diagnostic resolution. Our findings imply that documented mood disorders do not identify an additional barrier to resolution after abnormal cancer screening in a vulnerable population of women.

  6. Pap smear cytology and identification of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 in multiparity women at Aviati Clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraini, D. R.; Feriyawati, L.; Fitrie, A. A.; Ginting, R. N. A.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in woman in developing countries and one of the most crucial health problems in the world. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an agent for sexually transmitted disease which is an act of cervical cancer, especially high-risk of HPV type 16 and 18. In this study, we investigated the Pap smear cytology features and identification of HPV types 16 and18 in multiparity women at Aviati Clinic Padang Bulan, Medan. Samples are cervical swabs of 50 multiparity women who met the inclusion criteria (childbirth ≥ three times) was included in the study. Pap smear examination was conducted using Papanicolaou staining and identification of HPV types 16 and 18 using the Polymerase Chain Reactive (PCR) methods. Pap smearcytology showed 80% Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) with inflammation and 20% NILM. The result of PCR amplification showed that there weren’t specific band DNA was found at band 414bp and 216bp. That means there weren’t cervical swabs sample had DNA of HPV type 16 and 18.

  7. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals’ opinions and the decision-making process. Objective We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. Methods We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms “cervical cancer,” “Pap smear,” and “Pap test” were analyzed during: (1) January 1–March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14–June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . Results This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, “New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer”), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, “It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low

  8. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Courtney Rees; Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-06-10

    It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals' opinions and the decision-making process. We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms "cervical cancer," "Pap smear," and "Pap test" were analyzed during: (1) January 1-March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14-June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, "New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer"), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, "It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low cost Pap test.") It was demonstrated that machine learning

  9. Cost-effectiveness of liquid-based cytology with or without hybrid-capture II HPV test compared with conventional Pap smears: a study by the French Society of Clinical Cytology.

    PubMed

    Cochand-Priollet, Béatrix; Cartier, Isabelle; de Cremoux, Patricia; Le Galès, Catherine; Ziol, Marianne; Molinié, Vincent; Petitjean, Alain; Dosda, Anne; Merea, Estelle; Biaggi, Annonciade; Gouget, Isabelle; Arkwright, Sylviane; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Vielh, Philippe; Coste, Joël

    2005-11-01

    Many articles concerning conventional Pap smears, ThinPrep liquid-based cytology (LBC) and Hybrid-Capture II HPV test (HC II) have been published. This study, carried out by the French Society of Clinical Cytology, may be conspicuous for several reasons: it was financially independent; it compared the efficiency of the conventional Pap smear and LBC, of the conventional Pap smear and HC II, and included an economic study based on real costs; for all the women, a "gold standard" reference method, colposcopy, was available and biopsies were performed whenever a lesion was detected; The conventional Pap smear, the LBC (split-sample technique), the colposcopy, and the biopsies were done at the same time. This study included 2,585 women shared into two groups: a group A of a high-risk population, a group B of a screening population. The statistical analysis of the results showed that conventional Pap smears consistently had superior or equivalent sensitivity and specificity than LBC for the lesions at threshold CIN-I (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) or CIN-II or higher. It underlined the low specificity of the HC II. Finally, the LBC mean cost was never covered by the Social Security tariff.

  10. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  11. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  12. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  13. Balancing uncertainty and acceptance: understanding Chinese women's responses to an abnormal cervical smear result.

    PubMed

    Twinn, Sheila

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the responses of Hong Kong Chinese women receiving an abnormal smear result and to compare any differences in responses depending on the diagnosis of the abnormal smear. The implementation of cervical screening programmes has resulted in an increasing number of women receiving an abnormal smear result requiring cytological surveillance or referral for colposcopy. Evidence suggests that women frequently misunderstood such results, believing that they already have cancer. However, little is known about the responses of Chinese women in this situation. An exploratory qualitative study. Face-to-face semi-structured tape-recorded interviews were undertaken with 66 women sampled opportunistically from an urban centre of a major non-governmental service provider. Amongst this sample, 22 women required cytological surveillance, 20 required treatment for vaginitis and 24 were referred for colposcopy. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the translated interviews within and across groups to identify categories and themes illustrating women's responses to an abnormal smear result. An important difference in the comparison of the data sets was that of women's understanding of the cause of the abnormal result. Women with vaginitis understood the cause of their abnormality, whereas those in the other groups remained unclear about their abnormality, generating feelings of fear and uncertainty. Trust in practitioners influenced women's acceptance of the result. Although responses of Chinese women are similar to those in other population groups, with those referred for colposcopy experiencing greater anxiety than those undergoing cytological surveillance, balancing feelings of uncertainty and acceptance influenced Chinese women's responses to their abnormal results and allowed them to make sense of their result in their everyday life. Trust in the practitioner was essential to the acceptance of their result. Such findings highlight implications

  14. Using the word `cancer' in communication about an abnormal pap test: Finding common ground with Patient-Provider Communication

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; John, Priya; Makoul, Gregory; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate provider and patient views about communication regarding cervical cancer screening follow-up. Methods Using qualitative analysis, we interviewed 20 providers and 10 patients from two urban clinics that serve low-income African American and Hispanic women. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups assessed familiarity with National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and reactions to a letter asking women with abnormal Pap test to telephone CIS. The letter suggested questions to ask prior to receiving follow-up. Results No patient or provider was familiar with CIS. Providers but not patients expressed discomfort with use of the word `cancer' in the letter and in CIS's name. Providers feared that reference to cancer would provoke fatalism and impede timely follow-up, whereas patients felt information about cancer risk was needed to prompt timely follow-up. Information providers found necessary to convey in order to accurately explain abnormal Pap tests surpassed patients' literacy levels. Conclusion Qualitative data suggest important gaps in perspective between providers and patients. There is a need to bridge the gap and overcome communication challenges to promote timely medical follow-up and have better health outcomes. Practice Implications Implications and strategies for improving patient-provider education and communication about abnormal pap test are discussed. PMID:20060255

  15. Comparison of Pap smear quality with anatomical spatula and convenience (spatula-cytobrush) methods: a single blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Soleimani, Marzieh; Khajehei, Marjan; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Komar, Perikala V; Montazer, Nader Riaz

    2010-01-01

    The Papanicolaou smear is a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high false negative results. Several factors contribute to this problem and one the most important is inappropriate sampling. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by either an anatomical spatula or a spatula-cyto brush. One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. After all participants were interviewed, two samples were obtained from each: one with a spatula-cytobrush and another with an anatomical spatula. Slides were prepared and assessed by two pathologists for kappa coefficient analysis. Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cyto brush method (p= 0.016). The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells were 70.6%and 24.5%, respectively, with the anatomical spatula method and 69.6% and 24.5% using a spatula-cytobrush (p<0.001). No one reported pain and the amount of bleeding was 38.2% in both methods (p>0.05). In addition, there were no statistically significant differences regarding infection and inflammatory reactions (p>0.05). Based on the findings of this study, the results of sampling with anatomical spatula were more acceptable and better than those of spatula-cytobrush sampling.

  16. Assessment of the Validity and Reproducibility of the Pap Smear in Mexico: Necessity of a Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Yunes-Díaz, Elsa; Ruiz, Patricia Alonso-de; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    An assessment was performed of the quality of Pap readings in 19 cytology laboratories (CLs) in Mexico from the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Nine CLs were affiliated with the Health Ministry (SSA), and ten were affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). Two sets of 200 cervical cytology specimens were prepared, one set for each institution. Fourteen percent of the specimens were positive and six were inappropriate for diagnosis (3%). All cervical cytology specimens were processed in the cytopathology laboratory at the General Hospital of Mexico, and histopathology was available for each positive case. Thirty percent of the SSA reading centers had a sensitivity of at least 80%; however, not one of the ten IMSS laboratories evaluated reached this figure. Some reading centers had a sensitivity <65%, meaning that nearly half of the specimens with a cytology consistent with cervical neoplasm were not identified. Given these results, it is a priority to effect a paradigm shift combining various screening tests to improve adherence to standards and enhanced cost-effectiveness of the early detection of cervicouterine cancer (CC) in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Pap smear: HPV genotype and DNA methylation of ADCY8, CDH8, and ZNF582 as an integrated biomarker for high-grade cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Shen-Gunther, Jane; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Poage, Graham M; Lin, Chun-Lin; Perez, Luis; Banks, Nancy A; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Pap smear has remained the foundation for cervical cancer screening for over 70 years. With advancements in molecular diagnostics, primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening has recently become an accepted stand-alone or co-test with conventional cytology. However, both diagnostic tests have distinct limitations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between HPV genotypes and cellular epigenetic modifications in three grades of cervical cytology for screening biomarker discovery. This prospective, cross-sectional study used residual liquid-based cytology samples for HPV genotyping and epigenetic analysis. Extracted DNA was subjected to parallel polymerase chain reactions using three primer sets (MY09/11, FAP59/64, E6-E7 F/B) for HPV DNA amplification. HPV+ samples were genotyped by DNA sequencing. Promoter methylation of four candidate tumor suppressor genes (adenylate cyclase 8 (ADCY8), cadherin 8, type 2 (CDH8), MGMT, and zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582)) out of 48 genes screened was quantified by bisulfite-pyrosequencing of genomic DNA. Independent validation of methylation profiles was performed by analyzing data from cervical cancer cell lines and clinical samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Two hundred seventy-seven quality cytology samples were analyzed. HPV was detected in 31/100 (31 %) negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 95/100 (95 %) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 71/77 (92 %) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) samples. The proportion of IARC-defined carcinogenic HPV types in sequenced samples correlated with worsening grade: NILM 7/29 (24 %), LSIL 53/92 (58 %), and HSIL 65/70 (93 %). Promoter methylation of ADCY8, CDH8, and ZNF582 was measured in 170 samples: NILM (N = 33), LSIL (N = 70), and HSIL (N = 67) also correlated with worsening grade. Similar hypermethylation patterns were found in cancer cell lines and TCGA samples. The

  18. Daily peer review of abnormal cervical smears in the assessment of individual practice as an additional method of internal quality control.

    PubMed

    Confortini, M; Di Stefano, C; Biggeri, A; Bulgaresi, P; Di Claudio, G; Grisotto, L; Maddau, C; Matucci, M; Petreschi, C; Troni, G M; Turco, P; Foxi, P

    2016-02-01

    An important internal quality control system used in the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute cytopathology laboratory in Florence is the peer review procedure, based on the review of all abnormal cytological smears which routinely emerge. Peer review is an important training opportunity for all cytologists, especially for those with less experience. This article shows the results of the peer review procedure. Of the 63 754 Papanicolaou (Pap) smears screened in 2011, 1086 were considered to be abnormal [at least atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US+)] on primary screening (selected by a single cytologist) and were subjected to the peer review procedure. The overall performance of the laboratory's cytologists was evaluated using a multiple rater analysis and the comparison of each cytologist with the final diagnosis. Further, the agreement was assessed by means of Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa statistics. In general, a moderate/substantial level of agreement between the ten cytologists and the final diagnoses was evident. Kappa values for each reader compared with the final diagnosis ranged from 0.54 to 0.69. The overall kappa value was 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.66] and overall weighted kappa value was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79). The category-specific agreement showed the lowest values for atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). In summary, peer review represents an important internal quality control in the evaluation and improvement of inter-observer agreement and of the functioning of the laboratory as a whole. Multi-head microscope sessions may improve particularly the reproducibility of borderline diagnoses and, above all, can be an important training contribution for cytologists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Associations of an abnormal Pap test result with attitudes and beliefs relevant to cervical cancer: a study of rural Appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin; Jones, Cissi

    2016-07-01

    To compare women who recall being informed of an abnormal Pap to those not having this experience relative to attitudes and beliefs pertaining to screening for cervical cancer. Four hundred women were recruited from eight rural Appalachian counties, in 2013 and 2014. Women completed a paper-and-pencil survey after providing written informed consent. Bivariate associations and age-adjusted associations were calculated between the self-reported experience of being told of an abnormal Pap test result and eight attitudes/beliefs relative to the prevention of cervical cancer. Data analyses were performed in 2014. The mean age was 40.2 years (range 30-64 years). Eighteen women chose not to answer the question asking about ever having an abnormal Pap test result, leaving n = 382. Of the 382 women who did answer, 122 (30.6 %) indicated having an abnormal Pap test result and the remaining 260 (65.2 %) indicated never having this experience. With the exception of one item assessing knowledge that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer, between-group differences in attitudes, beliefs, and intent to have a Pap test the next time one is due were not observed. Although we hypothesized that women ever having an abnormal Pap test may have actively sought to learn more about cervical cancer and its prevention, findings suggest that this is not the case. Informing women of an abnormal result could be coupled with a high-intensity counseling designed to improve attitudes and beliefs relative to women's role in protecting themselves from cervical cancer.

  20. Pap and HPV Testing

    Cancer.gov

    Pap tests detect abnormal cervical cells, including precancerous cervical lesions, as well as early cervical cancers. HPV tests detect HPV infections that can cause cervical cell abnormalities. Learn how Pap and HPV tests are done, how often testing should be done, and how are HPV test results are reported.

  1. HPV vaccination among French girls and women aged 14-23 years and the relationship with their mothers' uptake of Pap smear screening: a study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Lutringer-Magnin, D; Cropet, C; Barone, G; Canat, G; Kalecinski, J; Leocmach, Y; Vanhems, P; Chauvin, F; Lasset, C

    2013-10-25

    HPV vaccination is recommended in France for girls aged 14 and for those aged 15-23 before sexual debut or who have become sexually active within the previous year. The first aim was to describe vaccination practice among 14-23-year-old girls visiting a general practitioner. A second objective was to investigate factors associated with starting vaccination among girls aged 14-18, in particular the regular practice of Pap-smear screening (PSS) by their mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2009. A total of 87 general practitioners from the large Rhône-Alpes region contributed data on 502 girls/women who came for consultation. 231 (46.0%) of these girls/women had begun the process of HPV vaccination (68.2%, 56.9% and 18.7% of the 14-16, 17-20 and 21-23-year-olds respectively) of whom 139 (60.2%) had received all three doses. 92 girls/women (39.8%) had received only one or two doses at the time of study. However, in 71 (77.2%) cases, the gap between the last dose received and the time of study was within the between-dose interval recommended in the vaccination schedule. GPs reported that 16 (11.5%) had mentioned side effects following injections. Having a mother who practised regular PSS (Odds Ratio 6.2 [1.5-25.8]), having never lived with a partner (4.6 [1.6-13.5]) and vaccination against hepatitis B (3.2 [1.6-6.1]) were found to be independently correlated with the initiation of HPV vaccination among girls/women aged 14-18 years. Two years after the start of the programme, only half of girls/women aged 14-23 years had begun the process of HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination status was correlated with PSS in the mother, family status and hepatitis B vaccination. Such information may help to better target girls who are less likely to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project--II. Compliance with screening follow-up of abnormal cervical smears.

    PubMed

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Wells, H B

    1994-12-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a community-wide cancer education program to address the problem of cervical cancer incidence and mortality among minority women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. This paper reports program results with regard to increasing compliance with follow-up for abnormal cervical smears. An analysis of trends prior to and after implementation of the educational program was conducted in one private and two public health primary care clinics to provide an assessment of impact of the project in improving compliance with follow-up among black women. A similar analysis also was conducted for white women. The results of medical record reviews of follow-up procedures for 878 abnormal cervical smears suggested a modest program effect among black women. The percentage of black women who returned for follow-up and treatment of an abnormal cervical smear significantly increased during the time the program was in effect. The trend analysis further indicated that the decline did not begin prior to the intervention period and was maintained throughout the duration of the intervention. No significant change in the percentage who returned for follow-up was found for white women.

  3. The clinical application of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion Pap smear: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Yuanhang; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the clinical application value and correlation with cervical lesions' progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA test in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/borderline) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs/mild dyskaryosis) cytological abnormalities. A meta-analysis was conduct by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979-2016), Wanfang Date (1998-2016), VIP (1989-2016), PubMed (1950-2016), Web of Science (1950-2016) and Elsevier Science Direct (1998-2016), for studies on effect of HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in women with ASCUS/LSIL/dyskaryosis. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan4.2 software. The subgroups analysis was conducted according to women's initial HPV DNA test results. Six articles with a total of 1024 subjects were included in the study. It was concluded that a positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA tested result have a higher risk of progressing to CIN2+ in future 2 years than a negative result. The pooled relative risk (RR) is 3.08, (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-6.07, P < 0.05). The same situation was also observed in the subgroup of HPV DNA tested positive group and HPV DNA tested unlimited group. The pooled RR value of the two subgroups was, respectively, 1.98, (95% CI = 1.19-1.19, P < 0.05) and 7.58, (95% CI = 3.64-3.64, P < 0.05). A positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result suggested the women with ASCUS, or LSIL Pap smear was in a truly dangerous position, which is an adverse prognostic factor. It suggested that cervical lesions stay in a progressing status and these women should be referred for colposcopy and strengthen follow-up promptly. Whereas, women with a negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result can increase follow-up interval, by comprehensively considering their situation, thus, avoiding unnecessary colposcopy and

  4. Investigation of the Role of Training Health Volunteers in Promoting Pap Smear Test Use among Iranian Women Based on the Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Leila; Harami, Zahra Khiyali; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is known as one of the most prevalent types of cancers and a major public health problem in developing countries which can be detected by Pap test, prevented, and treated. Despite the effective role of Pap test in decreasing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer, it is still one the most common causes of cancer-related deaths among women, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of educational interventions implemented by health volunteers based on protection motivation theory (PMT) on promoting Pap test use among women. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 health volunteers and 420 women. The study participants were divided into an intervention and a control group. Data were collected using a valid self-reported questionnaire including demographic variables and PMT constructs which was completed by both groups before and 2 months after the intervention. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 19 and were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent T-test, and descriptive statistical methods. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The findings of this study showed that the mean scores of PMT constructs (i.e. perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, fear, response-costs, self-efficacy, and intention) increased in the intervention group after the intervention (P<0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding response efficacy after the intervention (P=0.06). The rate of Pap test use also increased by about 62.9% among the study women. This study showed a significant positive relationship between PMT-based training and Pap test use. The results also revealed the successful contribution of health volunteers to training cervical cancer screening. Thus, training interventions based on PMT are suggested to be designed and implemented and health volunteers are recommended to be employed for educational

  5. Rates of abnormalities and infectious agents in cervical smears from female inmates in Texas: comparison with private and university clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Logrono, R; Wong, J Y

    1999-09-01

    Inmates are generally considered a high-risk population for gynecologic neoplasia and sexually transmitted diseases. Cervical smears from prisoners of the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) were expected initially to have higher rates of cellular abnormalities and infectious agents than do smears from the general population. The cytologic findings from 25,522 TDC gynecologic smears were compared with those of 6883 cases from The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) affiliated physician private clinics, and with 56,178 from the UTMB hospital clinics. The period of study was from September 1995 to February 1998. This study revealed a 5.23% higher rate of abnormalities for TDC gynecologic smears as compared with that for the private clinic smears. However, the TDC rate of abnormalities was unexpectedly 1.08% lower than that for the UTMB clinic smears. These unexpected findings were probably the result of a more selected high-risk population referred to the UTMB clinics. The TDC smears showed also the highest incidence of trichomoniasis.

  6. Atypical Findings on Cervicovaginal Smears Correlate with Cervical Involvement by Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors of the Uterus.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Krisztina Z; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Ormenisan, Claudia; Seydafkan, Shabnam; Mosunjac, Marina B

    2015-01-01

    A malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) is a high-grade neoplasm commonly arising from the uterus. Patients present with bleeding and a mass protruding from the cervix. This study was designed to correlate Papanicolaou (Pap) smear findings with histological findings in women diagnosed with MMMT. Women diagnosed with MMMT were identified. Preoperative Pap tests were correlated with histological findings. Statistical analysis was performed to assess associations between abnormal Pap tests and histological findings. Forty patients with MMMT were included in the study. Age ranged from 37-85 years and tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 21 cm. In presurgical Pap tests (4 conventional and 36 liquid based), 11 smears (27.5%) were diagnosed as negative, 5 (12.5%) as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6 (15%) as atypical glandular cells, 16 (40%) as malignant and 2 (5%) as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Malignant cells detected on Pap smears showed a strong correlation with endocervical involvement by MMMT (p = 0.002). Larger tumors were more likely to involve the cervix (p = 0.0115). The Pap test can predict cervical involvement by MMMT. On Pap smears, MMMT cells showed no correlation with other adverse histological features (lymphovascular invasion, myoinvasion or adnexal involvement). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  8. Progression of abnormal MIB-1 staining patterns of reserve cells in cervical smears from women ultimately developing high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Frederike C; van Haaften, Carolien; Kuijpers, Johan C; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Boon, Mathilde E

    2006-01-01

    To assess, in a longitudinal study in women diagnosed with high grade squamous epithelial lesion (HSIL), the progression over time of proliferative activity in reserve cells using population screening cervical cytology specimens. Twenty consecutive, unselected patients with HSIL lesions were part of the national cervical screening program. From the archives, for each patient, the last prior normal population screening smear was included in the study. Concurrent sets of cervical smears from 80 age-matched women without pathology formed the controls. The original slides were stained using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. The fraction of MIB-1-positive reserve cells was assessed using systematic random sampling and running progressive means assessment to ensure a sufficient sample size. The proliferation fraction in reserve cells of HSIL patients was significantly raised (mean, 65.0%; range, 53.5-94.1%; p < 0.01) as compared with that in concurrent controls (mean, 12.8%; range, 1.9-45.4%). Prior smears from HSIL patients, although without morphologic abnormalities, had abnormally high proliferation fractions (mean, 59.1%; range, 1.0-94.7%), significantly raised over those from concurrent controls (mean, 9.4%; range In population-based cervical smear screening, HSIL patients already have abnormally raised proliferation fractions of reserve cells, even without morphologic changes in squamous cells, 1-5 (mean, 3.6) years prior to diagnosis.

  9. Papanicolaou smear findings in solid-organ transplant recipients compared with normal subjects according to the Bethesda 2001 system.

    PubMed

    Ok Atılgan, Alev; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Haberal, A Nihan; Durukan, Elif; Kuşcu, Esra; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer including cervical cancer compared with woman in the general population, mostly due to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. The Papanicolaou smear remains the primary method of screening cervical pathology including preinvasive and invasive lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate Pap smear findings in solid-organ transplant recipients, determine the prevalence of abnormal smears, and compare these patients with the general population. We retrospectively examined 111 women patients who received liver or kidney transplant between January 1990 to December 2012 at Başkent University Ankara Hospital. Pap smear findings were compared with normal control patients matched for same age and technical procedure of cervical cytology. To selection of control patients, propensity score matching program was performed. All Pap smears were re-examined according to Bethesda 2001 criteria. In 111 transplant patients, 2 patients (1.8%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 8 patients (7.2%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 15 patients (13.5%) had Candida infection, 2 patients (1.8%) had Trichomonas vaginalis, 1 patient (0.9%) had herpes simplex infection, 13 patients (11.7%) had bacterial vaginosis, 15 patients (13.5%) had reactive changes due to inflammation, and 18 patients (16.2%) had atrophy. When we compared our results with the control group, there were statistically significant differences (P ≤ .05) between the 2 groups in epithelial cell abnormalities (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), Candida infection, bacterial vaginosis, and atrophy. Pap smear screening potentially may help recognize cervical preinvasive and invasive lesions. The risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is greater in transplant recipients because of immunosuppressive therapy. The incidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was significantly greater

  10. Visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid: a good alternative to pap smear for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Momna; Sultana, Syeda Seema; Jabeen, Nigar; Arain, Uzma; Khans, Salma

    2015-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection of cervix using 3% acetic acid as a screening test for early detection of cervical cancer taking histopathology as the gold standard. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from July 1 to December 31, 2012 and comprised all sexually active women aged 19-60 years. During speculum examination 3% acetic acid was applied over the cervix with the help of cotton swab. The observations were noted as positive or negative on visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application according to acetowhite changes. Colposcopy-guided cervical biopsy was done in patients with positive or abnormal looking cervix. Colposcopic-directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard to assess visual inspection readings. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. There were 500 subjects with a mean age of 35.74 ± 9.64 years. Sensitivity, specifically, positive predicted value, negative predicted value of visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application was 93.5%, 95.8%, 76.3%, 99%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.6%. Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application is an effective method of detecting pre-invasive phase of cervical cancer and a good alternative to cytological screening for cervical cancer in resource-poor setting like Pakistan and can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  11. Pap Smear: Still Necessary After Hysterectomy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a routine screening test for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. If you had a partial hysterectomy — when the ... Pruthi, M.D. Feldman S, et al. Screening for cervical cancer. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 17, ...

  12. DeepPap: Deep Convolutional Networks for Cervical Cell Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Le Lu; Nogues, Isabella; Summers, Ronald M; Liu, Shaoxiong; Yao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    Automation-assisted cervical screening via Pap smear or liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a highly effective cell imaging based cancer detection tool, where cells are partitioned into "abnormal" and "normal" categories. However, the success of most traditional classification methods relies on the presence of accurate cell segmentations. Despite sixty years of research in this field, accurate segmentation remains a challenge in the presence of cell clusters and pathologies. Moreover, previous classification methods are only built upon the extraction of hand-crafted features, such as morphology and texture. This paper addresses these limitations by proposing a method to directly classify cervical cells-without prior segmentation-based on deep features, using convolutional neural networks (ConvNets). First, the ConvNet is pretrained on a natural image dataset. It is subsequently fine-tuned on a cervical cell dataset consisting of adaptively resampled image patches coarsely centered on the nuclei. In the testing phase, aggregation is used to average the prediction scores of a similar set of image patches. The proposed method is evaluated on both Pap smear and LBC datasets. Results show that our method outperforms previous algorithms in classification accuracy (98.3%), area under the curve (0.99) values, and especially specificity (98.3%), when applied to the Herlev benchmark Pap smear dataset and evaluated using five-fold cross validation. Similar superior performances are also achieved on the HEMLBC (H&E stained manual LBC) dataset. Our method is promising for the development of automation-assisted reading systems in primary cervical screening.

  13. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  14. Women’s Experiences of Abnormal Cervical Cytology: Illness Representations, Care Processes, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Karasz, Alison; McKee, M. Diane; Roybal, Krista

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to explore the conceptual representations of illness and experiences with care among women who have learned of an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear result. METHODS The study took place in 2 primary care, family practice clinics serving low-income, multiethnic patients in the Bronx, New York City. We conducted qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews with 17 patients who had recently learned of abnormal findings on a Pap smear. After a preliminary coding phase, the investigators identified 2 important outcomes: distress and dissatisfaction with care, and factors affecting these outcomes. A model was developed on a subset of the data, which was then tested on each transcript with an explicit search for disconfirming cases. A revised coding scheme conforming to the dimensions of the model was used to recode transcripts. RESULTS Women reported complex, syncretic models of illness that included both biomedical and folk elements. Many concerns, especially nonbiomedical concerns, were not addressed in interactions with physicians. An important source of both distress and dissatisfaction with care was the women’s lack of understanding of the inherent ambiguity of Pap smear results. When perceived care needs, which included emotional support as well as information, were not met, distress and dissatisfaction were greatly increased. CONCLUSION In this study, patients’ illness models and expectations of care were not routinely addressed in their conversations with physicians about abnormal Pap smear results. When physicians can take the time to review patients’ illness models carefully, distress and dissatisfaction with care can be reduced considerably. PMID:15055408

  15. Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Abnormal Results From Cancer Screening Reports.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carlton R; Farrag, Ashraf; Ashkin, Evan

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies show that follow-up of abnormal cancer screening results, such as mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, is frequently not performed in a timely manner. A contributing factor is that abnormal results may go unrecognized because they are buried in free-text documents in electronic medical records (EMRs), and, as a result, patients are lost to follow-up. By identifying abnormal results from free-text reports in EMRs and generating alerts to clinicians, natural language processing (NLP) technology has the potential for improving patient care. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of NLP software for extracting abnormal results from free-text mammography and Pap smear reports stored in an EMR. A sample of 421 and 500 free-text mammography and Pap reports, respectively, were manually reviewed by a physician, and the results were categorized for each report. We tested the performance of NLP to extract results from the reports. The 2 assessments (criterion standard versus NLP) were compared to determine the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP. When NLP was compared with manual review for mammography reports, the results were as follows: precision, 98% (96%-99%); recall, 100% (98%-100%); and accuracy, 98% (96%-99%). For Pap smear reports, the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP were all 100%. Our study developed NLP models that accurately extract abnormal results from mammography and Pap smear reports. Plans include using NLP technology to generate real-time alerts and reminders for providers to facilitate timely follow-up of abnormal results.

  16. The Lived Experience of Women With Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears Receiving Care in a Military Health Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    cytologic screening has been demonstrated. It is estimated that the rate of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced by as much as 70% because of... invasive cervical cancer when detection, surveillance, and treatment occur early in the course of cervical pathology. Interpreting abnormal results...procedure has greatly reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer . Despite the effectiveness of this screening tool, patient compliance with

  17. Factors associated with psychological distress following colposcopy among women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology: a prospective study within the Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears (TOMBOLA).

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Gray, Nicola; Thornton, Alison; Cruickshank, Margaret; Little, Julian

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about psychological after-effects of colposcopy and associated investigations and treatment in women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. We investigated psychological distress following colposcopy and related procedures. Nine hundred and eighty-nine women aged 20-59 years with routine cytology showing low-grade abnormalities were recruited to the Trial of Management of Borderline and other Low-grade Abnormal smears and attended colposcopy. If the cervical transformation zone (TZ) was colposcopically abnormal, women had immediate loop excision or diagnostic punch biopsies, with treatment if these showed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3). Women completed socio-demographic and psychosocial questionnaires at recruitment and before colposcopy. Six weeks after their last procedure, women completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with significant psychological distress (IES ≥ 9). Analyses were stratified by colposcopic impression. The response rate was 74%. Six weeks after the last procedure, 86 (21%) of 391 women with a normal TZ had significant distress compared with 144 (42%) of 337 with an abnormal TZ. In both groups, significant distress was associated with anxiety pre-colposcopy and pain or discharge afterwards. Additional variables predicting distress in women with a normal TZ were worries about having sex and dissatisfaction with support from others. In women with an abnormal TZ, additional predictors of distress were younger age, CIN2/3, bleeding following colposcopy and worries about having cancer. Substantial proportions of women experience psychological distress after colposcopy and related procedures, even when the colposcopy is normal. This is an important cost of cervical screening. Interventions to alleviate these adverse psychological effects are required. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan.

  19. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups Aim: This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Materials and Methods: Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. Results: The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). Conclusion: We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan. PMID:22438612

  20. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  1. Buccal smear

    MedlinePlus

    Sex chromatin test; Buccal swab ... is used in this way, it's called the sex chromatin test. ... BJ. Barr body analysis buccal smear for staining sex chromatin mass - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  2. CSF smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003768.htm CSF smear To use the sharing features on this ... around the spinal cord and brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the brain and spinal cord from injury. ...

  3. Pemphigus vulgaris of the cervix: diagnostic difficulties associated with the Pap test.

    PubMed

    Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Karina; Stall, Jaqueline; Henrique Condeixa de França, Paulo; Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Lara; Stefanello Bublitz, Giuliano; Loos, Beliza; Carvalho Costa, Luciana; Fronza Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare mucocutaneous disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies against epithelial cell surface glycoproteins, resulting in loss of cell adhesion and intraepithelial blister formation. Cervical involvement in PV has been poorly reported, and there is little information regarding the criteria about consequential cytological changes identified in a Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smear (Pap smear). Here, we report a case of PV manifesting in the cervix as well as the difficulty associated with the cytomorphological identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells. This case involved a 40-year-old patient with no history of Pap test abnormalities and no prior diagnosis of PV. In the cytological assessment, cells were identified both in isolation and in clusters that exhibited round nuclei of increased volume, inconspicuous nucleoli, and perinuclear halos. The patient underwent a cervical biopsy that revealed vesiculobullous lesions and morphological pattern consistent with PV. A skin biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We concluded that knowledge of PV cytomorphology is important because difficulties associated with the identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells might be responsible for false positive diagnoses of cervical neoplasia. However, a suspected diagnosis of PV is possible if the cytological findings are carefully correlated with the clinical data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

  5. Pilot Study of an Open-source Image Analysis Software for Automated Screening of Conventional Cervical Smears.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Parikshit; Ganguli, Prosenjit; Barui, Sanghita; Deb, Prabal

    2018-01-01

    The Pap stained cervical smear is a screening tool for cervical cancer. Commercial systems are used for automated screening of liquid based cervical smears. However, there is no image analysis software used for conventional cervical smears. The aim of this study was to develop and test the diagnostic accuracy of a software for analysis of conventional smears. The software was developed using Python programming language and open source libraries. It was standardized with images from Bethesda Interobserver Reproducibility Project. One hundred and thirty images from smears which were reported Negative for Intraepithelial Lesion or Malignancy (NILM), and 45 images where some abnormality has been reported, were collected from the archives of the hospital. The software was then tested on the images. The software was able to segregate images based on overall nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio, coefficient of variation (CV) in nuclear size, nuclear membrane irregularity, and clustering. 68.88% of abnormal images were flagged by the software, as well as 19.23% of NILM images. The major difficulties faced were segmentation of overlapping cell clusters and separation of neutrophils. The software shows potential as a screening tool for conventional cervical smears; however, further refinement in technique is required.

  6. The application of human papilloma virus genotyping for the identification of neoplasm lesions in the cervix of women with abnormal cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Barbara; Heimrath, Jerzy; Ciszek, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A connection between infections with a highly oncogenic type of human papilloma virus and the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer has been proven both experimentally and clinically. The period after which persistent virus infection will lead to the development of precancerous and invasive lesions is dependent on, among others, the HPV genotype. The oncogenic types of human papilloma virus destabilize the genome of an infected cell and thus initiate the carcinogenesis process. The aim of this work was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes among women with abnormal cytological smears and the correlation of this data with the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia exacerbation. The sample consisted of 75 women of child-bearing age (16-43 years old) with an abnormal cytological smear and positive test identifying an infection with an oncogenic type of human papilloma virus. In every case histopathological verification, aimed at excluding pathologies in the endocervix, was conducted using a colposcopy with guided biopsy and cervix abrasion. The authors found that the frequency of occurrence of different HPV genotypes of the groups of cytological diagnoses ASC-US, LSIL and HSIL do not differ statistically (p = 0.57). However, what is noteworthy is the more common occurrence of HPV 16 in type LSIL lesions (45.45%) and HPV 18 of a more advanced type HSIL (37.50%) pathology. Through the verification of the cytology results with histopathological diagnosis of the above groups the authors obtained statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) of individual pathological states. When regarding cytological HSIL diagnosis, CIN 1 was never diagnosed, while in other cytological groups cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of a low degree constituted over 40%. Analogically about 40% of HSIL diagnoses after histopathological verification turned out to be cancer of a pre-invasive state (CIS

  7. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.

  8. A prospective study of women with ASCUS or LSIL pap smears at baseline and HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive: a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bruno, M T; Ferrara, M; Fava, V; Barrasso, G; Panella, M M

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result. The efficiency of testing women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is less clear. For this reason we used a new HPV test that detects E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA), which might have a higher specificity. The objective of this prospective study was to assess whether HPV E6/E7 mRNA positivity in women with ASCUS and LSIL at baseline, is able to predict those women who have a high risk of developing a histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) or worse lesion. We took into consideration the women's age and HPV DNA genotype and followed them up for 3 years. Cervical samples from women with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 90) or LSIL (n = 222) were tested for the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and the women were monitored for the development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Thirteen patients with ASCUS and 17 with LSIL did not complete follow-up. All patients with LSIL and ASCUS, enrolled in this study, had confirmed lesions at the colposcopic examination. Follow-up was available for 312 women, 193 were positive in the HR-HPV DNA test and 93 had a HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive test. Finally, 22 women positive in the HPV DNA test for high-risk genotypes and with positive E6/E7 mRNA had a histologically confirmed CIN2+. Only two cases with negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA had CIN2+. The study shows that women positive in the HPV E6/E7 mRNA test have a greater risk of malignant progression of cervical lesions and therefore deserve greater attention and earlier check-ups.

  9. Inflammation on the Cervical Papanicolaou Smear: Evidence for Infection in Asymptomatic Women?

    PubMed Central

    Tsirmpa, Ioanna; Chasiakou, Anthia; Tsouma, Iliana; Politi, Ekaterina; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2013-01-01

    Background. The significance of the possible presence of infection on the Pap smear of asymptomatic women based on cytological criteria is practically unknown. Materials and Methods. A total of 1117 asymptomatic nonpregnant women had Pap smear tests and vaginal as well as cervical cultures completed (622 with and 495 without inflammation on the Pap smear). Results. Out of the 622 women with inflammation on Pap test, 251 (40.4%) had negative cultures (normal flora present), while 371 (59.6%) women had positive cultures with different pathogens. In contrast, the group of women without inflammation on Pap test displayed significantly increased percentage of negative cultures (67.1%, P < 0.001) and decreased percentage of positive cultures (32.9%, P < 0.001). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed more frequently in both groups and significantly more in the group with inflammation on Pap smear compared to the group without inflammation (P < 0.02). Conclusions. A report of inflammatory changes on the cervical Pap smear cannot be used to reliably predict the presence of a genital tract infection, especially in asymptomatic women. Nevertheless, the isolation of different pathogens in about 60% of the women with inflammation on the Pap smear cannot be overlooked and must be regarded with concern. PMID:24204103

  10. Association of cytologic grade of anal "Pap" smears with viral loads of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 52 detected in the same specimens from men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Utaipat, Utaiwan; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Supindham, Taweewat; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Chaidaeng, Butsayarat; Wongthanee, Antika; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Ruanpeng, Darin; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) load has been linked to cellular abnormalities of the uterine cervix, and proposed as predictors of HPV persistence and progression of dysplasia to cervical cancer. However, the association of HPV viral load and anal dysplasia and cancer has not been as thoroughly investigated. To examine the association of the viral loads of high-risk HPV types 16, 18, and 52, with the cytologic severity grading in anal-swab specimens of MSM with and without HIV-1 co-infection. A cross-sectional study recruited 200 MSM in northern Thailand from July 2012 to January 2013. Real-time qPCR amplified portion of the HPV E6E7 gene, as well as the human β-globin gene to validate adequacy of the anal specimens and to normalize interpatient viral-load comparisons. Genotyping by linear-array assay identified and distinguished types 16, 18, and 52. HPV-16, and -18 viral loads increased with respect to the abnormality of the cytologic diagnoses (p<0.05 for HPV-16, p<0.01 for HPV-18). HIV-1 positivity was associated with higher HPV-18 viral load (p=0.006). HPV-16 viral loads ≥10 2.24 copies per 5000 anal cells, and HPV-18 loads ≥10 3.15 , were independently associated with abnormal cytology on logistic regression (p=0.022, p=0.041, respectively). Positive predictive values were 85.2% (23/27) and 80.0% (44/55) for the high viral load of a particular HPV-16 and the combined HPV-16, -18 and -52 types, respectively. High viral loads of HPV types 16 and 18 appear to be associated with anal cytologic abnormalities. The clinical utility of HPV viral loads to predict risk for anal cancer remains to be determined by a larger prospective cohort with sufficient frequency of high-grade dysplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pap Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms: cervix; [cited 2017 Feb 3]; [ ... screens]. Available from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?cdrid=46133 National Cancer Institute [Internet]. ...

  12. [Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Della Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    HEALTH PROBLEM: Cervical cancer is a disease which is highly preventable by means of Pap test screening for the precancerous lesions, which can be easily treated. Furthermore, in the near future, control of the disease will be enhanced by the vaccination which prevents the infection of those human papillomavirus types that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. The effectiveness of screening in drastically reducing cervical cancer incidence has been clearly demonstrated. The epidemiology of cervical cancer in industrialised countries is now determined mostly by the Pap test coverage of the female population and by the ability of health systems to assure appropriate follow up after an abnormal Pap test. Today there are two fully automated systems for computer-assisted Pap test: the BD FocalPoint and the Hologic Imager. Recently, the Hologic Integrated Imager, a semi-automated system, was launched. The two fully automated systems are composed of a central scanner, where the machine examines the cytologic slide, and of one or more review stations, where the cytologists analyze the slides previously centrally scanned. The softwares used by the two systems identify the fields of interest so that the cytologists can look only at those points, automatically pointed out by the review station. Furthermore, the FocalPoint system classifies the slides according to their level of risk of containing signs of relevant lesions. Those in the upper classes--about one fifth of the slides--are labelled as « further review », while those in the lower level of risk, i.e. slides that have such a low level of risk that they can be considered as negative with no human review, are labelled as « no further review ». The aim of computer-assisted Pap test is to reduce the time of slide examination and to increase productivity. Furthermore, the number of errors due to lack of attention may decrease. Both the systems can be applied to liquidbased cytology, while only the BD Focal

  13. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Feulgen Stain be a Reliable Biomarker over PAP Stain for Estimation of Micronuclei Score?

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Umesh Chandra; Chandolia, Betina; Manjunath, S M; Basu, Shiva; Verma, Silvie

    2016-01-01

    almost twice as high Mn in PAP stained smears is suggestive of cell injury which is collimated by formation of keratin bodies, resulting in its misinterpretation as Mn, leading to false positive results. Hence, it was concluded that PAP stain can be used to identify abnormal cytological changes resulting from mutagenic agent but not to interpret Mn. PMID:27891448

  15. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+) among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times), and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count <350 cells/μL had a significant correlation with ASCUS+ (P = 0.043). There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening. PMID:21211065

  16. Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Adhya, A K; Mahesha, V; Srinivasan, R; Nijhawan, R; Rajwanshi, A; Suri, V; Dhaliwal, L K

    2009-12-01

    To perform an audit of all smears reported as atypical glandular cells (AGC) using the Bethesda system (TBS) 2001. A total of 18 376 cervical smears were screened from January 2005 to June 2007, of which 65 cases were reported as AGC. Follow-up histology was available in 31 cases (47.7%), in whom a detailed cytological/histological correlation was carried out. AGC constituted 0.35% of all Pap smears. Follow-up histology was normal or benign in 20 cases, whereas a squamous or glandular abnormality was seen in 11 cases. Squamous abnormalities included one case each of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3 and five cases of squamous cell carcinoma. All glandular epithelial abnormalities were endometrial in origin and included two endometrial adenocarcinomas and one uterine serous carcinoma. Neither in situ nor invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervix was observed. Review of smears and reclassification as AGC, not otherwise specified and favour neoplasia revealed a higher proportion of abnormality in the latter group, reaffirming the utility of subtyping. The median age of women with AGC was 41 years. The outcome was analysed with respect to the median age. In women aged equal or more than 40 years, AGC reflected a high-grade squamous or glandular epithelial abnormality in 50% of cases compared with none in those less than 40 years old (P = 0.010). The age of the woman as well as the subtype of atypical glandular cells influences outcome and hence must be taken into consideration while formulating an acceptable management strategy in these women in a low-resource setting.

  17. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infections and cervical cytological abnormalities among Korean women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, You-Hyun; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Sung-Hoon; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kang, Young-Mo; Nam, Eon-Jeong; Park, Won; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Yun-Jung; Suh, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Hur, Nam Wook; Lee, Jisoo

    2010-10-01

    We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study of 134 sexually active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cytological abnormalities among Korean women with SLE. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, HPV testing and routine cervical cytologic examination was performed. HPV was typed using a hybrid method or the polymerase chain reaction. Data on 4,595 healthy women were used for comparison. SLE patients had greater prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (24.6% vs. 7.9%, P<0.001, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 2.5-5.7) and of abnormal cervical cytology (16.4 vs. 2.8%, P<0.001, OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-7.8) compared with controls. SLE itself was identified as independent risk factors for high risk HPV infection among Korean women (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7) along with ≥2 sexual partners (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.2-61.6), and Pap smear abnormalities (OR 97.3, 95% CI 6.5-1,456.7). High-risk HPV infection and cervical cytological abnormalities were more common among Korean women with SLE than controls. SLE itself may be a risk factor for HPV infection among Korean women, suggesting the importance of close monitoring of HPV infections and abnormal Pap smears in SLE patients.

  18. Significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for Papanicolaou smears in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Keating, J T; Wang, H H

    2001-04-25

    The current study was conducted to determine the significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The reports for all Papanicolaou (Pap) smears viewed in the study institution's cytology laboratory over a 6-month period were reviewed. Women were divided into premenopausal (age < or = 45 years), perimenopausal (ages 46-54 years), and postmenopausal (age > or = 55 years) categories. Slide review and 2-year follow-up were obtained for selected cases diagnosed as ASCUS. ASCUS cases among the perimenopausal women were compared with an age-matched control group. The total number of abnormal Pap smears in the premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal categories were 770 (6.8%), 104 (4.3%), and 67 (2.9%), with 482, 83, and 41 diagnoses of ASCUS, respectively. The ratio of ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) was 2.2 overall and 1.9, 7.5, and 4.1, respectively, for each group (P < 0.001). The positive predictive value for a diagnosis of SIL on subsequent Pap smears or biopsies was 22%, 12.2%, and 29.7%, respectively. Slide review showed that the premenopausal ASCUS cases appeared to have a higher percentage of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio increase and nuclear membrane irregularities compared with the other categories (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively) and the perimenopausal group was found to have more ASCUS in metaplastic cells (P = 0.03). In perimenopausal women, slides diagnosed as ASCUS demonstrated more air-drying artifact than the control group (P = 0.004) but had less obvious atrophy (P = 0.01). Despite a decreased abnormality rate with increasing age, the results of the current study show that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups appear to have elevated ASCUS-to-SIL ratios. ASCUS appears to have a particularly low positive predictive value for SIL in perimenopausal women, and therefore most likely is overcalled in this age group. This may be attributable

  19. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears.

    PubMed

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59 years, were consecutively selected and then followed by participant observation during their examinations and treatment in hospital. They were interviewed on entering the study, a week following their surgery, and 6 months later. The material collected was analysed through a dialectic process consisting of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment, anxiety flared up with recurrent check-ups. The bio-medical differentiation between pre-stage and actual cancer provided no comfort to the participants, who continued to see themselves as having early stage cancer.

  20. [Technology and disciplinary fields: cytotechnicians and implementation of the Pap test in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Pumar, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Pap test as a primary technology in the control of cervical cancer in Brazil was the result of choices, agreements and disputes among certain professional groups, including physicians from various specialisations, pharmacists, biologists, biomedical scientists and cytotechnologists. The first part of the paper describes the process of formulating Brazil's first screening campaigns using the Pap smear, and the subsequent emergence of the profession of cytotechnology, whose practitioners interpret this test. Second, based on questions raised by international historiography in the field of science and technology, we explore in detail how the adoption of the Pap smear transpired within the Brazilian context, focussing on the debates among the various professional groups with an interest in the suitability of the test and on the relationships between the public and private healthcare sectors. We show that the professional career of cytotechnologists and the way in which the Pap smear has been implemented as a central technology for cervical cancer screening in Brazil have been shaped by the conflicting views of this technology held by different disciplines as well as by the relationship between these disciplines and labour market dynamics.

  1. Accuracy of next-generation sequencing for the identification of clinically relevant variants in cytology smears in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jordan E; Zhang, Pan; Hoda, Rana S; Geraghty, Brian; Rennert, Hanna; Narula, Navneet; Fernandes, Helen D

    2017-06-01

    Minimally invasive diagnostic procedures such as needle-core biopsy and fine-needle aspiration provide adequate material for molecular analyses. Advances in precision oncology are trending toward the interrogation of limited amounts of genomic material to guide clinical and therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the minimum cellularity needed on cytologic smears for the identification of clinically relevant variants with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Thirty cases of cytologically diagnosed, resection-proven primary lung adenocarcinoma were identified. Nineteen of the 30 cases were known to harbor actionable variants. One Diff-Quik (DQ)-stained slide and 1 Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained slide were selected from each case. Cases were categorized as containing fewer than 100 tumor cells, 100 to 500 tumor cells, or more than 500 tumor cells. NGS was performed on the Ion Torrent platform. NGS was successfully performed on all cell blocks and on 90% of the smears. Paired DQ and Pap smears showed similar cellularity, and cases that differed in cellularity were within 1 category of each other. The cases with more than 100 tumor cells had a 93% success rate; this was significantly different from the situation for cases with fewer than 100 tumor cells, which were successfully sequenced only 67% of the time. Overall, NGS was able to provide clinically relevant information for 83% of DQ smears and for 90% of Pap smears tested. The data show a significantly higher likelihood of successful NGS with cytologic smears with more than 100 tumor cells. There was a trend for a higher NGS success rate with Pap smears versus DQ smears. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:398-406. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18–26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60–0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:22581946

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2012-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18-26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer.

  4. Cervical cytological abnormalities and human papilloma virus infection in women infected with HIV in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Thunga, Suchitra; Andrews, Anusmitha; Ramapuram, John; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kini, Hema; Unnikrishnan, B; Adhikari, Prabha; Singh, Prakhar; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Kadam, Anagha; Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between CD4 count, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 HIV-infected women attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic. They underwent Pap smear and cervical HPV DNA testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 57.7%. HPV 16 was the commonest genotype found (38.5%); HPV 16 and 18 put together contributed to 73.3% of HPV infection; 27.5% of HIV-infected women had squamous cell abnormalities. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was less likely among women with CD4 count > 500/mm 3 (12%) and in those without opportunistic infections (17.8%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was higher in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater lesions (85.7%) as compared to women with normal cytology (52.1%). The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women warrants the need for regular Pap smear screening in these women and routine HPV vaccination for adolescents to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in India. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. [Waiting time for the first colposcopic examination in women with abnormal Papanicolaou test].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.

  6. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  7. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  8. HPV, Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Related Knowledge Among a Sample of Female Dental Students in India.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Karunakar, P; Deshpande, Kopparesh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC) and the Pap test among female dental students of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus (HPV) (8 items), cervical cancer (4 items) and the Pap smear (6 items) was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation (SD) for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined. Based on the year of study, significant differences in knowledge of HPV were noted for questions on symptoms (p=0.01); transmission from asymptomatic partners (p=0.002); treatment with antibiotics (p=0.002); start of sexual activity (p=0.004); and recommended age for HPV vaccination (p=0.01). For knowledge regarding CC, significance was observed for the age group being affected (p=0.008) and symptoms of the disease in early stages (p=0.001). Indications for Pap smear tests like symptoms' of vaginal discharge (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.01) and women with children (p=0.02) had significant difference based on the year of study. Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. However, significant variation with religion was observed only for two preventive measures of CC (Pap test; p=0.004) and HPV vaccination (p=0.003). Likewise, only the frequency of Pap test showed a significant difference for religion (p=0.001). This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden.

  9. PAPNET-assisted primary screening of conventional cervical smears.

    PubMed

    Cenci, M; Nagar, C; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    The PAPNET System is the only device with a neural-network-based-artificial intelligence to detect and show the images of abnormal cells on the monitor to be evaluated in an interactive way. We effectively used the PAPNET in rescreening of conventional cervical smears and we detected its advantages and its disadvantages. In this paper, we report our results from PAPNET-assisted primary screening performed on 20,154 conventional smears. The smears were classified as Negative or as Review. The Negative cases were rapidly rescreened mainly near the coverslip edges, which are the slide areas not analyzed by automated devices because of focusing problems. The Review cases were fully reanalyzed by the optic microscope. In summary, 140 positive smears were detected: 57 cases showed changes due to HPV, 63 LSIL, 15 HSIL, and 5 carcinomas. Therefore, the PAPNET System was confirmed as useful in primary screening of conventional cervical samples as well as rescreening.

  10. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age < or = 70 years was undertaken at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation.

  11. Microarray detection of human papilloma virus genotypes among Turkish women with abnormal cytology at a colposcopy unit

    PubMed Central

    Uzun Çilingir, Işıl; Bengisu, Ergin; Ağaçfidan, Ali; Koksal, Muammer Osman; Topuz, Samet; Berkman, Sinan; İyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a well-known association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of HPV DNA and to compare the results with colposcopic findings among women with abnormal cytology. Material and Methods: A series of 76 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy,punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing. For HPV genotyping, we used a commercially avaliable HPV DNA chip (Genomica-CLART) which is a PCR based microarray system.The HPV test detected 35types of HPV (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18/-26/-31/-33/-35/-39/-40/-42/-43/-44/-45/-51/-52/-53/-54/-56/-58/-59/-61/-62/-66/-70/-71/-72/-73/-81/-83/84/-85/-89). Results: Overall, 44.7% of all patients were HPV positive. HPV was positive in 35%, 51.9%, 77.7% of the ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL groups respectively and HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all groups. 6 %of patients had mutiple infections. 57.8% of biopsy proven SIL’s were HPV positive. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV 16 (54.5%).Colposcopic assessment revealed pathologic findings in 94.7% of biopsy proven SIL cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that the prevalence of HPV in the general population is lower than Western countries, and the prevalence and distribution of genotypes are smilar in patients with abnormal cytology. Further population based studies are needed to determine the prevalance and type distribution of HPV with normal and abnormal cytology in Turkish women. Despite the new technological progress in HPV virion, colposcopy is still very important diagnostic tool in the management of abnormal smears. PMID:24592066

  12. Tuberculosis in Pap samples with emphasis on LBC: Caught only when thought.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Vani; Gupta, Nalini; Suri, Vanita; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2018-05-01

    Despite being a commonly encountered infection, the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis of the uterine cervix is elusive. Though a straightforward diagnosis on tissue sections, identification of typical features of tubercular infection on cervical Pap samples is challenging. In our experience, the infrequent pale staining collections of epithelioid cells are difficult to pick up on Pap stained smears, particularly LBC samples. In this series, 2 of the three samples were reported as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance while 1 was reported as inflammatory at the initial diagnosis. Scattered Langhans' type giant cells may be seen as a subtle clue which should prompt the search for epithelioid cell granulomas. These cases may have a mass lesion clinically while no obvious signs of malignancy on the cervical samples. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pap Smear: Do I Need One If I'm a Virgin?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  14. The Use of Pap Smear and Its Influencing Factors among Women with Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kuang-Hua; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent cancer among Taiwanese women, and can be effectively cured if diagnosed early. Therefore, cervical cancer is worthy of preventive health screening. Due to physical and psychological barriers, patients with disability may be unable to express their physical complaints accurately, thus reducing their access to health…

  15. Program logic: a framework for health program design and evaluation - the Pap nurse in general practice program.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, program logic will be used to 'map out' the planning, development and evaluation of the general practice Pap nurse program in the Australian general practice arena. The incorporation of program logic into the evaluative process supports a greater appreciation of the theoretical assumptions and external influences that underpin general practice Pap nurse activity. The creation of a program logic model is a conscious strategy that results an explicit understanding of the challenges ahead, the resources available and time frames for outcomes. Program logic also enables a recognition that all players in the general practice arena need to be acknowledged by policy makers, bureaucrats and program designers when addressing through policy, issues relating to equity and accessibility of health initiatives. Logic modelling allows decision makers to consider the complexities of causal associations when developing health care proposals and programs. It enables the Pap nurse in general practice program to be represented diagrammatically by linking outcomes (short, medium and long term) with both the program activities and program assumptions. The research methodology used in the evaluation of the Pap nurse in general practice program includes a descriptive study design and the incorporation of program logic, with a retrospective analysis of Australian data from 2001 to 2009. For the purposes of gaining both empirical and contextual data for this paper, a data set analysis and literature review was performed. The application of program logic as an evaluative tool for analysis of the Pap PN incentive program facilitates a greater understanding of complex general practice activity triggers, and also allows this greater understanding to be incorporated into policy to facilitate Pap PN activity, increase general practice cervical smear and ultimately decrease burden of disease.

  16. Trends in Pap Test Practices and Results: An 11-Year Review of the Annual ACHA Pap Test and STI Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a trend analysis of Pap test practices, Pap test results and related women's services and guidelines of college health centers. Participants: College health centers who participated in the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI (sexually transmitted infection) Survey years 2004-2014 (n ranged from 127 to 181 depending on year).…

  17. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-08-04

    The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush ('Just for Me'; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30-48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than women who had undergone a previous

  18. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  19. Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women's intention to first pap test practice.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Lale; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    Given that there are many Iranian women who have never had a Pap smear, this study was designed to develop and validate a measurement tool based on the Protection Motivation Theory to assess factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to perform first Pap testing. In this psychometric research, to determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the Content Validity Ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n=10) reviewed scale items. Reliability was estimated through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (n=30) and internal consistency (n=240). Also, factor analysis (exploratory and conformity) was performed on the data of the sample women who had never had a Pap smear test (n=240). A 26-item questionnaire was developed. The CVI and CVR scores of the scale were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 26-item with seven factors questionnaire (perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation (or intention)) that jointly accounted for 72.76% of the observed variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the data. Internal consistency (range 0.70-0.93) and test-retest reliability (range 0.72-0.96) of sub-scales were acceptable. This study showed that the designed instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring the factors influencing the women's intention to perform their first Pap testing.

  20. Decision making for Pap testing among Pacific Islander women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jie W; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-12-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and past behaviour. The three MAU parameters of subjective value, subjective probability and momentary salience were measured for eight anticipated consequences of having a Pap test (e.g., feeling embarrassed, spending money). Logistic regression indicated that women who had a Pap test (Pap women) had higher total MAU utility scores compared to women who had not had a Pap test within the past three years (No Pap women) (adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.10). In particular, Pap women had higher utilities for the positive consequences 'Detecting cervical cancer early, Peace of mind, and Protecting my family', compared to No Pap women. It is concluded that the connection between utility and behaviour offers a promising pathway toward a better understanding of the decision to undergo Pap testing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Smeared quasidistributions in perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Quasi- and pseudodistributions provide a new approach to determining parton distribution functions from first principles' calculations of QCD. Here, I calculate the flavor nonsinglet unpolarized quasidistribution at one loop in perturbation theory, using the gradient flow to remove ultraviolet divergences. I demonstrate that, as expected, the gradient flow does not change the infrared structure of the quasidistribution at one loop and use the results to match the smeared matrix elements to those in the MS ¯ scheme. This matching calculation is required to relate numerical results obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD computations to light-front parton distribution functions extracted from global analyses of experimental data.

  3. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  4. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer can help find abnormal (changed) cervical cells before they turn into cervical cancer. There are 2 kinds of screening tests that can find abnormal cervical cells: Pap tests, also called Pap smears HPV (human ...

  5. Women's knowledge and attitudes toward anal Pap testing.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daron; Lambert, Rebecca; Waller, Jennifer; Dickens, Porscha; Kabaria, Reena; Han, Chi-Son; Steelman, Charlotte; Fawole, Fiyinfoluwa

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cancer and knowledge and attitudes toward the anal Pap test. A convenience sample of 370 women from the general population 21 years or older completed a 48-question preintervention survey; read an informational pamphlet about anal cancer, HPV, and anal Pap tests; and then completed a 21-question postintervention survey in Augusta, Atlanta, and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about anal cancer, HPV, and the anal Pap test and determined their attitudes toward the anal Pap test. Only preintervention results were considered in this article. Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. Only 17.6% of women had previously heard of anal Pap tests, and the majority knew nothing (48.9%) or only a little (38.5%) about anal cancer. Yet, most women (78.6%) knew that anal Pap tests help to prevent anal cancer, and 86.2% knew that anal Pap tests are not only for people who have anal sex. Only a minority of women recognized known risk factors for anal cancer. Lack of knowledge about anal Pap tests (43.8%), pain or discomfort (41.3%), cost (24.0%), and embarrassment (21.2%) were the main reasons cited for not wanting an anal Pap test. Although most women had limited knowledge about anal cancer and anal Pap tests and few recognized known risk factors for anal cancer, women were receptive to screening. Further implementation of anal Pap testing for women may be improved by understanding women's limited knowledge and concerns.

  6. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  7. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approachmore » using the example of real scalar field theory.« less

  8. Prevalence and predicting factors for anxiety in thai women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Jerachotechueantaveechai, Tanut; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2015-01-01

    To compare prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology (Pap) undergoing colposcopy to that of women attending the outpatient clinic for check-up and to examine predicting factors. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 100 women with abnormal cervical cytology (abnormal Pap group) and 100 women who attended our outpatient clinic for check-up (control group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was employed to determine anxiety in the participants with the score of ≥ 11 suggestive of clinically significant anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and the mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the groups. For those with abnormal Pap, association between clinical factors and anxiety was assessed. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Median age was different between the groups, 44.0 years in the abnormal Pap group and 50.0 years in the control group (p=0.01). The proportion of participants who had more than one sexual partner was higher in the abnormal Pap group, 39.2% vs. 24.7% (p=0.03) and the prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher 14/100 (14.0%) vs. 3/100 (3.0%) (p < 0.01). The prevalence of depression was comparable between the groups. The mean HADS scores for anxiety and depression subscales were significantly higher in the abnormal Pap group, 6.6 vs. 4.8 (P < 0.01) and 3.9 vs. 3.1 (p=0.05), respectively. For the abnormal Pap group, no definite association between clinical factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal Pap awaiting colposcopy was significantly higher than that of normal controls. Special attention including thorough counselling, with use of information leaflets and psychological support, should be directed to these women.

  9. Incidence of High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Patients with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Papanicolaou Smears at Naresuan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Heng, Suttichai; Sirichaisutdhikorn, Daranee

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3) among patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. One-hundred and eighty-seven patients with ASC-US Pap smears who underwent colposcopy with histological study were enrolled between September 2007 and August 2015. Patient factors (including age, parity, current pills used, HIV status, age at first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners) were obtained. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate clinical factors associated with CIN2-3. CIN was diagnosed in 92 of 187 women (49.2%). Sixty-one of these (32.6%) had CIN1 and 31 (16.6%) had CIN2-3. There was no woman who had invasive cancer. There was no correlation of high-grade CIN with factors in this study including age, parity, current pills used, HIV status, age at first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners. Data from this study showed no invasive cervical cancer was found in patients with ASC-US. There was no patient factor associated with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with ASC-US Pap smears.

  10. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, M E; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management decisions. To determine women's preferences for the follow-up of low-grade cervical screening abnormalities. Using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, PubMed was searched for articles published up to December 2010. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were consulted. Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form. Studies were sorted by design. Thirteen studies were included in the review. In all five studies that surveyed women with abnormal tests before any management had started, two-thirds preferred active follow-up, predominantly as immediate colposcopy, to observation, predominantly as repeated Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Even for low-grade abnormal cervical tests, women tend to prefer active management strategies. It may be a challenge to meet their expectations of optimal follow-up when HPV testing is used in primary screening. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  11. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Study on clinical management of HPV(+)/Pap(-) during cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Huang, A J; Zhao, Y; Zou, X L; Yan, J; Zhao, C; Cui, S H; Li, Y Y; Ren, L H; Li, J R; Li, M Z; Wang, Y; Wang, J L; Wei, L H

    2017-11-25

    Objective: To study the clinical management way for HPV(+)/papanicolaou (Pap)(-) during cervical cancer screening. Methods: To analyze retrospectively the data from the patients who had loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) for biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅱ in Peking University People's Hospital from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2014. Results: (1) For biopsy confirmed CIN Ⅱ, HPV positive rate was 98.5% (135/137), Pap test positive [≥atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS)] rate was 69.3% (95/137), there was significant difference between them (χ(2)=43.32, P< 0.01). (2) For the 42 patients with HPV(+)/Pap(-), whose cytology slides were reviewed again. Among them, the interpretations of there were 16 cases confirmed as the same before, while 26 cases were changed to abnormal (≥ASCUS). Cytology be misdiagnosed was 19.0% (26/137) at the first review. Among the 26 cases, 13 (50.0%) cases were missed for the little amount of abnormal cells, 8 (30.8%) cases for mild atypical morphology changed; the other 5 (19.2%) cases missed for stain problems. (3) For the cervical LEEP samples, 37 cases of the pathology diagnosis were upgrade to CIN Ⅲ(+), among them, 2 cases of microinvasive cervical carcinoma, 1 case of invasive cancer, 34 cases of CIN Ⅲ; 37 cases were CINⅠ or no lesion found; 63 cases were still CIN Ⅱ. Four to six months later after LEEP, the cytology abnormal rate was 11.7% (16/137), and the HR-HPV positive rate was 34.3% (47/137). Conclusions: Compared with cytology alone, cytology combined with HPV testing increase the sensitivity of cervical high grade lesion. For the cases of HPV(+)/Pap(-) cases, the cytology slides should be reviewed. The quality control of cervical exfoliate sample collection and interpretation should be strengthened. LEEP procedure is not only a treatment method, but also it could provide samples to confirm the diagnosis.

  13. Impact of HPV testing, HPV vaccine development, and changing screening frequency on national Pap test volume: projections from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    PubMed

    Eltoum, Isam A; Roberson, Janie

    2007-02-25

    The frequently cited number of 50 million annual Papanicolaou cervical screening (Pap) tests performed in the US was based on the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of the 1980s. Since then, monumental changes have occurred. More change will soon follow when primary human papilloma virus (HPV) testing and/or HPV vaccine delivery are fully accepted and implemented. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate the total annual Pap tests performed in the US based on recent NHIS surveys, and 2) to estimate the potential change in the total annual Pap volume produced by changing demographics, reduced screening frequency, HPV testing, and the HPV vaccine. In the NHIS 2000 and NHIS 2005, women were asked to report the frequency of their Pap tests for the 6 years prior to the interview and to report whether they had abnormal findings. The authors analyzed the survey respondents answers to these questions by using SAS Survey Procedures (SAS Institute, NC). The results were stratified by age, and the total national volume was then extrapolated from a similarly stratified 2000 US census. The projected increase of total Pap tests for the next 25 years was determined by using the projected census data. Potential reductions of Pap tests performed secondarily to HPV testing of women >30 years old and of HPV vaccination were also determined. Based on NHIS 2000 and NHIS 2005, 66 million (95% CI, 65-68) and 65 million (95% CI, 64-67) Pap tests were performed in the US, respectively. Had HPV testing been performed in women older than 30 years who had both negative HPV and negative 3-year Pap tests, then 30% (95% CI, 29-32%) of Pap tests would not have been performed. If both HPV testing and vaccination are performed, the total number of Pap tests performed annually is predicted to be reduced by 43% (95% CI, 35-38%). Therefore, despite an expected increase in the population of women eligible for Pap tests, the total number will likely decrease substantially in the future

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  16. Raising Awareness About Cervical Cancer Using Twitter: Content Analysis of the 2015 #SmearForSmear Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Philippe; Moulahi, Bilel; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Mercier, Gregoire; Carbonnel, François

    2017-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women under 45 years of age. To deal with the decrease of smear test coverage in the United Kingdom, a Twitter campaign called #SmearForSmear has been launched in 2015 for the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Its aim was to encourage women to take a selfie showing their lipstick going over the edge and post it on Twitter with a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening. The estimated audience was 500 million people. Other public health campaigns have been launched on social media such as Movember to encourage participation and self-engagement. Their result was unsatisfactory as their aim had been diluted to become mainly a social buzz. The objectives of this study were to identify the tweets delivering a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening (sensitizing tweets) and to understand the characteristics of Twitter users posting about this campaign. We conducted a 3-step content analysis of the English tweets tagged #SmearForSmear posted on Twitter for the 2015 European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Data were collected using the Twitter application programming interface. Their extraction was based on an analysis grid generated by 2 independent researchers using a thematic analysis, validated by a strong Cohen kappa coefficient. A total of 7 themes were coded for sensitizing tweets and 14 for Twitter users' status. Verbatims were thematically and then statistically analyzed. A total of 3019 tweets were collected and 1881 were analyzed. Moreover, 69.96% of tweets had been posted by people living in the United Kingdom. A total of 57.36% of users were women, and sex was unknown in 35.99% of cases. In addition, 54.44% of the users had posted at least one selfie with smeared lipstick. Furthermore, 32.32% of tweets were sensitizing. Independent factors associated with posting sensitizing tweets were women who experienced an abnormal smear test (OR [odds ratio] 13

  17. Raising Awareness About Cervical Cancer Using Twitter: Content Analysis of the 2015 #SmearForSmear Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Philippe; Moulahi, Bilel; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Mercier, Gregoire

    2017-01-01

    abnormal smear test (OR [odds ratio] 13.456, 95% CI 3.101-58.378, P<.001), female gender (OR 3.752, 95% CI 2.133-6.598, P<.001), and people who live in the United Kingdom (OR 2.097, 95% CI 1.447-3.038, P<.001). Nonsensitizing tweets were statistically more posted by a nonhealth or nonmedia company (OR 0.558, 95% CI 0.383-0.814, P<.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the success of a public health campaign using a social media platform depends on its ability to get its targets involved. It also suggests the need to use social marketing to help its dissemination. The clinical impact of this Twitter campaign to increase cervical cancer screening is yet to be evaluated. PMID:29038096

  18. Pap Testing Stages of Adoption among Cambodian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Jackson, J. Carey; Yasui, Yutaka; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Kuniyuki, Alan; Fischer, Meredith; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Purpose We examined levels of Pap testing and factors associated with screening participation among Cambodian refugees. Methods A community-based, in-person survey was conducted in Seattle during late 1997 and early 1998. Interviews were completed by 413 women; the estimated response rate was 73%. We classified respondents into four Pap testing stages of adoption: precontemplation/contemplation (never screened), relapse (ever screened but did not plan to be screened in the future), action (ever screened and planned to be screened in the future), and maintenance (recently screened and planned to be screened in the future). Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to examine various factors. Findings About one-quarter (24%) of the respondents has never been screened, and a further 22% had been screened but did not plan to obtain Pap tests in the future. Fifteen percent were in the action stage and 39% were in the maintenance stage. The following factors were independently associated with cervical cancer screening stages: previous physician recommendation; younger age; beliefs about Pap testing for post-menopausal women, screening for sexually inactive women, and regular checkups; provider ethnicity; prenatal care in the US; and problems finding interpreters. Conclusions Our findings confirm low Pap testing rates among Cambodian immigrants, and suggest that targeted interventions should be multifaceted. PMID:11567513

  19. Perspectives on Pap Test Follow Up Care Among Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy; Baltisberger, Julie; Bardach, Shoshana; Dignan, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one to three quarters of women notified of abnormal Pap test results do not receive appropriate follow up care, dramatically elevating their risk for invasive cervical cancer (ICC). We explored barriers to/facilitators of follow up care for women in two counties in Appalachian Kentucky, where ICC incidence and mortality are significantly higher than the national average. In-depth interviews were conducted among 27 Appalachian women and seven local health department personnel. Those who had been told of an atypical Pap test result tended to have one of three reactions; (1) not alarmed and generally did not obtain follow-up care; (2) alarmed and obtained follow up care; or (3) alarmed, but did not obtain care. Each of these typologies appeared to be shaped by a differing set of three categories of influences: personal factors; procedure/provider/system factors; and ecological/community factors. Recommendations to increase appropriate follow up care included pursuing research on explanations for these typologies and developing tailored interventions specific to women in each of the response types. PMID:20981638

  20. Development of culturally tailored educational brochures on HPV and pap tests for American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Brandt, Heather M; McCree, Donna H; Owl-Myers, Elizabeth; Taylor, Betty; Mullins, Glenda

    2013-07-01

    Participatory formative research guided the creation of a culturally tailored educational brochure about human papillomavirus (HPV) at an American Indian women's clinic. A review of existing educational materials and in-depth interviews were conducted. Nine steps for creating health communications messages that were patterned after National Cancer Institute guidelines guided the brochure development process. Of 95 women tested for HPV, 41% were positive, 32 (34%) agreed to the in-depth interview, and 9 agreed to the pretesting interview. Mean age was 41 years. Interviews revealed key themes concerning emotional reactions to abnormal Pap test results and HPV; need for basic information about HPV, Pap tests, and results; concerns about HPV stigma, sexual transmission, and communication with sexual partner; and the preferred source and format for HPV educational materials. A literature review revealed 12 areas of basic HPV content. A participatory process successfully engaged nursing staff and patients in creating culturally appropriate brochures for clinic use. This article provides specific steps for creating culturally tailored patient education materials.

  1. Ultrasound assessment of endometrial cavity in perimenopausal women on oral progesterone for abnormal uterine bleeding: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of imaging with hysteroscopy-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhankar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Sharma, Partha Pratim; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Ghosh, Tarun Kumar

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oral progesterone on the accuracy of imaging studies performed to detect endometrial pathology in comparison to hysteroscopy-guided biopsy in perimenopausal women on progesterone treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. The study population comprised of women aged 40-55 years with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding who were also undergoing oral progesterone therapy. Women with a uterus ≥ 12 weeks' gestation size, previous abnormal endometrial biopsy, cervical lesion on speculum examination, abnormal Pap smear, active pelvic infection, adnexal mass on clinical examination or during ultrasound scan and a positive pregnancy test were excluded. A transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonography were done. On the following day, a hysteroscopy followed by a guided biopsy of the endometrium or any endometrial lesion was performed. Comparison between the results of the imaging study with the hysteroscopy and guided biopsy was done. The final analysis included 83 patients. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid transvaginal ultrasound had a positive likelihood ratio of 1.65, 5.45 and 5.4, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47, 0.6 and 0.43, respectively. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid saline infusion sonography had a positive likelihood ratio of 4.4, 5.35 and 11.8, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. In perimenopausal women on oral progesterone therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding, imaging studies cannot be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing endometrial pathology when compared to hysteroscopy and guided biopsy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Sputum smear examination and time to diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, K.; Tabutoa, K.; Kienene, T.; Linh, N. N.; Briand, K.; Harries, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, 2006–2010. Objective: To determine the proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases that were pulmonary smear-negative, and for these patients to determine how many sputum smears were examined and the time from sputum smear examination to registration. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study involving a record review of national TB and laboratory registers. Results: Of 2420 TB cases identified, 709 (29%) were registered as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Of the 695 (98%) with information on smear examination, 222 (32%) had no smear recorded, 61 (9%) had one smear, 86 (12%) two smears and 326 (47%) three smears. Among the 473 patients who had at least one smear, 238 (50%) were registered before sputum examination, 131 (28%) within 1 week, 72 (15%) between 1 and 4 weeks, and 34 (7%) >4 weeks after sputum examination. Conclusion: NTPs in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands are diagnosing 29% of all TB patients as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Many patients do not have smears done or are registered before undergoing smear examination. Corrective measures are needed. PMID:26392971

  3. Sputum smear examination and time to diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Viney, K; Bissell, K; Tabutoa, K; Kienene, T; Linh, N N; Briand, K; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, 2006-2010. To determine the proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases that were pulmonary smear-negative, and for these patients to determine how many sputum smears were examined and the time from sputum smear examination to registration. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving a record review of national TB and laboratory registers. Of 2420 TB cases identified, 709 (29%) were registered as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Of the 695 (98%) with information on smear examination, 222 (32%) had no smear recorded, 61 (9%) had one smear, 86 (12%) two smears and 326 (47%) three smears. Among the 473 patients who had at least one smear, 238 (50%) were registered before sputum examination, 131 (28%) within 1 week, 72 (15%) between 1 and 4 weeks, and 34 (7%) >4 weeks after sputum examination. NTPs in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands are diagnosing 29% of all TB patients as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Many patients do not have smears done or are registered before undergoing smear examination. Corrective measures are needed.

  4. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Sundqvist G. The antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. Int Endod J 1985;18:35-40. 11. Conner DA, Caplan...outcomes. KEY WORDS: Smear layer, smear layer removal, smear layer creation, EDTA, Sodium hypochlorite , Periapical index INTRODUCTION: The...identified the most efficient process for removal of the smear layer. Normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) have been shown not to remove

  5. Health literacy and pap testing in insured women.

    PubMed

    Mazor, K M; Williams, A E; Roblin, D W; Gaglio, B; Cutrona, S L; Costanza, M E; Han, P K J; Wagner, J L; Fouayzi, H; Field, T S

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have found a link between health literacy and participation in cancer screening. Most, however, have relied on self-report to determine screening status. Further, until now, health literacy measures have assessed print literacy only. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cervical cancer screening (Papanicolaou [Pap] testing) and two forms of health literacy-reading and listening. A demographically diverse sample was recruited from a pool of insured women in Georgia, Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Colorado between June 2009 and April 2010. Health literacy was assessed using the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening and the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading. Adherence to cervical cancer screening was ascertained through electronic administrative data on Pap test utilization. The relationship between health literacy and adherence to evidence-based recommendations for Pap testing was examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Data from 527 women aged 40 to 65 were analyzed and are reported here. Of these 527 women, 397 (75 %) were up to date with Pap testing. Higher health literacy scores for listening but not reading predicted being up to date. The fact that health literacy listening was associated with screening behavior even in this insured population suggests that it has independent effects beyond those of access to care. Patients who have difficulty understanding spoken recommendations about cancer screening may be at risk for underutilizing screening as a result.

  6. PapSEEK Test for Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Finding a way to detect endometrial and ovarian cancers early, when they are most likely to respond to treatment, has been a challenge for cancer researchers. An experimental liquid biopsy test called PapSEEK may help to change that, this Cancer Currents post explains.

  7. CKI isoforms α and ε regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKIα associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which is critical for both its polyadenylation activity and stimulation by PI4,5P2. CKI activity was required for the expression and efficient 3′-end processing of its target mRNAs in vivo as well as the polyadenylation activity of Star–PAP in vitro. Specific CKI activity inhibitors (IC261 and CKI7) block in vivo Star–PAP activity, but the knockdown of CKIα did not equivalently inhibit the expression of Star–PAP targets. We show that in addition to CKIα, Star–PAP associates with another CKI isoform, CKIε in the Star–PAP complex that phosphorylates Star–PAP and complements the loss of CKIα. Knockdown of both CKI isoforms (α and ε) resulted in the loss of expression and the 3′-end processing of Star–PAP targets similar to the CKI activity inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that CKI isoforms α and ε modulate Star–PAP activity and regulates Star–PAP target messages. PMID:21729869

  8. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  9. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  10. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Gulf War Women’s Health Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    suggested excess rates of woman’s health problems, e.g., breast cysts, abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, yeast infections, and bladder infections...e.g., breast cysts, abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, yeast infections, and bladder infections (4-6). However, in the 25 years since the war...lumps or cysts in the breasts, abnormal Pap tests) compared to women deployed elsewhere. In a further follow-up survey of this cohort of USAF

  12. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.

    PubMed

    Christensen, E; Bofin, A; Gudmundsdóttir, I; Skogvoll, E

    2008-10-01

    Cytology may become the diagnostic method of choice with the advent of new non-invasive treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer, as the sampling technique for cytology entails little tissue disfiguration. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK). We investigated 50 BCC and 28 AK histologically verified lesions, from 41 and 25 patients, respectively. Two separate skin scrape samples and one touch imprint sample were taken from each lesion. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou (Pap) or May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stains. All cytological specimens were examined in random order by pathologists without knowledge of the histology. Cytodiagnostic results were compared with the histopathological report. Scrape cytodiagnosis agreed with histopathology in 48 (Pap) and 47 (MGG) of the 50 BCC cases, and in 26 of 28 (Pap) and 21 of 26 (MGG) AK cases, yielding sensitivities of 96%, 94%, 93% and 81%, respectively. No significant difference in sensitivity between the two staining methods was found but a trend towards higher Pap sensitivity for AK was noted (P = 0.10). Touch imprint cytology confirmed histopathology in 38 of the 77 cases of BCC and AK. Cytological diagnosis with either Pap or MGG stain for BCC and AK is reliable, and differentiates well between BCC and AK. Imprint cytology proved to be non-diagnostic in half of the examined cases.

  14. Cytomorphology of unusual infectious entities in the Pap test

    PubMed Central

    Khalbuss, Walid E.; Michelow, Pam; Benedict, Cynthia; Monaco, Sara E.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Rare entities in the Pap test, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to their infrequent occurrence in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls. Infections such as tuberculosis cervicitis may be erroneously diagnosed as carcinoma, whereas others, such as schistosomiasis, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. These cases include granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and molluscum contagiosum diagnosed in Pap tests. Granuloma inguinale shows histiocytes that contain intracytoplasmic bacteria (Donovan bodies). Tuberculosis is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with Langhans-multinucleated giant cells. Coccidioidomycosis may show large intact or ruptured fungal spherules associated with endospores. Schistosoma haematobium is diagnosed by finding characteristic ova with a terminal spine. Molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the appearance of squamous cells with molluscum bodies. This article reviews the cytomorphology of selected rare infections and focuses on their cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and role of ancillary diagnostic studies. PMID:22919422

  15. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P < 0.05 was considered significant. One hundred twenty-six patients with ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS

  16. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  17. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Nimmy; AP, Sudheesh; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKIα interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKIα within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKIα. Unlike the CKIα mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKIα activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKIα controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3′-end processing. PMID:26138484

  18. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Nimmy; Sudheesh, A P; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2015-08-18

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKIα interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKIα within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKIα. Unlike the CKIα mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKIα activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKIα controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3'-end processing. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Loaded hip thrust-based PAP protocol effects on acceleration and sprint performance of handball players.

    PubMed

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Seitz, Laurent D

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two barbell hip thrust-based (BHT) post-activation potentiation (PAP) protocols on subsequent sprint performance. Using a crossover design, eighteen handball athletes performed maximal 15-m sprints before and 15s, 4min and 8min after two experimental protocols consisting of BHT loaded with either 50% or 85% 1RM (50PAP and 85PAP, respectively), in order to profile the transient PAP effects. The resulting sprint performances were significantly impaired at 15s only after the 85PAP protocol, which induced likely and very likely greater decreases compared to the 50PAP. At 4min and 8min, significant improvements and very likely beneficial effects were observed in the 10m and 15m performances following both protocols. Significant differences were found when comparing the two PAPs over time; the results suggested very likely greater performance improvements in 10m following the 85PAP after 4min and 8min, and possible greater performance improvements in 15m after 4min. Positive correlations between BHT 1RMs values and the greatest individual PAP responses on sprint performance were found. This investigation showed that both moderate and intensive BHT exercises can induce a PAP response, but the effects may differ according to the recovery following the potentiating stimulus and the individual`s strength level.

  20. Impact of pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Dickinson, Ashley; McCracken, Courtney; Goebel, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination acceptance. A convenience sample of 499 women 21 to 65 years old completed a 37-question survey in Augusta and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. The questionnaire also determined their Pap test compliance and how longer Pap test intervals would influence their willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Differences between categorical variables and knowledge scores were examined using χ test and unequal-variance t tests, respectively. Pap test-noncompliant women were more likely to get the HPV vaccine if they only needed a Pap test every 10 years compared with Pap test-compliant women (27.6% vs 14.6%, p = .02). A greater number (83.5%) of Pap test-noncompliant women preferred the HPV vaccine plus every 10-year Pap test option compared with Pap test-compliant women (31.3%, p < .0001). Most women (87%) responded that they would likely get the HPV vaccine if it would safely reduce the frequency of Pap testing. Women are receptive to getting the HPV vaccine in exchange for longer cervical cancer screening intervals. Moreover, Pap test-noncompliant women are more likely to get the HPV vaccine if Pap testing was needed less frequently. Increasing the Pap testing interval may be an excellent method to improving HPV vaccine acceptance in women at highest risk for cervical cancer.

  1. HIP/PAP accelerates liver regeneration and protects against acetaminophen injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Hanh-Tu; Batteux, Frédéric; Simon, Marie-Thérèse; Cortes, Alexandre; Nicco, Carole; Zavala, Flora; Pauloin, Alain; Tralhao, José Guilherme; Soubrane, Olivier; Weill, Bernard; Bréchot, Christian; Christa, Laurence

    2005-09-01

    Human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein HIP/PAP is a secreted C-type lectin belonging to group VII, according to Drickamer's classification. HIP/PAP is overexpressed in liver carcinoma; however, its functional role remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that HIP/PAP is a paracrine hepatic growth factor promoting both proliferation and viability of liver cells in vivo. First, a low number of implanted hepatocytes deriving from HIP/PAP-transgenic mice (<1:1,000) was sufficient to stimulate overall recipient severe combined immunodeficiency liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. After a single injection of HIP/PAP protein, the percentages of bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei and mitosis were statistically higher than after saline injection, indicating that HIP/PAP acts as a paracrine mitogenic growth factor for the liver. Comparison of the early events posthepatectomy in control and transgenic mice indicated that HIP/PAP accelerates the accumulation/degradation of nuclear phospho-signal transducer activator transcription factor 3 and tumor necrosis factor alpha level, thus reflecting that HIP/PAP accelerates liver regeneration. Second, we showed that 80% of the HIP/PAP-transgenic mice versus 25% of the control mice were protected against lethal acetaminophen-induced fulminate hepatitis. A single injection of recombinant HIP/PAP induced a similar cytoprotective effect, demonstrating the antiapoptotic effect of HIP/PAP. Comparison of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione reductase-like effects in control and transgenic liver mice indicated that HIP/PAP exerts an antioxidant activity and prevents reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial damage by acetaminophen overdose. In conclusion, the present data offer new insights into the biological functions of C-type lectins. In addition, HIP/PAP is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver failure.

  2. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients.

  3. AtPAP2 modulates the import of the small subunit of Rubisco into chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renshan; Guan, Xiaoqian; Law, Yee-Song; Sun, Feng; Chen, Shuai; Wong, Kam Bo; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-10-02

    Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only phosphatase that is dual-targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Like Toc33/34 of the TOC and Tom 20 of the TOM, AtPAP2 is anchored to the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria via a hydrophobic C-terminal motif. AtPAP2 on the mitochondria was previously shown to recognize the presequences of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and modulate the import of pMORF3 into the mitochondria. Here we show that AtPAP2 binds to the small subunit of Rubisco (pSSU) and that chloroplast import experiments demonstrated that pSSU was imported less efficiently into pap2 chloroplasts than into wild-type chloroplasts. We propose that AtPAP2 is an outer membrane-bound phosphatase receptor that facilitates the import of selected proteins into chloroplasts.

  4. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  5. Blood Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test Information → Blood Smear URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bloodsmear.html Blood Smear To ... May 26]; 353(5): 498–507. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra043442 ...

  6. Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells in Pap tests: An analysis of more than 3000 cases at a large academic women's center.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Li, Zaibo; Ocque, Rebecca; Patadji, Stell; Zhao, Chengquan

    2016-08-01

    The interpretation of atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and screening for glandular neoplasia remain challenging. Pap tests with an AGC interpretation from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrieved from a pathology database, and cases with histologic follow-up within 1 year were included in the study. There were 589,830 Pap tests during the study period, and 3709 cases (0.6%) were reported as AGC, which included the following: AGC, not otherwise specified (52.0%); atypical endocervical cells (28.0%); and other categories. There were 3007 cases (81.1%) with histologic follow-up results within 1 year. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 (CIN2/3), cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/adenocarcinoma, and endometrial carcinoma were identified in 5.6%, 1.9%, and 5.5% of cases, respectively. Glandular neoplasia was more likely to be identified in cases with pure AGC subcategories than cases with AGC and squamous abnormalities. Endometrial neoplasia was more likely to be identified in cases with atypical endometrial cells than other categories. Overall, the most common severe abnormality on histologic follow-up was CIN2/3. Although CIN2/3 was the most common severe lesion in patients younger than 30 years (10.0%) and in patients aged 30 to 49 years (6.4%), endometrial carcinoma was the most common lesion in women who were 50 years old or older (13.7%). Endocervical glandular lesions (AIS and adenocarcinoma) occurred in only 1.9% of women. AGC subtypes and ages significantly affect histological follow-up results; 90.5% of cases with carcinoma on histologic follow-up were either endometrial or metastatic carcinoma. This study supports the recommendation that women with AGC Pap test results should be followed up with both endocervical and endometrial sampling. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:589-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  8. Automated segmentation and isolation of touching cell nuclei in cytopathology smear images of pleural effusion using distance transform watershed method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Khin Yadanar; Choomchuay, Somsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    The automated segmentation of cell nuclei is an essential stage in the quantitative image analysis of cell nuclei extracted from smear cytology images of pleural fluid. Cell nuclei can indicate cancer as the characteristics of cell nuclei are associated with cells proliferation and malignancy in term of size, shape and the stained color. Nevertheless, automatic nuclei segmentation has remained challenging due to the artifacts caused by slide preparation, nuclei heterogeneity such as the poor contrast, inconsistent stained color, the cells variation, and cells overlapping. In this paper, we proposed a watershed-based method that is capable to segment the nuclei of the variety of cells from cytology pleural fluid smear images. Firstly, the original image is preprocessed by converting into the grayscale image and enhancing by adjusting and equalizing the intensity using histogram equalization. Next, the cell nuclei are segmented using OTSU thresholding as the binary image. The undesirable artifacts are eliminated using morphological operations. Finally, the distance transform based watershed method is applied to isolate the touching and overlapping cell nuclei. The proposed method is tested with 25 Papanicolaou (Pap) stained pleural fluid images. The accuracy of our proposed method is 92%. The method is relatively simple, and the results are very promising.

  9. Comparison among the efficacy of interventions for the return rate to receive the pap test report: randomized controlled clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Barbosa, Denise de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of a behavioral, an educative and a comparative intervention on women's adherence to the return appointment to receive the pap test report. Methods: randomized controlled clinical trial at a Primary Health Care Service, involving three groups: EG (educative session and test demonstration), BG (recall ribbon) and standard intervention (card containing the return appointment - graphical reminder), called comparative group here (CG). To select the sample, the following was established: having started sexual activity and undergoing the pap smear during the study, resulting in 775 women. Results: among the 775 women, 585 (75.5%) returned to receive the test result within 65 days. The educative group presented the highest return rate (EG=82%/CG=77%/BG=66%), statistically significant only when compared to the behavioral group (p=0.000). The educative group obtained the smallest interval (p<0.05) concerning the mean number of days of return to receive the test result (EG:M=43days/BG:M=47.5days/CG:M=44.8 days). Conclusion: the educative group reached higher return rates and the women returned earlier, but the behavioral intervention showed to be the least effective. Brazilian Clinical Trial Register: RBR-93ykhs. PMID:28301035

  10. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  11. An audit of a cervical smear screening programme.

    PubMed

    Moodie, P J; Kljakovic, M; McLeod, D K

    1989-07-26

    An audit of a computer based screening and recall programme in a Wellington group general practice is reported (practice population 13,866). The records of all women aged between 20 and 59 years (4133 women) were checked to determine if they had had a cervical smear test in the previous two years. A random sample of women who had a cervical smear result recorded in the notes (107 women called "responders") showed that 71% gave "familiarity with the family doctor" and "acting in response to a recall letter" as reasons for choosing the place of their last smear. Satisfaction with the service was indicated by 95% of these women stating they would have their next smear at the medical centre. In the audit of all the records, a group of 667 women who had been sent a letter inviting them to have a smear done and who had apparently declined the procedure was identified (called "nonresponders"). A random sample of this group (168 women) was taken and an attempt made to interview them. In fact only 38 women could be identified as requiring a smear and even if those who refused to be interviewed (13) and those unable to be contacted (23) are added, then less than half of this sample were "true nonresponders". This suggests that the percentage of women in the practice who have been offered a smear and have refused to have one is less than 8%.

  12. Changing Patterns of Cervical Disease in a Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The Cytology Service at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Center for Health Sciences has examined about 4000 pap smears (each year) from the UCLA Student Health Service between 1973-1978. An apparently significant increase in abnormal pap smears in young college-age women is reported. (Authors/CJ)

  13. Diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis based on clinical signs in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Vouvoungui, Christevy Jeannhey; Poulain, Pierre; Essassa, Gaston Bango; Kwedi, Sylvie; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-12-18

    The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) in resource-limited countries is often solely based on clinical signs, chest X-ray radiography and sputum smear microscopy. We investigated currently used methods for the routine diagnosis of SNPT in the Republic of Congo (RoC) among TB suspected patients. The specific case of HIV positive patients was also studied. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the anti-tuberculosis center (CAT) of Brazzaville, RoC. Tuberculosis suspects were examined for physical signs of TB. Clinical signs, results from sputum smear microscopy, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were recorded. Of the 772 enrolled participants, 372 were diagnosed PTB. Cough was a common symptom for PTB and no PTB patients. Pale skin, positive TST, weight loss and chest X-ray with abnormalities compatible with PTB (PTB-CXR) were significant indicators of PTB. Thirty-six percent of PTB patients were diagnosed SNPT. This category of patients presented less persistent cough and less PTB-CXR. Anorexia and asthenia were significant indicators of SNPT. In the case of HIV+ patients, 57% were SNPT with anorexia, asthenia and shorter cough being strong indicators of SNPT. Chest X-ray abnormalities, weight loss, pale skin and positive TST were significant indicators of PTB. Anorexia and asthenia showed good diagnostic performance for SNPT, which deserve to be recommended as index indicators of SNPT diagnosis. Duration of cough is also a relevant indicator, especially for HIV+ patients.

  14. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  15. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  17. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    PubMed

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  18. Mycobacterial polyketide-associated proteins are acyltransferases: Proof of principle with Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5

    PubMed Central

    Onwueme, Kenolisa C.; Ferreras, Julian A.; Buglino, John; Lima, Christopher D.; Quadri, Luis E. N.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) produces complex virulence-enhancing lipids with scaffolds consisting of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone dimycocerosate esters (PDIMs). Sequence analysis suggested that PapA5, a so-called polyketide-associated protein (Pap) encoded in the PDIM synthesis gene cluster, as well as PapA5 homologs found in Mt and other species, are a subfamily of acyltransferases. Studies with recombinant protein confirmed that PapA5 is an acetyltransferase. Deletion analysis in Mt demonstrated that papA5 is required for PDIM synthesis. We propose that PapA5 catalyzes diesterification of phthiocerol and phthiodiolone with mycocerosate. These studies present the functional characterization of a Pap and permit inferences regarding roles of other Paps in the synthesis of complex lipids, including the antibiotic rifamycin. PMID:15070765

  19. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Rollo, Francesca; Impara, Giampaolo; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2012-10-16

    The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR = 5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them from the development of HPV

  20. Concept for modifying drafting instruments to minimize smearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Ball bearing standoffs added to drafting instruments enable the instruments to be moved about, with their surfaces out of contact with the drawing paper. This provides a safeguard against smearing of the lines.

  1. Automation of the linear array HPV genotyping test and its application for routine typing of human papillomaviruses in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dobec, Marinko; Bannwart, Fridolin; Kaeppeli, Franz; Cassinotti, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for reliable, automated high throughput HPV detection and genotyping methods for pre- and post-prophylactic vaccine intervention analyses. To optimize the linear array (LA) HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz) in regard to possible automation steps for the routine laboratory diagnosis of HPV infections and to analyze the HPV genotype distribution in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland. 680 cervical cell specimens with normal cytology, obtained from women undergoing routine cervical screening by liquid-based Pap smear, were analyzed by the LA HPV genotyping test for HPV-DNA. The automation of the LA HPV genotyping test resulted in a total hands-on time reduction of 255 min (from 480 to 225 min; 53%). Any of 37 HPV genotypes were detected in 117 (17.2%) and high-risk (HR) HPV in 55 (8.1%) of 680 women with normal cytology. The highest prevalence of any HPV (28.1%) and HR-HPV (15.1%) was observed in age-group 21-30 and showed a continuous decrease in older age-groups. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (12%), HPV-31 (9.4%), HPV-52 (6%), HPV-51 (5.1%), HPV-45 (4.3%), HPV-58 (4.3%) and HPV-59 (4.3%). The optimization and automation of the LA HPV genotyping test makes it suited for high throughput HPV detection and typing. The epidemiological data provides information about distribution of HPV genotypes in women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland and may be important for determining the future impact of vaccines and potential changes in the country's epidemiological HPV profile.

  2. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    A P, Sudheesh; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2018-03-01

    Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3'-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors ( KISS1R , CDH1 , NME1 , CDH13 , FEZ1 , and WIF1 ) in breast cancer. Consistently, the endogenous Star-PAP level is negatively correlated with the cellular invasiveness of breast cancer cells. While silencing Star-PAP or PIPKIα increases cellular invasiveness in low-invasiveness MCF7 cells, Star-PAP overexpression decreases invasiveness in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells in a cellular Star-PAP level-dependent manner. However, expression of the PIPKIα-noninteracting Star-PAP mutant or the phosphodeficient Star-PAP (S6A mutant) has no effect on cellular invasiveness. These results strongly indicate that PIPKIα interaction and Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation are required for Star-PAP-mediated regulation of cancer cell invasion and give specificity to target anti-invasive gene expression. Our study establishes Star-PAP-PIPKIα-mediated 3'-end processing as a key anti-invasive mechanism in breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 A.P. and Laishram.

  3. Comparison of skin smears and biopsy specimens for demonstration of Leishmania tropica bodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nasser Rashid; Khurshid, Tariq

    2005-12-01

    To determine and compare the diagnostic value of skin biopsy, saline aspirate smears, skin slit smears and skin biopsy impression smears to demonstrate Leishmania tropica (LT) bodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis and to determine any association within the applied diagnostic tests. An analytical study. Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi from January to December 2003. Seventyeight patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis were subjected to saline aspirate smears, skin slit smears, skin biopsy impression smears and skin biopsy and looked for LT bodies. The percentage positivity of all methods was calculated. McNemar test was applied to determine the association between percentage positivities of methods. Skin biopsy showed LT bodies in 70 (89.74%) patients, saline aspirate smears in 24 (30.76%), skin slit smears in 25 (32.05%) and skin biopsy impression smears in 27 (34.61%) patients. Smears demonstrated LT bodies in 10.25% cases in which biopsy was negative. Skin biopsy impression smears showed concordant results with skin biopsy in 20.51%, skin slit smears in 16.66% and saline aspirate smears in 19.25% of cases. Saline aspirate smears were positive in 48.1% of cases in which biopsy impression smears were negative, slit smears were positive in 50.9 % of cases in which biopsy impression smears were negative and slit smears were positive in 37% of cases in which saline aspirate smears were negative. Skin biopsy for histopathology is the most useful method in the demonstration of Leishmania parasite. Sensitivity of smears can be increased by a combination of various skin smears.

  4. On the Application of Pattern Recognition and AI Technique to the Cytoscreening of Vaginal Smears by Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Xia-Fang

    1989-05-01

    In this paper the concepts of pattern recognition, image processing and artificial intelligence are applied to the development of an intelligent cytoscreening system to differentiate the abnormal cytological objects from the normal ones in vaginal smears. To achieve this goal,work listed below are involved: 1. Enhancement of the microscopic images of the smears; 2. Elevation of the qualitative differentiation under the microscope by cytologists to a quantitative differentiation plateau on the epithelial cells, ciliated cells, vacuolated cells, foreign-body-giant cells, plasma cells, lymph cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, etc. These knowledges are to be inputted into our intelligent cyto-screening system to ameliorate machine differentiation; 3. Selection of a set of effective features to characterize the cytological objects onto various regions of the multiclustered by computer algorithms; and 4. Systematical summarization of the knowledge that a gynecologist has and the way he/she follows when dealing with a case.

  5. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador. PMID:28717342

  6. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dalgo Aguilar, Paola; Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador.

  7. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    A.P., Sudheesh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3′-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors (KISS1R, CDH1, NME1, CDH13, FEZ1, and WIF1) in breast cancer. Consistently, the endogenous Star-PAP level is negatively correlated with the cellular invasiveness of breast cancer cells. While silencing Star-PAP or PIPKIα increases cellular invasiveness in low-invasiveness MCF7 cells, Star-PAP overexpression decreases invasiveness in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells in a cellular Star-PAP level-dependent manner. However, expression of the PIPKIα-noninteracting Star-PAP mutant or the phosphodeficient Star-PAP (S6A mutant) has no effect on cellular invasiveness. These results strongly indicate that PIPKIα interaction and Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation are required for Star-PAP-mediated regulation of cancer cell invasion and give specificity to target anti-invasive gene expression. Our study establishes Star-PAP–PIPKIα-mediated 3′-end processing as a key anti-invasive mechanism in breast cancer. PMID:29203642

  8. Influencing Factors of Intention to Receive Pap Tests in Vietnamese Women who Immigrated to Taiwan for Marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Yang, Yung-Mei; Huang, Joh-Jong; Tsai, Hsiu-Min

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors associated with the intention to receive a Pap test among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin living in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional community-based study. We enrolled 281 women aged 30 years and over in the study, from July 2013 to January 2014. The participants' characteristics, cervical cancer knowledge, Pap test knowledge, attitudes toward cervical cancer, barriers to receiving a Pap test, fatalism, and intention to receive a Pap test, were measured using self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the variables associated with participants' intentions to receive a Pap test. Vietnamese women with low scores on the measures of cervical cancer knowledge and perceived barriers to receiving a Pap test were more willing to receive the test, as were those with high scores on the measures of Pap test knowledge and fatalism. Women who received a Pap test in the previous year were more willing to receive a Pap test within the next 3 years. Preventive healthcare for immigrant women should be a focus of nurses. The development of culturally appropriate health education and strategies should enhance their knowledge of Pap tests and reduce perceived barriers to Pap test participation. This study's results can be a reference for nurses who work with immigrant women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  10. Incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, T; Demissie, M; Berhane, Y; Kebede, Y; Abebe, M

    2013-05-01

    To determine the incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Dabat District, northern Ethiopia. Using a population-based longitudinal design, a TB surveillance system was initiated among 46,165 residents at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site. Trained field workers visited each household every third month and interviewed all individuals aged ≥14 years using a uniform questionnaire to detect suspected cases of TB (cough ≥15 days), at which time two sputum (spot-morning) samples were collected for smear microscopy. A total of 281,820 person-months were observed during the 1-year period, which generated 74 smear-positive TB cases. The incidence of smear-positive TB was calculated at 311 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI 240-382). Higher rates were observed among females (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.08, 95%CI 1.24-3.52), persons with no schooling (IRR 2.74, 95%CI 1.11-6.78) and urban residents (IRR 2.39, 95%CI 1.39-4.12). The incidence of smear-positive TB is high in Dabat District, suggesting a high risk of transmission in the communities. TB control programmes thus need to improve case-finding mechanisms at the community level in Ethiopia, with greater emphasis on risk groups.

  11. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Cancer.gov

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  12. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the uterine cervix identified on a conventional cervical smear.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) most frequently involve the uterus, particularly the uterine corpus and very occasionally the cervix. One case of PEComa identified using a conventional cervical smear has previously been documented. Herein, we present the second such case. The patient was a 51-year-old woman with abnormal genital tract bleeding. Samples collected for conventional cervical smears were submitted for cytopathological examination, which revealed discohesive monotonous tumor cells showing epithelioid morphology, ample cytoplasm that was pale to weakly eosinophilic, and mildly enlarged nuclei. The cytopathological features were well correlated with histopathological findings. Upon immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for both melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Based on these findings, PEComa was diagnosed. Subsequently, a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, revealing that the tumor (28 × 22 × 12 mm) was located at the superficial part of the endocervix. We propose that the cytopathological findings described herein can guide the diagnosis of PEComa, even though this tumor is rare. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device

  14. Decision making about Pap test use among Korean immigrant women: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Gallo, Joseph J; Nolan, Marie T; Han, Hae-Ra

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how individuals make decisions about Pap tests concerning their personal values helps health-care providers offer tailored approaches to guide patients' decision making. Yet research has largely ignored decision making about Pap tests among immigrant women who experience increased risk of cervical cancer. To explore decision making about Pap tests among Korean immigrant women. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using 32 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant women residing in a north-eastern metropolitan area. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive coding. Although most women with positive decisions made their own decisions, some women deferred to their providers, and others made decisions in collaboration with their providers and significant others. While women making positive decisions tended to consider both barriers to and facilitators of having Pap tests, women making negative decisions predominantly discussed the barriers to having Pap tests, such as modesty and differences between the South Korean and US health-care systems. The women's reflections on their decisions differed regarding their Pap test decisions. Women's desired roles in the decision-making process and reflection on their decision outcome appeared to vary, although most participants with positive decisions made their own decisions and were satisfied with their decisions. Future research should conduct longitudinal, quantitative studies to test our findings regarding decision-making processes and outcomes about Pap tests. The findings should be incorporated into cervical cancer screening practices to fulfil the unmet needs of immigrant women in patient-provider communication and to facilitate women's decision making about Pap tests. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  17. Reproducibility of self-reported pap test utilization in middle-aged African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Ostbye, Truls; Skinner, Celette S; Yarnall, Kimberly S H; Chowdhary, Jaspreet

    2005-01-01

    Both clinicians who perform Pap tests and prescribe re-screens and public health officials, who periodically evaluate the success of Pap test screening programs, often depend on women to self-report their most recent Pap test. However, reliability of self-reported Pap test utilization is putatively low, and even lower in African-American women compared to Whites. Between 2001 and 2002, Pap test screening histories were obtained from 144 African-American women, aged 45 to 64 years at two in-person interviews conducted three to six weeks apart. Reproducibility of self-reported Pap test was substantial (kappa=0.64; 95% confidence interval: .46-.82), with the highest agreement among women with greater income and educational attainment, and those who were younger. This level of reproducibility is likely sufficient both to evaluate the population coverage of public health screening programs and for prescribing re-screens among younger African-American women and those of higher income and education. Not using self-reports to base clinic decisions may still be prudent among those with less education.

  18. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    PubMed

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer".

  19. Molecular identification of leishmania species using samples obtained from negative stained smears.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, Ma; Fata, A; Salehi, Gh; Berenji, F; Bazzaz, M Mousavi; Rafatpanah, H; Parian, M; Movahedi, A

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers suspected to CL by PCR method. Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, negative Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed. Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1%) of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples. Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accurate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  20. Pap Screening Goals and Perceptions of Pain among Black, Latina, and Arab Women: Steps toward Breaking down Psychological Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-value<0.001) with Arab and Black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 percent reduction, respectively compared to 8.4 percent for Latina). CONCLUSIONS Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606

  1. Star-PAP, a poly(A) polymerase, functions as a tumor suppressor in an orthotopic human breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C; Gong, Y; Zhou, H; Wang, M; Kong, L; Liu, J; An, T; Zhu, H; Li, Y

    2017-01-01

    Star-PAP is a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase and required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. However, the pathological role of Star-PAP in cancer largely remains unknown. In this study, we observed decreased expression of Star-PAP in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic Star-PAP expression inhibited proliferation as well as colony-forming ability of breast cancer cells. In breast cancer patients, high levels of Star-PAP correlated with an improved prognosis. Moreover, by regulating the expression of BIK (BCL2-interacting killer), Star-PAP induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The growth of breast cancer xenografts in NOD/SCID mice was also inhibited by the doxycycline-induced Star-PAP overexpression. Furthermore, Star-PAP sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs both in vitro and in vivo. In mammary epithelial cells, Star-PAP knockdown partially transformed these cells and induced them to undergo epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings suggested that Star-PAP possesses tumor-suppressing activity and can be a valuable target for developing new cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:28151486

  2. Star-PAP, a poly(A) polymerase, functions as a tumor suppressor in an orthotopic human breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yu, C; Gong, Y; Zhou, H; Wang, M; Kong, L; Liu, J; An, T; Zhu, H; Li, Y

    2017-02-02

    Star-PAP is a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase and required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. However, the pathological role of Star-PAP in cancer largely remains unknown. In this study, we observed decreased expression of Star-PAP in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic Star-PAP expression inhibited proliferation as well as colony-forming ability of breast cancer cells. In breast cancer patients, high levels of Star-PAP correlated with an improved prognosis. Moreover, by regulating the expression of BIK (BCL2-interacting killer), Star-PAP induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The growth of breast cancer xenografts in NOD/SCID mice was also inhibited by the doxycycline-induced Star-PAP overexpression. Furthermore, Star-PAP sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs both in vitro and in vivo. In mammary epithelial cells, Star-PAP knockdown partially transformed these cells and induced them to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings suggested that Star-PAP possesses tumor-suppressing activity and can be a valuable target for developing new cancer therapeutic strategies.

  3. Awareness of Pap testing and factors associated with intent to undergo Pap testing by level of sexual experience in unmarried university students in Korea: results from an online survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young and unmarried women have not been a target group for cervical cancer prevention in Korea. No previous studies have investigated the awareness of Pap testing, the intention to undergo Pap testing, or the factors associated with that intention, in this group of women. This information would be useful for an expansion in the focus of primary cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to compare the awareness of Pap testing between groups of unmarried university students in Korea, and to investigate the factors associated with the intention to undergo Pap testing, by level of sexual experience. Methods A total of 475 unmarried university students who had never undergone a Pap test completed a web-based survey. Differences in awareness of the importance of the Pap test, confidence in Pap testing, intention to undergo the test, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, stigma, and shame by level of sexual experience were analysed using independent t-tests. Associations between measurement variables and intention to undergo Pap testing were analysed using correlation analysis. Variables yielding significant associations (p < 0.05) were included in a stepwise multiple regression model of intention to undergo Pap testing. Results Most participants perceived that the need for regular Pap testing was less important (score, 77.76) than other methods of cervical cancer prevention. They were not confident that is was an effective method of cervical cancer prevention for themselves (score, 59.56). There were differences in confidence in Pap testing and in the factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing between sexually experienced and sexually inexperienced students. Regardless of level of sexual experience, the subjective norm was the most important predictor of intention to undergo Pap testing. Conclusions There was a low level of Pap screening awareness among the students. The factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing

  4. Age Specific Cytological Abnormalities in Women Screened for Cervical Cancer in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

    PubMed

    Al Zaabi, Muna; Al Muqbali, Shaikha; Al Sayadi, Thekra; Al Ameeri, Suhaila; Coetsee, Karin; Balayah, Zuhur; Ortashi, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with about 500,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths each year. Globally, it is estimated that over one million women currently have cervical cancer, most of whom have not been diagnosed, or have no access to treatment that could cure them or prolong their lives. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective survey of cervical smear abnormalities was conducted in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, from January 2013 to December 2013 by collecting consecutive liquid-based cytology samples from the Department of Pathology at the SKMC Hospital in Abu Dhabi city. The total number of women screened for cervical cancer for the year 2013 at SKMC was 4,593, with 225 (4.89%) abnormal smears. The majority of the abnormal smear results were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 114 (2.48%). This study showed 60% increase in the rate of abnormal cervical smears in the UAE over the last 10 years. In this study the highest incidence of high grade abnormalities were seen in women above the age of 61 years (1.73%), this might be due to the fact that this group of women missed the chance of screening of cervical cancer earlier in their lives or could be explained by the well-known second peak of HPV infection seen in many prevalence studies. We conclude that the rate of abnormal cervical smear in the screened Abu Dhabi women is not different from the rate in developed countries. A notable increase in both low and high grade abnormalities has occurred within the last decade.

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  7. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    THE EFFECT OF SMEAR LAYER REMOVAL ON ENDODONTIC OUTCOMES by Spencer Weiss Bjarnason, D.M.D. Lieutenant, Dental Corps United...States Navy A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontic Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed...June 2016 3 Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda, Maiyland CERTIFICATE OF

  8. Comparative Analysis Reveals Potential Utility of Digital Microscopy in the Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smears With Some Barriers to Implementation.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gelvez, Juan C; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Chabot-Richards, Devon S; Foucar, Kathryn; Inamdar, Kedar V; Karner, Kristin H

    2015-07-01

    Evaluation of the peripheral blood smear (PBS) is an essential diagnostic test in current medical practice. We aimed to evaluate the use of digital microscopy for the examination of PBS as an option to provide expert interpretation to remote sites and in "on-call" situations. We collected 100 Wright-Giemsa-stained PBS slides representing normal and abnormal findings seen at a community-based hospital. Four hematopathologists independently evaluated the cases using conventional light and digital microscopy. When comparing digital vs light microscopy, most of the cellular features evaluated showed at least a moderate degree of agreement in at least three of the reviewers. Discrepancies in final diagnosis were identified in a minority of the cases, most of which were attributed to the poorer resolution of digital microscopy at high magnification (×400). These results support the limited use of digital microscopy for evaluation and triage of peripheral blood smears as a practical option to obtain expert opinion in locations where experienced staff is not available on site. Our results indicate that while digital microscopy is well suited for basic triage of these blood smears, limitations in quality of imaging at higher magnification as well as large file size may limit its utility in certain settings and situations. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. Rates of initial acceptance of PAP masks and outcomes of mask switching.

    PubMed

    Bachour, Adel; Vitikainen, Pirjo; Maasilta, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we noticed a considerable development in alleviating problems related to positive airway pressure (PAP) masks. In this study, we report on the initial PAP mask acceptance rates and the effects of mask switching on mask-related symptoms. We prospectively collected all cases of mask switching in our sleep unit for a period of 14 months. At the time of the study, we used ResMed™ CPAP devices and masks. Mask switching was defined as replacing a mask used for at least 1 day with another type of mask. Changing to a different size but keeping the same type of mask did not count as mask switching. Switching outcomes were considered failed if the initial problem persisted or reappeared during the year that followed switching. Our patient pool was 2768. We recorded 343 cases of mask switching among 267 patients. Of the 566 patients who began new PAP therapy, 108 (39 women) had switched masks, yielding an initial mask acceptance rate of 81 %. The reason for switching was poor-fit/uncomfortable mask in 39 %, leak-related in 30 %, outdated model in 25 %, and nasal stuffiness in 6 % of cases; mask switching resolved these problems in 61 %. Mask switching occurred significantly (p = 0.037) more often in women and in new PAP users. The odds ratio for abandoning PAP therapy within 1 year after mask switching was 7.2 times higher (interval 4.7-11.1) than not switching masks. The initial PAP mask acceptance rate was high. Patients who switched their masks are at greater risk for abandoning PAP therapy.

  10. Laboratory productivity and the rate of manual peripheral blood smear review: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 95,141 complete blood count determinations performed in 263 institutions.

    PubMed

    Novis, David A; Walsh, Molly; Wilkinson, David; St Louis, Mary; Ben-Ezra, Jonathon

    2006-05-01

    Automated laboratory hematology analyzers are capable of performing differential counts on peripheral blood smears with greater precision and more accurate detection of distributional and morphologic abnormalities than those performed by manual examinations of blood smears. Manual determinations of blood morphology and leukocyte differential counts are time-consuming, expensive, and may not always be necessary. The frequency with which hematology laboratory workers perform manual screens despite the availability of labor-saving features of automated analyzers is unknown. To determine the normative rates with which manual peripheral blood smears were performed in clinical laboratories, to examine laboratory practices associated with higher or lower manual review rates, and to measure the effects of manual smear review on the efficiency of generating complete blood count (CBC) determinations. From each of 3 traditional shifts per day, participants were asked to select serially, 10 automated CBC specimens, and to indicate whether manual scans and/or reviews with complete differential counts were performed on blood smears prepared from those specimens. Sampling continued until a total of 60 peripheral smears were reviewed manually. For each specimen on which a manual review was performed, participants indicated the patient's age, hemoglobin value, white blood cell count, platelet count, and the primary reason why the manual review was performed. Participants also submitted data concerning their institutions' demographic profiles and their laboratories' staffing, work volume, and practices regarding CBC determinations. The rates of manual reviews and estimations of efficiency in performing CBC determinations were obtained from the data. A total of 263 hospitals and independent laboratories, predominantly located in the United States, participating in the College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Program. There were 95,141 CBC determinations examined in this study

  11. Clinical practice guidelines on menorrhagia: management of abnormal uterine bleeding before menopause.

    PubMed

    Marret, H; Fauconnier, A; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Cravello, L; Golfier, F; Gondry, J; Agostini, A; Bazot, M; Brailly-Tabard, S; Brun, J-L; De Raucourt, E; Gervaise, A; Gompel, A; Graesslin, O; Huchon, C; Lucot, J-P; Plu-Bureau, G; Roman, H; Fernandez, H

    2010-10-01

    Normal menstrual periods last 3-6 days and involve blood loss of up to 80ml. Menorrhagia is defined as menstrual periods lasting more than 7 days and/or involving blood loss greater than 80ml. The prevalence of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is estimated at 11-13% in the general population and increases with age, reaching 24% in those aged 36-40 years. A blood count for red cells+platelets to test for anemia is recommended on a first-line basis for women consulting for AUB whose history and/or bleeding score justify it. A pregnancy test by an hCG assay should be ordered. A speculum examination and Pap smear, according to the French High Health Authority guidelines should be performed early on to rule out any cervical disease. Pelvic ultrasound, both abdominal (suprapubic) and transvaginal, is recommended as a first-line procedure for the etiological diagnosis of AUB. Hysteroscopy or hysterosonography can be suggested as a second-line procedure. MRI is not recommended as a first-line procedure. In idiopathic AUB, the first-line treatment is medical, with efficacy ranked as follows: levonorgestrel IUD, tranexamic acid, oral contraceptives, either estrogens and progestins or synthetic progestins only, 21 days a month, or NSAIDs. When hormone treatment is contraindicated or immediate pregnancy is desired, tranexamic acid is indicated. Iron must be included for patients with iron-deficiency anemia. For women who do not wish to become pregnant in the future and who have idiopathic AUB, the long-term efficacy of conservative surgical treatment is greater than that of oral medical treatment. Placement of a levonorgestrel IUD (or administration of tranexamic acid by default) is recommended for women with idiopathic AUB. If this fails, a conservative surgical technique must be proposed; the choices include second-generation endometrial ablation techniques (thermal balloon, microwave, radiofrequency), or, if necessary, first-generation techniques (endometrectomy, roller

  12. Evaluation of FASTPlaqueTB to diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in a peripheral clinic in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Varaine, F; Ramsay, A; Githui, W; Guerin, P J

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the performance and feasibility of FASTPlaqueTB in smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) suspects in a peripheral clinic after laboratory upgrading. Patients with cough > or=2 weeks, two sputum smear-negative results, no response to 1 week of amoxicillin and abnormal chest X-ray were defined as smear-negative suspects. One sputum sample was collected, decontaminated and divided into two: half was tested with FASTPlaqueTB in the clinic laboratory and the other half was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the Kenyan Medical Research Institute. Test sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in all patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Feasibility was assessed by the contamination rate and the resources required to upgrade the laboratory. Of 208 patients included in the study, 56.2% were HIV-infected. Of 203 FASTPlaqueTB tests, 95 (46.8%) were contaminated, which interfered with result interpretation and led to the interruption of the study. Sensitivity and specificity were respectively 31.2% (95%CI 12.1-58.5) and 94.9% (95%CI 86.8-98.4) in all patients and 33.3% (95%CI 9.9-65.1) and 93.9% (95%CI 83.1-98.7) in HIV-infected patients. Upgrading the laboratory cost euro 20,000. FASTPlaqueTB did not perform satisfactorily in this setting. If contamination can be reduced, in addition to laboratory upgrading, its introduction in peripheral clinics would require further assessment in smear-negative and HIV co-infected patients and test adaptation for friendlier use.

  13. The glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal activates Pap1 and Sty1 stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Zuin, Alice; Vivancos, Ana P; Sansó, Miriam; Takatsume, Yoshifumi; Ayté, José; Inoue, Yoshiharu; Hidalgo, Elena

    2005-11-04

    Methylglyoxal, a toxic metabolite synthesized in vivo during glycolysis, inhibits cell growth. One of the mechanisms protecting eukaryotic cells against its toxicity is the glyoxalase system, composed of glyoxalase I and II (glo1 and glo2), which converts methylglyoxal into d-lactic acid in the presence of glutathione. Here we have shown that the two principal oxidative stress response pathways of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Sty1 and Pap1, are involved in the response to methylglyoxal toxicity. The mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 is phosphorylated and accumulates in the nucleus following methylglyoxal treatment. Moreover, glo2 expression is induced by methylglyoxal and environmental stresses in a Sty1-dependent manner. The transcription factor Pap1 also accumulates in the nucleus, activating the expression of its target genes following methylglyoxal treatment. Our studies showed that the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of Pap1 is sufficient for methylglyoxal sensing. Furthermore, the redox status of Pap1 is not changed by methylglyoxal. We propose that methylglyoxal treatment triggers Pap1 and Sty1 nuclear accumulation, and we describe the molecular basis of such activation mechanisms. In addition, we discuss the potential physiological significance of these responses to a natural toxic metabolite.

  14. Beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test: a new Chilean questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Hall, Rosemary

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to examine women's beliefs about cervical cancer and the Pap test in Chilean women. The questionnaire, developed following the guidelines by Robert de Vellis, is based on the Health Belief Model. The content validity index was 0.93 upon review by 10 Chilean experts. A cross-sectional design was implemented to validate the questionnaire. The sample included 333 women recruited from a women's healthcare center in Santiago, Chile. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate validity and coefficient α to evaluate reliability. After six models were computed, the questionnaire was reduced from 53 to 28 items. The new questionnaire, CPC-28 (in Spanish, Creencias, Papanicolaou, Cancer -28), includes six domains: the barriers domain to take a Pap test, the cues to action domain, the severity domain, the need to have a Pap test domain, the susceptibility to cervical cancer domain, and the benefit domain. The unexpected salient factor "need to have a Pap test" was found as part of the susceptibility domain proposed in the initial questionnaire. This finding is an important topic for future research. The CPC-28 questionnaire explained 49% of the total variance, and the reliability was .735. It was concluded that the CPC-28 questionnaire will have important implications on research, education, and administration across disciplines. Nursing curricula and healthcare providers must stress the importance and reinforce the importance of prevention of cervical cancer and regular Pap test screenings. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. "It Can Promote an Existential Crisis": Factors Influencing Pap Test Acceptability and Utilization Among Transmasculine Individuals.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Agénor, Madina; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Transmasculine (i.e., female-to-male transgender) individuals have lower rates of cervical cancer screening than nontransgender women and often report negative experiences with the Pap test. Deciding to undergo screening and the test experience itself are characterized by the following processes: negotiating identity as the patient, provider, and insurance company wrestle with the degree of (in)congruence between a patient's masculine gender identity and their conception of the Pap test as feminine; bargaining for health as a Pap test may be required to obtain medical transition services or avoid undesired health outcomes; withstanding acute challenges during the Pap test to body, identity, and privacy; or reframing challenges as affirmation. The degree of distress triggered by the Pap test varied from "routine" to traumatic. Participants affirmed that a trusted, trans-competent health care provider could significantly reduce barriers to regular and satisfactory cervical cancer screening. Data are from 32 in-depth interviews conducted in Boston, Massachusetts, with transmasculine individuals; a modified grounded theory approach informed the analysis.

  16. Evidence for a SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde pathway that functions in drought and high light signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Crisp, Peter A; Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Wirtz, Markus; Collinge, Derek; Carrie, Chris; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, James; David, Pascale; Javot, Hélène; Brearley, Charles; Hell, Rüdiger; Marin, Elena; Pogson, Barry J

    2011-11-01

    Compartmentation of the eukaryotic cell requires a complex set of subcellular messages, including multiple retrograde signals from the chloroplast and mitochondria to the nucleus, to regulate gene expression. Here, we propose that one such signal is a phosphonucleotide (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate [PAP]), which accumulates in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to drought and high light (HL) stress and that the enzyme SAL1 regulates its levels by dephosphorylating PAP to AMP. SAL1 accumulates in chloroplasts and mitochondria but not in the cytosol. sal1 mutants accumulate 20-fold more PAP without a marked change in inositol phosphate levels, demonstrating that PAP is a primary in vivo substrate. Significantly, transgenic targeting of SAL1 to either the nucleus or chloroplast of sal1 mutants lowers the total PAP levels and expression of the HL-inducible ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 gene. This indicates that PAP must be able to move between cellular compartments. The mode of action for PAP could be inhibition of 5' to 3' exoribonucleases (XRNs), as SAL1 and the nuclear XRNs modulate the expression of a similar subset of HL and drought-inducible genes, sal1 mutants accumulate XRN substrates, and PAP can inhibit yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) XRNs. We propose a SAL1-PAP retrograde pathway that can alter nuclear gene expression during HL and drought stress.

  17. Silent High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Atypical Smears from Liquid Based Cervical Cytology - Three Years Experience in Thammasat University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lertvutivivat, Supapen; Chanthasenanont, Athita; Chanthasenanont, Athita; Muangto, Teerapat; Nanthakomon, Tongta; Pongrojpaw, Densak; Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2016-01-01

    To study the prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosis in women with atypical Papaniculoau (Pap) smears to suggest appropriate management option for Thai health care. Data from all patients with liquid based cytology with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing between May 2013 - May 2016 were collected from medical records. Women with atypical cervical Pap smears were recruited. Results for age, HPV testing, HPV 16, 18, 45 and other genotypes tested, colposcopic examination and histopathological assessment were all collected. Atypical smears were defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cells cannot be exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). A total of 2,144 cases were recruited. Twenty six women with ASC-US on cytology had high risk (HR) HPV detection while eight cases with ASC-H had HR-HPV (40.0% VS 72.7%, p=0.005). Among the 26 women with ASC-US cytology and positive HR-HPV, HPV type 16 (n=8, 30.8%), type 18 (n=1, 3.8%), type 45 (n=1, 3.8%) and other HPV types (n=17, 65.4%) were found. Eight women with ASC-H and positive HR-HPV demonstrated type 16 (n=6, 75%) and other HPV types (n=2, 25%). Fifty seven women with ASC-US had normal colposcopy, CIN1 and CIN2+ at percentages of 80.7 (46/57), 14.0 (8/57) and 5.3 (3/57), respectively. In the ASC-H group, 7 out of 10 women had normal colposcopy and three (30%) had CIN2+ results. In women with ASC-US cytology, immediate colposcopy is highly recommended. HPV testing can be performed if colposcopy is not an available option because there was high prevalence (5.3%) of CIN2+ in our findings. ASCCP recommendations for ASC-H that colposcopy should be performed on all ASC-H cases regardless of HPV result are thereby supported by the findings of this investigation.

  18. COMPARISON OF GeneXpert MTB/RIF ASSAY WITH CONVENTIONAL AFB SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Suleesathira, Tanapong; Chaimanee, Prajaub

    2017-03-01

    Among infectious agents, Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most significant causes of death worldwide. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a great challenge. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a novel integrated diagnostic system for rapid diagnosis of TB and particularly of rifampicin-resistant strains. A study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2014 to compare the performance of the sputum GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with the conventional sputum AFB smear for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in Thailand, a country with a high burden of this disease. Of the 125 patients who had cough and/or prolonged fever together with abnormal chest radiograph, 63 were diagnosed as having pulmonary TB by mycobacterium culture assay, while the remaining subjects were considered of having TB-like conditions, viz non-tuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM), bacterial pneumonia or bronchogenic carcinoma. Two-thirds of the patients had underlying diseases, eg, diabetes mellitus (19 patients), autoimmune diseases (14), and HIV (6). Among patients with positive diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection, 30 were AFB smear positive and 53 by sputum GeneXpert MTB/RIF method; among patients negative for M. tuberculosis infection, 4 were AFB smear positive and 5 by GeneXpert MTB/ RIF assay. Sensitivity and specificity of the sputum AFB smear and GeneXpertMTB/ RIF assay test were 48% (95% CI: 35-61) and 84% (95% CI: 73-92), and 94% (95% CI: 84-98) and 92% (95% CI: 82-97), respectively. Diagnostic performance of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay among AFB smear positive patients was higher than among AFB smear negative patients (adjusted OR 6.7; 95% CI: 2.3-19.9). Earlier diagnosis of pulmonary TB using GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay will lead to earlier appropriate treatment and provide opportunities to interrupt TB transmission.

  19. Four-flap Breast Reconstruction: Bilateral Stacked DIEP and PAP Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population. PMID:26090273

  20. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  1. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  2. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; de la Garza, Gabriel O.; Greenlee, Jeremy D.W.; Graham, Scott M.; Udeh, Chiedozie I.; O'Brien, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two weeks, we propose caution in the use of CPAP postoperatively in patients undergoing procedures of the head and neck. PMID:22626688

  3. Slit-skin smear in leprosy: lest we forget it!

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing and classifying leprosy solely on the basis of skin lesions as per WHO operational classification may lead to over or under diagnosis and inadequate treatment particularly of pauci-lesional multibacillary cases with consequent risk of resistance, relapse and progressive horizontal transmission. Announcing elimination of leprosy as public health problem in India under NLEP was probably ambitious aspiration. However, such a strategy is perhaps not justified scientifically at the moment in view of new case detection rate not showing significant decline. The fact remains that it is still highly desirable to provide sustained quality leprosy services to all individuals through general health services and good referral system. Being nearly of 100% specificity when performed expertly, slit-skin smear remains the simplest diagnostic technique available until new cutting-edge diagnostic tools become available for routine bedside use. However, the interest has been declining for learning this simple test among all the persons involved in leprosy work even in the teaching/training institutes. This is perhaps due to confusion over number and sites of smears, and its declining usefulness in WHO recommendations/guidelines. Various technical aspects of slit-skin smear testing are reviewed here keeping in view the need of leprosy workers in referral/teaching institutes.

  4. Taste symmetry breaking with hypercubic-smeared staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Taegil; Adams, David H.; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2008-05-01

    We study the impact of hypercubic (HYP) smearing on the size of taste-breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing a{approx_equal}0.1 fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (O(a{sup 2}p{sup 2})) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable tomore » the expected size of generic O(a{sup 2}) effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of a{approx_equal}0.09 fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which O(a{sup 2})<

  5. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  6. Star-PAP Control of BIK Expression and Apoptosis Is Regulated by Nuclear PIPKIα and PKCδ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Ji, Zhe; Barlow, Christy A.; Tian, Bin; Anderson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY BIK protein is an initiator of mitochondrial apoptosis and BIK expression is induced by pro-apoptotic signals including DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that 3′-end processing and expression of BIK mRNA are controlled by the nuclear PI4,5P2-regulated poly(A) polymerase Star-PAP downstream of DNA damage. Nuclear PKCδ is a key mediator of apoptosis and DNA damage stimulates PKCδ association with the Star-PAP complex where PKCδ is required for Star-PAP-dependent BIK expression. PKCδ binds the PI4,5P2-generating enzyme PIPKIα, which is essential for PKCδ interaction with the Star-PAP complex and PKCδ activity is directly stimulated by PI4,5P2. Features in the BIK 3′-UTR uniquely define Star-PAP specificity and may block canonical PAP activity toward BIK mRNA. This reveals a nuclear phosphoinositide signaling nexus where PIPKIα, PI4,5P2 and PKCδ regulate Star-PAP control of BIK expression and induction of apoptosis. This pathway is distinct from the Star-PAP-mediated oxidative stress pathway indicating signal-specific regulation of mRNA 3′-end processing. PMID:22244330

  7. Image analysis in cytology: DNA-histogramming versus cervical smear prescreening.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, E W; Nordin, B

    1993-01-01

    The visual inspection of cellular specimens and histological sections through a light microscope plays an important role in clinical medicine and biomedical research. The human visual system is very good at the recognition of various patterns but less efficient at quantitative assessment of these patterns. Some samples are prepared in great numbers, most notably the screening for cervical cancer, the so-called PAP-smears, which results in hundreds of millions of samples each year, creating a tedious mass inspection task. Numerous attempts have been made over the last 40 years to create systems that solve these two tasks, the quantitative supplement to the human visual system and the automation of mass screening. The most difficult task, the total automation, has received the greatest attention with many large scale projects over the decades. In spite of all these efforts, still no generally accepted automated prescreening device exists on the market. The main reason for this failure is the great pattern recognition capabilities needed to distinguish between cancer cells and all other kinds of objects found in the specimens: cellular clusters, debris, degenerate cells, etc. Improved algorithms, the ever-increasing processing power of computers and progress in biochemical specimen preparation techniques make it likely that eventually useful automated prescreening systems will become available. Meanwhile, much less effort has been put into the development of interactive cell image analysis systems. Still, some such systems have been developed and put into use at thousands of laboratories worldwide. In these the human pattern recognition capability is used to select the fields and objects that are to be analysed while the computational power of the computer is used for the quantitative analysis of cellular DNA content or other relevant markers. Numerous studies have shown that the quantitative information about the distribution of cellular DNA content is of prognostic

  8. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.

  9. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling of Sputum Acid-Fast Bacillus Smears for Assessing Sputum Smear Microscopy Centers

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, N.; Murthy, B. N.; Prabhakaran, E.; Sivagamasundari, S.; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M.; Govindaraju, R.; Chauhan, L. S.; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704

  10. Production of a pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP)-containing immunotoxin, B43-PAP, directed against the CD19 human B lineage lymphoid differentiation antigen in highly purified form for human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Myers, D E; Irvin, J D; Smith, R S; Kuebelbeck, V M; Uckun, F M

    1991-02-15

    We describe a standardized method for the preparation and purification of a potent immunotoxin against B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells, constructed with the ribosome inhibitory single chain plant toxin pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) and a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human B lineage differentiation antigen CD19 for human clinical trials. PAP was prepared from spring leaves of Phytolacca americana plants by ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified to homogeneity by successive steps of ion exchange chromatography. B43 MoAb was produced in vitro by hollow fiber technology and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. PAP toxin and B43 MoAb were modified via their free amino groups prior to their intermolecular conjugation. 2-iminothiolane was used to introduce reactive sulfhydryl groups into PAP and N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate was used to introduce 2-pyridyl disulfide bonds into B43 MoAb. Modified PAP was reacted with modified B43 MoAb resulting in a sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange reaction and yielding disulfide linked PAP-B43 MoAb conjugates, which we refer to as B43-PAP immunotoxin. B43-PAP immunotoxin was subjected to preparative gel filtration chromatography and cation exchange chromatography to obtain a highly purified, sterile, and pyrogen-free immunotoxin preparation with less than 5% free antibody contamination and less than 0.5% free PAP contamination. The final product displayed a high affinity for and a very potent anti-leukemic activity against B lineage leukemia cells. With slight modifications, the procedures detailed in this report should be generally applicable to preparation of other PAP-MoAb conjugates for treatment of cancer or AIDS.

  11. [Squamous intraepithlelial lesions in women's lupus].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2009-09-01

    previous studies have suggested an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), abnormal cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), but the underlying cause of this association is not well defined. To review Pap smear and biopsy results in SLE women compared with healthy controls and to identify traditional risk factors associated with abnormal smears. Retrospective cohort study. Sixty-two SLE patients and 1719 controls were included. Women with abnormal Pap smear results were referred to colposcopic biopsy histology. Information on traditional risk factors was obtained. Among SLE patients, activity score (Mex-SLEDAI) and immunosuppressive drugs exposure also were determined. Fourteen (22%) out of 62 patients had abnormal Pap smear results, compared with 120 (7%) out of 1719 controls. Thirteen (92%) out of 14 patients showed SIL by histological examination, compared with 27 (22%) out of 120 controls. Two SLE women had condylomata. There were no significant differences in the use of immunosuppressive agents among SLE patients with and without SIL. Abnormal Pap smears, SIL by biopsy and changes in the sexual behavioral were more common among SLE patients than in controls. The immunosuppressive drug exposure was not associated with abnormal Pap smears.

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Pap Tests Every Three Years: Cost-Effective in the Long Run?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise Hope

    1983-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's guidelines, recommending that having Pap tests at three-year intervals is safe for many women, are questioned. Dangers to women with a high risk of cervical cancer, problems with faulty test results, and other gynecological problems that may be detected during pelvic examinations are discussed. (PP)

  14. Exploring Indirect Sources of Human Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates (PFCAs): Evaluating Uptake, Elimination, and Biotransformation of Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    D’eon, Jessica C.; Mabury, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging and have been observed in human sera. Objectives We determined pharmacokinetic parameters for the PAP monoesters (monoPAPs) and PAP diesters (diPAPs), as well as biotransformation yields to the PFCAs, using a rat model. Methods The animals were dosed intravenously or by oral gavage with a mixture of 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 monoPAP or diPAP chain lengths. Concentrations of the PAPs and PFCAs, as well as metabolic intermediates and phase II metabolites, were monitored over time in blood, urine, and feces. Results The diPAPs were bioavailable, with bioavailability decreasing as the chain length increased from 4 to 10 perfluorinated carbons. The monoPAPs were not absorbed from the gut; however, we found evidence to suggest phosphate-ester cleavage within the gut contents. We observed biotransformation to the PFCAs for both monoPAP and diPAP congeners. Conclusions Using experimentally derived biotransformation yields, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sera concentrations were predicted from the biotransformation of 8:2 diPAP at concentrations observed in human serum. Because of the long human serum half-life of PFOA, biotransformation of diPAP even with low-level exposure could over time result in significant exposure to PFOA. Although humans are exposed directly to PFCAs in food and dust, the pharmacokinetic parameters determined here suggest that PAP exposure should be considered a significant indirect source of human PFCA contamination. PMID:21059488

  15. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Hiroshi; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Saitama 332-0012; Kitaura, Hirotake

    2005-02-15

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins,more » which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF{sup 35}. CIR was found to interact with U2AF{sup 35} through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation.« less

  16. PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO) mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin), were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT) mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (<2 s) and were reduced (>60%) in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal. PMID:22011440

  17. CstF-64 and 3'-UTR cis-element determine Star-PAP specificity for target mRNA selection by excluding PAPα.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Divya T; Mohan, Nimmy; A, Vivekanand; A P, Sudheesh; G, Reshmi; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2016-01-29

    Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly (A) tail at the 3'-end. Canonical PAPs (PAPα/γ) polyadenylate nuclear pre-mRNAs. The recent identification of the non-canonical Star-PAP revealed specificity of nuclear PAPs for pre-mRNAs, yet the mechanism how Star-PAP selects mRNA targets is still elusive. Moreover, how Star-PAP target mRNAs having canonical AAUAAA signal are not regulated by PAPα is unclear. We investigate specificity mechanisms of Star-PAP that selects pre-mRNA targets for polyadenylation. Star-PAP assembles distinct 3'-end processing complex and controls pre-mRNAs independent of PAPα. We identified a Star-PAP recognition nucleotide motif and showed that suboptimal DSE on Star-PAP target pre-mRNA 3'-UTRs inhibit CstF-64 binding, thus preventing PAPα recruitment onto it. Altering 3'-UTR cis-elements on a Star-PAP target pre-mRNA can switch the regulatory PAP from Star-PAP to PAPα. Our results suggest a mechanism of poly (A) site selection that has potential implication on the regulation of alternative polyadenylation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. CstF-64 and 3′-UTR cis-element determine Star-PAP specificity for target mRNA selection by excluding PAPα

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Divya T.; Mohan, Nimmy; A, Vivekanand; AP, Sudheesh; G, Reshmi; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly (A) tail at the 3′-end. Canonical PAPs (PAPα/γ) polyadenylate nuclear pre-mRNAs. The recent identification of the non-canonical Star-PAP revealed specificity of nuclear PAPs for pre-mRNAs, yet the mechanism how Star-PAP selects mRNA targets is still elusive. Moreover, how Star-PAP target mRNAs having canonical AAUAAA signal are not regulated by PAPα is unclear. We investigate specificity mechanisms of Star-PAP that selects pre-mRNA targets for polyadenylation. Star-PAP assembles distinct 3′-end processing complex and controls pre-mRNAs independent of PAPα. We identified a Star-PAP recognition nucleotide motif and showed that suboptimal DSE on Star-PAP target pre-mRNA 3′-UTRs inhibit CstF-64 binding, thus preventing PAPα recruitment onto it. Altering 3′-UTR cis-elements on a Star-PAP target pre-mRNA can switch the regulatory PAP from Star-PAP to PAPα. Our results suggest a mechanism of poly (A) site selection that has potential implication on the regulation of alternative polyadenylation. PMID:26496945

  19. Analytical variability of estimated platelet counts on canine blood smears.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Paciletti, Veronica; Zambarbieri, Jari

    2018-06-04

    The analytical variability of estimated platelet counts in dogs has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of analytical imprecision of platelet estimates and the possible impact of this imprecision on clinical decisions. Three independent observers counted the number of platelets in 3 different areas (LE = lateral edge; CM = central monolayer; FE = feathered edge) of 30 canine blood smears with different instrumental platelet counts. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each observer was calculated in different areas of each smear (intra-observer variability), among different regions of each smear (inter-area variability), and among different observers in each area (inter-observer variability). The influence of these variabilities on the classification of platelet estimates as adequate, increased, or decreased was also assessed. The CVs recorded in the different areas by each observer ranged from 8% to 88% and were negatively correlated (P < .001, r = -.65) with the mean number of platelets per field. The mean platelet number was significantly lower in the FE and significantly higher in the CM compared with the LE, but the magnitude of this difference varied with the operators. The concordance among operators regarding platelet estimates was fair (k = 0.36) to substantial (k = 0.71) depending on the area. The overall inter-area concordance was moderate (k = 0.59). Platelet estimates suffer from high variability that could lead to patient misclassification. Therefore, guidelines to standardize the platelet estimate are needed. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Effectiveness of a computer-based tutorial for teaching how to make a blood smear.

    PubMed

    Preast, Vanessa; Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Bousson, Maury

    2007-09-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality. Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using the CAI tutorial (experimental group). Students in the control group received a short demonstration and lecture by the instructor at the beginning of the laboratory and then practiced making blood smears. Students in the experimental group received their instruction through the self-paced, multimedia tutorial on a laptop computer and then practiced making blood smears. Data was collected from observation, interview, survey questionnaires, and smear evaluation by students and experts using a scoring rubric. Students using the CAI made better smears and were better able to recognize smear quality. The average time the instructor spent in the room was not significantly different between groups, but the quality of the instructor time was improved with the experimental instruction. The tutorial implementation effectively provided students and instructors with a teaching and learning experience superior to the traditional method of instruction. Using CAI is a viable method of teaching students to make blood smears.

  1. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) and acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sarah

    2002-05-01

    Patients in acute respiratory failure (ARF) frequently present to the emergency department (ED). Traditionally management has involved mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation. Such invasive forms of treatment, however, correlate with a higher incidence of infection, mortality, length of stay and contribute to the costs of intensive care. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) such as bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) may therefore provide an alternative and preferable form of treatment. Whilst contemporary literature supports the use of BiPAP in hypercapnic ARF, its role in acute hypoxaemic presentations remains elusive. Specifically, the efficacy and safety of BiPAP in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) remains a contentious issue. The aim of this paper is to explore the physiological rationale for treatment of ACPO with BiPAP. Particular attention will focus on the comparative theoretical advantages of BiPAP in relation to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a review of recent research. Discussion will incorporate timeliness in the application of BiPAP, indicators of successful treatment, appropriate manipulation of pressure settings, nursing workload and management of patients beyond the ED. Whilst the theoretical advantages of BiPAP ventilation are acknowledged, larger randomised controlled research studies are recommended in order to clearly ensure its safe and effective application in the treatment of ACPO.

  2. Comparison of scanty AFB smears against culture in an area with high HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L; Yassin, M A; Ramsay, A; Emenyonu, N E; Squire, S B; Cuevas, L E

    2005-08-01

    To verify among tuberculosis (TB) suspects attending hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria, if sputum smears graded as scanty are false-positive, sputum smears from 1068 patients were graded with the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease classification. One specimen was cultured. Eight hundred and twenty-four (26%) smears were positive, 137 (4%) scanty and 2243 negative. Of 1068 cultures, 680 (64%) were positive. One hundred and thirty (95%) scanty and 809 (98%) positive smears were culture-positive. Twelve of 18 patients with a single scanty smear and 51 of 52 with > or = 2 scanty smears were culture-positive. Fewer than < 5% scanty results, < 1% of the patients treated for TB, are false-positive.

  3. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstratemore » that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.« less

  4. Pandemic influenza immunization in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS): a trigger to thrombosis and autoantibody production?

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, D Martins; Silva, C A; Bueno, C; Ribeiro, A C Medeiros; Viana, V dos Santos T; Carvalho, J Freire; Bonfa, E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this report is to conduct short- and long-term evaluation of a large panel of antiphospholipid (aPL) autoantibodies following pandemic influenza A/H1N1 non-adjuvant vaccine in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients and healthy controls. Forty-five PAPS and 33 healthy controls were immunized with H1N1 vaccine. They were prospectively assessed at pre-vaccination, and three weeks and six months after vaccination. aPL autoantibodies were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and included IgG/IgM: anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta2glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI); anti-annexin V, anti-phosphatidyl serine and anti-prothrombin antibodies. Anti-Sm was determined by ELISA and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) by indirect immunofluorescence. Arterial and venous thrombosis were also clinically assessed. Pre-vaccination frequency of at least one aPL antibody was significantly higher in PAPS patients versus controls (58% vs. 24%, p = 0.0052). The overall frequencies of aPL antibody at pre-vaccination, and three weeks and six months after immunization remained unchanged in patients (p = 0.89) and controls (p = 0.83). The frequency of each antibody specificity for patients and controls remained stable in the three evaluated periods (p > 0.05). At three weeks, two PAPS patients developed a new but transient aPL antibody (aCL IgG and IgM), whereas at six months new aPL antibodies were observed in six PAPS patients and none had high titer. Anti-Sm and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies were uniformly negative and no new arterial or venous thrombosis were observed throughout the study. This is the first study to demonstrate that pandemic influenza vaccine in PAPS patients does not trigger short- and long-term thrombosis or a significant production of aPL-related antibodies (ClinicalTrials.gov, #NCT01151644). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  6. Comparison of automated versus manual neutrophil counts for the detection of cellular abnormalities in dogs receiving chemotherapy: 50 cases (May to June 2008).

    PubMed

    Cora, Michelle C; Neel, Jennifer A; Grindem, Carol B; Kissling, Grace E; Hess, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    To determine the frequency of clinically relevant abnormalities missed by failure to perform a blood smear evaluation in a specific subset of dogs receiving chemotherapy and to compare automated and manual neutrophil counts in the same population. Retrospective case series. 50 dogs receiving chemotherapy with a total nucleated cell count > 4,000 nucleated cells/μL. 50 blood smears were evaluated for abnormalities that have strong potential to change the medical plan for a patient: presence of blast cells, band neutrophils, nucleated RBCs, toxic change, hemoparasites, schistocytes, and spherocytes. Automated and manual neutrophil counts were compared. Blood smears from 10 (20%) patients had ≥ 1 abnormalities. Blast cells were identified on 4 (8%) blood smears, increased nucleated RBCs were identified on 5 (10%), and very mild toxic change was identified on 2 (4%). Correlation coefficient of the neutrophil counts was 0.96. Analysis revealed a slight bias between the automated and manual neutrophil counts (mean ± SD difference, -0.43 × 10(3)/μL ± 1.10 × 10(3)/μL). In this series of patients, neutrophil count correlation was very good. Clinically relevant abnormalities were found on 20% of the blood smears. An automated CBC appears to be accurate for neutrophil counts, but a microscopic examination of the corresponding blood smear is still recommended; further studies are needed to determine whether the detection or frequency of these abnormalities would differ dependent on chemotherapy protocol, neoplastic disease, and decision thresholds used by the oncologist in the ordering of a CBC without a blood smear evaluation.

  7. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  8. Role of 2-month sputum smears in predicting culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Su, W-J; Feng, J-Y; Chiu, Y-C; Huang, S-F; Lee, Y-C

    2011-02-01

    Sputum smears and culture conversion are frequently used to evaluate treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Limited data are available on the evaluation of the correlation between under-treatment sputum smear results and culture conversion. This prospective study included sputum culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis patients at six hospitals in Taiwan. At least two sets of sputum were collected at the completion of 8 weeks of TB treatment. The sensitivities and specificities of 2-month sputum smears were estimated based on culture conversion status. A total of 371 patients were enrolled for analysis. Factors associated with culture conversion included having a smear positive before treatment, presence of a cavity on radiography, rifampicin resistance and usage of the DOTS (directly observed therapy, short course) strategy. The sensitivities of 2-month sputum smears for culture conversion among all patients, initially smear-positive patients and initially smear-negative patients were 64.3, 71.4 and 38%, respectively, and the specificities were 81.6, 69.9 and 92.8%, respectively. In patients who were 2-month sputum smear-positive, the 2-month culture conversion rate was 80% if the patients were under DOTS and without cavitary lesions in radiograms. The predictive value of 2-month sputum smears in culture conversion was limited and highly influenced by clinical factors in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  9. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    PubMed

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy.

  10. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis found that only the expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  11. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-05-01

    Urban clinic, Nairobi. To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. Prospective study among TB suspects. A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly more men than women produced a set of three 'good' quality specimens (175/274 vs. 182/339, P = 0.01). Lowering thresholds for definitions to include scanty smears resulted in increases in SPC detection in both sexes; the increase was significantly higher for women. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) case definition was associated with the highest detection rates in women. When analysis was restricted only to patients submitting 'good' quality specimen sets, the difference in detection between sexes was on the threshold for significance (P = 0.05). Higher SPC notification rates in men are commonly reported by TB control programmes. The revised WHO SPC definition may reduce sex disparities in notification. This should be considered when evaluating other interventions aimed at reducing these. Further study is required on the effects of the human immuno-deficiency virus and instructed specimen collection on sex-specific impact of new SPC definition.

  12. Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

  13. Arabidopsis AtPAP1 transcription factor induces anthocyanin production in transgenic Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian; Sun, Shuquan; Luo, Shiqiao; Zhang, Jichuan; Xiao, Xianzhou; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shizhong

    2014-04-01

    This study developed a new purple coloured Taraxacum brevicorniculatum plant through genetic transformation using the Arabidopsis AtPAP1 gene, which overproduced anthocyanins in its vegetative tissues. Rubber-producing Taraxacum plants synthesise high-quality natural rubber (NR) in their roots and so are a promising alternative global source of this raw material. A major factor in its commercialization is the need for multipurpose exploitation of the whole plant. To add value to the aerial tissues, red/purple plants of the rubber-producing Taraxacum brevicorniculatum species were developed through heterologous expression of the production of anthocyanin pigment 1 (AtPAP1) transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana. The vegetative tissue of the transgenic plants showed an average of a 48-fold increase in total anthocyanin content over control levels, but with the exception of pigmentation, the transgenic plants were phenotypically comparable to controls and displayed similar growth vigor. Southern blot analysis confirmed that the AtPAP1 gene had been integrated into the genome of the high anthocyanin Taraxacum plants. The AtPAP1 expression levels were estimated by quantitative real-time PCR and were highly correlated with the levels of total anthocyanins in five independent transgenic lines. High levels of three cyanidin glycosides found in the purple plants were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. The presence of NR was verified by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, and confirmed that NR biosynthesis had not been affected in the transgenic Taraxacum lines. In addition, other major phenylpropanoid products such as chlorogenic acid and quercetin glycosides were also enhanced in the transgenic Taraxacum. The red/purple transgenic Taraxacum lines described in this study would increase the future application of the species as a rubber-producing crop due to its additional health benefits.

  14. Knowledge, opinions and attitudes of Italian mothers towards HPV vaccination and Pap test.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Giuseppe; De Vito, Elisabetta; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Firenze, Alberto; Gregorio, Pasquale; Miccoli, Silvia; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Unim, Brigid; De Belvis, Giulio; Boccia, Antonio; Saulle, Rosella; Semyonov, Leda; Ferrara, Maria; Langiano, Elisa; Capizzi, Silvio; Nardella, Rosaria; Marsala, Maria Grazia Laura; Bonanno, Valentina; Ferrara, Clara; Guidi, Enrica; Bergamini, Mauro; Lupi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of Italian mothers - whose daughters had been vaccinated in 2012 - towards primary (anti-HPV vaccination) and secondary (Pap test screening) cervical cancer prevention, as well as sources of information and mother-daughter communication on health issues. The survey - part of a multicenter study carried out in 4 Italian cities (Ferrara, Rome, Cassino and Palermo) - was conducted through self-administered questionnaires. The first univariate analysis evaluated differences between mothers of under-18s and over-18s relative to knowledge and attitudes on HPV vaccination and Pap test. The second univariate analysis evaluated differences between the 2 groups of mothers and possible geographical variations regarding the sources of information on HPV and Pap test. The sample proved knowledgeable about the correlation between HPV and cervical cancer (>85%) but less aware of other HPV-related diseases. HPV vaccination should be administered before first sexual intercourse according to mothers of over-18s, and to 14- to 17-year-olds according to mothers of under-18s. Up to 88% of mothers of under-18s and 80% of mothers of over-18s declared that the vaccine should be given free of charge. More mothers of under-18s consulted a general practitioner (GP) or gynecologist before deciding to vaccinate their daughters. Mothers of under-18s received information on HPV vaccination mainly from GPs and gynecologists, while mothers of over-18s were informed through TV and books/journals. Over 80% of the sample declared satisfaction with the information received from their gynecologist during the Pap test. The findings provide useful information for the development of effective public health interventions that may help improve acceptance of HPV vaccination among mothers.

  15. Should all women with cervical atypia be referred for colposcopy: a HARNET study. Harrisburgh Area Research Network.

    PubMed

    Slawson, D C; Bennett, J H; Simon, L J; Herman, J M

    1994-04-01

    Clinicians who manage women with Papanicolaou (Pap) smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) may miss clinically significant cervical disease by repeating the cytology alone. We evaluated the ability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) screen and the naked-eye examination after a cervical acetic acid wash to enhance the follow-up Pap smear in predicting an abnormal colposcopic biopsy. Pap smears were performed on all women (N = 7458) attending six family practice offices for a health maintenance examination from August 1989 through February 1991. Consenting subjects with ASCUS underwent repeat cytological testing, an HPV screen, and a cervical acetic acid wash examination immediately before colposcopy after a 4- to 6-month waiting period. Of the 122 consenting women identified with ASCUS, 67 (55%) demonstrated abnormalities on biopsy, including 26 with condyloma, 26 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I), and 15 with CIN II to III. The false-negative rate, 58%, of the follow-up Pap smear alone for detecting these cases of condyloma and CIN was significantly decreased (false-negative rate, 27%) with the use of the cervical acetic acid wash as an adjunctive test. There was no additional reduction in the false-negative rate with the use of the HPV screen. Of the 15 subjects with high-grade cervical lesions (CIN II to III), 14 had either an abnormal follow-up Pap smear or an abnormal cervical acetic acid wash examination. Among women with cervical atypia, a single follow-up Pap smear alone failed to detect one third of the cases of high-grade disease. Ninety-three percent of these cases were detected, however, with a follow-up Pap smear and an acetic acid wash. Our one subject with a high-grade lesion missed with this combination of tests had an unsatisfactory Pap smear. Use of both tests together may reliably guide clinical decisions regarding the management of cervical atypia.

  16. Update on current care guideline: Cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Annually approximately 160 new cervical cancers are diagnosed in Finland. Screening has decreased both incidence and mortality by 80%. Both primary HPV-testing and Pap smear can be used in screening. In the future HPV vaccination will decrease the number of cervical cancers. Abnormal findings in Pap smears indicate management. LSIL lesions are followed up especially among young women and HSIL lesions treated. Follow-up after treatment should be reliably arranged, because increased risk of cancer remains ever after treatment.

  17. Colpocytological abnormalities in HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women: prevalence, persistence and progression.

    PubMed

    Carriero, Carmine; Fascilla, Fabiana Divina; Cramarossa, Paola; Lepera, Achiropita; Bettocchi, Stefano; Vimercati, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions. Pap smear and colposcopy should be part of routine care for HIV-infected pregnant women because these lesions behave aggressively in these patients. Success of prevention depends on massive access of patients to screening. HAART reduces viral load and maintains CD4 count and can affect progression of SIL. Multidisciplinary services on the same site appear to be one promising strategy to improve compliance in patients. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: Our study provided novel information on a highly vulnerable population of young HIV + pregnant women. What the results of this study add: We observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions remarkable with colposcopy. We could consider these important risk factors to evaluate to establish an appropriate strategy of management for these patients. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Association of the risk between SIL presence and HIV and HPV infection also deserves additional investigation. We believe that Pap smears and colposcopies should be part of the routine care for HIV-infected women because these lesions behave particularly aggressively in these patients.

  18. Honouring Stories: Mi'kmaq Women's Experiences with Pap Screening in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Catherine; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Steenbeek, Audrey; Browne, Annette

    2015-03-01

    Mi'kmaq women are reported to have lower rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) screening and higher rates of cervical cancer than non-Aboriginal women. This qualitative participatory study used postcolonial feminist perspectives and Indigenous principles to explore Mi'kmaq women's experiences with Pap screening within the contexts that shaped their experiences. Community facilitators assisted with the research process. Talking circles and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 Mi'kmaq women. Also, health-care providers were interviewed in 2 Mi'kmaq communities. The findings indicate that historical and social contexts are shaping Mi'kmaq women's screening experiences and that these experiences are diverse, as are their understandings about screening. Some women were accessing regular screening despite challenging personal circumstances. The results highlight the need for nurses and other health-care providers to understand the uniqueness of each woman's experiences with Pap screening. Improvements in screening rates depend on multifaceted nursing approaches developed in partnership with Mi'kmaq women. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  19. Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 Amino Acids (PSP94) Binds to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) in Human Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Anklesaria, Jenifer H.; Jagtap, Dhanashree D.; Pathak, Bhakti R.; Kadam, Kaushiki M.; Joseph, Shaini; Mahale, Smita D.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) is one of the major proteins present in the human seminal plasma. Though several functions have been predicted for this protein, its exact role either in sperm function or in prostate pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. Attempts to understand the mechanism of action of PSP94 has led to the search for its probable binding partners. This has resulted in the identification of PSP94 binding proteins in plasma and seminal plasma from human. During the chromatographic separation step of proteins from human seminal plasma by reversed phase HPLC, we had observed that in addition to the main fraction of PSP94, other fractions containing higher molecular weight proteins also showed the presence of detectable amounts of PSP94. This prompted us to hypothesize that PSP94 could be present in the seminal plasma complexed with other protein/s of higher molecular weight. One such fraction containing a major protein of ∼47 kDa, on characterization by mass spectrometric analysis, was identified to be Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP). The ability of PAP present in this fraction to bind to PSP94 was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the presence of PSP94-PAP complex both in the fraction studied and in the fresh seminal plasma. In silico molecular modeling of the PSP94-PAP complex suggests that β-strands 1 and 6 of PSP94 appear to interact with domain 2 of PAP, while β-strands 7 and 10 with domain 1 of PAP. This is the first report which suggests that PSP94 can bind to PAP and the PAP-bound PSP94 is present in human seminal plasma. PMID:23469287

  20. Domain activities of PapC usher reveal the mechanism of action of an Escherichia coli molecular machine.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Ender; Ford, Bradley A; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Henderson, Nadine S; Thanassi, David G; Waksman, Gabriel; Hultgren, Scott J

    2012-06-12

    P pili are prototypical chaperone-usher pathway-assembled pili used by Gram-negative bacteria to adhere to host tissues. The PapC usher contains five functional domains: a transmembrane β-barrel, a β-sandwich Plug, an N-terminal (periplasmic) domain (NTD), and two C-terminal (periplasmic) domains, CTD1 and CTD2. Here, we delineated usher domain interactions between themselves and with chaperone-subunit complexes and showed that overexpression of individual usher domains inhibits pilus assembly. Prior work revealed that the Plug domain occludes the pore of the transmembrane domain of a solitary usher, but the chaperone-adhesin-bound usher has its Plug displaced from the pore, adjacent to the NTD. We demonstrate an interaction between the NTD and Plug domains that suggests a biophysical basis for usher gating. Furthermore, we found that the NTD exhibits high-affinity binding to the chaperone-adhesin (PapDG) complex and low-affinity binding to the major tip subunit PapE (PapDE). We also demonstrate that CTD2 binds with lower affinity to all tested chaperone-subunit complexes except for the chaperone-terminator subunit (PapDH) and has a catalytic role in dissociating the NTD-PapDG complex, suggesting an interplay between recruitment to the NTD and transfer to CTD2 during pilus initiation. The Plug domain and the NTD-Plug complex bound all of the chaperone-subunit complexes tested including PapDH, suggesting that the Plug actively recruits chaperone-subunit complexes to the usher and is the sole recruiter of PapDH. Overall, our studies reveal the cooperative, active roles played by periplasmic domains of the usher to initiate, grow, and terminate a prototypical chaperone-usher pathway pilus.

  1. HIV-associated anal dysplasia: experience from a multiethnic-HIV clinic in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Payam, Ahoora; Shiramizu, Bruce; Shikuma, Cecilia; Milne, Cris; Terada, Kevin; Kajioka, Eric; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Cassel, Kevin; Chow, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    To assess the proportion as well as predictors of anal dysplasia in HIV-infected Asian/Pacific Islanders. This was a retrospective chart review evaluating the proportion of anal dysplasia among a multiethnic population from an ambulatory university-based HIV clinic in Hawaii. Demographic, clinical, and virologic parameters were examined with respect to abnormal anal Pap smear. Variables included: Pap smear results (outcome variable), cytology results, age, self-reported ethnicity, CD4/ nadir CD4 counts, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy use, Hepatitis B and C co-infections, history of sexually transmitted diseases, personal history of cancer, tobacco use, alcohol use, intravenous drug abuse, family history of cancer, and history of genital/anal warts. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal Pap smear among the ethnic groups. Abnormal Pap smears were associated with history of genital warts (7% normal vs. 18% abnormal, p=.01) and alcohol consumption (16% vs. 27%, p=.05). Hepatitis B infection and current anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were associated with normal Pap cytology (9.7% vs. 0%, p=.03) and (96.8% vs. 86.5%, p=.05) respectively. No differences in the proportion of abnormal Pap smears were seen among ethnic groups followed within an ambulatory HIV clinic.

  2. Role of Atf1 and Pap1 in the induction of the catalase gene of fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, C W; Yamada, K; Mutoh, N

    2000-02-01

    We examined the induction of the catalase gene (ctt1(+)) of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in response to several stresses by using mutants of transcription factors (Atf1 and Pap1) and a series of deletion mutants of the ctt1(+) promoter region. A transcription factor, Atf1, and its binding site are necessary for the induction of ctt1(+) by osmotic stress, UV irradiation, and heat shock. Induction by menadione treatment, which produces superoxide anion, required element A, the region from -111 to -90 (numbered with the transcription start site as +1). The factor responsible for the induction of the gene by oxidative stress via element A was identified as the transcription factor Pap1. We also found that Atf1 is activated by menadione treatment in pap1 mutant cells, although it is not activated by menadione treatment in pap1(+) cells. The activity of catalase is not increased in pap1 cells by several stresses, despite mRNA induction, suggesting that Pap1 plays some role in the expression of catalase activity.

  3. Cervical cytology of atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion: significance of age, human papillomavirus DNA detection and previous abnormal cytology on follow-up outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong

    2011-11-01

    Despite the usefulness of Pap tests for cancer screening, outcomes can be difficult to predict when atypical squamous cells (ASCs) are identified. According to the 2001 Bethesda system, ASCs can be subdivided into two groups: ASCs of undetermined significance (ASC-US); and ASCs, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (ASC-H). ASC-H interpretations are uncommon, and studies involving this type of lesion are based on small numbers of cases. Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 392 ASC-H cases. The follow-up outcomes of ASC-H cases that were diagnosed during routine primary screening between 2002 and 2008 were investigated, and relationships between clinicopathological parameters were assessed, particularly positive test for high-risk HPV (HPV) DNA, patient age at diagnosis and previous abnormal cytology. Of the 392 cases, high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (HSIL) was detected in 111 (28.3%) cases, squamous cell carcinoma was detected in 15 (3.8%) cases, low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion was detected in 37 (9.4%) cases, reactive change was detected in 178 (45.4%) cases, atrophy was detected in 47 (12.0%) cases, and adenocarcinoma was detected in four (1.0%) cases. The prevalence of HSIL or greater was 27.8% for women aged ≥ 40 years, and 52.3% for women aged <40 years (p<0.001). HPV positivity in ASC-H smears was significantly associated with HSIL or greater, irrespective of age (<40 years, p=0.003; ≥ 40 years, p<0.001). ASC-H with previous abnormal cytology greater than ASC-US showed a significantly higher detection rate for HSIL or greater at follow-up (p<0.001). Patient age, positive HPV DNA test and previous abnormal cytology are useful predictors of underlying HSIL or greater in women with ASC-H. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conformational Smear Characterization and Binning of Single-Molecule Conductance Measurements for Enhanced Molecular Recognition.

    PubMed

    Korshoj, Lee E; Afsari, Sepideh; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-01

    Electronic conduction or charge transport through single molecules depends primarily on molecular structure and anchoring groups and forms the basis for a wide range of studies from molecular electronics to DNA sequencing. Several high-throughput nanoelectronic methods such as mechanical break junctions, nanopores, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling break junctions, and static nanoscale electrodes are often used for measuring single-molecule conductance. In these measurements, "smearing" due to conformational changes and other entropic factors leads to large variances in the observed molecular conductance, especially in individual measurements. Here, we show a method for characterizing smear in single-molecule conductance measurements and demonstrate how binning measurements according to smear can significantly enhance the use of individual conductance measurements for molecular recognition. Using quantum point contact measurements on single nucleotides within DNA macromolecules, we demonstrate that the distance over which molecular junctions are maintained is a measure of smear, and the resulting variance in unbiased single measurements depends on this smear parameter. Our ability to identify individual DNA nucleotides at 20× coverage increases from 81.3% accuracy without smear analysis to 93.9% with smear characterization and binning (SCRIB). Furthermore, merely 7 conductance measurements (7× coverage) are needed to achieve 97.8% accuracy for DNA nucleotide recognition when only low molecular smear measurements are used, which represents a significant improvement over contemporary sequencing methods. These results have important implications in a broad range of molecular electronics applications from designing robust molecular switches to nanoelectronic DNA sequencing.

  5. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    PubMed

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  6. Smear layer-deproteinizing improves bonding of one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thittaweerat, Suppason; Foxton, Richard M; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji; Hosaka, Keiichi; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF). Flat human dentin surfaces with standardized smear layer were prepared. Smear layer deproteinizing was carried out by the application of 50ppm hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on dentin surface for 15s followed by Accel ® (p-toluenesulfinic acid salt) for 5s prior to adhesive application. No surface pretreatment was used as control. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage under TEM observation were investigated. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and t-test at the significant level of 0.05. Smear layer deproteinizing significantly improved μTBS of SE, SU, and BB (p<0.001). Hybridized smear layer observed in control groups of SE, BB, and BF, and reticular nanoleakage presented throughout the hybridized complex in control groups of BB and BF were eliminated upon the smear layer deproteinizing. Smear layer deproteinizing by HOCl and Accel ® application could enhance the quality of dentin for bonding to one-step self-etch adhesives, resulting in the improving μTBS, eliminating hybridized smear layer and preventing reticular nanoleakage formation in resin-dentin bonding interface. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  8. [Preparation and activity validation of PP7 bacteriophage-like particles displaying PAP114-128 peptide].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanli; Sun, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    Objective To obtain the PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying the peptide of prostatic acid phosphatase PAP 114-128 , and prove that they retain the original biological activity. Methods First, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7 was constructed as follows: the gene of PP7 coat protein dimer was amplified by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR technology, and inserted into the vector pETDuet-1. Following that, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7-PAP 114-128 was constructed as follows: the PP7 coat protein gene carrying the coding gene of PAP 114-128 peptide was amplified using PCR, and then inserted into the vector pETDuet-2PP7. Both pETDuet-2PP7 and pETDuet-2PP7-PAP 114-128 were transformed into E.coli and expressed. The expression product was verified by SDS-PAGE, double immunodiffusion assay and ELISA. Results The gene fragment of PP7 coat protein dimer was obtained by overlapping PCR using Ex Taq DNA polymerase, and the antigenicity of its expression product was the same as that of the coat protein of wild-type PP7 bacteriophage. Moreover, the PAP 114-128 peptide epitope that was displayed on the surface of PP7 bacteriophage was identical with the corresponding epitope of natural human PAP, and it was able to induce high levels of antibodies. Conclusion The gene of PP7 coat protein dimer with repeated sequences can be prepared by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR. Based on this, PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying PAP peptide can be prepared, which not only solves the problem of the instability of the peptides, but also lays a foundation for the study on their delivery and function.

  9. Pap Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact term or phrase, no variations. Use multiple keywords separated by spaces (e.g. kidney renal ) for ... higher those with all or most of the keywords. Plurals and other variations are automatically included. To ...

  10. Electrostatic networks control plug stabilization in the PapC usher.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thieng; Henderson, Nadine S; Werneburg, Glenn T; Thanassi, David G; Delcour, Anne H

    2015-01-01

    The PapC usher, a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, is used for assembly of the P pilus, a key virulence factor in bacterial colonization of human kidney cells. Each PapC protein is composed of a 24-stranded β-barrel channel, flanked by N- and C-terminal globular domains protruding into the periplasm, and occluded by a plug domain (PD). The PD is displaced from the channel towards the periplasm during pilus biogenesis, but the molecular mechanism for PD displacement remains unclear. Two structural features within the β-barrel, an α-helix and β5-6 hairpin loop, may play roles in controlling plug stabilization. Here we have tested clusters of residues at the interface of the plug, barrel, α-helix and hairpin, which participate in electrostatic networks. To assess the roles of these residues in plug stabilization, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology to compare the activity of wild-type and mutant PapC channels containing alanine substitutions at these sites. Mutations interrupting each of two salt bridge networks were relatively ineffective in disrupting plug stabilization. However, mutation of two pairs of arginines located at the inner and the outer surfaces of the PD resulted in an enhanced propensity for plug displacement. One arginine pair involved in a repulsive interaction between the linkers that tether the plug to the β-barrel was particularly sensitive to mutation. These results suggest that plug displacement, which is necessary for pilus assembly and translocation, may require a weakening of key electrostatic interactions between the plug linkers, and the plug and the α-helix.

  11. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  12. Brain Activation Changes Before and After PAP Treatment in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Castronovo, Vincenza; Canessa, Nicola; Strambi, Luigi Ferini; Aloia, Mark S.; Consonni, Monica; Marelli, Sara; Iadanza, Antonella; Bruschi, Alice; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cognitive and functional deficits, most of which are corrected after positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Previous studies investigating the neural underpinnings of OSAS failed to provide consistent results both on the cerebral substrates underlying cognitive deficits and on the effect of treatment on these anomalies. The aims of the study were a) to investigate whether never-treated OSA patients demonstrated differences in brain activation compared to healthy controls during a cognitive task; and b) to investigate whether any improvements in cognitive functioning found in OSA patients after treatment reflected a change in the underlying cerebral activity. Design: OSA patients and healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. They were compared on performance and brain activation during a 2-back working-memory task. Patients were also re-evaluated after 3 months treatment with PAP. Cognitive functions were evaluated using neurocognitive tests. Sleepiness (ESS), mood (Beck Depression Inventory) and, quality-of-life (SF-36) were also assessed. Setting: The Sleep Disorders Center and CERMAC at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University. Patients or Participants: 17 OSA patients and 15 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Interventions: PAP treatment for 3 months. Measurements and Results: Compared to controls, never-treated OSA patients showed increased activations in the left frontal cortex, medial precuneus, and hippocampus, and decreased activations in the caudal pons. OSA patients showed decreases in activation with treatment in the left inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, and bilaterally in the hippocampus. Most neurocognitive domains, impaired at baseline, showed significant improvement after treatment. Conclusions: OSA patients showed an overrecruitment of brain regions compared to controls, in the presence of the same

  13. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin resistance in bio-safe stained sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Surabhi; Anthwal, Divya; Bhalla, Manpreet; Singh, Nagendra; Haldar, Sagarika; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2017-01-01

    Direct smear microscopy of sputum forms the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Stained sputum smear slides can serve as a ready-made resource to transport sputum for molecular drug susceptibility testing. However, bio-safety is a major concern during transport of sputum/stained slides and for laboratory workers engaged in processing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected sputum specimens. In this study, a bio-safe USP (Universal Sample Processing) concentration-based sputum processing method (Bio-safe method) was assessed on 87 M. tuberculosis culture positive sputum samples. Samples were processed for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear, liquid culture and DNA isolation. DNA isolated directly from sputum was subjected to an IS6110 PCR assay. Both sputum DNA and DNA extracted from bio-safe ZN concentrated smear slides were subjected to rpoB PCR and simultaneously assessed by DNA sequencing for determining rifampin (RIF) resistance. All sputum samples were rendered sterile by Bio-safe method. Bio-safe smears exhibited a 5% increment in positivity over direct smear with a 14% increment in smear grade status. All samples were positive for IS6110 and rpoB PCR. Thirty four percent samples were RIF resistant by rpoB PCR product sequencing. A 100% concordance (κ value = 1) was obtained between sequencing results derived from bio-safe smear slides and bio-safe sputum. This study demonstrates that Bio-safe method can address safety issues associated with sputum processing, provide an efficient alternative to sample transport in the form of bio-safe stained concentrated smear slides and can also provide information on drug (RIF) resistance by direct DNA sequencing.

  14. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin resistance in bio-safe stained sputum smears

    PubMed Central

    Lavania, Surabhi; Anthwal, Divya; Bhalla, Manpreet; Singh, Nagendra; Haldar, Sagarika; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2017-01-01

    Direct smear microscopy of sputum forms the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Stained sputum smear slides can serve as a ready-made resource to transport sputum for molecular drug susceptibility testing. However, bio-safety is a major concern during transport of sputum/stained slides and for laboratory workers engaged in processing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected sputum specimens. In this study, a bio-safe USP (Universal Sample Processing) concentration-based sputum processing method (Bio-safe method) was assessed on 87 M. tuberculosis culture positive sputum samples. Samples were processed for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear, liquid culture and DNA isolation. DNA isolated directly from sputum was subjected to an IS6110 PCR assay. Both sputum DNA and DNA extracted from bio-safe ZN concentrated smear slides were subjected to rpoB PCR and simultaneously assessed by DNA sequencing for determining rifampin (RIF) resistance. All sputum samples were rendered sterile by Bio-safe method. Bio-safe smears exhibited a 5% increment in positivity over direct smear with a 14% increment in smear grade status. All samples were positive for IS6110 and rpoB PCR. Thirty four percent samples were RIF resistant by rpoB PCR product sequencing. A 100% concordance (κ value = 1) was obtained between sequencing results derived from bio-safe smear slides and bio-safe sputum. This study demonstrates that Bio-safe method can address safety issues associated with sputum processing, provide an efficient alternative to sample transport in the form of bio-safe stained concentrated smear slides and can also provide information on drug (RIF) resistance by direct DNA sequencing. PMID:29216262

  15. Comparison among the efficacy of interventions for the return rate to receive the pap test report: randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Barbosa, Denise de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-03-02

    to test the effects of a behavioral, an educative and a comparative intervention on women's adherence to the return appointment to receive the pap test report. randomized controlled clinical trial at a Primary Health Care Service, involving three groups: EG (educative session and test demonstration), BG (recall ribbon) and standard intervention (card containing the return appointment - graphical reminder), called comparative group here (CG). To select the sample, the following was established: having started sexual activity and undergoing the pap smear during the study, resulting in 775 women. among the 775 women, 585 (75.5%) returned to receive the test result within 65 days. The educative group presented the highest return rate (EG=82%/CG=77%/BG=66%), statistically significant only when compared to the behavioral group (p=0.000). The educative group obtained the smallest interval (p<0.05) concerning the mean number of days of return to receive the test result (EG:M=43days/BG:M=47.5days/CG:M=44.8 days). the educative group reached higher return rates and the women returned earlier, but the behavioral intervention showed to be the least effective. Brazilian Clinical Trial Register: RBR-93ykhs. testar los efectos de una intervención comportamental (GCP), educativa (GE) y otra comparativa (GCA) en la adhesión de las mujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el laudo de citología vaginal. estudio experimental aleatorizado controlado en una Unidad de Atención Primaria de Salud con tres grupos: GE (sesión educativa y demonstración del examen), GCP (cinta recuerdo) e intervención estándar (tarjeta con la fecha de la consulta de retorno - recuerdo gráfico), llamado de grupo comparativo (GCA). Para seleccionar la muestra, fue establecido: haber iniciado actividad sexual y hacer la citología vaginal durante el estudio, resultando en 775 mujeres. entre las 775 mujeres, 585 (75,5%) regresaron para recibir el resultado del examen con hasta 65 días. El grupo

  16. Identification of Biomarkers of Exposure to FTOHs and PAPs in Humans Using a Targeted and Nontargeted Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Sonia; Strynar, Mark J; McMahen, Rebecca L; Lau, Christopher S; Ball, Carol; Garantziotis, Stavros; Webster, Thomas F; McClean, Michael D; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2016-09-20

    Although historic perfluorinated compounds are currently under scrutiny and growing regulatory control in the world, little is known about human exposure to other polyfluorinated compounds presently in use. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) are known to degrade to terminal perfluorinated acids and toxic reactive intermediates through metabolic pathways. Therefore, it is important to characterize their human exposure by the identification of unique biomarkers. With the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-time-of-flight analysis (LC-MS-TOF), we developed a workflow for the identification of metabolites for the 8:2 FTOH and 8:2 diPAP. Analysis of serum and urine of dosed rats indicated the 8:2 FTOH-sulfate and the 8:2 diPAP as potential biomarkers. These compounds, as well as 25 other fluorinated compounds and metabolites, were analyzed in human serum and urine samples from the general population (n = 100) and office workers (n = 30). The 8:2 FTOH-sulfate was measured for the first time in human samples in 5 to 10% of the serum samples, ranging from 50 to 80 pg/mL. The 8:2 diPAP was measured in 58% of the samples, ranging from 100 to 800 pg/mL. This study indicates the FTOH-sulfate conjugate as a biomarker of exposure to FTOHs and PAPs in humans.

  17. Evidence for a SAL1-PAP Chloroplast Retrograde Pathway That Functions in Drought and High Light Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Estavillo, Gonzalo M.; Crisp, Peter A.; Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Wirtz, Markus; Collinge, Derek; Carrie, Chris; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, James; David, Pascale; Javot, Hélène; Brearley, Charles; Hell, Rüdiger; Marin, Elena; Pogson, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    Compartmentation of the eukaryotic cell requires a complex set of subcellular messages, including multiple retrograde signals from the chloroplast and mitochondria to the nucleus, to regulate gene expression. Here, we propose that one such signal is a phosphonucleotide (3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate [PAP]), which accumulates in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to drought and high light (HL) stress and that the enzyme SAL1 regulates its levels by dephosphorylating PAP to AMP. SAL1 accumulates in chloroplasts and mitochondria but not in the cytosol. sal1 mutants accumulate 20-fold more PAP without a marked change in inositol phosphate levels, demonstrating that PAP is a primary in vivo substrate. Significantly, transgenic targeting of SAL1 to either the nucleus or chloroplast of sal1 mutants lowers the total PAP levels and expression of the HL-inducible ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 gene. This indicates that PAP must be able to move between cellular compartments. The mode of action for PAP could be inhibition of 5′ to 3′ exoribonucleases (XRNs), as SAL1 and the nuclear XRNs modulate the expression of a similar subset of HL and drought-inducible genes, sal1 mutants accumulate XRN substrates, and PAP can inhibit yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) XRNs. We propose a SAL1-PAP retrograde pathway that can alter nuclear gene expression during HL and drought stress. PMID:22128124

  18. The cell wall-targeted purple acid phosphatase AtPAP25 is critical for acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to nutritional phosphorus deprivation.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Hernan A; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Knowles, Vicki L; Kanno, Satomi; Tanoi, Keitaro; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-01

    Plant purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) belong to a relatively large gene family whose individual functions are poorly understood. Three PAP isozymes that are up-regulated in the cell walls of phosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells were purified and identified by MS as AtPAP12 (At2g27190), AtPAP25 (At4g36350) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 were previously isolated from the culture medium of -Pi cell cultures, and shown to be secreted by roots of Arabidopsis seedlings to facilitate Pi scavenging from soil-localized organophosphates. AtPAP25 exists as a 55 kDa monomer containing complex NX(S/T) glycosylation motifs at Asn172, Asn367 and Asn424. Transcript profiling and immunoblotting with anti-AtPAP25 immune serum indicated that AtPAP25 is exclusively synthesized under -Pi conditions. Coupled with potent mixed-type inhibition of AtPAP25 by Pi (I50 = 50 μm), this indicates a tight feedback control by Pi that prevents AtPAP25 from being synthesized or functioning as a phosphatase except when Pi levels are quite low. Promoter-GUS reporter assays revealed AtPAP25 expression in shoot vascular tissue of -Pi plants. Development of an atpap25 T-DNA insertion mutant was arrested during cultivation on soil lacking soluble Pi, but rescued upon Pi fertilization or complementation with AtPAP25. Transcript profiling by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Pi starvation signaling was attenuated in the atpap25 mutant. AtPAP25 exhibited near-optimal phosphatase activity with several phosphoproteins and phosphoamino acids as substrates. We hypothesize that AtPAP25 plays a key signaling role during Pi deprivation by functioning as a phosphoprotein phosphatase rather than as a non-specific scavenger of Pi from extracellular P-monoesters. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  1. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jie; He, Xiang; Ye, Hanming

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  2. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; He, Xiang; Ye, Hanming

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution. PMID:26447973

  3. An evaluation of smear layer with various desensitizing agents after tooth preparation.

    PubMed

    Zaimoglu, A; Aydin, A K

    1992-09-01

    According to hydrodynamics, any agent blocking the dentinal tubules reduces the flow of fluids and diminishes hypersensitivity. The properties of the desensitizing agents that sponsor tubular occlusion and the barrier efficiency resulting from the interaction of the smear layer with test materials were examined with the scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. Selected dentinal desensitizing was accomplished with burnishing procedures, cavity varnish, calcium hydroxide, and topical fluoride. Subjective evaluations were also recorded clinically after tooth preparation. This investigation indicated that the smear layer did not protect against zinc phosphate cement, and that cavity varnish prevented the formation of the smear plugs. The smear layer and plugs were basically composed of calcium and phosphorus, the major ingredients of dentin.

  4. Three-year risk of high-grade CIN for women aged 30 years or older who undergo baseline Pap cytology and HPV co-screening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Khanna, Abha; Wang, Jianping; Dawlett, Marilyn A; Kologinczak, Teresa L; Lyons, Genevieve R; Bassett, Roland L; Sneige, Nour; Gong, Yun; Bevers, Therese B

    2017-08-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA cotesting for women aged ≥30 years are recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of this cotesting for predicting the risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) during a 3-year follow-up period. A retrospective database search identified women aged ≥30 years who had baseline HPV and Pap cytology cotesting results in 2007 or 2008 and for whom 3-year follow-up results were available. The cumulative 3-year risks of developing CIN-3 were calculated. The 3-year follow-up data after baseline Pap/HPV cotesting were available for 1986 women (mean age, 53 years). Of the 1668 women who had a baseline Pap-negative (Pap-)/HPV- cotesting result, 1561 (93.6%) had a follow-up Pap cytology result that was negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy. Of the 1530 women who had follow-up Pap/HPV cotesting, 1504 (98.3%) had a Pap-/HPV- result. The 3-year cumulative risk of developing CIN-3 was found to be highest for women with a baseline Pap-positive (Pap+)/HPV+ cotesting result (12.5%); the risk of CIN-3 was lower in those with a Pap-/HPV+ result (1.5%; P = .0032) or a Pap-/HPV- result (0.06%; P<.0001). The 3-year cumulative risk of CIN-3 was found to be significantly greater for women with an HPV+ result (4.8%) compared with those with an HPV- result (0.06%; P<.0001). Pap cytology and HPV cotesting are valuable for stratifying CIN-3 risk. Pap cytology and HPV co-screening at a 3-year screening interval appears to carry a low risk of CIN-3 for women who have a baseline Pap-/HPV- cotesting result. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:644-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Local spatial variations analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in Xinjiang using Geographically Weighted Regression model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Yuan-Yuan, Jin; Ci, Yan; Ahan, Alayi; Ming-Qin, Cao

    2016-10-06

    The spatial interplay between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis (TB) cases contributes to the understanding of regional tuberculosis burdens. Historically, local Poisson Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has allowed for the identification of the geographic disparities of TB cases and their relevant socioeconomic determinants, thereby forecasting local regression coefficients for the relations between the incidence of TB and its socioeconomic determinants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (1) identify the socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of smear positive TB in Xinjiang, China (2) confirm if the incidence of smear positive TB and its associated socioeconomic determinants demonstrate spatial variability (3) compare the performance of two main models: one is Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS), and the other local GWR model. Reported smear-positive TB cases in Xinjiang were extracted from the TB surveillance system database during 2004-2010. The average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang was collected from 98 districts/counties. The population density (POPden), proportion of minorities (PROmin), number of infectious disease network reporting agencies (NUMagen), proportion of agricultural population (PROagr), and per capita annual gross domestic product (per capita GDP) were gathered from the Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook covering a period from 2004 to 2010. The OLS model and GWR model were then utilized to investigate socioeconomic determinants of smear-positive TB cases. Geoda 1.6.7, and GWR 4.0 software were used for data analysis. Our findings indicate that the relations between the average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang and their socioeconomic determinants (POPden, PROmin, NUMagen, PROagr, and per capita GDP) were significantly spatially non-stationary. This means that in some areas more smear-positive TB cases could be related to higher socioeconomic determinant regression

  6. Low cost automated whole smear microscopy screening system for detection of acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Law, Yan Nei; Jian, Hanbin; Lo, Norman W S; Ip, Margaret; Chan, Mia Mei Yuk; Kam, Kai Man; Wu, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    In countries with high tuberculosis (TB) burden, there is urgent need for rapid, large-scale screening to detect smear-positive patients. We developed a computer-aided whole smear screening system that focuses in real-time, captures images and provides diagnostic grading, for both bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) from respiratory specimens. To evaluate the performance of dual-mode screening system in AFB diagnostic algorithms on concentrated smears with auramine O (AO) staining, as well as direct smears with AO and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, using mycobacterial culture results as gold standard. Adult patient sputum samples requesting for M. tuberculosis cultures were divided into three batches for staining: direct AO-stained, direct ZN-stained and concentrated smears AO-stained. All slides were graded by an experienced microscopist, in parallel with the automated whole smear screening system. Sensitivity and specificity of a TB diagnostic algorithm in using the screening system alone, and in combination with a microscopist, were evaluated. Of 488 direct AO-stained smears, 228 were culture positive. These yielded a sensitivity of 81.6% and specificity of 74.2%. Of 334 direct smears with ZN staining, 142 were culture positive, which gave a sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 76.6%. Of 505 concentrated smears with AO staining, 250 were culture positive, giving a sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 71.0%. To further improve performance, machine grading was confirmed by manual smear grading when the number of AFBs detected fell within an uncertainty range. These combined results gave significant improvement in specificity (AO-direct:85.4%; ZN-direct:85.4%; AO-concentrated:92.5%) and slight improvement in sensitivity while requiring only limited manual workload. Our system achieved high sensitivity without substantially compromising specificity when compared to culture results. Significant improvement in

  7. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  8. Tannic acid for smear layer removal: pilot study with scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Bitter, N C

    1989-04-01

    The effects of a 25% tannic acid solution applied to the surface of prepared dentin was compared with untreated prepared dentin surfaces. The following results were demonstrated by electron microscope observation: (1) cavity preparations created an amorphous dentinal smear layer, (2) placement of a 25% tannic acid solution for 15 seconds removed the smear layer, (3) the contents of the dentinal tubules were not removed and no enlargement of dentinal tubules was found, and (3) a clean dentinal surface was observed.

  9. A comparison of digitized frozen section and smear preparations for intraoperative neurotelepathology.

    PubMed

    Gould, Peter V; Saikali, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative consultations in neuropathology are often assessed by smear preparations rather than by frozen sections. Both techniques are standard practice for light microscopic examination on site, but there is little data comparing these techniques in a telepathology setting. Thirty cases of brain tumours submitted for intraoperative consultation at our institution between July and December 2010 were identified in which both frozen section and tissue smear preparations were available for digitization at 20× magnification. Slides were digitized using a Hamamatsu Nanozoomer 2.0 HT whole slide scanner, and resulting digital images were visualized at 1680 × 1050 pixel resolution with NDP. view software. The original intraoperative diagnosis was concordant with the sign out diagnosis in 29/30 cases; one tumeur was initially interpreted as a high grade glioma but proved to be a lymphoma at sign out. Digitized frozen section slides were sufficient for diagnosis at 10× magnification in 27/30 cases. Digitized tissue smears were sufficient for diagnosis at 10× magnification in 28/30 cases. In two cases tumour was present on the tissue smear but not the frozen section (one case of recurrent astrocytoma, one case of meningeal carcinomatosis). In one case of lymphoma, tumour was present on frozen section only. These discrepancies were attributed to tissue sampling rather than image quality. Examination of digitized slides at higher magnfication (20×) permitted confirmation of mitoses and Rosenthal fibers on tissue smear preparations, but did not change the primary diagnosis. Intra-slide variations in tissue thickness on smear preparations led to variable loss of focus in digitized images, but did not affect image quality in thinner areas of the smear or impede diagnosis. Digitized tissue smears are suitable for intraoperative neurotelepathology and provide comparable information to digitized frozen sections at medium power magnification.

  10. Front-loaded smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Gammo, Mohamed; Lamaric, Widad; Hadida, Mukhtar; Abuazza, Aida; Askar, Nabil A; Yassin, Mohammed A; Cuevas, Luis E

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary TB by conventional smear microscopy requires patient attendance on 2 consecutive days. We investigated whether collecting sputum on-the-spot for smear microscopy on the day the patient presented was as sensitive and specific for diagnosis as the conventional spot-morning-spot scheme. We enrolled 412 adults who presented between January 2009 and October 2010 at the National Centre for TB Control in Tripoli, Libya, with cough of >2 weeks' duration, into a cross-sectional survey collecting four sputum specimens: on-the-spot and Xspot on Day 1; morning and on-the-spot on Day 2. 97 (24%) of 401 culture results were culture positive. Spot-Xspot and spot-morning smear microscopy had, respectively, 65% and 66% sensitivity and 97% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). Spot-Xspot-morning and Spot-morning-spot smear-microscopy had, respectively, 67% and 66% sensitivity and 96% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). For the diagnosis of pulmonary TB, the sensitivity and specificity of front-loaded (same-day) smear microscopy is similar to that of the standard smear microscopy scheme.

  11. Under-reporting of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, D; Ngari, F; Mwakala, M; Gethi, D; Kipruto, H; Cain, K; Bloss, E

    2016-10-01

    Although an estimated three million tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are missed by national TB programs annually, the level of under-reporting of diagnosed cases in high TB burden settings is largely unknown. To quantify and describe under-reporting of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Kenya. A national-level retrospective TB inventory study was conducted. All sputum smear-positive TB cases diagnosed by public or private laboratories during 1 April-30 June 2013 were extracted from laboratory registers in 73 randomly sampled subcounties and matched to TB cases in the national TB surveillance system (TIBU). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. In the subcounties sampled, 715 of 3409 smear-positive TB cases in laboratory registers were not found in TIBU. The estimated level of under-reporting of smear-positive TB cases in Kenya was 20.7% (95%CI 18.4-23.0). Under-reporting was greatest in subcounties with a high TB burden. Unreported cases were more likely to be patients aged ⩾55 years, have scanty smear results, and be diagnosed at large facilities, private facilities, and facilities in high TB burden regions. In Kenya, one fifth of smear-positive TB cases diagnosed during the study period went unreported, suggesting that the true TB burden is higher than reported. TB surveillance in Kenya should be strengthened to ensure all diagnosed TB cases are reported.

  12. A continuous quality improvement project to improve the quality of cervical Papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T; Ward, R; Balchandani, K; Kini, S

    1994-09-01

    To improve the quality of cervical Papanicolaou smears by continuous quality improvement techniques. The study used a Papanicolaou smear data base of over 200,000 specimens collected between June 1988 and December 1992. A team approach employing techniques such as process flow-charting, cause and effect diagrams, run charts, and a randomized trial of collection methods was used to evaluate potential causes of Papanicolaou smear reports with the notation "inadequate" or "less than optimal" due to too few or absent endocervical cells. Once a key process variable (method of collection) was identified, the proportion of Papanicolaou smears with inadequate or absent endocervical cells was determined before and after employment of a collection technique using a spatula and Cytobrush. We measured the rate of less than optimal Papanicolaou smears due to too few or absent endocervical cells. Before implementing the new collection technique fully by June 1990, the overall rate of less than optimal cervical Papanicolaou smears ranged from 20-25%; by December 1993, it had stabilized at about 10%. Continuous quality improvement can be used successfully to study a clinical process and implement change that will lead to improvement.

  13. Inflammatory events as detected in cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Roeters, Anne M E; Boon, Mathilde E; van Haaften, Maarten; Vernooij, F; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Heintz, A Peter M

    2010-02-01

    The Dutch cytological coding system, KOPAC, enables to code for eight inflammatory events, that is koilocytosis (related to human papillomavirus (HPV)), Trichomonas, dysbacteriosis [related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)], Candida, Gardnerella, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, and non-specific inflammation (leucocytosis). This study presents an analysis of 1,008,879 smears. Of each smear, the age of the woman and the reason for smear taking (screening or indication) was available. The cytoscores (per mille) for these codes were calculated. For the screening smears, the cytoscores were for koilocytosis (HPV) 2.6, for Trichomonas vaginalis 1.9, for dysbacteriosis 31.4, for Candida albicans 9.8, for Gardnerella vaginalis 0.7, for Actinomyces 6.9, for Chlamydia 0.8, and for non-specific inflammatory changes 66.4. For the calculation of the Odds Ratio (OR), normal smears were used as a reference. The cytoscores for Chlamydia and Gardnerella covaried with high grade SIL (HSIL), with an OR of 7 and 12, respectively. In addition, the OR for Trichomonas vaginalis, for dysbacteriosis, and for leucocytosis proved to be significantly high in the indication smears. This study provides an oversight of HSIL and the full range of cervical infections as detected by cytology, proving that this infectious byproduct of screening can be very valuable.

  14. Stochastic, compartmental, and dynamic modeling of cross-contamination during mechanical smearing of cheeses.

    PubMed

    Aziza, Fanny; Mettler, Eric; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Sanaa, Moez

    2006-06-01

    Cheese smearing is a complex process and the potential for cross-contamination with pathogenic or undesirable microorganisms is critical. During ripening, cheeses are salted and washed with brine to develop flavor and remove molds that could develop on the surfaces. Considering the potential for cross-contamination of this process in quantitative risk assessments could contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon and, eventually, improve its control. The purpose of this article is to model the cross-contamination of smear-ripened cheeses due to the smearing operation under industrial conditions. A compartmental, dynamic, and stochastic model is proposed for mechanical brush smearing. This model has been developed to describe the exchange of microorganisms between compartments. Based on the analytical solution of the model equations and on experimental data collected with an industrial smearing machine, we assessed the values of the transfer parameters of the model. Monte Carlo simulations, using the distributions of transfer parameters, provide the final number of contaminated products in a batch and their final level of contamination for a given scenario taking into account the initial number of contaminated cheeses of the batch and their contaminant load. Based on analytical results, the model provides indicators for smearing efficiency and propensity of the process for cross-contamination. Unlike traditional approaches in mechanistic models, our approach captures the variability and uncertainty inherent in the process and the experimental data. More generally, this model could represent a generic base to use in modeling similar processes prone to cross-contamination.

  15. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

  16. The pancreas responds to remote damage and systemic stress by secretion of the pancreatic secretory proteins PSP/regI and PAP/regIII.

    PubMed

    Reding, Theresia; Palmiere, Cristian; Pazhepurackel, Clinsyjos; Schiesser, Marc; Bimmler, Daniel; Schlegel, Andrea; Süss, Ursula; Steiner, Sabrina; Mancina, Leandro; Seleznik, Gitta; Graf, Rolf

    2017-05-02

    In patients with infection and sepsis serum levels of Pancreatic Stone protein/regenerating protein I (PSP) are highly elevated. The origin of PSP during these conditions is presumably the pancreas, however, an intestinal origin cannot be excluded. Similarly, pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) was identified in the pancreas. These proteins were also localized in intestinal organs. Here we aim to elucidate the bio-distribution of PSP and PAP in animal models of sepsis and in healthy humans. PSP and PAP responded to remote lesions in rats although the pancreatic response was much more pronounced than the intestinal. Tissue distribution of PSP demonstrated a 100-fold higher content in the pancreas compared to any other organ while PAP was most abundant in the small intestine. Both proteins responded to CLP or sham operation in the pancreas. PSP also increased in the intestine during CLP. The distribution of PSP and PAP in human tissue mirrored the distribution in the murine models. Distribution of PSP and PAP was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats and mice underwent midline laparotomies followed by mobilization of tissue and incision of the pancreatic duct or duodenum. Standard cecum-ligation-puncture (CLP) procedures or sham laparotomies were performed. Human tissue extracts were analyzed for PSP and PAP. The pancreas reacts to remote lesions and septic insults in mice and rats with increased PSP synthesis, while PAP is selectively responsive to septic events. Furthermore, our results suggest that serum PSP in septic patients is predominantly derived through an acute phase response of the pancreas.

  17. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  19. Endometrial cells on Pap tests: ideal reporting is more complex than just finding the right age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gabor; Haddad, Maha; Cormier, Karen

    2017-07-01

    The age for reporting normal endometrial cells (EMCs) on Pap tests was changed to ≥ 45 years in the latest Bethesda update (2014). This recommendation is solely based on age with no consensus on optimal reporting guidelines. Pap tests with EMCs for women ≥40 years were retrieved from our Laboratory Information System (LIS). Patient age, last menstrual period (LMP) and available follow-up histology were recorded. Follow-up diagnoses were categorized as: no significant pathology, benign, hyperplasia ± atypia, or malignant. The Fisher's exact test was used to assess the association between categorical variables, p < .05 (two-sided test) was considered significant. Of the 352 cases with EMCs, 155 had surgical follow-up. They showed no malignancy in the 89 women between 40-49 years, compared with five malignancies in the 66 women 50+ years (p = .016). The number of cases with significant pathology (hyperplasia and malignant) was 4 (40-49 years) vs. 11 (50+ years) (p = 0.029). The LMP was inconsistently provided (57%) and women identified as postmenopausal on requisition comprised all the malignancies and half the hyperplasias. Combined effort by pathologists and clinicians necessitates determining the best standardized clinicopathologic guidelines to report EMCs and appropriate follow-up. Increasing the required age to ≥50 years would provide more optimal patient management; however, there are other considerations beyond age. Reporting EMCs in postmenopausal women is a reasonable alternative requiring consistent and accurate recording of LMP. Improving provided information for pathologists, determining reporting requirements for EMCs and standardizing clinical follow-up should be a multidisciplinary effort. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:587-591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The dual-targeted purple acid phosphatase isozyme AtPAP26 is essential for efficient acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional phosphate deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Brenden A; Tran, Hue T; Marty, Naomi J; Park, Joonho; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2010-07-01

    Induction of intracellular and secreted acid phosphatases (APases) is a widespread response of orthophosphate (Pi)-starved (-Pi) plants. APases catalyze Pi hydrolysis from a broad range of phosphomonoesters at an acidic pH. The largest class of nonspecific plant APases is comprised of the purple APases (PAPs). Although the biochemical properties, subcellular location, and expression of several plant PAPs have been described, their physiological functions have not been fully resolved. Recent biochemical studies indicated that AtPAP26, one of 29 PAPs encoded by the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, is the predominant intracellular APase, as well as a major secreted APase isozyme up-regulated by -Pi Arabidopsis. An atpap26 T-DNA insertion mutant lacking AtPAP26 transcripts and 55-kD immunoreactive AtPAP26 polypeptides exhibited: (1) 9- and 5-fold lower shoot and root APase activity, respectively, which did not change in response to Pi starvation, (2) a 40% decrease in secreted APase activity during Pi deprivation, (3) 35% and 50% reductions in free and total Pi concentration, respectively, as well as 5-fold higher anthocyanin levels in shoots of soil-grown -Pi plants, and (4) impaired shoot and root development when subjected to Pi deficiency. By contrast, no deleterious influence of AtPAP26 loss of function occurred under Pi-replete conditions, or during nitrogen or potassium-limited growth, or oxidative stress. Transient expression of AtPAP26-mCherry in Arabidopsis suspension cells verified that AtPAP26 is targeted to the cell vacuole. Our results confirm that AtPAP26 is a principal contributor to Pi stress-inducible APase activity, and that it plays an important role in the Pi metabolism of -Pi Arabidopsis.

  1. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    SciTech Connect

    Grum, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.grum@uni-due.de; Boom, Johannes van den, E-mail: johannes.van-den-boom@stud.uni-due.de; Neumann, Daniel, E-mail: dneuman@gwdg.de

    2010-05-07

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurementsmore » employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.« less

  2. Human DHEA sulfation requires direct interaction between PAPS synthase 2 and DHEA sulfotransferase SULT2A1.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jonathan W; Idkowiak, Jan; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Vallet, Cecilia; Hardman, Rebecca; van den Boom, Johannes; Dhir, Vivek; Knauer, Shirley K; Rosta, Edina; Arlt, Wiebke

    2018-06-22

    The high-energy sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), generated by human PAPS synthase isoforms PAPSS1 and PAPSS2, is required for all human sulfation pathways. Sulfotransferase SULT2A1 uses PAPS for sulfation of the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), thereby reducing downstream activation of DHEA to active androgens. Human PAPSS2 mutations manifest with undetectable DHEA sulfate, androgen excess, and metabolic disease, suggesting that ubiquitous PAPSS1 cannot compensate for deficient PAPSS2 in supporting DHEA sulfation. In knockdown studies in human adrenocortical NCI-H295R1 cells, we found that PAPSS2, but not PAPSS1, is required for efficient DHEA sulfation. Specific APS kinase activity, the rate-limiting step in PAPS biosynthesis, did not differ between PAPSS1 and PAPSS2. Co-expression of cytoplasmic SULT2A1 with a cytoplasmic PAPSS2 variant supported DHEA sulfation more efficiently than co-expression with nuclear PAPSS2 or nuclear/cytosolic PAPSS1. Proximity ligation assays revealed protein-protein interactions between SULT2A1 and PAPSS2 and, to a lesser extent, PAPSS1. Molecular docking studies showed a putative binding site for SULT2A1 within the PAPSS2 APS kinase domain. Energy-dependent scoring of docking solutions identified the interaction as specific for the PAPSS2 and SULT2A1 isoforms. These findings elucidate the mechanistic basis for the selective requirement for PAPSS2 in human DHEA sulfation. © 2018 Mueller et al.

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccine and Pap tests on college campuses: How do historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) measure up?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Kierra S; Shoben, Abigail B; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L; Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L

    2016-01-01

    The availability of cervical cancer prevention services at college health centers was compared between historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and non-HBCUs. Four-year, non-primarily distant learning colleges, matching HBCUs with randomly selected non-HBCUs within the same states (N = 136) were examined. Data were collected (2014-2015 academic year) on the availability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and Pap tests at college health centers. HBCUs were compared with non-HBCUs using conditional logistic regression, and correlates of offering these services were identified. Many institutions did not offer HPV vaccine or Pap tests. Fewer HBCUs offered HPV vaccine (18% vs 53%) and Pap tests (50% vs 76%) compared with non-HBCUs. In multivariable analyses, HBCUs remained less likely than non-HBCUs to offer HPV vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.26) and Pap tests (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.61). Greater effort is needed to make cervical cancer prevention services available at colleges, especially at HBCUs.

  4. Benchmarking CIN3+ risk as the basis for incorporating HPV and Pap cotesting into cervical screening and management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E.; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C.; Raine-Bennett, Tina R.; Gage, Julia C.; Kinney, Walter K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2012, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and a consensus of 25 organizations endorsed concurrent cytology and HPV testing (“cotesting”) for cervical cancer screening. Past screening and management guidelines were implicitly based on risks defined by Pap-alone, without consideration of HPV test results. To promote management that is consistent with accepted practice, new guidelines incorporating cotesting should aim to achieve equal management of women at equal risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cancer (CIN3+). Methods We estimated cumulative 5-year risks of CIN3+ for 965,360 women aged 30–64 undergoing cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California 2003–2010. We calculated the implicit risk thresholds for Pap-alone and applied them for new management guidance on HPV and Pap cotesting, citing 2 examples: HPV-positive/ASC-US and HPV-negative/Pap-negative. We call this guidance process “benchmarking”. Results LSIL, for which immediate colposcopy is prescribed, carries 5-year CIN3+ risk of 5.2%, suggesting that test results with similar risks should be managed with colposcopy. Similarly, ASC-US (2.6% risk) is managed with 6–12 month follow-up and Pap-negative (0.26% risk) is managed with 3-year follow-up. The 5-year CIN3+ risk for women with HPV-positive/ASC-US was 6.8% (95%CI 6.2% to 7.6%). This is greater than the 5.2% risk implicitly leading to referral to colposcopy, consistent with current management recommendations that HPV-positive/ASC-US should be referred for immediate colposcopy. The 5-year CIN3+ risk for women with HPV-negative/Pap-negative was 0.08% (95%CI 0.07% to 0.09%), far below the 0.26% implicitly required for a 3-year return and justifying a longer (e.g., 5-year) return. Conclusions Using the principle of “equal management of equal risks,” benchmarking to implicit risk thresholds based on Pap-alone can be used to achieve safe and consistent incorporation of cotesting. PMID

  5. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections and Pap test findings in Inuit and non-Inuit women in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Totten, S; Severini, A; Jayaraman, GC; Faybush, ST; Johnson, G; Demers, AA; Sobol, I; Mao, Y; Wong, T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their association with cytological outcomes in women living in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Methods Surveillance of type-specific HPV infection was conducted. Cervical specimens of all Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal women in Nunavut who presented for a Pap test in any clinical setting between January 2008 and March 2009 were tested for HPV infection. The association between high-grade cervical lesions and HPV type was also examined. Results HPV results were available for 4,043 individual women (13 to 77 years). Of those with known ethnicity (N=4,033), 89.2% were Inuit, 0.4% were First Nations and 10.4% were non-Aboriginal. First Nations women were included in all analyses except those making comparisons by ethnicity, due to the small number of individuals in this group. Overall, 29.9% of women were found to be infected with HPV (any type) and 19.9% with any high-risk HPV (type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 or 59). Most often, women were infected with HPV 16 (6.4%) followed by HPV 31 (3.1%). There were no statistically significant differences between Inuit and non-Aboriginal (reference group) women 20 years of age and older regarding the prevalence of any HPV (odds ratios (OR): 1.19, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.92-1.54), high-risk HPV (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.78-1.44) or HPV 16 and 18 (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.51-1.27). HPV 31 was the only type that was significantly more frequent among Inuit than non-Aboriginal women (OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 1.24-12.54). There was no difference in the overall occurrence of cervical abnormalities between non-Aboriginal and Inuit women (p-value = 0.17). HPV 16 was strongly associated with cervical dysplasia, being present in 50.9% of specimens with a high-grade lesion. Conclusion HPV is a significant public health issue in the territory of Nunavut. The findings presented in this article are similar to

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Self-sampling for cervical screening: could it overcome some of the barriers to the Pap test?

    PubMed

    Mullins, Robyn; Scalzo, Katherine; Sultana, Farhana

    2014-12-01

    To determine which groups of women would be most likely to take part in self-sampling for cervical screening, and what they perceive as the key barriers and benefits to self-sampling. A random sample of 3000 women aged 18-69 in Victoria, Australia, were asked questions about "taking their own Pap test" in a telephone survey about cervical screening; 2526 answered the questions about self-sampling. The terminology "Pap test" was used in questions, due to the very low understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. One-third of women (34.0%) indicated they would prefer to self-sample, 57.2% would not and 8.7% were unsure. Preference for self-sampling was significantly stronger among women who had not had a Pap test for more than three years (64.8%, p < .001) or who had never had one (62.1%, p < .001), compared with those up-to-date (27.0%). Convenience was a key benefit (37.8%), as was less embarrassment (31.5%). For those who did not want to self-sample or were unsure, key factors included professionals being more skilled (53.4% and 28.2% respectively), and doubts about being able to do it properly (28.9% and 23.6%). Self-sampling was most popular among women who needed to have a Pap test, and could potentially reach some women who are not participating appropriately in cervical screening. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by providing information about the test being for HPV, and being easier to do properly than a Pap test. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  9. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Amyloid in bone marrow smears in systemic light-chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Christoph; Schönland, Stefan; Kräker, Sandra; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Ho, Anthony D; Mayer, Gudrun; Dittrich, Tobias; Hundemer, Michael; Hegenbart, Ute

    2017-03-01

    We performed a prospective sensitivity analysis to detect amyloid in bone marrow (BM) smears stained with Congo red (CR) and according to Pappenheim of patients with systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Results were directly compared to routine BM histology and fat aspiration. We analysed 198 BM smears from patients with the diagnosis or suspicion of systemic AL amyloidosis. Ultimately, the diagnosis could be established for 168 patients. Amyloid was detected on BM smears with CR in 33% (56/168). All patients suspicious for amyloid on Pappenheim staining (n = 39) showed substantial amyloid infiltration on CR. No patient without systemic AL amyloidosis stained positive. Sensitivity for routine BM histology was 57% (74/129) and for fat aspiration 96% (134/140). Patients with amyloid on BM smears had significantly more hepatic (42 vs. 9%, p < .001), renal (78 vs. 43%, p < .001) and gastrointestinal involvement (40 vs. 22%, p < .01) and less commonly cardiac involvement (58 vs. 76%, p < .03) and consecutively no adverse prognosis. CR staining of BM smears cannot be recommended as a primary screening tool for systemic AL as its overall sensitivity is far inferior to BM histology and fat aspiration. However, we recommend using the technique when suspecting amyloid on Pappenheim staining to establish the diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis.

  12. Does endodontic post space irrigation affect smear layer removal and bonding effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin-Hua; Mao, Cai-Yun; Liang, Cong; Wang, Hui-Ming; Kern, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    The effect of different post space irrigants on smear layer removal and dentin bond strength was evaluated. Sixty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated. After post space preparation, the teeth were assigned to three groups of 22 teeth each. The teeth of these three groups were irrigated for 1 min with 17% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) (group 1), 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (group 2), or 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) (group 3). In each group, eight specimens were split longitudinally for smear layer evaluation, and the other fourteen specimens were filled with a self-etching adhesive system (Panavia F). Four of 14 specimens of each group were prepared for evaluation of the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone (RDIZ) and resin tags, and the other 10 specimens were serially sectioned for push-out test analysis. Smear layer removal and bond strength were affected by different post space irrigants. EDTA removed the smear layer extremely effectively and, as a result, improved the bond strength at each region (apical, middle, and coronal) of the roots. Resin tag formation and the RDIZ were also affected by different irrigants and in accordance with bond strength. Therefore, removal of the smear layer use a self-etching luting system plays an important role in bonding effectiveness.

  13. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical smears of IUCD users.

    PubMed

    Farida Jamal; Mohd Salleh Mohd Yasin; Zooraidah Zainal; Hamid Arshat

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a well-documented complication of IUD use. The presence of tails on the IUDs appears to facilitate ascent of bacteria from the vagina into the uterus. In this study, cervical smears of 128 IUD users were stained by Gram's stain and screened for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. 5.5% of the smears were positive for these organisms. Pus was seen in 20.1% of the smears, and yeast cells were seen in 10.2%. The average duration of IUD insertion was 8 months. Smears of 103 controls were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms, pus cells were present in 8.7%, and yeast cells in 4.8%. Of the 7 smears positive for the organisms, only 1 was from the user of a plastic device. All cases included were asymptomatic and were visiting the clinic for routine follow-up. These data suggest that colonization by Actinomyces-like organisms does not appear to be a significant problem in IUD users in Malaysia.

  14. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Parija, S C; Dhodapkar, Rahul; Elangovan, Subashini; Chaya, D R

    2009-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman's stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman's thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  15. Assessing the efficacy of citrus aurantifolia extract on smear layer removal with scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Bolhari, Behnam; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Monsef Esfehani, Hamid Reza; Tavakolian, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Statistical significant difference was found between groups (P<0.05). The smear layer was more effectively removed with 17% EDTA compared to alcoholic CA extract. However, they were both able to remove the smear layer in the coronal segment. Completed CA extract removed more smear layer in coronal and middle parts compared with the alcoholic extract (P=0.001); however, there was no significant difference in the apical part. Both of the alcoholic and completed mixtures of citrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

  16. Effects of spectral smearing on performance of the spectral ripple and spectro-temporal ripple tests.

    PubMed

    Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Sharma, Mridula; Van Dun, Bram; Bansal, Shalini; Prabhu, Latika; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to use spectral smearing to evaluate the efficacy of a spectral ripple test (SRt) using stationary sounds and a recent variant with gliding ripples called the spectro-temporal ripple test (STRt) in measuring reduced spectral resolution. In experiment 1 the highest detectable ripple density was measured using four amounts of spectral smearing (unsmeared, mild, moderate, and severe). The thresholds worsened with increasing smearing and were similar for the SRt and the STRt across the three conditions with smearing. For unsmeared stimuli, thresholds were significantly higher (better) for the STRt than for the SRt. An amplitude fluctuation at the outputs of simulated (gammatone) auditory filters centered above 6400 Hz was identified as providing a potential detection cue for the STRt stimuli. Experiment 2 used notched noise with energy below and above the passband of the SRt and STRt stimuli to reduce confounding cues in the STRt. Thresholds were almost identical for the STRt and SRt for both unsmeared and smeared stimuli, indicating that the confounding cue for the STRt was eliminated by the notched noise. Thresholds obtained with notched noise present could be predicted reasonably accurately using an excitation-pattern model.

  17. Microscopic diagnosis of dysbacteriosis in stained vaginal smears in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Banut-Sabine M; Boon, Mathilde E; Melkerl, Peter; van Haaften, Maarten; Heintz, A Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Dysbacteriosis is a microscopical diagnosis. In women with dysbacteriosis, an overgrowth of coccoid bacteria and almost a complete absence of lactobacilli are observed in the (stained) vaginal smear. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of this microscopic diagnosis in clinical practice. The analysis concerned 342 consecutive cases in which the microscopy of the stained smears was performed by general practitioners trained in diagnosing dysbacteriosis. These smears were sent to the pathologist for confirmation of the microscopical diagnosis of the clinician. The cytological diagnoses of the pathologist, sometimes performed on restained slides when the quality of the staining was substandard, were considered as the "gold standard." In 92 of the 342 cases, dysbacteriosis was unequivocally established by the pathologist. Sensitivity and specificity of the microscopical diagnoses of the clinicians were 40% and 85%, respectively. There were 37 false-positive and 54 false-negative diagnoses of dysbacteriosis rendered by the clinicians. The most frequent reason for a false-negative diagnosis was an excess of lactobacilli in the smear. This study shows that even in stained smears it is difficult for clinicians to render a correct evaluation of the status of the vaginal flora.

  18. Microscopic diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis in stained vaginal smears by Dutch general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Engberts, Marian K; Goedbloed, Annelize F; van Haaften, Maarten; van Haaften, Mathilde; Boon, Mathilde E; Boon, Maarten E; Heintz, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the microscopic diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (presence of [pseudo] hyphae and blastospores) in stained vaginal smears in clinical practice. General practitioners trained in diagnosing vulvovaginal candidiasis performed microscopy of 324 stained vaginal smears. These smears were sent to the pathologist for confirmation of the microscopic diagnosis of the clinician; cytologic diagnosis by the pathologist was considered the gold standard. In 104 of the 342 cases Candida was established by the pathologist. The clinicians made 24 false positive and 50 false negative diagnoses of Candida. Sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic diagnoses of the clinicians were 52% and 89%, respectively. The most frequent reason for a false positive diagnosis was presence of hairs, whereas the most frequent reason for a false negative diagnosis was understaining of the smear. This study shows that even in stained smears it is difficult for clinicians to recognize blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae. Efforts are clearly needed to improve the quality of the clinical diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, I J; Morgan, D J; Lamont, R F; Sheehan, M; Doré, C J; Hay, P E; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. RESULTS: Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen. PMID:10968599

  20. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, I J; Morgan, D J; Lamont, R F; Sheehan, M; Doré, C J; Hay, P E; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen.

  1. A correlative study of Papanicolaou smear, fluorescent antibody, and culture for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Spence, M R; Barbacci, M; Kappus, E; Quinn, T

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 300 patients undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy was conducted. A Papanicolaou smear was obtained and a clinical evaluation of the cervix was made. Specimens from the cervix were examined by both direct fluorescent antibody and culture techniques for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of inflammation on Papanicolaou smear could be correlated with C trachomatis isolation. Papanicolaou smear findings consistent with C trachomatis lacked both sensitivity and specificity when compared with direct fluorescent antibody and/or culture techniques. A correlation was found between the clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and C trachomatis. This interrelationship was absent when the component findings of cervicitis (ectopy, friability, and purulent mucus) were examined independently.

  2. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    PubMed Central

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S; Eberhard, M L

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, resulting in the possible misidentification of this parasite. We examined fecal smears stained by six different procedures that included Giemsa, trichrome, chromotrope, Gram-chromotrope, acid-fast, and safranin stains. We report on safranin-based stain that uniformly stains oocysts of Cyclospora a brilliant reddish orange, provided that the fecal smears are heated in a microwave oven prior to staining. This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories. PMID:9041421

  3. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and gel for smear layer removal.

    PubMed

    Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho; de Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy; Machado, Manoel Eduardo de Lima; Martins, José Luiz

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel and 17% EDTA solution in cleaning dentine walls after root canal instrumentation. Thirty human canine teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution; in Group 2, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 17% EDTA solution; and in Group 3, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 24% EDTA gel. The presence of a smear layer was analysed after instrumentation using scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistical difference (P < 0.05) between Groups 1 and 2, and also between Groups 1 and 3. No difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 (P > 0.05). The results indicate that 1% sodium hypochlorite alone does not remove the smear layer and that there was no statistical difference between EDTA gel and EDTA solution in smear layer removal.

  5. Is bleach-sedimented smear microscopy an alternative to direct microscopy under programme conditions in India?

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, P. H.; Bansal, A.; Satyanarayana, S.; Alavadi, U.; Ohri, B. S.; Shrinivas, M. S. Rao; Desikan, P.; Jaju, J.; Rao, V. G.; Moonan, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centric study compared the yield of and potential benefit for detecting smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) by bleach sedimentation (2% sodium-hypochlorite) versus direct microscopy under programme conditions in India. Among 3168 PTB suspects, 684 (21.6%) were detected by bleach sedimentation vs. 625 (19.7%) by direct microscopy, with a proportional overall agreement of 96% (κ = 0.88). While 594 patients were smear-positive with both methods, 31 patients detected by direct microscopy were missed and an additional 90 patients were detected by bleach sedimentation. Overall, bleach sedimentation increased the yield of smear-positive TB detection; however; it also increased the time to results. PMID:26392991

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  7. HPV vaccination programs have not been shown to be cost-effective in countries with comprehensive Pap screening and surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilyman, Judy

    2013-06-12

    Pap screening combined with loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP) is almost 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer mortality yet many countries with these procedures have now implemented broad HPV vaccination programs. HPV vaccines have not been demonstrated to be more effective or safer than Pap screening in the prevention of cervical cancer and Pap screening will still be required even in vaccinated women. The HPV vaccine costs Au$450 per person and it does not protect against ~30% of cancer. This investigation analyses the cost-effectiveness of using the HPV vaccine in countries where Pap screening and surgical procedures have already reduced cervical cancer mortality to very low rates. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination programs is being determined by mathematical models which are founded on many assumptions. It is necessary to examine the rigor of these assumptions to be certain of the health benefits that are predicted. In 2002 scientists concluded that HPV 16 and 18 were the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer. This conclusion was based on molecular technology. If HPV 16 and 18 infections are the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer then the incidence of HPV 16 and 18 should vary with the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. This correlation does not exist. It is also observed that the majority of HPV 16/18 infections do not lead to cervical cancer. This indicates that other etiological or 'risk' factors are necessary for persistent HPV infection to progress to cancer. The benefits of HPV vaccines have been determined by using pre-cancerous lesions in young women as a surrogate for cervical cancer. This surrogate is found to be inadequate as an end-point for cervical cancer. Clinical trials have only provided speculative benefits for the efficacy of HPV vaccines against cancer and the long-term risks of the vaccine have not been established. Pap screening will still be required in vaccinated

  8. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  9. Engineering of the PapMV vaccine platform with a shortened M2e peptide leads to an effective one dose influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Damien; Thérien, Ariane; Rioux, Gervais; Paquet, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Ève Laliberté; Bolduc, Marilène; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis

    2015-12-16

    The emergence of highly virulent influenza strains and the risks of pandemics as well as the limited efficiency of the current seasonal vaccines are important public health concerns. There is a major need for new influenza vaccines that would be broadly cross-protective. The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst different influenza strains and could be used as a broad spectrum antigen. To overcome its low immunogenicity we have fused a short peptide epitope derived from the human consensus sequence of M2e (amino acids 6-14, EVETPIRNE) to the N-terminus of papaya mosaic virus coat protein. The fusion harboring coat proteins were assembled around a single stranded RNA into virus-like particles (PapMV-sM2e). The resulting PapMV-sM2e rod-shaped particle was stable and indistinguishable from regular PapMV particles. A single intramuscular immunization with PapMV-sM2e was sufficient to mount appreciable levels of CD4 dependent M2e specific total IgG and IgG2a antibody in mice sera. PapMV-sM2e proved to be self-adjuvanting since the addition of PapMV as an exogenous adjuvant did not result in significantly improved antibody titers. In addition, we confirmed the adjuvant property of PapMV-sM2e using the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine as antigen and demonstrated that the newly engineered nanoparticles areas efficacious as an adjuvant than the original PapMV nanoparticles. Upon infection with a sub-lethal dose of influenza, PapMV-sM2e vaccinated animals were completely protected from virus induced morbidity and mortality. Mice immunized with decreasing amounts of PapMV-sM2e and challenged with a more stringent dose of influenza virus displayed dose-dependent levels of protection. Seventy percent of the mice immunized once with the highest dose of PapMV-sM2e survived the challenged. The survival of the mice correlated mainly with the levels of anti-M2e IgG2a antibodies obtained before the infection. These results demonstrate that PapMV-sM2e can

  10. Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and smear microscopy with culture for the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Baye; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemayehu, Marta; Bashaw, Abate Assefa

    2017-01-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in detecting M.tuberculosis infection in sputum sample compared to LED fluorescent smear microscopy and culture. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from June 01, 2015 to August 30, 2015. Pulmonary TB diagnosis using sputum LED fluorescence smear microscopy, TB-LAMP assay and culture were done. A descriptive analysis was used to determine demographic characteristics of the study participants. Analysis of sensitivity and specificity for smear microscopy and TB-LAMP compared with culture as a reference test was performed. Cohen's kappa was calculated as a measure of agreement between the tests. A total of 78 pulmonary presumptive TB patients sputum sample were analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 75 and 98%, respectively. Among smear negative sputum samples, 33.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity of LAMP were observed. Smear microscopy showed 78.6% sensitivity and 98% specificity. LAMP and smear in series had sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 100%. LAMP and smear in parallel had sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 96%. The agreement between LAMP and fluorescent smear microscopy tests was very good (κ = 0.83, P-value ≤0.0001). TB-LAMP showed similar specificity but a slightly lower sensitivity with LED fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of LAMP and smear microscopy in series was high. The sensitivity of LAMP was insufficient for smear negative sputum samples.

  11. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, pap tests, and cervical cancer between US and Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    Han, Chi-Son; Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Tharp, Philip; Walter, Jessica; Allmond, Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.

  12. Biochemical characterization of the triticale TsPAP1, a new type of plant prolyl aminopeptidase, and its impact on proline content and flowering time in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Branicki, Tomasz; Michniewska, Beata

    2017-07-01

    Proline aminopeptidase (PAP, EC 3.4.11.5) is the only enzyme that effectively releases proline from the N-termini of peptides. The amino acid sequence of the PAP from Triticosecale, TsPAP1, comprises conserved regions, characteristic of the monomeric forms of PAP found in bacteria but not yet identified in plants. Therefore, we aimed to obtain and biochemically characterize the TsPAP1 protein. The recombinant TsPAP1 protein was received through heterologous expression of the TsPAP1 coding sequence in a bacterial expression system and purified with affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS electrophoresis revealed that TsPAP1 is a monomer with a molecular mass of 37.5 kDa. TsPAP1 prefers substrates with proline at the N-terminus but is also capable of hydrolyzing β-naphthylamides of hydroxyproline and alanine. Among the peptides tested, the most preferred were di- and tripeptides, especially those with glycine in the Y position. The use of diagnostic inhibitors indicated that TsPAP1 is a serine peptidase; however, further characterization revealed that the SH residues are also important for maintaining its activity. To examine the role of TsPAP1 under physiological conditions, we developed transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TsPAP1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines accumulated more proline, flowered an average of 3.5 days earlier, and developed more siliques than did untransformed controls. Our paper is the first to describe the biochemical properties of a novel monomeric plant PAP and contributes to the functional characterization of PAP proteins in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence. PMID:26556834

  14. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Evaluation of final irrigation regimens with maleic acid for smear layer removal and wettability of root canal sealer.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria; Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K Narayan; Arias-Moliz, Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the smear layer removal and wettability of AH Plus sealer on root canal dentin treated with MA (maleic acid), MA + CTR (cetrimide) and MA + CTR + CHX (chlorhexidine) as final irrigating regimens. For smear layer removal, 40 teeth were instrumented to size F4 and divided into four groups: (1) 7% MA, (2) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR, (3) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR + 2% CHX, (4) distilled water (control). After irrigation, teeth were subjected to SEM analysis. For contact angle analysis, 20 teeth were split longitudinally and divided into four groups similar to smear layer analysis. AH plus sealer was placed on each specimen and contact angle was analysed. In both smear layer (p = .393) and contact angle analysis (p = .961), there was no significant difference between the groups MA and MA + CTR. However, MA + CTR + CHX removed smear layer less effectively (p = .023) and increased the contact angle of the sealer (p = .005). In smear layer analysis, specimens in negative control group were heavily smeared. In case of contact angle analysis, samples in the control group had least contact angle. MA alone or in combination with CTR removed smear layer effectively and increased the wettability of AH plus sealer to root canal dentin.

  16. Effect of different irrigation on smear layer removal after post space preparation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin-Hua; Mao, Cai-Yun; Kern, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions on smear layer removal and dentinal tubule opening on root canal surfaces after post space preparation and to study whether additional ultrasonic irrigation has any effect on smear layer removal. Forty-eight anterior teeth were treated endodontically. After post space preparation, they were assigned to six groups: group 1, EDTA; group 2, EDTA with ultrasonic activation; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); group 4, NaOCl with ultrasonic activation; group 5, sodium chloride (NaCl); and group 6, NaCl with ultrasonic activation. Specimens were examined under a field-emission scanning electron microscope and scored for debris removal and dentinal tubule opening at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the root canal. The results showed that EDTA performed significantly better than NaCl and NaOCl in smear layer removal and dentinal tubule opening. Additional ultrasonic irrigation did not improve smear layer removal significantly.

  17. [Automated procedures for microscopic analyses of blood smears: medical testing a MECOS-Ts2 complex].

    PubMed

    Pliasunova, S A; Balugian, R Sh; Khmel'nitskiĭ, K E; Medovyĭ, V S; Parpara, A A; Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Sokolinskiĭ, B Z; Dem'ianov, V L; Nikolaenko, D S

    2006-10-01

    The paper presents the results of medical tests of a group of computer-aided procedures for microscopic analysis by means of a MECOS-Ts2 complex (ZAO "MECOS", Russia), which have been conducted at the Republican Children's Clinical Hospital, the Research Institute of Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Traumatology, and Moscow City Clinical Hospital No. 23. Computer-aided procedures for calculating the differential count and for analyzing the morphology of red blood cells were tested on blood smears from a total of 443 patients and donors, computer-aided calculation of the count of reticulocytes was tested on 318 smears. The tests were carried out under the US standard NCCLS-H20A. Manual microscopy (443 smears) and flow blood analysis on a Coulter GEN*S (125 smears) were used as reference methods. The quality of collection of samples and laboriousness were additionally assessed. The certified MECOS-Ts2 subsystems were additionally used as reference tools. The tests indicated the advantage of computer-aided MECOS-Tsl2 complex microscopy over manual microscopy.

  18. Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Viney, K.; Tarivonda, L.; Roseveare, C.; Tagaro, M.; Marais, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis control programme, Vanuatu. Objective: To assess tuberculosis (TB) trends, characterise sputum smear-positive patients with non-conversion at 2 months and assess their treatment outcomes. Design: Evaluation of programme data over a 9-year period (2004–2012), comparing 2-month sputum non-converters (delayed converters) with sputum smear converters diagnosed in 2011 and 2012. Results: Annual TB case numbers were similar over the study period, with an average TB notification rate of 58 per 100 000 population. Of 417 sputum smear-positive cases, 74 (18%) were delayed converters. Delayed converters were more likely than converters (88% vs. 79%) to have had high pre-treatment sputum smear grades (OR 2.5, 95%CI 0.97–6.45). Among delayed converters, treatment adherence was high (99% good adherence), outcomes were generally good (90% treatment success, 85% cure, 4% treatment failure) and no drug resistance was detected. Deaths were unexpectedly common among converters (11/80, 14%), with significantly more deaths in Tafea than in Shefa Province (7/58 vs. 2/80, OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.07–26.79). Tafea Province also had the greatest number of delayed converters (30/74, 40.5%) and the highest TB incidence rate. Conclusion: Delayed sputum conversion was relatively uncommon, and was not associated with adverse outcomes or drug resistance. Regional differences require further investigation to better understand local factors that may compromise patient management. PMID:26477281

  19. Is introducing rapid culture into the diagnostic algorithm of smear-negative tuberculosis cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Yakhelef, N; Audibert, M; Varaine, F; Chakaya, J; Sitienei, J; Huerga, H; Bonnet, M

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization recommended introducing rapid Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture into the diagnostic algorithm of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing a rapid non-commercial culture method (thin-layer agar), together with Löwenstein-Jensen culture to diagnose smear-negative TB at a district hospital in Kenya. Outcomes (number of true TB cases treated) were obtained from a prospective study evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical and radiological algorithm (conventional) against the alternative algorithm (conventional plus M. tuberculosis culture) in 380 smear-negative TB suspects. The costs of implementing each algorithm were calculated using a 'micro-costing' or 'ingredient-based' method. We then compared the cost and effectiveness of conventional vs. culture-based algorithms and estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The costs of conventional and culture-based algorithms per smear-negative TB suspect were respectively €39.5 and €144. The costs per confirmed and treated TB case were respectively €452 and €913. The culture-based algorithm led to diagnosis and treatment of 27 more cases for an additional cost of €1477 per case. Despite the increase in patients started on treatment thanks to culture, the relatively high cost of a culture-based algorithm will make it difficult for resource-limited countries to afford.

  20. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies onmore » sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously.« less

  1. Detection of the HTLV-I gene on cytologic smear slides.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Kenji; Nagahama, Junji; Sato, Keiji; Tanamachi, Hiroyuki; Gamachi, Ayako; Daa, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Iwao; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    To apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of the HTLV-I gene from cytologic smear slides. Samples were from seven cases of serum anti-ATL antibody (ATLA)-positive T-cell lymphoma and three from ATLA-negative T-cell lymphoma. Six of the seven ATLA-positive cases were confirmed to be ATLL by Southern blotting. From the seventh case a fresh sample for blotting could not obtained. DNA was extracted from the cytologic smear slides of all 10 cases; they had been stained with Papanicolaou or May-Giemsa stain, digested with proteinase K and precipitated with phenol and ethanol. The target sequence in the pX region of the HTLV-I gene was amplified by PCR. All seven ATLA-positive cases, including one that had not yet been confirmed by Southern blotting, showed a single band, as predicted, while the three ATLA-negative cases showed no band. If cytologic smear slides are available but a fresh sample is not, the PCR method should provide evidence that the virus is present since in our study sufficient DNA templates were successfully extracted from the stained cytologic smear slides for detection of the virus.

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  4. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  5. THE ROLE OF TARGET ORGAN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS: NASAL SMEAR EOSINOPHILS.

    PubMed

    Nurkic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Mona Al; Arifhodzic, Nermina; Jusufovic, Edin

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) related to local weeds pollen sensitization (Chenopodiaceous family) is the most common cause of respiratory allergy in Kuwait. Local nasal accumulation of different cells typical of allergic inflammation is responsible for clinical symptoms of AR. Although nasal smear for Eosinophils (NSE) is one of the earliest included valuable test in diagnosis of AR, with time is underestimated. Explore possible correlation of natural pollen allergen stimulation with appearance and quantity of Eosinophils in nasal smear. A group of randomly selected patients with clinical history suggestive for seasonal AR (SAR), who came to Al Rashed Allergy Center in period from October 2014 to October 2015, obtain Nasal Smear for Eosinophils as a screening test before further diagnostic evaluation. Nasal samples were collected by passing a sterile swab, from each nasal cavity, along the medial surface of the inferior turbinate 2 to 3 times and the specimen smeared on a clear glass slide. Nasal smears were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Skin prick test is performed in all symptomatic patients with a battery of inhalant allergens that include local pollens. The control group was recruited, with their voluntary consent, from the medical stuff with a negative history of any allergic nasal symptoms. In this group we performed only nasal smear for Eosinophils. Air Biology Laboratory Kuwait provided us with daily pollen count. From total 158 study participants, 132 had SAR symptoms and are divided in four groups. Fifth, control, group is non symptomatic. For 38.6% of symptomatic patients NSE were positive, while 45% of these patients have negative SPT. From 62.1% NSE negative patients, 37.8% have negative SPT. Our results showed expected positive correlation of NSE positive patients with pollen season in Kuwait, in SPT positive group. However, presence of Eosinophils in nasal smear was moderate to high also in patients with

  6. The Novel Poly(A) Polymerase Star-PAP is a Signal-Regulated Switch at the 3′-end of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The mRNA 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) modulates message stability, transport, intracellular location and translation. We have discovered a novel nuclear poly(A) polymerase termed Star-PAP (nuclear speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated-poly(A) polymerase) that couples with the transcriptional machinery and is regulated by the phosphoinositide lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), the central lipid in phosphoinositide signaling. PI4,5P2 is generated primarily by type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKI). Phosphoinositides are present in the nucleus including at nuclear speckles compartments separate from known membrane structures. PIPKs regulate cellular functions by interacting with PI4,5P2 effectors where PIPKs generate PI4,5P2 that then modulates the activity of the associated effectors. Nuclear PIPKIα interacts with and regulates Star-PAP, and PI4,5P2 specifically activates Star-PAP in a gene- and signaling-dependent manner. Importantly, other select signaling molecules integrated into the Star-PAP complex seem to regulate Star-PAP activities and processivities toward RNA substrates, and unique sequence elements around the Star-PAP binding sites within the 3′-UTR of target genes contribute to Star-PAP specificity for processing. Therefore, Star-PAP and its regulatory molecules form a signaling nexus at the 3′-end of target mRNAs to control the expression of select group of genes including the ones involved in stress responses. PMID:23306079

  7. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Sarah M; Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval.

  8. Progression and Regression of Cervical Pap Test Lesions in an Urban AIDS Clinic in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era: A Longitudinal, Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval. PMID:25693769

  9. The role of compliance with PAP use on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: is longer use a key-factor?

    PubMed

    Bouloukaki, I; Mermigkis, C; Tzanakis, N; Giannadaki, K; Mauroudi, E; Moniaki, V; Kallergis, E M; Schiza, S E

    2017-02-01

    Scientific data about the effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment on blood pressure (BP) control are continuously increasing; however, they are controversial. We aimed to determine the long-term effects of compliance with PAP therapy on BP in both hypertensive and normotensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). One thousand one hundred sixty eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed OSAHS, who had been recommended PAP therapy, were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease were excluded. BP was measured at baseline and after 2 years of PAP treatment. In addition, the correlation between the changes in BP with different levels of PAP compliance was assessed. At the end of the follow-up period, in the hypertensive group of patients (n=586), a significant decrease was shown in systolic (-11.2 mm Hg, P<0.001) and diastolic BP (-4.2 mm Hg, P<0.001). Furthermore, in the patients without hypertension (n=528), a significant decrease was noted both in systolic and diastolic BP (-3.6, P<0.001 and -2.4, P<0.001, respectively). A correlation between the magnitude of change in systolic and diastolic BP and hours of use of PAP (r=0.14, P=0.002 and r=0.1, P=0.025, respectively) was observed in all patients. Long-term use of PAP treatment, as well as increased hours of PAP in patients with OSAHS use showed significant reductions in BP not only in patients with hypertension, but also in normotensive patients. Therefore a significant potential reduction in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity should be expected in these patients.

  10. Audit of the practice of sputum smear examination for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-07-01

    In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.

  11. Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite Activated With Laser in Intracanal Smear Layer Removal: An SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Shahriar; Kasraei, Shahin; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Karkeabadi, Hamed; Davanloo, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite activated with laser in removing of the smear layer in the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Methods: Sixty single-rooted human mandibular teeth were decoronated to a standardized length. The samples were prepared by using Race rotary system to size 40, 0.04 taper and divided into 4 equal groups (n = 15). Group 1, irrigated with EDTA 17% and 5.25% NaOCl, groups 2, 3 and 4, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% NaOCl activated with Nd:YAG laser, respectively. Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney tests. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Five percent NaOCl LAI (laser-activated irrigation) showed best smear layer removal in test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Control group (EDTA 17% and 5.25% NaOCl irrigation) showed significantly better outcomes in comparative with test groups (P < 0.001). In the apical third, compared to coronal and middle third, the canal walls were often contaminated by inorganic debris and smear layer. Conclusion: All different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite activated with laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. Sodium hypochlorite activated with laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle third compared to the apical third. PMID:28912942

  12. Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic, etidronic and peracetic acid irrigation on human root dentine and the smear layer.

    PubMed

    Lottanti, S; Gautschi, H; Sener, B; Zehnder, M

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA), etidronic (EA) and peracetic acid (PA) when used in conjunction with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants on calcium eluted from canals, smear layer, and root dentine demineralization after instrumentation/irrigation. Single-rooted human premolars were irrigated as follows (n = 12 per group): (1) 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, deionized water after instrumentation, (2) 1% NaOCl during, 17% EDTA after instrumentation, (3) a 1 : 1-mixture of 2% NaOCl and 18% EA during and after instrumentation, and (4) 1% NaOCl during, 2.25% PA after instrumentation. Irrigant volumes and contact times were 10 mL/15 min during and 5 mL/3 min after instrumentation. The evaluated outcomes were eluted calcium by atomic absorption spectroscopy, smear-covered areas by scanning electron microscopy in secondary electron mode and apparent canal wall decalcifications on root transsections in backscatter mode. For the smear layer analysis, sclerotic dentine was taken into consideration. Results were compared using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests, alpha = 0.05. The statistical comparison of the protocols regarding calcium elution revealed that protocol (1) yielded less calcium than (3), which yielded less than protocols (2) and (4). Most of the instrumented canal walls treated with one of the decalcifying agents were free of smear layer. Protocols (1) and (3) caused no decalcification of root dentine, whilst (2) and (4) showed substance typical demineralization patterns. The decalcifying agents under investigation were all able to remove or prevent a smear layer. However, they eroded the dentine wall differently.

  13. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  14. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2018-05-01

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. More experiences with the Tzanck smear test: cytologic findings in cutaneous granulomatous disorders.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2009-09-01

    Granulomatous dermatitis is a distinctive histopathologic cutaneous reaction pattern against various infectious and noninfectious agents. Cytologically, granulomatous dermatitis shows granulomas and multinucleated giant cells. Various etiologic agents of granulomatous diseases can also be identified. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings in granulomatous skin diseases. Patients who had granulomas and/or multinucleated giant cells of Langhans, foreign body- and/or Touton type in Tzanck smear tests were included in the study. In these patients, Tzanck preparations were then further evaluated for additional cytologic findings. Samples stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study. In some patients, methylene blue, Gram and/or Erlich-Ziehl-Nielsen stains were also performed. In all of the study cases, the final diagnosis was established after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; bacterial, leishmanial, and fungal cultures; histopathology; tuberculosis and leishmania polymerase chain reaction). We also calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the Leishman-Donovan body for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Over a 2-year period, 94 of 950 patients (9.9%) in whom Tzanck smear tests were performed had cytologic findings consistent with a granulomatous reaction. In 74 (78.7%) and 20 (21.3%) patients, the granulomatous reaction was due to infectious and noninfectious causes, respectively. Infectious causes included cutaneous leishmaniasis in 65 patients (87.8%), candidal granuloma in two patients, botyromycosis in two patients, and aspergillosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, leprosy, and cutaneous tuberculosis in one patient each. In 58 of 74 patients (78.4%) with infectious granulomatous dermatitis, the causes of the granulomas were identified. Noninfectious granulomatous reactions were due to granuloma annulare in 7 patients, sarcoidosis

  16. Symptomatic candidiasis: Using self sampled vaginal smears to establish the presence of Candida, lactobacilli, and Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Engberts, M K; Boon, M E; van Haaften, M; Heintz, A P M

    2007-10-01

    In a prospective cohort study, 10 symptomatic women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were taught how to prepare vaginal smears of their own vaginal fluids on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The 40 smears were stained with the PAS-method and examined by three different cytopathologists for presence of Candida. Thereafter, the smears were restained with Giemsa-stain to determine presence of lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis ("clue cells") and neutrophils. All three cytopathologists unequivocally established Candida blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae in 27 out of the 40 PAS-stained vaginal smears, whereas in the remaining 13 smears Candida was not found. All 10 patients had Candida in their smears during the second half of their menstrual cycle.Self sampled smears prove to be reliable for establishing the presence of Candida in symptomatic patients with candidiasis. Candida is associated with a lactobacillus-predominated vaginal flora, but with the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis. Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Maternal risk factors for abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, Cecilia; Cappello, Nazario; Latino, Maria A; Polarolo, Giulia; Masuelli, Giulia; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy and associated maternal risk factors. A retrospective study was undertaken of cervicovaginal smears performed on pregnant women at a center in Turin, Italy, between 2000 and 2010. Patients were divided into three groups: women with symptoms of genital infections (G1), asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth (G2), and asymptomatic women with no risk (G3). Logistic regression models identified variables associated with microorganisms. Among 11 219 samples, 4913 (43.8%) were positive, of which 3783 (77.0%) were positive for a single microorganism. Multivariate analysis for G1 showed positive associations between multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/Ureaplasma urealyticum, and multiparity with preterm birth and U. urealyticum (P<0.05 for all). In G2, there were significant associations between multiparity with preterm birth and bacterial vaginosis/aerobic vaginitis, and North African origin and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum (P<0.05 for all). In G3, there were associations between little education (<8 years) and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, and bacterial vaginosis and Eastern European origin and not being married (P<0.05 for all). Positive cervicovaginal smears were associated with a particular profile. Testing could be advisable for symptomatic women at any stage of pregnancy, during the first trimester for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth, and for some asymptomatic women. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  19. Time to sputum conversion in smear positive pulmonary TB patients on category I DOTS and factors delaying it.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Raunak; Nataraj, Gita; Kanade, Swapna; Khatri, Vijay; Mehta, Preeti

    2012-08-01

    Sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients expel infectious viable bacilli for a period following commencement of treatment. Patients on Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) receive intermittent therapy with multidrug regimen. To determine the time to sputum smear and culture conversion following initiation of DOTS treatment and study the factors that influence it. A prospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai over a one year period on a cohort of 71 sputum smear positive patients on Category I DOTS treatment. Patients were followed up weekly for upto 20 weeks or until they underwent smear and culture conversion whichever was earlier. At each follow up, specimens were collected and processed for microscopy and culture using standard protocol. 60/71 [84.55%] patients completed the study. 56/60 [93.3%] patients underwent sputum smear and culture conversion. The median time to smear and culture conversion was end of 5th week [day 35] and 6 1/2 weeks [day 45] respectively. Univariate and stepwise regression analysis showed that patients who had cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade and a past history of tuberculosis were more likely to undergo delayed or nonconversion [P < 0.05]. The time to sputum smear and culture conversion under DOTS is similar to previous antituberculosis regimens. Since viable bacilli continue to be expelled for upto two months, infection control measures should be maintained for such time. Patients with cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade or a past history of tuberculosis need to be monitored more closely.

  20. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data in the presence of significant instrumental smearing

    PubMed Central

    Bergenholtz, Johan; Ulama, Jeanette; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-scale small-angle X-ray scattering instrument with pinhole collimation has been used to assess smearing effects due to instrumental resolution. A new, numerically efficient method to smear ideal model intensities is developed and presented. It allows for directly using measured profiles of isotropic but otherwise arbitrary beams in smearing calculations. Samples of low-polydispersity polymer spheres have been used to show that scattering data can in this way be quantitatively modeled even when there is substantial distortion due to instrumental resolution. PMID:26937235

  1. Identification of phase-I metabolites and chronic toxicity study of the Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hao, B; Chen, Z-W; Zhou, X-J; Zimin, P I; Miljanich, G P; Wulff, H; Wang, Y-X

    2011-03-01

    1. PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in preclinical development for psoriasis. This study was undertaken to identify the major phase I metabolites of PAP-1 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. 2. Five phase I metabolites, that is 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psoralen (M1), 5-[4-(4-hydroxybutoxy)]psoralen (M2), 5-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M3), 5-[4-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M4), and 8-hydroxyl-5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (M5), were isolated from the bile of rats and identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The last four metabolites are new compounds. 3. Incubation of PAP-1 with SD rat liver microsomes rendered the same five major metabolites in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent manner suggesting that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in PAP-1 metabolism. Inhibitors of rat CYP1A1/2 (alpha-naphthoflavone) and CYP3A (ketoconazole) but not CYP2D6 (quinidine), CYP2E (diethyldithiocarbamate), or CYP2C9 (sulphaphenazole) blocked the metabolism of PAP-1 in rat microsomes. 4. Of the five metabolites M3, M4, and M5 were found to inhibit Kv1.3 currents with nanomolar IC50s, while M1 and M2 were inactive. Our results identified the Kv1.3-inactive M1 as the major phase I metabolite, and suggest that hydroxylation and O-dealkylation are the major pathways of PAP-1 metabolism. 5. We further conducted a 6-month repeat-dose toxicity study with PAP-1 at 50 mg/kg in both male and female Lewis rats and did not observe any toxic effects.

  2. Why don't some women return for cervical smears? A hermeneutic phenomenological investigation.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Janes, Ron; Steed, Robin; Ihimaera, Louise; Elley, C Raina

    2007-10-01

    To enhance understanding of how having a cervical smear can lead some women not to keep up-to-date with this test, a hermeneutic (interpretative) phenomenological study was undertaken. Participants were six purposively selected New Zealand women -- predominantly Māori -- at least 6 months overdue for a follow-up cervical screen in the previous 6 years. Each woman gave an in-depth interview. Transcribed and analyzed via a general inductive approach, the interviews suggested that the smears can violate women's positive aloneness with their bodies, and magnify aloneness as a negative state. Overdueness for the test avoids these effects. To minimize such effects, primary health care needs to acknowledge and address these issues, for example by providing an opportunity to connect the aloneness to trusted others.

  3. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  4. Automated smear counting and data processing using a notebook computer in a biomedical research facility.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Y; Nishizawa, K

    1995-10-01

    An automated smear counting and data processing system for a life science laboratory was developed to facilitate routine surveys and eliminate human errors by using a notebook computer. This system was composed of a personal computer, a liquid scintillation counter and a well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The radioactivity of smear samples was automatically measured by these counters. The personal computer received raw signals from the counters through an interface of RS-232C. The software for the computer evaluated the surface density of each radioisotope and printed out that value along with other items as a report. The software was programmed in Pascal language. This system was successfully applied to routine surveys for contamination in our facility.

  5. Development of search prefilters for infrared library searching of clear coat paint smears.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Sandercock, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Search prefilters developed from spectral data collected on two 6700 Thermo-Nicolet FTIR spectrometers were able to identify the respective manufacturing plant and the production line of an automotive vehicle from its clear coat paint smear using IR transmission spectra collected on a Bio-Rad 40A or Bio-Rad 60 FTIR spectrometer. All four spectrometers were equipped with DTGS detectors. An approach based on instrumental line functions was used to transfer the classification model between the Thermo-Nicolet and Bio-Rad instruments. In this study, 209 IR spectra of clear coat paint smears comprising the training set were collected using two Thermo-Nicolet 6700 IR spectrometers, whereas the validation set consisted of 242 IR spectra of clear coats obtained using two Bio-Rad FTIR instruments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2011-08-01

    In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Qˆ. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian).

  7. Economic analysis of CDC's culture- and smear-based tuberculosis instructions for Filipino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Maskery, B; Posey, D L; Coleman, M S; Asis, R; Zhou, W; Painter, J A; Wingate, L T; Roque, M; Cetron, M S

    2018-04-01

    In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised its tuberculosis (TB) technical instructions for panel physicians who administer mandatory medical examinations among US-bound immigrants. Many US-bound immigrants come from the Philippines, a high TB prevalence country. To quantify economic and health impacts of smear- vs. culture-based TB screening. Decision tree modeling was used to compare three Filipino screening programs: 1) no screening, 2) smear-based screening, and 3) culture-based screening. The model incorporated pre-departure TB screening results from Filipino panel physicians and CDC databases with post-arrival follow-up outcomes. Costs (2013 $US) were examined from societal, immigrant, US Public Health Department and hospitalization perspectives. With no screening, an annual cohort of 35 722 Filipino immigrants would include an estimated 450 TB patients with 264 hospitalizations, at a societal cost of US$9.90 million. Culture-based vs. smear-based screening would result in fewer imported cases (80.9 vs. 310.5), hospitalizations (19.7 vs. 68.1), and treatment costs (US$1.57 million vs. US$4.28 million). Societal screening costs, including US follow-up, were greater for culture-based screening (US$5.98 million) than for smear-based screening (US$3.38 million). Culture-based screening requirements increased immigrant costs by 61% (US$1.7 million), but reduced costs for the US Public Health Department (22%, US$750 000) and of hospitalization (70%, US$1 020 000). Culture-based screening reduced imported TB and US costs among Filipino immigrants.

  8. 'Ease of interpretation' of cytological smears stained with modified ultrafast papanicolaou stain: Interobserver agreement and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Uthamalingam, Preithy; Sathish Kumar, Thabasum; Venus, Albina; Sekar, Preethi; Muthusamy, Rajeshwari K; Mehta, Sangita

    2018-04-01

    Since its inception in 1995, the Ultrafast Papanicoloau (UFPAP) cytological stain has undergone a number of modifications to suit the local availability of reagents and cost in different set ups. However, the reported results have been uniformly encouraging. We designed a study to investigate the inter-observer agreement in 'perceived ease of interpretation' of cytological smears stained with Modified Ultrafast Papanicoloau stain (MUFPAP). After a small pilot study, we prospectively stained air-dried fine needle aspirate smears (FNACs) and Body Fluid smears with the standardized MUFPAP stain. The MUFPAP stained slides were evaluated in tandem with other routine cytological stains as well as independently by two pathologists. Two rater kappa was used to determine the agreement. The study included 93 fluids and 34 FNACs. A vast majority of the cases stained with MUFPAP were rated 'better' than the routine stains in terms of 'overall ease of interpretation' with considerable agreement. The agreement tended to be better for FNACs than fluid specimens. Cases with malignant pathology demonstrated a perfect agreement (kappa = 1) between the raters in terms of 'overall ease of interpretation' (91.7% cases were rated 'very good' by each pathologist) when compared to cases with benign pathology (kappa = 0.52). Nuclear characteristics were appreciated with a better agreement than other parameters. Modified UFPAP stain appears to be quick, reliable, cost-effective alternative in cytology, especially for detecting malignant cells in smears with low cellularity. Its specific advantage is robust nuclear staining against a clear background. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effectiveness of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), MTAD and sodium hypochlorite irrigants on smear layer.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, V; Gokhale, S T; Kenchappa, M; Nagarajappa, R

    2013-08-01

    Endodontic success depends heavily on effective chemo-mechanical debridement of root canals through the use of instruments and irrigating solutions. To compare the effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract, Biopure™ mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid and detergent (MTAD) and 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on removal of the smear layer. Randomised controlled trial. Thirty extracted single-rooted, primary human teeth were allocated at random into three experimental groups of 10 teeth each. For each tooth, the canal was prepared using the step-back technique. During instrumentation, 2 ml of the irrigant was used for at least 10 s after each file and 10 ml as a final flush for 2 min for chamomile and NaOCL irrigants. Whereas for MTAD, an initial rinse with 1.3 % NaOCl for a cumulated period of 20 min, and use of MTAD as the final rinse for a period of 5 min was followed. Longitudinal grooves were made on root segments, then split into two halves with a chisel, stored in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde solution and fixed in ethanol series. Specimens were examined for the smear layer according to Hulsmann et al. (Int Endod J 35:668-679, 2002) criteria using a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. The most effective result in removal of smear layer occurred with the use of MTAD, followed by chamomile extract. The chamomile extract was found to be significantly more effective than 2.5 % NaOCl solution which had only minor effects. The efficacy of chamomile to remove the smear layer was superior to 2.5 % NaOCl alone, but less effective than MTAD mixture.

  10. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    de O Souza Filho, João B; de Seixas, José Manoel; Galliez, Rafael; de Bragança Pereira, Basilio; de Q Mello, Fernanda C; Dos Santos, Alcione Miranda; Kritski, Afranio Lineu

    2016-08-01

    Molecular tests show low sensitivity for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). A screening and risk assessment system for smear-negative PTB using artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on patient signs and symptoms is proposed. The prognostic and risk assessment models exploit a multilayer perceptron (MLP) and inspired adaptive resonance theory (iART) network. Model development considered data from 136 patients with suspected smear-negative PTB in a general hospital. MLP showed higher sensitivity (100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78-100%) than the other techniques, such as support vector machine (SVM) linear (86%; 95% CI 60-96%), multivariate logistic regression (MLR) (79%; 95% CI 53-93%), and classification and regression tree (CART) (71%; 95% CI 45-88%). MLR showed a slightly higher specificity (85%; 95% CI 59-96%) than MLP (80%; 95% CI 54-93%), SVM linear (75%, 95% CI 49-90%), and CART (65%; 95% CI 39-84%). In terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the MLP model exhibited a higher value (0.918, 95% CI 0.824-1.000) than the SVM linear (0.796, 95% CI 0.651-0.970) and MLR (0.782, 95% CI 0.663-0.960) models. The significant signs and symptoms identified in risk groups are coherent with clinical practice. In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  12. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  13. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive. PMID:22472516

  14. Cytology smears as diagnostic material for EGFR gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Powrózek, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Paweł; Pankowski, Juliusz; Reszka, Katarzyna; Jakubiak, Magdalena; Obrochta, Anna; Wojas-Krawczyk, Kamila; Buczkowski, Jarosław; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-11-14

    Cytology smears can be effectively used for EGFR mutation testing in the qualification of NSCLC patients for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. However, tissue specimens are preferred for EGFR mutation analysis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the real-time PCR method for EGFR testing in histology and cytology materials obtained simultaneously from NSCLC patients. Fourteen adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR-mutation-positive primary tumor tissues were included in the study. Corresponding cytological smears of metastatic lymph nodes obtained by EBUS-TBNA were examined. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit (EntroGen, USA) and real-time PCR (m2000rt system, Abbott, USA) were used for EGFR mutation analysis in both types of material. In primary tumor tissues, 12 deletions in exon 19 and 2 substitutions in exon 21 (L858R mutation) of the EGFR gene were found. Except for 1 deletion in exon 19, the same EGFR gene mutations were detected in all corresponding cytology samples. The percentage of tumor cells, DNA concentration, percentage of mutated DNA as well as ΔCt values were similar in cytology slides and histology material. In both types of materials, no significant correlations were found between the percentage of tumor cells and the percentage of mutated DNA nor between the DNA concentration and the percentage of mutated DNA. We demonstrated the high effectiveness of a sensitive real-time PCR method in EGFR gene mutation detection in cytology smears.

  15. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  16. Quality assessment and improvement of "Unsatisfactory" liquid-based cervicovaginal papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Mirzamani, Neda; Chau, Karen; Rafael, Oana; Shergill, Uday; Sajjan, Sujata; Sumskaya, Irina; Gimenez, Cecilia; Klein, Melissa; Das, Kasturi

    2017-10-01

    The quality of cervicovaginal smears determines the success of cytology in screening programs for cervical cancer. Bethesda 2014 revisited the adequacy criteria for atrophic smears and redefined the squamous cell count in the "unsatisfactory" category. In this study, we evaluated the smear quality of Thinprep liquid-based cervicovaginal Papanicolaou cytology slides (TPS) that were previously deemed unsatisfactory, to determine reasons for such categorization. In addition, we attempted to establish the impact of the new adequacy criteria on the rate and management of unsatisfactory diagnosis. About 234 unsatisfactory TPS were examined. The reasons for unsatisfactory were noted. The number of squamous cells was recounted, as per the new Bethesda criteria, in borderline adequacy cases that showed an atrophic pattern. The leading cause for unsatisfactory TPS was lubricating gel, followed by blood, as observed in older and younger age groups, respectively (Figure 1). Eleven borderline cases were reclassified as "satisfactory" using the new Bethesda cell count, with 27% above 60 years of age. About 82% of these borderline cases were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy on repeat testing. There was no difference of management or change in rate of unsatisfactory when patients above 60 were reclassified into the satisfactory category using the new Bethesda count. However, a larger study is needed to evaluate whether the new recommendation for minimum cellularity can be implemented in patients above a certain age cut-off. The study highlights the need for improvement in collection practices and education of practitioners. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differentiation of histoplasma and cryptococcus in cytology smears: a diagnostic dilemma in severely necrotic cases.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Jain, D; Singh, L; Iyer, V K; Sharma, M C; Mathur, S R

    2015-08-01

    The correct identification of fungal organisms is important for the appropriate clinical management of patients. It becomes difficult in necrotic smears when the tissue response is not clearly discernible. It is difficult to distinguish between histoplasma and cryptococcus in severely necrotic cases, where both appear as variably sized clear refractile haloes. Four cases of adrenal necrotic histoplasma infection were studied and the morphology was compared with that of non-necrotic histoplasmosis and cases of cryptococcal infection. Eleven cases were analysed in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain was performed to exclude tuberculosis in necrotic smears. A clinical and serology correlation was performed where available. Necrotic cases of histoplasma infection revealed negative refractile clear haloes similar to those of cryptococcus. Histoplasma showed methylene blue-stained organisms in ZN stains, whereas the cryptococcus cases were negative. Similar methylene blue-stained organisms were seen in non-necrotic histoplasma infection. As a result of morphological overlap between cryptococcus and histoplasma, the distinction between the two fungi can be difficult in many cases. ZN staining appears to have a role in the differentiation of these fungi in severely necrotic cases. This observation needs to be validated on a larger number of cases with complete correlation with clinical, serology and treatment records. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-07-11

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alphamore » and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample.« less

  19. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears from women using intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed Central

    Duguid, H L; Parratt, D; Traynor, R

    1980-01-01

    Cervical smears from 293 users of intrauterine contraceptive devices attending family planning clinics in East Fife, Dundee, and Angus were stained by Papanicolaou and Gram's methods and examined for actinomyces-like organisms. Of the 128 women using plastic devices, 40 gave smears positive for these organisms. In contrast only two positive smears were obtained from the 165 women using devices containing copper and none from a control group of 300 women taking oral contraceptives. Colonisation was more common in women whose plastic devices had been in situ for over two years. Correlations between the presence of these organisms and recorded incidences of pain and both clinical and cytological evidence of inflammation of the lower genital tract were highly significant (p = 0.00001, p < 0.00001, and p < 0.00001 respectively). The results suggest that plastic intrauterine contraceptive devices predispose to colonisation by actinomyces-like organisms, particularly after long-term use. Hence if the apparently bacteriostatic action of copper devices is confirmed these should probably be more widely used. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:7427358

  20. An efficient abnormal cervical cell detection system based on multi-instance extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lili; Yin, Jianping; Yuan, Lihuan; Liu, Qiang; Li, Kuan; Qiu, Minghui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal cells from cervical smear images is extremely demanded in annual diagnosis of women's cervical cancer. For this medical cell recognition problem, there are three different feature sections, namely cytology morphology, nuclear chromatin pathology and region intensity. The challenges of this problem come from feature combination s and classification accurately and efficiently. Thus, we propose an efficient abnormal cervical cell detection system based on multi-instance extreme learning machine (MI-ELM) to deal with above two questions in one unified framework. MI-ELM is one of the most promising supervised learning classifiers which can deal with several feature sections and realistic classification problems analytically. Experiment results over Herlev dataset demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms three traditional methods for two-class classification in terms of well accuracy and less time.

  1. [Abnormal vaginal secretion: sensitivity, specificity and concordance between clinical and cytological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Kélvia Cristina; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Baylão, Luciano Augusto; Ribeiro, Andrea Alves; Araujo, Nadja Lindany Alves de Souza; Tavares, Suelene Brito do Nascimento; dos Santos, Sílvia Helena Rabelo

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and trichomoniasis and compare the findings of physical examination of the vaginal secretion with the microbiological diagnosis obtained by cytology study of a vaginal smear using the Papanicolaou method. A cross-sectional study of 302 women aged 20 to 87 years, interviewed and submitted to a gynecology test for the evaluation of vaginal secretion and collection of a cytology smear, from June 2012 to May 2013. Sensitivity analyses were carried out and specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with their respective 95%CI were determined to assess the accuracy of the characteristics of vaginal secretion in relation to the microbiological diagnosis of the cytology smear . The kappa index (k) was used to assess the degree of agreement between the clinical features of vaginal secretion and the microbiological findings obtained by cytology. RESULTS The prevalence of BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis was 25.5, 9.3 and 2.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the clinical characteristics of vaginal secretion for the cytological diagnosis of BV were 74, 78.6, 54.3 and 89.9%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and the NPV of the clinical characteristics of vaginal secretion for the cytological diagnosis of candidiasis were 46.4, 86.2, 25.5 and 94%, respectively. The correlation between the clinical evaluation of vaginal secretion and the microbiological diagnosis of BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis, assessed by the kappa index, was 0.47, 0.23 and 0.28, respectively. CONCLUSION The most common cause of abnormal vaginal secretion was BV. The clinical evaluation of vaginal secretion presented amoderate to weak agreement with the microbiological diagnosis, indicating the need for complementary investigation of the clinical findings of abnormal vaginal secretion.

  2. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  3. Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Fatemah S; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl M; Zimmerman, Ralph D; Ari, Arzu

    2015-11-01

    Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Quantitative, comparative, in-vitro study. A breath simulator was set to preterm infant settings (VT : 9 ml, RR: 50 bpm and Ti: 0.5 sec) and connected to the trachea of an anatomical upper airway model of a preterm infant via collecting filter distal to the trachea. The HFNC (Optiflow; Fisher & Paykel), Bubble CPAP (Fisher & Paykel), and SiPAP (Carefusion) were attached to the nares of the model via each device's proprietary nasal cannula and set to deliver a baseline of 5 cm H2 O pressure. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/0.5 ml) was aerosolized with a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) positioned(1) proximal to the patient and(2) prior to the humidifier (n = 5). The drug was eluted from the filter with 0.1 N HCl and analyzed via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with P < 0.05 significant. At position 1, the trend of lower deposition (mean ± SD%) across devices was not significant (0.90 ± 0.26, 0.70 ± 0.16 and 0.59 ± 0.19, respectively; P = 0.098); however, in position 2, drug delivery with SiPAP (0.79 ± 0.11) was lower compared to both HFNC (1.30 ± 0.17; P = 0.003) and bubble CPAP (1.24 ± 0.24; p = 0.008). Placement of the nebulizer prior to the humidifier increased deposition with all devices (P < 0.05). Aerosol can be delivered via all three devices used in this study. Device selection and nebulizer position impacted aerosol

  4. The pap Operon of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain O1:K1 Is Located on a Novel Pathogenicity Island

    PubMed Central

    Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Johnson, Timothy J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a 56-kb pathogenicity island (PAI) in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1:K1 (APEC-O1). This PAI, termed PAI IAPEC-O1, is integrated adjacent to the 3′ end of the pheV tRNA gene. It carries putative virulence genes of APEC (pap operon), other E. coli genes (tia and ireA), and a 1.5-kb region unique to APEC-O1. The kps gene cluster required for the biosynthesis of polysialic acid capsule was mapped to a location immediately downstream of this PAI. PMID:16369033

  5. Intervention to improve follow-up for abnormal Papanicolaou tests: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Dawson, Lauren; Grady, James J; Breitkopf, Daniel M; Nelson-Becker, Carolyn; Snyder, Russell R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a theory-based, culturally targeted intervention on adherence to follow-up among low-income and minority women who experience an abnormal Pap test. 5,049 women were enrolled and underwent Pap testing. Of these, 378 had an abnormal result and 341 (90%) were randomized to one of three groups to receive their results: Intervention (I): culturally targeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; Active Control (AC): nontargeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; or Standard Care Only (SCO). The primary outcome was attendance at the initial follow-up appointment. Secondary outcomes included delay in care, completion of care at 18 months, state anxiety (STAI Y-6), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and distress (CDDQ). Anxiety was assessed at enrollment, notification of results, and 7-14 days later with the CDDQ and CES-D. 299 women were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Adherence rates were 60% (I), 54% (AC), and 58% (SCO), p = .73. Completion rates were 39% (I) and 35% in the AC and SCO groups, p = .77. Delay in care (in days) was (M ± SD): 58 ± 75 (I), 69 ± 72 (AC), and 54 ± 75 (SCO), p = .75. Adherence was associated with higher anxiety at notification, p < .01 and delay < 90 days (vs. 90+) was associated with greater perceived personal responsibility, p < .05. Women not completing their care (vs. those who did) had higher CES-D scores at enrollment, p < .05. A theory-based, culturally targeted message was not more effective than a nontargeted message or standard care in improving behavior.

  6. Identification of Proteins and Peptide Biomarkers for Detecting Banned Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in Meat and Bone Meal by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marbaix, Hélène; Budinger, Dimitri; Dieu, Marc; Fumière, Olivier; Gillard, Nathalie; Delahaut, Philippe; Mauro, Sergio; Raes, Martine

    2016-03-23

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, with processed animal proteins (PAPs) as the main vector of the disease, has led to their prohibition in feed. The progressive release of the feed ban required the development of new analytical methods to determine the exact origin of PAPs from meat and bone meal. We set up a promising MS-based method to determine the species and the source (legal or not) present in PAPs: a TCA-acetone protein extraction followed by a cleanup step, an in-solution tryptic digestion of 5 h (with a 1:20 protein/trypsin ratio), and mass spectrometry analyses, first without any a priori, with a Q-TOF, followed by a targeted triple-quadrupole analysis. Using this procedure, we were able to overcome some of the major limitations of the official methods to analyze PAPs, detecting and identifying prohibited animal products in feedstuffs by the monitoring of peptides specific for cows, pigs, and sheep in PAPs.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic value of AgNOR and PAP in early detection of dysplastic changes in leukoplakia and lichen planus - a preliminary case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dhanya S; Ali, I M; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of oral cancer has been the most effective approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. If a lesion is clinically considered suspicious, an easily practicable, non-invasive, painless, safe, and accurate screening method for detection of the dysplastic changes is necessary. In an attempt to procure this, a study was conducted with the aim of determining the diagnostic accuracy of rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) in brush biopsies of potentially malignant lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Brush biopsies taken from 25 cases of leukoplakia and lichen planus each were stained with rapid PAP and silver nitrate stains. Histopathological correlation was performed and further compared with rapid PAP and AgNOR for its diagnostic validity. Statistically significant increase in the mean AgNOR count was seen from normal epithelium to lichen planus to that of leukoplakia. When compared with rapid PAP, a linear correlation was seen in AgNOR counts and stages of dysplasia in leukoplakia which was also found to be statistically significant. Diagnostic accuracy for AgNOR in leukoplakia was found to be 84%, lichen planus 73%, whereas RAPID PAP showed 72% accuracy. AgNOR analysis may be useful as a quantitative marker of incipient cellular alterations and hence would be helpful in assessing suspicious lesions and thus can be regarded as a valuable adjunct. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neutron Capture Energies for Flux Normalization and Approximate Model for Gamma-Smeared Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Seog; Clarno, Kevin T.; Liu, Yuxuan

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) neutronics simulator MPACT has used a single recoverable fission energy for each fissionable nuclide assuming that all recoverable energies come only from fission reaction, for which capture energy is merged with fission energy. This approach includes approximations and requires improvement by separating capture energy from the merged effective recoverable energy. This report documents the procedure to generate recoverable neutron capture energies and the development of a program called CapKappa to generate capture energies. Recoverable neutron capture energies have been generated by using CapKappa withmore » the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF)/B-7.0 and 7.1 cross section and decay libraries. The new capture kappas were compared to the current SCALE-6.2 and the CASMO-5 capture kappas. These new capture kappas have been incorporated into the Simplified AMPX 51- and 252-group libraries, and they can be used for the AMPX multigroup (MG) libraries and the SCALE code package. The CASL VERA neutronics simulator MPACT does not include a gamma transport capability, which limits it to explicitly estimating local energy deposition from fission, neutron, and gamma slowing down and capture. Since the mean free path of gamma rays is typically much longer than that for the neutron, and the total gamma energy is about 10% to the total energy, the gamma-smeared power distribution is different from the fission power distribution. Explicit local energy deposition through neutron and gamma transport calculation is significantly important in multi-physics whole core simulation with thermal-hydraulic feedback. Therefore, the gamma transport capability should be incorporated into the CASL neutronics simulator MPACT. However, this task will be timeconsuming in developing the neutron induced gamma production and gamma cross section libraries. This study is to

  9. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients with positive sputum smear in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Domínguez, A; Alcaide, J; Camps, N; Jansà, J M; Minguell, S; Pina, J M; Díez, M

    2004-03-01

    Patients with positive sputum smears are those with the capacity to spread infection. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of tuberculosis in Catalonia (an autonomous community in the northeast of Spain which includes Barcelona) and to determine risk factors associated to patients with positive sputum smear test. New cases of tuberculosis detected by active surveillance between May 1996 and April 1997 were studied. The study was analysed as a coincident cases and controls study. The rate of incidence was calculated per 100,000 persons-year. The association of the dependent variable--case of tuberculosis with positive sputum smear--with the remainder of independent variables was determined by odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2508 cases of tuberculosis were detected. The rate of incidence was 41.4 per 100,000 persons-year. Of these 19.4% (487/2508) were coinfected with HIV and 35.6% (893/2508) presented a positive sputum smear, which implies a rate of 14.7 per 100,000 persons-year. In an adjusted multivariate analysis, cases with positive smears were positively associated with the 15-24 (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4), 25-34 (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) and 35-44 years (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) age compared with persons 45 years old and above; with males (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2) and consumers of alcohol (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) and negatively with those under 15 years of age (OR=0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2) and coinfection with HIV (OR=0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7). Measures to control tuberculosis transmission (prompt diagnosis, study of contacts and directly observed treatments) should be reinforced for male adults with excessive consumption of alcohol.

  10. The effect of the KTP laser on smear layer and temperature change: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Dilara; Kuştarcı, Alper

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser irradiation on smear layer removal and temperature changes of the root surfaces. Two hundred four extracted single-root human premolars were included. The canals were instrumented and divided into two main groups: group A (smear layer examination n:119) and group B (temperature change examination n:85). Each group was divided into subgroups (n:17) according to the different five laser power settings: A1, B1: 1 W-5.33 J/cm 2 ; A2, B2: 1.5 W-7.52 J/cm 2 ; A3, B3: 2 W-10.3 J/cm 2 ; A4, B4: 3 W-15.5 J/cm 2 , A5, B5: 4 W-20.1 J/cm2, A6: positive control no laser irradiation-irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water and A7: negative control groups no laser irradiation irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 17% EDTA + 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water. The temperature elevations were measured with an infrared thermographic camera and smear layer examined by scanning electron microscope. According to Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests, in all groups the highest smear scores were in the apical third. In all areas, there were statistically significant differences between negative control group (17% EDTA) and all other groups (p < 0.05). The highest smear scores were determined in 1 W KTP laser and positive control (2.5% NaOCl) groups. Statistically, in all thirds, the differences the 3 W and 4 W KTP laser groups between each other and all other groups were significant (p < 0.05). After the end of the use of the laser, increase in temperature values in all groups were found to be below 10 °C in 20 s.

  11. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  12. Standardization of blood smears prepared in transparent acetate: an alternative method for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Mello, Marcia B C; Luz, Francisco C; Leal-Santos, Fabio A; Alves, Eduardo R; Gasquez, Thamires M; Fontes, Cor J F

    2014-06-17

    Due to students' initial inexperience, slides are frequently broken and blood smears are damaged in microscopy training, leading to the need for their constant replacement. To minimize this problem a method of preparing blood smears on transparent acetate sheets was developed with the goal of implementing appropriate and more readily available teaching resources for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Acetate sheets derived from polyester were used to standardize the preparation and staining of thin and thick blood smears on transparent acetate sheets. Thick and thin blood smears were also prepared using the conventional method on glass slides. The staining was conducted using Giemsa staining for the thick and thin smears. Microscopic examination (1,000x) of the thin and thick blood smears prepared on transparent acetate produced high-quality images for both the parasites and the blood cells. The smears showed up on a clear background and with minimal dye precipitation. It was possible to clearly identify the main morphological characteristics of Plasmodium, neutrophils and platelets. After 12 months of storage, there was no change in image quality or evidence of fungal colonization. Preparation of thin and thick blood smears in transparent acetate for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria does not compromise the morphological and staining characteristics of the parasites or blood cells. It is reasonable to predict the applicability of transparent acetate in relevant situations such as the training of qualified professionals for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria and the preparation of positive specimens for competency assessment (quality control) of professionals and services involved in the diagnosis of malaria.

  13. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p < 0.001). There were nearly no concordance between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  14. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sample. You can collect the sample: On plastic wrap. Place the wrap loosely over the toilet bowl ... For children wearing diapers: Line the diaper with plastic wrap. Position the plastic wrap so that it will ...

  15. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ... shaped cells may indicate: Myelofibrosis Severe iron deficiency Thalassemia major Cancer in the bone marrow Anemia caused ...

  16. Historical data decrease complete blood count reflex blood smear review rates without missing patients with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rabizadeh, Esther; Pickholtz, Itay; Barak, Mira; Froom, Paul

    2013-08-01

    The availability of historical data decreases the rate of blood smear review rates in outpatients, but we are unaware of studies done at referral centres. In the following study, we determined the effect of historical data on the rates of peripheral blood smears over a 3-month period and then the detection rate of patients with acute leukaemia. All results of complete blood counts (CBCs) tested on three ADVIA 120 analyzers at the regional Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus over a 3-month period were accessed on a computerised laboratory information system. Over a 3-month period, we determined the proportion of total CBC and patients with criteria for a manual differential count and the actual number of peripheral blood smears done. Finally, we determined the proportion of 100 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia detected using our criteria that included limiting reflex testing according to historical data. Over the 3-month period, there were 34,827 tests done in 12,785 patients. Without historical data, our smear rate would have been 24.5%, but with the availability of historical data, the blood smear review rate was 5.6%. The detection rate for cases of acute leukaemia was 100%. We conclude that the availability of previous test results significantly reduces the need for blood smear review without missing any patients with acute leukaemia.

  17. Smear plus Detect-TB for a sensitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a cost-effectiveness analysis in an incarcerated population.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Karen Barros; Scherer, Luciene; Barcellos, Regina Bones; Kuhleis, Daniele; Prestes, Isaías Valente; Steffen, Ricardo Ewbank; Dalla Costa, Elis Regina; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-12-16

    Prison conditions can favor the spread of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to evaluate in a Brazilian prison: the performance and accuracy of smear, culture and Detect-TB; performance of smear plus culture and smear plus Detect-TB, according to different TB prevalence rates; and the cost-effectiveness of these procedures for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis. This paper describes a cost-effectiveness study. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of five routine diagnostic procedures for diagnosis of PTB using sputum specimens: a) Smear alone, b) Culture alone, c) Detect-TB alone, d) Smear plus culture and e) Smear plus Detect-TB. The cost-effectiveness ratio of costs were evaluated per correctly diagnosed TB case and all procedures costs were attributed based on the procedure costs adopted by the Brazilian Public Health System. A total of 294 spontaneous sputum specimens from patients suspected of having TB were analyzed. The sensibility and specificity were calculated to be 47% and 100% for smear; 93% and 100%, for culture; 74% and 95%, for Detect-TB; 96% and 100%, for smear plus culture; and 86% and 95%, for smear plus Detect-TB. The negative and positive predictive values for smear plus Detect-TB, according to different TB prevalence rates, ranged from 83 to 99% and 48 to 96%, respectively. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, smear was both less costly and less effective than the other strategies. Culture and smear plus culture were more effective but more costly than the other strategies. Smear plus Detect-TB was the most cost-effective method. The Detect-TB evinced to be sensitive and effective for the PTB diagnosis when applied with smear microscopy. Diagnostic methods should be improved to increase TB case detection. To support rational decisions about the implementation of such techniques, cost-effectiveness studies are essential, including in prisons, which are known for health care assessment problems.

  18. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S; Schwaderer, Andrew L; McHugh, Kirk M; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain.

  19. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R.; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B.; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain. PMID:26658437

  20. The SAL-PAP Chloroplast Retrograde Pathway Contributes to Plant Immunity by Regulating Glucosinolate Pathway and Phytohormone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Ishiga, Takako; Tohge, Takayuki; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2017-10-01

    Chloroplasts have a crucial role in plant immunity against pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that phytopathogens target chloroplast homeostasis as a pathogenicity mechanism. In order to regulate the performance of chloroplasts under stress conditions, chloroplasts produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression. Many signals for the chloroplast retrograde pathway have been identified, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species, and metabolic retrograde signals. Although there is a reasonably good understanding of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, some signals are not well-understood. In order to understand the role of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, we investigated Arabidopsis chloroplast retrograde signaling mutants in response to pathogen inoculation. sal1 mutants (fry1-2 and alx8) responsible for the SAL1-PAP retrograde signaling pathway showed enhanced disease symptoms not only to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 but, also, to the necrotrophic pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum EC1. Glucosinolate profiles demonstrated the reduced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants compared with the wild-type Col-0 in response to DC3000 infection. In addition, quantification of multiple phytohormones and analyses of their gene expression profiles revealed that both the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathways were down-regulated in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants. These results suggest that the SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde pathway is involved in plant immunity by regulating the SA- and JA-mediated signaling pathways.

  1. Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    PubMed

    Gatica-Arias, A; Farag, M A; Stanke, M; Matoušek, J; Wessjohann, L; Weber, G

    2012-01-01

    Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, α-acids and β-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants.

  2. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP), in patients with metabolic risk factors. A 6-month follow-up study in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Stefan; Börjesson, Mats; Larsson, Maria E H; Hagberg, Lars; Cider, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that inadequate physical activity (PA) leads to an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases and premature mortality. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a method to increase the level of PA of patients in primary care, but needs further evaluation. The aim of this observational study was to explore the association between PAP-treatment and the PA level of patients with metabolic risk factors and the relationship between changes in the PA level and health outcomes at the 6 month follow-up. This study included 444 patients in primary care, aged 27-85 years (56% females), who were physically inactive with at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The PAP-treatment model included: individualized dialogue concerning PA, prescribed PA, and a structured follow-up. A total of 368 patients (83%) completed the 6 months of follow-up. Of these patients, 73% increased their PA level and 42% moved from an inadequate PA level to sufficient, according to public health recommendations. There were significant improvements (p≤ 0.05) in the following metabolic risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein. There were also significant improvements regarding health-related quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36, in: general health, vitality, social function, mental health, role limitation-physical/emotional, mental component summary, and physical component summary. Regression analysis showed a significant association between changes in the PA level and health outcomes. During the first 6-month period, the caregiver provided PAP support 1-2 times. This study indicates that an individual-based model of PAP-treatment has the potential to change people's PA behavior with improved metabolic risk factors and self-reported quality of life at the 6 month follow-up. Thus, PAP seems to be feasible in a clinical primary care practice, with minimum effort

  5. Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP), in patients with metabolic risk factors. A 6-month follow-up study in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Mats; Larsson, Maria E. H.; Hagberg, Lars; Cider, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that inadequate physical activity (PA) leads to an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases and premature mortality. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a method to increase the level of PA of patients in primary care, but needs further evaluation. The aim of this observational study was to explore the association between PAP-treatment and the PA level of patients with metabolic risk factors and the relationship between changes in the PA level and health outcomes at the 6 month follow-up. This study included 444 patients in primary care, aged 27–85 years (56% females), who were physically inactive with at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The PAP-treatment model included: individualized dialogue concerning PA, prescribed PA, and a structured follow-up. A total of 368 patients (83%) completed the 6 months of follow-up. Of these patients, 73% increased their PA level and 42% moved from an inadequate PA level to sufficient, according to public health recommendations. There were significant improvements (p≤ 0.05) in the following metabolic risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein. There were also significant improvements regarding health-related quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36, in: general health, vitality, social function, mental health, role limitation-physical/emotional, mental component summary, and physical component summary. Regression analysis showed a significant association between changes in the PA level and health outcomes. During the first 6-month period, the caregiver provided PAP support 1–2 times. This study indicates that an individual-based model of PAP-treatment has the potential to change people’s PA behavior with improved metabolic risk factors and self-reported quality of life at the 6 month follow-up. Thus, PAP seems to be feasible in a clinical primary care practice, with minimum

  6. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkylmore » beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.« less

  7. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Laura J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Wordlaw-Stintson, Lashawn; Vidal, Adriana; Smith, Jennifer S.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose: To examine the relationship…

  9. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rödjer, Lars; H Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-12-01

    To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. We used two self-report questionnaires - the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows that PAP recipients report a clinically relevant long-term improvement in quality

  10. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rödjer, Lars; H. Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Design Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. Setting A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. Subjects The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. Main outcome measurements We used two self-report questionnaires – the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. Results A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Conclusion Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows

  11. Free Active Chlorine in Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions Admixed with Octenidine, SmearOFF, Chlorhexidine, and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Unni; Saji, Sreeja; Clarkson, Roger; Lalloo, Ratilal; Moule, Alex J

    2017-08-01

    The therapeutic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions are dependent on the levels of free available chlorine (FAC). Mixing these solutions with irrigants can result in significant reductions in FAC. Although the effect of some irrigants on FAC is known, the effect of other commonly used irrigants is not. Thus, the therapeutic ramifications of the concurrent use of these on the efficiency of NaOCl solutions is not known. Aliquots of 5.2% (w/v) NaOCl solutions were admixed in proportions of 90:10, 80:20, and 50:50 with the following irrigants: octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT); SmearOFF (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI), 17% EDTA; and 0.2%, 2%, and 5% chlorhexidine (CHX) solutions. Changes in FAC were measured by iodometric titration. Statistical differences between means were determined using a post hoc Tukey analysis test after an analysis of variance. OCT appeared not to affect FAC and was significantly different than all other irrigants, except for 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures of low concentration (0.2%) CHX. CHX solutions showed a marked concentration- and mixture proportion-dependent detrimental effect on FAC. The reduction of FAC between different concentrations of CHX was statistically significant in 80:20 and 50:50 proportions, with 50:50 mixtures of 5% CHX having the greatest influence. Mixtures containing even small proportions of SmearOFF or EDTA exhibited significant losses in FAC. OCT has little effect on FAC and can be used concurrently with NaOCl solutions. Higher concentrations of CHX significantly affect FAC. Their combined use with NaOCl solutions should be avoided. EDTA and SmearOFF should not be mixed with NaOCl solutions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  12. The incidence and clinical implication of sputum with positive acid-fast bacilli smear but negative in mycobacterial culture in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Eui-Chong; Joo, Sei Ick; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2008-10-01

    Although it is not rare to find sputum that is positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear but subsequent culture fails to isolate mycobacteria in clinical practice, the incidence and clinical implication of those sputa from new patients has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical implication of sputum with positive AFB smear but negative in mycobacterial culture. All sputa that were positive AFB smear requested during diagnostic work up for new patients visiting Seoul National University Hospital from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2006 were included. Sputa producing a positive AFB smear but negative mycobacterial culture were classified into one of four categories: laboratory failure to isolate mycobacteria, false positive AFB smear, pathogen may show a positive AFB smear other than mycobacteria, and indeterminate results. Out of 447 sputa with a positive AFB smear, 29 (6.5%) failed to culture any organism. Among these 29 sputa, 18 were caused by laboratory failure to isolate mycobacteria, six were false positive smears, and five indeterminate. Although most sputum with a positive AFB smear but negative culture could be classified as a laboratory failure, clinicians should consider the possibility of false positive AFB smear.

  13. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization’s recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). Methods The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB

  14. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  15. Variable electronic shutter in CMOS imager with improved anti smearing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A leakage compensated snapshot imager provides a number of different aspects to prevent smear and other problems in a snapshot imager. The area where the imager is formed may be biased in a way that prevents photo carriers including electrons and holes from reaching a storage area. In addition, a number of different aspects may improve the efficiency. The capacitance per unit area of the storage area may be one, two or more orders of magnitude greater than the capacitance per-unit area of the photodiode. In addition, a ratio between photodiode capacitance and storage area capacitance is maintained larger than 0.7.

  16. Probing the smearing effect by a pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Shin, Hyeonjoon

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the interaction between a flat membrane and pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model. The one-loop effective potential in the large-distance limit is computed and is shown to be of r{sup -3} type where r is the distance between two objects. This type of interaction has been interpreted as the one incorporating the smearing effect due to the configuration of a flat membrane in a plane-wave background. Our results support this interpretation and provide more evidence about it.

  17. A composite smeared finite element for mass transport in capillary systems and biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Kojic, M; Milosevic, M; Simic, V; Koay, E J; Fleming, J B; Nizzero, S; Kojic, N; Ziemys, A; Ferrari, M

    2017-09-01

    One of the key processes in living organisms is mass transport occurring from blood vessels to tissues for supplying tissues with oxygen, nutrients, drugs, immune cells, and - in the reverse direction - transport of waste products of cell metabolism to blood vessels. The mass exchange from blood vessels to tissue and vice versa occurs through blood vessel walls. This vital process has been investigated experimentally over centuries, and also in the last decades by the use of computational methods. Due to geometrical and functional complexity and heterogeneity of capillary systems, it is however not feasible to model in silico individual capillaries (including transport through the walls and coupling to tissue) within whole organ models. Hence, there is a need for simplified and robust computational models that address mass transport in capillary-tissue systems. We here introduce a smeared modeling concept for gradient-driven mass transport and formulate a new composite smeared finite element (CSFE). The transport from capillary system is first