Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal pap smears

  1. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  2. Pap smear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

  3. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  4. Pap Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Formal name: Papanicolaou Test Related tests: HPV Test ; Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... to detect vaginal or uterine infections, such as trichomonas infections . Abnormal cells and infections can be present ...

  5. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  6. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  7. Telomerase Activity as a Potential Diagnostic Marker for Triage of Abnormal Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Kevin A.; Allen, Heather K.; Phillips, Stacia L.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is an association between high levels of telomerase and premalignant cervical disease and to provide a preliminary analysis of telomerase activity as a potential triage strategy. Materials and Methods Premenopausal women were invited to participate in the study during routine gynecologic visits as well as visits where colposcopy was performed. Samples were taken from the cervix using a broom device and placed in cold phosphate-buffered saline. A total of 92 samples were evaluated. Cells were counted and lysed, and a semi-quantitative measure of telomerase activity was determined using a commercially available telomerase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 was assessed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for the association of telomerase activity with cytology, HPV type 16 or 18 status, and colposcopy and/or biopsy findings. Results When telomerase levels were analyzed according to Pap smear results, there were no differences among four groups of cytology findings (normal, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). When colposcopy and/or biopsy results were considered, significantly higher levels of telomerase were detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2,3 samples than in normal Pap smear samples and CIN 1 samples (p = .035). There was no significant difference in telomerase levels between samples that tested positive for HPV type 16 or 18 and those that did not (p = .111). Conclusions Telomerase levels were significantly higher in cytologic samples from women with biopsy-proven CIN 2,3 than in samples from women with normal cytology results or CIN 1. These results warrant larger studies to determine whether telomerase activity may be a useful triage tool for abnormal cytologic findings. PMID:15870530

  8. Factors predicting the persistence of genital human papillomavirus infections and PAP smear abnormality in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women during prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Branca, M; Garbuglia, A R; Benedetto, A; Cappiello, T; Leoncini, L; Migliore, G; Agarossi, A; Syrjänen, K

    2003-06-01

    As part of an extensive multi-institutional DIANAIDS study focused on assessing the risk factors, natural history, diagnosis and follow-up of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in HIV-infected women, the present communication reports a sub-cohort of 142 women (89 HIV+ and 48 HIV-), followed-up for a mean of 14.07 (+/-10.84) months to analyse the factors predicting the persistence and clearance of HPV infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and sequencing) and cervical Papanicolaou (PAP) smear abnormalities, using both univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox) survival analysis. The appearance of new HPV infections during the follow-up was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, odds ratio (OR) 8.800 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.199-64.611), and also the clearance rate was significantly less frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, 69.2% vs 22.8%, respectively (OR 0.330; 95% CI: 0.163-0.670). These two groups were also markedly different with respect to the clinical course of the cervical lesions, in the frequency of progressive disease (determined by PAP smear) was higher in HIV-positive group (12/89) than in HIV-negative women (2/52) (OR 3.506; 95% CI 0.816-15.055) (P = 0.055), in whom the disease regressed more frequently than in HIV-positive women (13.5% vs 7.9%) (OR 0.584; 95% CI 0.217-1.573). Using (1) HPV-positivity, (2) oncogenic HPV-type and (3) significant PAP smear abnormality at the end of follow-up as outcome measures, (1) was significantly (P < 0.001) predicted by the following variables in univariate analysis: age, mode of contraception, CD4 count, and HIV-positivity. The significant predictors of (2) were age and mode of contraception. The outcome measure (3) was significantly predicted by CD4 count, PAP smear abnormality and PCR status at entry. In the multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictive factors for HPV-positivity proved to be only the HIV status (P < 0

  9. Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

    2012-04-01

    Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

  10. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Hukić, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (32·6%, 48/147), HPV-31 (14·3%, 21/147), HPV-51 (9·5%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (7·5%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil® (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix®; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (40·1%, 59/174, P = 0·017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (68·0%, 100/147, P < 0·001). Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (χ 2 = 0·598, P = 0·741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0·008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0·008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155

  11. Recency of Pap smear screening: a multivariate model.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, H L; Bzduch, H

    1987-01-01

    Most descriptive reports of women who have not received recent Pap smear screening have been limited to bivariate descriptions. The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate model to predict the recency of Pap smear screening. A systematic sample of women residents, aged 25 to 74 years, in upstate New York was selected. The women were asked to report use of Pap smear screening during several time periods, their congruence with recommended medical practice, general use of medical services, and a variety of sociodemographic indicators. A log linear weighted least squares regression model was developed, and it explained 30 percent of the variance in recency of Pap smear screening behavior. While the sociodemographic variables were important predictors in the model, the medical care variables were the strongest predictors of recent Pap smear use. A significant relationship between race and recency of Pap smear testing was not supported by these data. PMID:3108946

  12. Socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage.

    PubMed

    Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Anschau, Fernando; Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To identify socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods An ecological study based on data of the 2011-2012 national health information system to estimate the annual coverage of pap smears for the overall female population of the state and for women without private health insurance. We estimated annual pap smear coverage according to the Municipal Social Vulnerability Index and health macro-regions and regions of the state. Results The percentage of women without private health insurance ranged from 38.1% to 94.2% in the health regions. Pap smear coverage was 17.3% for the overall female population and 23.8% for women without private health insurance. Pap smear coverage was higher in more socially vulnerable municipalities and regions with a higher percentage of women with private health insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of private health insurance should be considered in studies that address the coverage of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). PMID:26982680

  13. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    PubMed

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized. PMID:26995946

  14. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  15. Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: what dermatologists should know.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

    2014-11-01

    Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

  16. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  17. Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and Roche AMPLICOR and LINEAR ARRAY Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Tests in Detecting High-Risk HPV Genotypes in Specimens from Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smear Results▿

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Rudland, Elice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Michael A.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is strongly associated with the presence of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, the commercially manufactured PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and LINEAR ARRAY (LA) HPV tests have become available for HPV detection. However, knowledge of their clinical performance compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay is limited. This study evaluated the concordance between the HC2, AMP, and LA tests in detecting HR-HPV among a cohort of 1,679 women with previous abnormal Pap smear results. Overall, 1,393 specimens (81.3%) generated concordant results for HR-HPV presence or absence by the three assays. The concordance levels were substantial between the HC2 and AMP tests (84.4%, κ = 0.6419) and between the HC2 and LA tests (84.0%, κ = 0.6341) and nearly perfect between the AMP and LA tests (97.8%, κ = 0.9441). HR-HPV prevalence, as detected by the AMP or LA tests, was significantly higher among women with cytological or histological high-grade disease (CIN2 or greater) than that detected by HC2 (P < 0.0001). The AMP and LA tests exhibited greater sensitivity, but lower specificity, than HC2 for detecting HR-HPV among this cohort of women with underlying cervical abnormalities, particularly among subjects with histologically proven high-grade disease. Both PCR-based HPV tests may be valuable in the management of care for women with underlying cervical abnormalities, in predicting treatment success, and in studying the clearance or acquisition of new infections. PMID:17494721

  18. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  19. Cytological features of choricarcinoma in a Pap smear: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wright, Jason D; Abellar, Rosanna G; Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne; Collins, Nikosa; Wright, Thomas C; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant trophoblastic tumor that mostly occurs during reproductive years. Cytological features of choriocarcinoma in gynecologic Pap smears have not been described. Herein, we report a case of choriocarcinoma in a Pap smear of a patient who had a history of choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease. PMID:26712464

  20. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age <35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age ≥45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count <200 cells/μl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by

  1. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  2. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (P<0.01). There was also a positive correlation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (P<0.01). In univariate analysis, there was a significant association between Pap smear uptake and level of self-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:27165236

  3. Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) parameters in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. PMID:25584229

  4. Comparison of Pap Smear and Colposcopy in Screening for Cervical Cancer in Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-zarchi, Mojgan; Zanbagh, Leila; Shafii, Alireza; Taghipour-Zahir, Shokouh; Teimoori, Soraya; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The sensitivity of conventional Pap smear in detecting cervical lesions before cervical cancer is 51%, which means the false negative value is 49%. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for screening for cervical cancer in patients with secondary immunodeficiency, i.e., the conventional Pap smear and colposcopy. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 immunodeficient patients who were referred to the Gynecologic Clinic at Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd from March 2011 to August 2012. All patients underwent the Pap test, a colposcopy, and a cervical biopsy, with the latter being considered as the gold-standard test. Results The most frequency of immunodeficiency was noted among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (53.3%), and this was followed by patients who were undergoing chemotherapy (30.7%), patients with lupus erythematosus (12.9%), and patients with AIDS (3%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Pap smear were 18.2, 98.5, 85.5, 71.3, and 72.2%, respectively. The respective values for colposcopy were 66.7, 98.94, 80, 97.9, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion In this study the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of colposcopy were higher than those for the Pap smear in detecting high-grade, cervical, pre-malignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN ≥ 2). Therefore, an annual colposcopy is advised for secondary immunodeficient patients instead of a Pap smear. PMID:26767111

  5. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. Results The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. Conclusions The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above. PMID:24890828

  6. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, p<.01) as likely to self-report Pap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  7. LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED

    PubMed Central

    PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

  8. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    PubMed

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. PMID:24692314

  9. The Pap smear, automated rescreening, and negligent nondisclosure.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S E

    1999-01-01

    A new element in the Papanicolaou smear liability crisis is the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of 2 automated rescreening devices. Their manufacturers have undertaken aggressive advertising in medical journals and in women's magazines, generating controversy about whether this positions such devices as the new standard of care and whether failure to offer such rescreening might lead to liability alleging to tort of negligent nondisclosure, with contributing opinions from pathologists' and manufacturers' counsels. Cases are cited in prenatal diagnostics and blood banking that established liability for failing to disclose diagnostic modalities used by at most only a minority of practitioners and, therefore, have not yet achieved standard-of-care status. It is concluded that informed consent for cervicovaginal smears should include disclosure of the availability of automated rescreening to reduce negligence liability. PMID:9894449

  10. Process improvement of pap smear tracking in a women's medicine center clinic in residency training.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Byron C; Goode, Jeff; Simmons, Kathy

    2011-11-01

    Application of Six-Sigma methodology and Change Acceleration Process (CAP)/Work Out (WO) tools to track pap smear results in an outpatient clinic in a hospital-based residency-training program. Observational study of impact of changes obtained through application of Six-Sigma principles in clinic process with particular attention to prevention of sentinel events. Using cohort analysis and applying Six-Sigma principles to an interactive electronic medical record Soarian workflow engine, we designed a system of timely accession and reporting of pap smear and pathology results. We compared manual processes from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 to automated processes from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Using the Six-Sigma principles, CAP/WO tools, including "voice of the customer" and team focused approach, no outlier events went untracked. Applying the Soarian workflow engine to track prescribed 7 day turnaround time for completion, we identified 148 pap results in 3,936, 3 non-gynecological results in 15, and 41 surgical results in 246. We applied Six-Sigma principles to an outpatient clinic facilitating an interdisciplinary team approach to improve the clinic's reporting system. Through focused problem assessment, verification of process, and validation of outcomes, we improved patient care for pap smears and critical pathology. PMID:22103702

  11. Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

  12. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  13. Shape features for recognition of Pap smear cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggin, Shelly D. D.; Janson, Scott D.

    1996-10-01

    Automated cytology relies on the use of features extracted form cell images to classify cells. This paper examines the classification capability of a number of shape features on a database of normal, abnormal and endocervical cell nuclei images. The features include the chain code, the directed Hausdorff distance, measured of the length of the radii of the cell and measures of ellipticity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is used as a figure of merit. For the calculation of the directed Hausdorff distance, the images are filtered using the Sorbel gradient and erosion. The feature in the image with the largest chain code is considered to be the nucleus. The other features use images threshold at a percentage of the maximum intensity in the image. The best feature for the discrimination between normal cells and either abnormal or endocervical cells was the directed Hausdorff distance, but this feature is computationally expensive. The minimum diameter as determined by the chain code was the second best feature for recognizing abnormal cells and is less computationally expensive. Ellipticity was the second best feature for recognizing endocervical cells, which is also less computationally expensive than the directed Hausdorff distance. An optical design for the calculation of directed Hausdorff distance feature is included, which could reduce the computational expense.

  14. Computerized Delineation of Nuclei in Liquid-Based Pap Smears stained with immunohistochemical biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Walts, Ann E.; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Gertych, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) is a frequent cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas. The recently developed p16/Ki67 dual-stain of cytologic preparations possesses superior specificity over current HPV testing for detecting moderate and high-grade dysplasias and can potentially be applied in routine cytology screening. Image analysis can possibly improve the efficiency of evaluating Pap smears, if dual stained nuclei are accurately localized and reliably distinguished from the background of other cells. Methods Here we describe a technique comprising color deconvolution, radial symmetry detector and a superpixel-based segmentation for computerized delineation of nuclei in Pap smears stained with p16/Ki67. Results The performance of the method was determined by the precision and recall in 99 images (n=19323 cells) and reached 0.952 and 0.958, respectively. The accuracy of delineation, assessed by the Jaccard index (n=1080 cells), was 0.794. In single cells the precision and recall was higher than in clumps (p = 0.005). Conclusions In summary, the new technique delineates large and small nuclei irrespectively of coloration with a significantly better performance than a method solely involving the radial symmetry detector. Therefore, it is suited to automatically define nuclear areas for quantification of nuclear biomarkers in smears. PMID:25280117

  15. Pap Smears

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch ...

  16. Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

  17. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-01-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC PMID:25573002

  18. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear.

    PubMed

    Daner, William E; Meeks, Brett D; Foster, William C; Boardman, Norman D

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  19. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    PubMed Central

    Daner, William E.; Meeks, Brett D.; Foster, William C.; Boardman, Norman D.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  20. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  1. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  2. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  3. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  4. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  5. Screening for Cervical Cancer Using Automated Analysis of PAP-Smears

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  6. Screening for cervical cancer using automated analysis of PAP-smears.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Ewert; Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  7. A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

  8. [Opportunistic screening versus missed opportunities: non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciane; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

    2016-06-20

    The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care and to identify associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in 308 women from a rural municipality (county) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Complex stratified cluster sampling was used. Statistical analysis used the chi-square test and logistic regression model with the variables that presented p-value ≤ 0.05 in the bivariate model. Prevalence of lack of Pap smear test was 21.3%. Among women 25 years or older, prevalence was 15.1%. Non-adherence was more common in young, single women and those with low schooling. Low schooling remained associated with non-performance of Pap smear (OR = 0.41), indicating that women with more schooling enjoyed higher odds of testing. Contact with the prenatal clinic did not determine guaranteed access to the test, thus indicating missed opportunities when opportunistic screening is employed. PMID:27333137

  9. Predictors of Cervical Pap Smear Screening Awareness, Intention, and Receipt Among Vietnamese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung T.; McPhee, Stephen J.; Nguyen, Thoa; Lam, Tram; Mock, Jeremiah

    2006-01-01

    Background Compared with white women, Vietnamese women in the United States have a higher rate of cervical cancer and lower Papanicolau (Pap) test utilization. We evaluated factors associated with awareness of the Pap test, intention to obtain it, and its receipt in Vietnamese-American women. Methods In 2000, we conducted a telephone survey of Vietnamese-American women aged ≥18 years living in Santa Clara County, California, and Harris County, Texas. We collected data on sociodemographics, healthcare system access and attitudes, as well as Pap test awareness, attitudes, intentions, and practices. Results Of 1566 subjects, 74% had heard of the Pap test, and 76% had had at least one. Only 42% of those who never had a Pap test had considered obtaining one. There were no significant differences between the two sites. Women aged ≥65 had the lowest rates for all three outcomes. For all women, younger age, being married, having requested a Pap test, physician recommendation, and preferring a female standby if the doctor was male were associated with Pap test intention. Being married, higher level of education, having a female doctor, having a respectful doctor, having requested the test, and physician recommendation were associated with Pap test receipt. Conclusion Vietnamese-American women have low rates of Pap test awareness, intention, and receipt. The patient–doctor interaction is an important determinant. Efforts to increase Pap test utilization in this population need to be directed at encouraging physicians to offer the Pap test and empowering women to ask for the test. PMID:12350454

  10. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S; Affandi, Zubair M; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesion (LSIL) in their Pap smears. In this communication we report their post-therapy follow up for 36 months (N = 18) with Pap smears. We were also able to follow up for 36 months control cases (N = 10) who had only standard therapy with antimicrobials. During 36 months of follow up none of the cases with integrated treatment, progressed to HSIL or cancer. Out of 15/18 cases which had a regression of Pap smear, all 15 remained free of LSIL from 6 to 36 months post-therapy showing persistent therapeutic effect of integrated therapy. In one case there was recurrence of LSIL in Pap smear, ten months post-therapy, which regressed to mild atypia after a second course of oral TO for 8 weeks. In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted. PMID:27475746

  11. Protein profile study of Pap smear and tissue of cervix by high performance liquid chromatography: laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, N.; Rai, Lavanya; Kumar, Pratap; Krishnanand, B. R.; Mahato, K. K.; George, Sajan D.; Kartha, V. B.; C, Santhosh

    2007-02-01

    HPLC combined with laser induced fluorescence provides a very sensitive method for the separation and identification of the many proteins present in clinical samples. Protein profiles of clinical samples like Pap smear and tissue samples, from subjects with cervical cancer and normal volunteers, were recorded using HPLC-LIF. The protein profiles were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The profiles were characterized by parameters like scores of the factors, sum of squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance, derived from PCA. Parameters of each sample were compared with those of a standard set and Match/ No Match results were generated. Good discrimination between normal and malignant samples was achieved with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  13. Color canals modification with canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction for cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement in normal Pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riana, Dwiza; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Widyantoro, Dwi H.; Mengko, Tati Latifah R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement of Pap smear images by means of modification of color canals with Canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction methods. Cell nucleus characterization plays an important role for classifying the degree of abnormality in cervical cancer. The aim of this work is to find the matched measurement method with the manual nucleus area measurement. In this work, we utilized pap smear single cell images from Herlev data bank in RGB mode. The cell images were selected from 90 normal class subjects that include: Normal Superficial, Normal Intermediate, and Normal Columnar classes. The nucleus of each cell image was cropped manually to localize from the cytoplasm. The color canals modification was performed on each cropped nucleus image by, first, separating each R, G, B, and grayscale canals, then implementing addition operation based on color canals (R+G+B, R+G, R+B, G+B, and grayscale). The Canny edge detection was applied on those modifications resulting in binary edge images. The nucleus segmentation was implemented on the edge images by performing region filling based on morphological reconstruction. The area property was calculated based on the segmented nucleus area. The nucleus area from the proposed method was verified to the existing manual measurement (ground truth) of the Herlev data bank. Based on thorough observation upon the selected color canals and Canny edge detection. It can be concluded that Canny edge detection with R+G+B canal is the most significant for all Normal classes (r 0,305, p-value 0.05). While for Normal Superficial and Normal Intermediate, Canny edge detection is significant for all RGB modifications with (r 0.414 - 0.817 range, , p-value 0.05), and for Normal Columnar, Canny edge detection is significant for R+B canal (r 0.505, p-value 0.05).

  14. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n = 3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n = 14) and observations with missing data (n = 22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3 ± 10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test <1 year ago, and 84 % knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly, more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p = 0.001). For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  15. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  16. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories.

    PubMed

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-05-28

    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  17. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    PubMed Central

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-01-01

    Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  18. Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran)2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5%) samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5%) samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2%) samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53. Conclusion Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended. PMID:20302680

  19. Pap Smear Screening Rates

    PubMed Central

    Calam, Betty; Bass, Martin; Deagle, George

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 196 women on the Queen Charlotte Islands showed that significantly fewer Haida women than non-Native women had adequate cervical screening. Differences were most marked in the 60 and older age group. Qualitative research to elucidate cultural factors could aid in planning screening programs that would be accepted by all women at risk in the community. PMID:21221327

  20. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    samples were positive by HC2 test, 40 (26.3%) were positive by Pap smear, and 53 (34.9%) were positive by consensus RT-PCR. All of the 32 samples that were positive by HC2 were also positive by RT-PCR, however 21 samples that were positive by RT-PCR were negative by HC2 test. Among 40 samples that were positive (abnormal) by Pap smear, HPV-DNA was positive in nine (22.5%) by RT-PCR and in five (12.5%) by HC2 test, but HPV-DNA was not detected in 31 (77.5%) samples by both of the tests. Genotyping of the strains could be performed in 44 samples, and the most common type detected was HPV type 16 (n=15, 34.1%), followed by type 90 (n=11, 25%) and type 18 (n= 4, 9.1%). In our study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Pap smear method were estimated as 16.1%, 96%, 10.6% and 97.5%, respectively, based on the HC2 results which was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, a significant degree of concordance was detected between HC2 and concensus RT-PCR methods (Cohen's kappa: 0.665). In conclusion, regarding the insufficient number of cytopathologists in our country and according to the recommendations of American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and FDA, it was once again demonstrated that, the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear for effective screening of CC are needed. PMID:27058331

  1. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  2. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals’ opinions and the decision-making process. Objective We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. Methods We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms “cervical cancer,” “Pap smear,” and “Pap test” were analyzed during: (1) January 1–March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14–June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . Results This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, “New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer”), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, “It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low

  3. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  4. Effects of Group Training Based on the Health Belief Model on Knowledge and Behavior Regarding the Pap Smear Test in Iranian Women: a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Javad, Masoumeh Taravati; Parsa, Parisa; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    The Pap smear test is recommended for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and behavior regarding the Pap smear test based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in women referred to premarital counseling classes, Hamadan, Iran. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 330 women, who were allocated randomly to two case and control groups (n=165). Two educational session classes were performed in the case group. Two stages in before and after intervention groups were evaluated. Analysis of data was performed by SPSS/16.0, using t-test, x2, and McNemar's test. P-values <0.05 were regarded as significant. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the various structures of this model in two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention there were significant increase in mean score of knowledge and all variables of HBM in the intervention group(<0.001). The findings of this study highlight the important role of education about cervical cancer on changing women's beliefs about cervical screening. PMID:27356705

  5. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Pap Smear Cells by PC-Based Cytopathologic Image Analysis System and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Chi; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Chan, Po-Chou; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Rung-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ruei

    Cytologic screening has been widely used for controlling the prevalence of cervical cancer. Errors from sampling, screening and interpretation, still concealed some unpleasant results. This study aims at designing a cellular image analysis system based on feasible and available software and hardware for a routine cytologic laboratory. Totally 1814 cellular images from the liquid-based cervical smears with Papanicolaou stain in 100x, 200x, and 400x magnification were captured by a digital camera. Cell images were reviewed by pathologic experts with peer agreement and only 503 images were selected for further study. The images were divided into 4 diagnostic categories. A PC-based cellular image analysis system (PCCIA) was developed for computing morphometric parameters. Then support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify signature patterns. The results show that the selected 13 morphometric parameters can be used to correctly differentiate the dysplastic cells from the normal cells (p<0.001). Additionally, SVM classifier has been demonstrated to be able to achieve a high accuracy for cellular classification. In conclusion, the proposed system provides a feasible and effective tool for the evaluation of gynecologic cytologic specimens.

  7. The Most Common Type of HPV in Women with Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) in Pap Smear in Iran-Yazd

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Tabatabaie, Afsarosadat; Dehghani-Firoozabadi, Alie; Shamsi, Farima; Baghianimoghaddam, Maleknaz; Dargahi, Mandana; Yazian, Pouria; Mojahed, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the third most gynecological cancer and one of the common causes of cancer death in women in Iran and the other developing countries. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a known Risk factor in cervical cancer, but according to HPV deference types, the high risk and low risks differ. Material and method: We evaluate the most common high risk and low risk HPV type in 180 females with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) results in pap smear in Gynecological Oncology Clinic in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran within 2012 to 2014.HPV typing was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The data obtained were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Result: More common low risk HPV type in ASCUS patients was type 6 (63.6%) and then type 11 (36.4%). Type 16 was the most common high risk HPV type. Discussion: HPV DNA typing for better management of women With ASCUS is important and this study showed HPV type 16 is the most prevalent type in ASCUS patients. It seems the living region is important in HPV type distribution and Quadri-valant Vaccine can prevent cervical cancer in Iran because the most common low risk HPV is type6 and 11, and HPV 16 is the most common high risk HPV. PMID:26759533

  8. Psychosocial outcomes of three triage methods for the management of borderline abnormal cervical smears: an open randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwig, Les; Turner, Robin; Chan, Siew Foong; Macaskill, Petra; Lewicka, Mary; Clarke, Judith; Weisberg, Edith; Barratt, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess which of three triage strategies for women with borderline abnormal cervical smear results in the best psychosocial outcomes. Design Pragmatic, non-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 18 family planning clinics across Australia, covering both urban and rural areas, between January 2004 and October 2006. Participants Women aged 16-70 years (n=314) who attended routine cervical screening and received a borderline cervical smear. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (n=104), a repeat smear test at six months (n=106), or the patient’s informed choice of either test supported by a decision aid (n=104). Psychosocial outcomes were assessed at multiple time points over 12 months by postal questionnaire. Main outcome measures We assessed health related quality of life (SF36 mental health subscale), cognitive effects (such as perceived risk of cervical cancer, intrusive thoughts), affective outcomes (general anxiety [state-trait anxiety inventory]), specific anxiety about an abnormal smear (cervical screening questionnaire), and behavioural outcomes (sexual health behaviour and visits to the doctor) over 12 months of follow-up. Results At two weeks, some psychosocial outcomes were worse for women allocated to HPV testing compared with those in the smear testing group (SF36 vitality subscale: t=−1.63, df=131, P=0.10; intrusive thoughts χ2=8.14, df=1, P<0.01). Over 12 months, distress about the abnormal smear was lowest in women allocated to HPV testing and highest in the repeat smear testing group (t=−2.89, df=135, P<0.01). Intrusive thoughts were highest in patients allocated to HPV testing (25%, compared with 13% in the informed choice group; difference=12%, 95% CI −1.1% to 25.1%). Women in the HPV DNA group and the informed choice group were more satisfied with their care than women allocated to repeat smear testing. Conclusions Although the psychosocial effect was

  9. Analysis of cervico-vaginal (Papanicolaou) smears, in girls 18 years and under.

    PubMed

    Prussia, P R; Gay, G H E; Bruce, A

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted retrospectively at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and a private laboratory in Barbados to determine the types of epithelial abnormalities in cervico-vaginal Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained smears, and their clinical implications in Barbadian girls, 18 years and under, during the five-year period January 1995 to December 1999. Two hundred and sixty-five Pap smears from 236 patients were examined and the gynaecological history, initial and repeat Pap smear diagnoses, and histology reports of these patients were analyzed. Of the 236 first-visit smears, 94 (39.8%) were abnormal with 36 (15.3%) displaying cytologic features of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL), (33 low grade and 3 high grade). A diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) was reported in the remaining 58 (24.5%) abnormal smears, of which 35 (60.3%) were suspected to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Twenty-two (23.4%) of these 94 patients, who had abnormal smears of either ASCUS or low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL) were re-evaluated within six to twelve months of the initial abnormal Pap smear diagnosis. Eight of these 22 patients (36.4%) had histological diagnosis of LSIL inclusive of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and condylomata. High-risk HPV DNA types were detected in two of these eight patients (25%). The study confirms that sexually active teenage girls are at risk of developing SIL and high-risk HPV infection. Screening of sexually active teenaged girls by Pap smears followed by other appropriate investigative procedures is recommended. PMID:12089874

  10. Pap Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pap Test Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1454x1326 View Download Large: 2908x2652 View Download Title: Pap Test Description: Pap test; drawing shows a side ...

  11. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  12. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, A. M.; Broom, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved. DESIGN: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews. SETTING: Australian gynaecology clinics. SUBJECTS: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs. RESULTS: Most women wanted to participate in decisions about their care but found it difficult to get the information they required from doctors because they were confused by what their doctors told them and felt unable to ask questions in the consultation. Medical terms such as wart virus and precancer were difficult to understand. Not being able to see their cervix also made it hard for women to understand what their abnormality meant and what treatment entailed. Most women tried to make sense of their abnormality in the context of their everyday lives. For some women their gynaecological care was not consistent with the way they understood their abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: The inherent power structure of medical practice combined with time pressures often make it difficult for doctors to give the detailed information and reassurance patients need when a diagnosis is distressing or when investigation and treatment are strange and upsetting. PMID:9161314

  13. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua), participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers) were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups). The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p < 0.001), smoked more cigarettes per day (12 vs.9, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have already done 1 or more quit attempts (64% vs.50%, p < 0.001). The approach of SPRINT study appeared suitable to enrol less educated women who usually smoke more and have more difficulties to quit. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565 PMID:22151834

  14. Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula-Cytobrush): A Single Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, M; Abdali, Kh; Khajehei, M; Tabatabaee, HR; Komar, PV; Riaz Montazer, N

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in the world. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negative results. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by anatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in false negative result is inappropriate tool of sampling. Methods One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from every participant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula. All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data were analyzed by means of kappa coefficient. Results Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016). The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5% respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in the spatula-cytobrush method (p <0.001). No one reported any pain and the amount of bleeding was 38.2% in both methods (P>0.05). Regarding infection and inflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between two methods (p>0.05). Conclusion Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomical spatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatula-cytobrush sampling. PMID:25780537

  15. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  16. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with abnormal cervical smears: effect of tetracycline treatment on cell changes.

    PubMed

    Mecsei, R; Haugen, O A; Halvorsen, L E; Dalen, A

    1989-03-01

    A group of 1760 women aged 14-35 years were examined for the concurrent presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and cellular atypia of cervical smears. Positive tests for C trachomatis were found in 126 women (7.2%). Cell changes were found in 85 women (4.8%), and 25 of these were C trachomatis-positive. Slight cellular atypia was the major finding in the smears from 22 of the C trachomatis-positive women, whereas three patients had more pronounced cell changes. Smears reverted to normal in 18 of the 23 patients who returned for tetracycline treatment and follow-up cytology. All 18 patients had smears showing slight cellular atypia prior to therapy. In five patients who also had cellular changes suggesting a human papillomavirus infection, the smears did not revert to normal after antibiotic therapy during the observation period. These findings suggest that patients with C trachomatis and mild cellular atypia should have antibiotic therapy and repeat smears taken before further treatment is considered. More advanced cellular atypia is unlikely to be caused by C trachomatis. PMID:2915857

  18. Pap test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have for cervical cancer. For minor cell changes, doctors will recommend another Pap test in 6 to 12 months. Follow-up testing may include: Colposcopy-directed biopsy An HPV test to check for the presence of the HPV virus types most likely to cause cancer

  19. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  20. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status. PMID:24790420

  1. Predictive Capability of HPV and Pap Tests in Screening for Cervical Cancer over a Three-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare the predictive capability of HPV and Pap smear tests for screening pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix over a three-year follow-up, in a population of users of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 2,032 women with satisfactory results for Pap smear and HPV tests using second-generation hybrid capture, made in a previous study. We followed them for 36 months with data obtained from medical records, the Cervix Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), and the Mortality Information System (SIM). The outcome was a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more advanced lesions (CIN2+). We constructed progression curves of the baseline test results for the period, using the Kaplan-Meier method, and estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for each test. Results A total of 1,440 women had at least one test during follow-up. Progression curves of the baseline test results indicated differences in capability to detect CIN2+ (p < 0.001) with significantly greater capability when both tests were abnormal, followed by only a positive HPV test. The HPV test was more sensitive than the Pap smear (88.7% and 73.6%, respectively; p < 0.05) and had a better negative likelihood ratio (0.13 and 0.30, respectively). Specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the tests were similar. Conclusions These findings corroborate the importance of HPV test as a primary cervical cancer screening. PMID:27022786

  2. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  3. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surabhi; Hussain, Abid; Klassert, Tilman E.; Driesch, Dominik; Tokaryeva, Viktoriya; Löschmann, Yvonne Yi-Na; Sumanlatha, Gadamm; Ahmed, Niyaz; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Schumann, Ralf R.; Lala, Birgit; Slevogt, Hortense

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR) used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Objective We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity. Methods 141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment. Results At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019). No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in

  4. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  5. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Whop, Lisa J.; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C.; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M.; Moore, Suzanne P.; Condon, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20–69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000–2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010–2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6–18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3–7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3–1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1–2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9–2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  6. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions. PMID:26655816

  7. Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.

    PubMed

    Dounias, G; Bjerregaard, B; Jantzen, J; Tsakonas, A; Ampazis, N; Panagi, G; Panourgias, E

    2006-01-01

    In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device. PMID:16525690

  8. Accuracy of patients' recall of Pap and cholesterol screening.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, S; Girgis, A; Sanson-Fisher, R; Ireland, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken in mid-1994 and assessed how accurately patients recall the recency and result of their most recent cholesterol and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional, door-to-door community survey was used to gather self-report and, subsequently, pathology laboratory data for 195 individuals. RESULTS: In regard to cholesterol screening, 30% of individuals who reported being adequately screened were actually inadequately screened, 45% who reported normal cholesterol levels actually had elevated levels, and 21% of inadequately screened individuals and 56% of individuals with elevated levels were not identified by self-report. In terms of Pap screening, 28% of women who reported being adequately screened were actually inadequately screened, 11% of patients who reported a normal Pap test actually had abnormal or inadequate results, and 55% of inadequately screened individuals and 53% of individuals with abnormal or inadequate results were not identified by self-report. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed self-report to be a less-than-adequate measure of individuals' recall of cholesterol and Pap screening. Relying exclusively on self-report surveys as indicators of screening coverage is likely to result in significant underestimations of the proportion of people who are inadequately screened or whose results indicate a need for intervention. PMID:10983202

  9. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  10. Women's interpretation of cervical smear test results.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2004-06-01

    Screening for cervical cancer using the Papanicolaou smear test has been available in England since the 1960s, yet very little is known about how women interpret their test results. This questionnaire study required women to explain, in their own words, the meaning of normal and abnormal test results. It was discovered that the use of the word cell as a description of findings was extremely common, and that a proportion of subjects equated abnormal results with technical inadequacy. The frequency of circularity in the interpretations, i.e. interpreting 'normal' as 'not abnormal' and vice versa, was striking. Contrary to previous research, we find that, whilst many women interpret normal results as indicating the current absence of cancer, few appear to believe that future cancer is thereby definitively ruled out. By the same token, only a very small minority interpret abnormal results as definitive of cancer. PMID:15165270

  11. Utilization of Human Papillomavirus DNA Detection for Cervical Cancer Screening in Women Presenting With Abnormal Cytology in Lokoja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olatunji; Ogah, Jeremiah; Alabi, Olatunde; Suleiman, Mustapha; Amuda, Oluwatomi; Kolawole, Folashade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths in Nigeria, with an overall prevalence similar to most developing countries. Screening for cervical cancer is primarily performed using papanicolaou (PAP) staining procedure, in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to use human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA typing, as a means of ascertaining the presence of high risk HPV in cytology samples, which are positive for the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), using the PAP screening procedure. Patients and Methods: Amplification of DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction. Gene sequencing was carried out to determine the presence of high risk HPV from cervical smears that were positive for abnormal cytology, from a cross-sectional study involving women between the ages of 16 - 65 years, screened for CIN and cervical cancer, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Results: Result showed a 100% presence of high risk HPV in all the samples with abnormal cytology. The HPV genotype 35 accounted for the highest percentage of the HPVs cases, with a 40% incidence. The HPV genotype 31 accounted for 30% of samples, while HPV genotype 16 and 18 accounted for 20% and 10% of samples, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HPV in abnormal cytology underlines to the fact that the presence of HPV is a critical factor in the development of cervical cancer. The use of HPV DNA techniques could actually become an effective and fast means of ascertaining the presence of HPV in abnormal cytology. PMID:26568803

  12. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, AD; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54), and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12) were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P < 0.001), originate outside Canada (P = 0.006), have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006), and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001). Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001). Conclusion This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. PMID:23596357

  13. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age < or = 70 years was undertaken at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation. PMID

  14. Relevance of HPV Screening for Triaging Equivocal Cytology Findings in the Pap II-p, Pap III and Pap IIID Groups – Results of Two Long-Term Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luyten, A.; Petry, K. U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of HPV screening for the triage of ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology results has been established as a sound standard by international trials whereas the data for other cytology findings are in part contradictory. There is a lack of long-term studies on the use of HPV triage in Germany. Materials and Methods: For the present study data from a primary HPV screening project involving women aged over 30 years, ongoing since 2006, and an epidemiological study on women aged between 20 and 27 years, ongoing since 2009, were used. Upon recruitment, all women underwent a smear test for cytology and screening for “high-risk” HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). If both tests were positive or if there were persisting remarkable cytology findings or a positive HPV test, then clarification by colposcopy was performed. Results: Altogether, among 282 women with Pap II-p (ASC-US), Pap III (ASC-H) or Pap IIID (LSIL + CIN2) and negative HPV test there was no case of CIN3+. Among the women under 30 years of age, however, 69 % (ASC-US) to 85 % (LSIL + CIN2) of the remarkable findings were HPV positive, also among the older women with Pap IIID, the 71 % prevalence of HPV was too high for a triage and even without triage there was a 23 % risk for CIN3+. On the other hand, of the women over 30 years old with ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings, only 21 % were positive for HPV and the risk for CIN3+ in this group was high at 29 %. Also for ASC-H (Pap III) findings in the age group of over 30 years with an HPV prevalence of 56 % there was an efficient triage for CIN3+. Discussion: In summary, the HPV triage of ASC-US (Pap II-p) findings in women aged over 30 years was found to be efficient; in contrast, LSIL + CIN2 (Pap IIID) findings in this age group justified an immediate referral to colposcopy whereas cytology control appeared to be sufficient for younger women. PMID:26556908

  15. Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematology results and (b) determine if a manual differential leukocyte count needs to be performed. Blood smear examination/manual differential leukocyte count with complete blood count (CBC) provides the complete hematologic picture of the case, at least from the morphologic standpoint. Blood smear review with or without interpretation serves to ensure that no clinically significant finding is missed, besides providing diagnosis or diagnostic clue(s), particularly if and when interpreted by a physician. PMID:23301216

  16. Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.D.; White, D.A.; Stover-Pepe, D.E.; Caravelli, J.F.; Van Uitert, C.; Benua, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    A patient with medulloblastoma of the cerebellum developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volume and diffusing capacity, while the chest radiographs initially showed only mild interstitial infiltrates. Repeated gallium scans showed diffuse lung uptake and diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made by open lung biopsy.

  17. Efficacy of rapid, economical, acetic acid, Papanicolaou stain in cervical smears as an alternative to conventional Papanicolaou stain

    PubMed Central

    Izhar, Shabnam; Kaur, Rupinder; Masih, Kanwal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Papanicolaou (Pap) stain has been used over the years for cervical cytology screening. However; it utilizes a considerable amount of alcohol which is expensive and difficult to procure. In one of the modifications, ethyl alcohol is replaced by 1% acetic acid and is termed as rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou (REAP) stain. It is cost effective, easily available and provides a suitable and rapid staining alternative. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of REAP stain as an alternative method to conventional Pap stain. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 18 months in a tertiary care hospital. Two sets of cervical smears were prepared of which one was stained with conventional Pap stain, and other was stained with REAP stain. The smears were examined for cytomorphological parameters and were evaluated using a modification of parameters given by Ng et al. Results: A total of 737 smears were examined in duplicate. Most of the conventional Pap smears showed excellent preservation (91.6%) with very few showing optimal (7.6%) and sub-optimal staining (0.8%). In contrast to this excellent preservation was seen in just 33.6% of the REAP stained smears with majority showing optimal and sub-optimal preservation (46.5% and 20% respectively). The P value was statistically significant (<0.0001) depicting inferior staining quality of REAP stain. Conclusion: Rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain undoubtly is a simple, fast and cost effective stain which can be adopted mainly in resource limited settings, but cannot be utilized for research purpose in a tertiary care setup due to poor preservation of the staining quality. PMID:25538385

  18. Beyond the Pap Smear: Gender-responsive HIV Care for Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Womack, Julie A.; Gibson, Britton

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the U.S. and 20 percent of incident annual cases. Though women overall are more likely than men to be diagnosed with HIV and engage in care, they are as unlikely to successfully achieve viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy, suggesting gender-based disparities that should be addressed by gender-responsive policies and programs. Using the socioecological model of health and syndemics theory, we comprehensively reviewed published literature to evaluate reasons for and ways to address gender differences in HIV risk and treatment. We discuss the biologic, sociocultural, interpersonal, and behavioral contexts of HIV risk that affect women, comprehensive healthcare for women with HIV that includes pregnancy planning or prevention, and policy implications. PMID:27354845

  19. The Use of Pap Smear and Its Influencing Factors among Women with Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kuang-Hua; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent cancer among Taiwanese women, and can be effectively cured if diagnosed early. Therefore, cervical cancer is worthy of preventive health screening. Due to physical and psychological barriers, patients with disability may be unable to express their physical complaints accurately, thus reducing their access to health…

  20. Beyond the Pap Smear: Gender-responsive HIV Care for Women.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jaimie P; Womack, Julie A; Gibson, Britton

    2016-06-01

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the U.S. and 20 percent of incident annual cases. Though women overall are more likely than men to be diagnosed with HIV and engage in care, they are as unlikely to successfully achieve viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy, suggesting gender-based disparities that should be addressed by gender-responsive policies and programs. Using the socioecological model of health and syndemics theory, we comprehensively reviewed published literature to evaluate reasons for and ways to address gender differences in HIV risk and treatment. We discuss the biologic, sociocultural, interpersonal, and behavioral contexts of HIV risk that affect women, comprehensive healthcare for women with HIV that includes pregnancy planning or prevention, and policy implications. PMID:27354845

  1. Colposcopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the stirrups as you would for a Pap smear. Your doctor inserts a speculum into your vagina ... your doctor find the reason for an abnormal Pap smear. Why is colposcopy important? A colposcopy is important ...

  2. Errors in cervical smears: minimizing the risk of medicolegal consequences.

    PubMed

    Greening, S E

    1997-01-01

    Cytologists need to critically evaluate their practices and practice settings to ensure that what they do and how they document what they do will withstand both regulatory and legal scrutiny. Any individual involved in cytology as a laboratory owner, operator, director, supervisor, technical or staff employee, independent agent, or customer representative is a potential target of cytology malpractice litigation. All of these individuals must participate in the risk management process. For the laboratory as a corporate entity, business and technical practices, including quality control and quality assurance procedures, must be contemporary, legitimate, and justifiable. Sound scientific evidence and well-subscribed standards of practice supporting an individual's or laboratory's conduct are the best defenses to malpractice claims. For the near future, litigation will continue to focus on false-negative Pap smears on a case-by-case basis. Laboratories and individuals can reduce the risk of malpractice liability by directing their attention to proactive quality control and quality assurance methods. But in the final analysis, consumer education about the benefits and limitations of the Pap test is key to limiting malpractice claims. PMID:9249818

  3. STOUT SMEARING FOR TWISTED FERMIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOLZ,W.; JANSEN, K.; McNEILE, C.; MONTVAY, I.; RICHARDS, C.; URBACH, C.; WENGER, U.

    2007-07-30

    The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12{sup 3} x 24, 16{sup 3} x 32 and 24{sup 3} x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a {approx_equal} 0.1-0.125 fm. The phase structure of Wilson fermions with twisted mass ({mu}) has been investigated in [1,2]. As it is explained there, the observed first order phase transition limits the minimal pion mass which can be reached in simulations at a given lattice spacing: m{sub k}{sup min} {approx_equal} {theta}(a). The phase structure is schematically depicted in the left panel of Fig. I . The phase transition can be observed in simulations with twisted mass fermions, for instance, as a ''jump'' or even metastabilities in the average plaquette value as a function of the hopping parameter ({kappa}). One possibility to weaken the phase transition and therefore allow for lighter pion masses at a given lattice spacing is to use an improved gauge action like the DBW2, Iwasaki, or tree-level Symanzik (tlSym) improved gauge action instead of the simple Wilson gauge action. This has been successfully demonstrated in [3,4,5]. Here we report on our attempts to use a smeared gauge field in the fermion lattice Dirac operator to further reduce the strength of the phase transition. This is relevant in simulations with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 (u,d,s,c) quark flavors [6] where the first order phase transition becomes stronger compared to N{sub f} = 2 simulations. The main impact of the above mentioned improved gauge actions on the gauge fields occurring in simulations is to suppress short range fluctuations (''dislocations'') and the associated ''exceptionally small'' eigenvalues of the fermion matrix. The same effect is expected from smearing the gauge field links in the fermion action. The cumulated effect of the improved gauge action and smeared links should allow for a smaller pion mass at a given lattice spacing and volume. Our

  4. Does Cytological Laboratory Holds the Responsibility for the Low Sensitivity of the PAP Test in Detecting Endometrial Cancer?

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Matić, Tereza Solocki; Martinek, Vjenceslav; Tomasković, Igor; Ramljak, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer but there is no economically justified screening method. Although we can detect endometrial cells in the sample using PAP test, many studies show low sensitivity and positive predictive value of PAP test for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. The goal of this research was to determine significance of PAP test for the diagnostics of endometrial carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with statistical parameters. VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears of patients with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma were re-examined in order to determine the proportion of false negative results for endometrial cancer cells in the VCE samples. Study group consisted of all consecutive patients with PAP test performed at the Department of Clinical Cytology of the University Hospital Center Osijek from 2002 until the end of 2014. There was one inclusion criteria: subsequent hysterectomy or curettage within the six month after the PAP test, regardless of histological finding. From a total of 263 patients with previous PAP test and histologically proven endometrial cancer, endometrial cancer was cytologicaly diagnosed in 24.7% (including suspicious and positive findings), while 66.2% patients had normal cytological findings. The diagnostic value of PAP test in detection of endometrial cancer was statistically revealed with 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity. To determine false negative rate VCE samples were reviewed for patients with histologically proven endometrial cancer and negative VCE findings. There were a total of five negative results. In one case revision did not changed the original negative diagnosis, but benign endometrial cells, a lot of blood and inadequate cytohormonal status were found. In three out of four reviewed samples there were missed cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Review of remaining VCE sample upgraded the diagnosis from negative to suspicious for endometrial cancer

  5. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  6. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  7. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  8. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  9. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. Material/Methods This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. Results The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. Conclusions This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children

  10. Mechanism of PAP I gene induction during hepatocarcinogenesis: clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Dusetti, N. J.; Montalto, G.; Ortiz, E. M.; Masciotra, L.; Dagorn, J. C.; Iovanna, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatitis-associated protein I (PAP I) is a secretory protein first described as an acute phase reactant during acute pancreatitis. Recently, induction of the PAP I gene was also described in liver during hepatocarcinogenesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this induction, we used constructs carrying progressive deletions of the PAP I promoter fused to the CAT gene. We showed that the silencer conferring tissue specificity on the PAP I gene was inactive in hepatoma cells. Then, in an vitro transcription system, we compared the transcription capacity of nuclear extracts from normal liver and HepG2 cells on constructs containing the silencer. The results confirmed that a trans-acting factor interacting with the PAP I silencer was present in liver cells and absent from hepatoma cells. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry showed that PAP I was expressed in a limited number of transformed hepatocytes. It was concluded that expression of PAP I in hepatocarcinoma occurred through inactivation of its silencer element and was not concomitant in all malignant cells. On that basis, we assayed PAP I in serum from patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma. PAP I levels were normal in chronic active or persistent hepatitis, significantly higher in cirrhosis and strongly elevated in hepatocarcinoma. Because those clinical entities often develop in that sequence, serum PAP I appeared as a potential marker of hepatocarcinoma development. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8956791

  11. Four and a half year follow up of women with dyskaryotic cervical smears.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, A; Metaxas, N; Grubb, C; Chamberlain, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the proportion of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears who (a) progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or worse or (b) regress. DESIGN--Four and a half year cytological follow up study of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears. SETTING--666 Women (mean age 28 (SD 8) years; range 14-74) found to have borderline, mild, or moderate dyskaryosis on routine screening. RESULTS--45 Women (6.8%) had a cone biopsy recommended on the basis of an abnormal follow up smear (severe dyskaryosis suggestive of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or invasive cancer), and in one patient cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III was reported in a biopsy specimen after dilatation and curettage. Life table analysis gave a 14% probability of a patient being recommended for a biopsy after four and a half years of follow up (95% confidence interval 12% to 15%). There was a significant excess incidence of invasive cancer of the cervix in the series compared with the general population (five cases observed compared with less than 0.1 expected). 157 Patients (24%) showed reversion to a normal cell pattern sustained in several smears over more than 18 months but a single negative smear was an unreliable indicator of apparent regression. Having two successive smears showing mild dyskaryosis or a smear at any time showing moderate dyskaryosis was a significant predictor of a subsequent severely dyskaryotic smear. CONCLUSIONS--Women found to have mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears should be kept under regular surveillance. The optimum management of these patients--by cytology or colposcopy--needs to be determined by randomised controlled trials. PMID:2224218

  12. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  13. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  14. False-positive Gram-stained smears.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Batt, J M; Mirrett, S; Cox, R L; Reller, L B

    1979-02-01

    The rate per 1,000 smears showing nonviable Gram-negative bacilli (false-positive smears) increased from a baseline of 10.8 to 38.5 following purchase of new culture-collection devices; the rate decreased to 8.0 following replacement of contaminated culture sets. False-positive reports led to changes in therapy for five patients. In addition to being sterile, commercial culture-collection devices should be certified by the manufacturer as being free of stainable microorganisms or as unsuitable for preparation of Gram-stained smears. PMID:83398

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  16. CO2 rebreathing during BiPAP ventilatory assistance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G T; Gilmartin, M

    1995-04-01

    BiPAP ventilatory assistance can increase minute ventilation and reduce respiratory effort, but does not always reduce PaCO2. We studied the effects of BiPAP ventilatory assistance on PaCO2 and examined specific mechanisms whereby BiPAP ventilatory assistance may not lower PaCO2. BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a non-rebreather valve and volume cycled ventilation at similar settings produced significantly lower PaCO2 than BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a standard exhalation device. The failure of PaCO2 to fall with the standard exhalation device was due to exhalation past the exhalation device into the ventilator tubing, subsequent rebreathing of the exhaled gases, and an increase in dead space ventilation. Use of other fixed-resistance exhalation devices also resulted in exhalation back into the ventilator tubing. Use of a new plateau exhalation device or a non-rebreather valve eliminated CO2 rebreathing and its effect on dead space ventilation. Changing exhalation devices had no significant effect on BiPAP pressure generation or sensing capabilities. Our results indicate that the use of a standard exhalation device during BiPAP ventilatory assistance causes CO2 rebreathing, which can blunt any effect of BiPAP on PaCO2. Use of an appropriate alternative exhalation device can eliminate this problem. PMID:7697242

  17. Comparison of Abnormal Cervical Cytology from HIV Positive Women, Female Sex Workers and General Population

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Asadi, Nasrin; Foroughinia, Leila; Salehi, Alireza; Kuhnavard, Safieh; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Ravanbod, Hamid Reza; Mohamadalian, Ferdos; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media.  Results The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group. PMID:26005687

  18. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. PMID:26849529

  19. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  20. Suppressing dislocations in normalized hypercubic smearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrand, Thomas; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.

  1. HIP/PAP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and promotes plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Dupuis, Nina; Degos, Vincent; Moniaux, Nicolas; Chhor, Vibol; Rasika, Sowmyalakshmi; Schwendimann, Leslie; le Charpentier, Tifenn; Rougier, Elodie; Amouyal, Paul; Amouyal, Gilles; Dournaud, Pascal; Bréchot, Christian; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Faivre, Jamila; Fleiss, Bobbi; Mani, Shyamala; Gressens, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excitotoxicity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injuries. Among the consequences of excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate are oxidative stress caused by free radical release from damaged mitochondria, neuronal death and subsequent loss of connectivity. Drugs that could protect nervous tissue and support regeneration are attractive therapeutic options. The hepatocarcinoma intestine pancreas protein/pancreatitis-associated protein I (HIP/PAP) or Reg3α, which is approved for clinical testing for the protection and regeneration of the liver, is upregulated in the central nervous system following injury or disease. Here, we examined the neuroprotective/neuroregenerative potential of HIP/PAP following excitotoxic brain injury. Methods We studied the expression of HIP/PAP and two of its putative effectors, cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19 (ARPP19) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), in the neonatal brain, and the protective/regenerative properties of HIP/PAP in three paradigms of perinatal excitotoxicity: intracerebral injection of the NMDA agonist ibotenate in newborn pups, a pediatric model of traumatic brain injury, and cultured primary cortical neurons. Results HIP/PAP, ARPP19, and GAP-43 were expressed in the neonatal mouse brain. HIP/PAP prevented the formation of cortical and white matter lesions and reduced neuronal death and glial activation following excitotoxic insults in vivo. In vitro, HIP/PAP promoted neuronal survival, preserved neurite complexity and fasciculation, and protected cell contents from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage. Interpretation HIP/PAP has strong neuroprotective/neuroregenerative potential following excitotoxic injury to the developing brain, and could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy in perinatal brain injury. PMID:25493266

  2. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  3. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B.; Greek, April A.; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L. Stewart; Sawaya, George F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. STUDY DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. RESULTS Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. CONCLUSION The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. PMID:24813971

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cytopathologic changes associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. A review of cervico-vaginal smears in 350 women.

    PubMed

    Pillay, B; Gregory, A R; Subbiah, M

    1994-03-01

    Cervico-vaginal smears from 350 IUCD users were analysed to ascertain the range of abnormalities induced in the genital tract of these women. Alteration of the microbial environment, inflammatory, degenerative, reparative and proplastic epithelial changes were the salient cytological findings. The clinical implications of these are briefly discussed. PMID:8057995

  6. A diversity of blood smear examination system of Thai public hospital.

    PubMed

    Vattanaviboon, P; Manochiopinij, S; Sirisali, K; Tankeyul, B

    1999-01-01

    A good laboratory practice is the heart of clinical laboratory quality. One must establish a standard system in order to achieve the quality. However, standard system is not only the technical but also a state of the art. The socioeconomic and culture are the influence factors. At present, technique of reporting the blood smear examination is still a nation controversy. We surveyed the blood smear examination reporting system of the public hospital in Thailand. There were 77 hospitals participated in this study. A questionnaire comprised of 23 questions was distributed to 105 clinical laboratory staffs of the public health hospitals. Results showed that there was a diversity of blood smear examination reporting system. Generally, there were 2 ways of blood smear review. Every smeared slide and only abnormal slides were re-examined by the conventional technique. When an abnormal white blood cell blood picture was observed. The presence of either blast cell or atypical lymphocyte has clinical significance. A majority of laboratory would report in form "counting number of abnormal cell within 100% of the differential count". For other abnormalities of white blood cell; i.e. the neutrophils with toxic granules, most of laboratory reported as "presence". Interestingly, the red blood cell reporting system varied from laboratory to laboratory. There was a total of nine reporting patterns. Results indicated that pattern 4 (few or some, 1+,2+,3+,4+ are 5-10%, 11-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and 51-100% cell/oil field, respectively) was the most popular one in reporting anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. However, the reporting pattern on red blood cell staining was difference. Pattern 4 and pattern 7 (grading by the size of central pallor) obtained a same popularity on the consideration of hypochromia. But the pattern 9 (few or some, 1+,2+,3+ are 0-1, 1-3, 4-6 and >6 cell/oil field, respectively) was the most frequently used in reporting of polychromasia. Fortunately we found that the

  7. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini; Bhar, Vikrant S.; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S)/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000), only conventional Pap smear (CPS) smears (n = 1000), and only LBC samples (n = 1000). The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2%) as compared to only CPS (10.5%) cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4%) as compared to only CPS (3.2%) samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC). The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate. PMID:27382408

  8. Study of the abnormal cervical-vaginal cytology of sexually active young women living within the Waterloo region.

    PubMed

    Redmond, M; Schumacher, B

    1990-01-01

    618 women aged 13-36 attending a family planning clinic took part in a sexual health survey during 1985 and 1986. They were followed up for one year in order to ascertain whether an increase in atypical and dysplastic pap smears was linked to a certain lifestyle. The routine examination included a pap smear, a cervical swab for gonorrhea and other vaginal flora. Cultures for herpes and chlamydia were done. Benign atypia infection was treated followed by repeat pap smears 6-8 weeks and 2-3 months later. 7% of the women were virgins, 72% had smoked, and 62% presently smoked (an average of 9 cigarettes daily). Average age at first intercourse, was 16, and partners ranged from 1 to 35. Condom use was most prevalent: 15% used it "always", 20% "often", and 36% "occasionally". The oral contraceptive use pattern was: 60% "always" used it and 10% "often" relied on it. 1/4th used the rhythm method. 90% had never been pregnant, 9% had, and 1% were unsure. of 49 pregnancies 41 ended in abortion. After examining 581, 4 cases condylomata and 1 case of genital herpes were found. 60% of the women had normal cervical cytology, 32% showed atypia, and 8% displayed dysplasia. 22% of the atypias were linked to inflammation and 6% were related to yeast. 9% of repeat atypia or dysplasia was less severe by biopsy, while 54% turned out to be more severe than the pap smear results, although they tend to indicate more severe changes. 8% showed less severe cytology, and 59% more severe cytological changes. 78% of the group with mild dysplasia had smoked, as opposed to 22% that had "never smokes". Those with mild dysplasia were 4 times more likely to smoke at the time of their initial visit (79%) than nonsmokers (21%). 54% of those with normal pap smear reported "often" or "always" using condoms, whereas only 10% of the group with dysplasia reported similar use pattern. These findings uphold the practice of following the repeated atypical, or initial dysplastic pap smear results with

  9. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  11. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  12. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  13. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  14. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  15. Phenomenology with Wilson fermions using smeared sources

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Apoorva; Daniel, D.; Kilcup, Gregory; Gupta, Rajan; Sharpe, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the use of two types of non-local ("smeared") sources for quark propagators in quenched lattice QCD at beta=6.0 using Wilson fermions at k=0.154 and 0.155. We present results for the hadron mass spectrum, meson decay constants, quark masses, the chiral condensate and the quark distribution amplitude of the pion. The use of smeared sources leads to a considerable improvement over previous results. We find a disturbing discrepancy between the baryon spectra obtained using Wuppertal and wall sources. We find good signals in the ratio of correlators used to calculate the quark mass and the chiral condensate and show that the extrapolation to the chiral limit is smooth.

  16. [Blast cells in peripheral blood smear].

    PubMed

    Lüthi, U; Huber, A R

    2004-02-01

    Despite modern technologies such as immunophenotyping and molecular probing cytomorphological examination of stained peripheral blood smears by microscopy remains the mainstay of diagnosis in a large variety of diseases. Although technically simple morphological analysis requires considerable skill. Early diagnosis in several hematological diseases is important (for example acute promyelocytic leukaemia associated frequently with disseminated intravascular coagulation), in order to initiate adjusted therapy. Further, referral of the patient to tertiary care centers is only justified after a solid diagnosis is obtained. Many disorders can be diagnosed by pathognomonic blood smears. The present article is a short overview of important hematological disorders, which are associated with blast cells in the peripheral blood. Important morphological cell characteristics are illustrated by microscopic pictures. PMID:15018395

  17. Perspectives on Pap Test Follow Up Care Among Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy; Baltisberger, Julie; Bardach, Shoshana; Dignan, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one to three quarters of women notified of abnormal Pap test results do not receive appropriate follow up care, dramatically elevating their risk for invasive cervical cancer (ICC). We explored barriers to/facilitators of follow up care for women in two counties in Appalachian Kentucky, where ICC incidence and mortality are significantly higher than the national average. In-depth interviews were conducted among 27 Appalachian women and seven local health department personnel. Those who had been told of an atypical Pap test result tended to have one of three reactions; (1) not alarmed and generally did not obtain follow-up care; (2) alarmed and obtained follow up care; or (3) alarmed, but did not obtain care. Each of these typologies appeared to be shaped by a differing set of three categories of influences: personal factors; procedure/provider/system factors; and ecological/community factors. Recommendations to increase appropriate follow up care included pursuing research on explanations for these typologies and developing tailored interventions specific to women in each of the response types. PMID:20981638

  18. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; de la Garza, Gabriel O; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Graham, Scott M; Udeh, Chiedozie I; O'Brien, Erin K

    2012-08-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two weeks, we propose caution in the use of CPAP postoperatively in patients undergoing procedures of the head and neck. PMID:22626688

  19. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Tokiko; Kawahara, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  20. The Popular Passion for Pap (Views and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Muses over how many books bought are actually read. Reflects on factors involved in the decision not merely to buy books but to read them. Notes that some people maintain that most of what is actually read is pap. Wonders whether reading teachers should pay more attention to what people read, as well as how people read. (SR)

  1. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  2. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  3. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  4. [Measurement of serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) by Delfia PAP Kit using europium and clinical evaluation in patients with prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Ohki, T; Ichikawa, T; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J

    1994-11-01

    Fundamental and clinical studies of serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) detected by a Delfia PAP kit were performed. The system is a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using europium as a tracer. The lower limit of detection was 0.2 ng/ml. Sera from 54 patients with prostate cancer, 20 with benign prostatic hypertrophy, 20 with urological malignancies other than prostate cancer and 140 adult males over 46 years old were determined. From the mean + 2 S.D. of serum PAP values obtained on the adult males, 1.5 ng/ml was considered as the upper normal level of adult males. By calculating the efficiency and ROC curve using the PAP values of prostate cancer and benign prostatic cancer, 2.5 ng/ml was decided as a cut-off value of this kit. The positive rates of adult males, prostate cancer, benign prostatic cancer and urological malignancies other than prostate cancer were 0.7%, 65%, 20% and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of stage A2, B2, C and D1 + D2 was, 0%, 0%, 64% and 83%, respectively. The efficiency of the Delfia PAP kit was 52% and that of the Markit M PA kit was 71%. The correlation between the values assayed with the Delfia PAP kit and the Dinabot PAP kit was very high; the value obtained with the Delfia PAP kit was about 80% of that obtained with the Dinabot PAP kit. PMID:7530404

  5. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  6. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  7. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  8. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  9. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  10. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  11. PapA1 and PapA2 are acyltransferases essential for the biosynthesis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor Sulfolipid-1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Schelle, Michael W.; Jain, Madhulika; Lin, Fiona L.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Leavell, Michael D.; Leary, Julie A.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces numerous exotic lipids that have been implicated as virulence determinants. One such glycolipid, Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), consists of a trehalose-2-sulfate (T2S) core acylated with four lipid moieties. A diacylated intermediate in SL-1 biosynthesis, SL1278, has been shown to activate the adaptive immune response in human patients. Although several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that PapA2 and PapA1 are responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis. In vitro, recombinant PapA2 converts T2S to 2′-palmitoyl T2S, and PapA1 further elaborates this newly identified SL-1 intermediate to an analog of SL1278. Disruption of papA2 and papA1 in M. tuberculosis confirmed their essential role in SL-1 biosynthesis and their order of action. Finally, the ΔpapA2 and ΔpapA1 mutants were screened for virulence defects in a mouse model of infection. The loss of SL-1 (and SL1278) did not appear to affect bacterial replication or trafficking, suggesting that the functions of SL-1 are specific to human infection. PMID:17592143

  12. PapA1 and PapA2 are acyltransferases essential for the biosynthesis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor sulfolipid-1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Schelle, Michael W; Jain, Madhulika; Lin, Fiona L; Petzold, Christopher J; Leavell, Michael D; Leary, Julie A; Cox, Jeffery S; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2007-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces numerous exotic lipids that have been implicated as virulence determinants. One such glycolipid, Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), consists of a trehalose-2-sulfate (T2S) core acylated with four lipid moieties. A diacylated intermediate in SL-1 biosynthesis, SL(1278), has been shown to activate the adaptive immune response in human patients. Although several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL(1278) and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that PapA2 and PapA1 are responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL(1278) and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis. In vitro, recombinant PapA2 converts T2S to 2'-palmitoyl T2S, and PapA1 further elaborates this newly identified SL-1 intermediate to an analog of SL(1278). Disruption of papA2 and papA1 in M. tuberculosis confirmed their essential role in SL-1 biosynthesis and their order of action. Finally, the Delta papA2 and Delta papA1 mutants were screened for virulence defects in a mouse model of infection. The loss of SL-1 (and SL(1278)) did not appear to affect bacterial replication or trafficking, suggesting that the functions of SL-1 are specific to human infection. PMID:17592143

  13. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  14. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Nimmy; AP, Sudheesh; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKIα interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKIα within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKIα. Unlike the CKIα mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKIα activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKIα controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3′-end processing. PMID:26138484

  15. Entamoeba histolytica: cloning and expression of the poly(A) polymerase EhPAP.

    PubMed

    García-Vivas, Jessica; López-Camarillo, César; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2005-07-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability, and translation. Here we identified and cloned a gene codifying for a putative nuclear poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) in Entamoeba histolytica. Protein sequence alignments with eukaryotic PAPs showed that EhPAP has the RNA-binding region and the PAP central domain with the catalytic nucleotidyl transferase domain described for other nuclear PAPs. Recombinant EhPAP expressed in bacteria was used to generate specific antibodies, which recognized two EhPAP isoforms of 60 and 63kDa in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts by Western blot assays. RT-PCR assays showed that EhPap mRNA expression varies in multidrug-resistant trophozoites growing in different emetine concentrations. Moreover, EhPap mRNA expression is about 10- and 7-fold increased in G1 and S phase, respectively, through cell cycle progression. These results suggest the existence of a link between EhPAP expression and MDR and cell cycle regulation, respectively. PMID:15955317

  16. Adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to follow Pap testing recommendations after receiving the HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Lisa M; Dirksing, Kelsie N; Ding, Lili; Morrow, Charlene D; Widdice, Lea A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended in the US for girls and women 11-26 y of age. Because these vaccines do not prevent all cervical cancers, Papanicolaou (Pap) screening is still recommended after vaccination. Young women who have been vaccinated may perceive themselves at lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer, which could lead to lower intention and self-efficacy to follow cervical cancer screening guidelines, and subsequent nonadherence to Pap testing. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) after vaccination and other factors are associated with adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to get Pap testing after HPV vaccination. Women 13-21 y of age (N = 339) receiving their first HPV vaccine dose completed a survey. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between perceived risk of HPV and intention/self-efficacy to get a Pap test while adjusting for other factors. Approximately half of participants reported high intention and half reported high self-efficacy to get a Pap test. Factors significantly associated with high intention were Pap testing history and knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines; factors significantly associated with high self-efficacy included insurance plan, Pap testing history, communication with clinician about needing a Pap test after vaccination, lifetime number of male sexual partners, and recent smoking. In conclusion, educating adolescents about HPV/HPV vaccines and the need for Pap testing may increase self-efficacy/intention to get a Pap test after vaccination. PMID:26934107

  17. Changing Patterns of Cervical Disease in a Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The Cytology Service at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Center for Health Sciences has examined about 4000 pap smears (each year) from the UCLA Student Health Service between 1973-1978. An apparently significant increase in abnormal pap smears in young college-age women is reported. (Authors/CJ)

  18. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Plaxton, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Orthophosphate (Pi) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (Po), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of Pi-deficient (–Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous Po compounds such as glycerol-3-phosphate or herring sperm DNA: (i) effectively substituted for Pi in supporting the P nutrition of Arabidopsis seedlings, and (ii) caused upregulation and secretion of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 into the growth medium. When cultivated under –Pi conditions or supplied with Po as its sole source of P nutrition, an atpap26/atpap12 T-DNA double insertion mutant exhibited impaired growth coupled with >60 and >30% decreases in root secretory APase activity and rosette total Pi concentration, respectively. Development of the atpap12/atpap26 mutant was unaffected during growth on Pi-replete medium but was completely arrested when 7-day-old Pi-sufficient seedlings were transplanted into a –Pi, Po-containing soil mix. Both PAPs were also strongly upregulated on root surfaces and in shoot cell-wall extracts of –Pi seedlings. It is hypothesized that secreted AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate the acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional Pi deficiency by: (i) functioning in the rhizosphere to scavenge Pi from the soil’s accessible Po pool, while (ii) recycling Pi from endogenous phosphomonoesters that have been leaked into cell walls from the cytoplasm. Thus, AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are promising targets for improving crop P-use efficiency. PMID:23125358

  19. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

  20. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  1. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  2. Noninvasive nasal mask BiPAP management for prolonged respiratory failure following cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Ohtaki, A; Takahashi, T; Koyano, T; Hasegawa, Y; Ohki, S; Isa, Y; Arai, K; Kunimoto, F; Morishita, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of nasal mas bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) support in managing respiratory failure following cardiovascular surgery. A total of 20 patients requiring postoperative prolonged respiratory support of 72 hours or longer were studied. BiPAP support was used for eight patients (BiPAP group); the other 12 patients were managed using ordinary oxygen mask treatment (control group). The mean age of the BiPAP group and control group was 65 and 58 years of age, respectively. The mean period of postoperative endotracheal intubation of the BiPAP group and control group was 12 +/- 5 days and 7 +/- 1 days, respectively. Reintubation was necessary in two patients of the control group. The BiPAP group patients required no reintubation. BiPAP support was discontinued within 48 hours in 6 out of 8 patients. The respiratory rates of control group increased (p < 0.1) 24 hours after extubation, however, the respiratory rates of the BiPAP group remained unchanged. The values of the respiratory index of the BiPAP group improved significantly (p < 0.01) after BiPAP management (from 1.5 +/- 0.2 to 0.9 +/- 0.2). The values of the control group, however, remained unchanged. A-aDO2 and Qs/Qt decreased (p < 0.1) in the BiPAP group. There were no significant differences in central venous pressure or circulatory status between the two groups. In conclusion, BiPAP support is a noninvasive management technique for postoperative respiratory failure and may also prevent prolonged endotracheal intubation. PMID:9395946

  3. Successful use of nasal BiPAP in three patients previously requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Poponick, J M; Renston, J P; Emerman, C L

    1997-01-01

    Noninvasive mask ventilation may be used to treat patients with impending respiratory failure. In this case series, three patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who required mechanical ventilation in the past, were successfully treated with nasal bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP). All patients tolerated BiPAP well without complications. Therefore, nasal BiPAP may be considered a treatment option for patients with severe COPD who have previously required intubation and mechanical ventilation. PMID:9404794

  4. Successful use of BiPAP in infants with congenital myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chau, Shuk-Kuen; Lee, So-Lun

    2013-04-01

    Reported herein are two cases of severe phenotype of congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) with presentation of respiratory insufficiency at birth. The infants were successfully managed with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. The use of BiPAP in infants with CDM has not been reported before. The rationale for using BiPAP is discussed. BiPAP may be more effective than continuous positive airway pressure in managing respiratory insufficiency, especially in infants with the more severe phenotype of CDM. PMID:23679166

  5. Combined surgical treatment for severe sleep apnoea, to improve BiPAP compliance.

    PubMed

    Başal, Yeşim; Akyıldız, Utku Oğan; Eryilmaz, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In cases of PAP failure, many different surgical methods can be used for the treatment. The authors present an unusual case of a patient with Bi-level PAP (BiPAP)-intolerant severe OSAS who was treated with combined surgical methods. A 55-year-old man was treated with BiPAP due to OSAS; he was admitted to the clinic with nose stuffiness, respiratory distress and BiPAP adherence with tolerance and compliance problems. Septal deviation, concha hypertrophy, lateral pharyngeal band hypertrophy and Thornwaldt cyst were determined in the examination. Combined surgical methods were administered. The patient's apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) was 72.8 in diagnostic polysomnography. Preoperative AHI was 7.3 and postoperative AHI was 2.3 while using BiPAP and, after the surgery, the BiPAP intolerance was eliminated. The authors suggest that a combination of different surgical methods would be an adjuvant treatment to increase BiPAP compliance. PMID:26546622

  6. BiPAP in acute respiratory failure due to myasthenic crisis may prevent intubation.

    PubMed

    Rabinstein, Alejandro; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2002-11-26

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation using bilevel positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) has not been studied in acute respiratory failure caused by MG. Eleven episodes in nine patients were initially managed with BiPAP, and endotracheal intubation was avoided in seven of these trials. Presence of hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg) at onset predicted BiPAP failure and subsequent intubation. Results of this preliminary study suggest that a trial of BiPAP may prevent intubation in patients with myasthenic crisis without overt hypercapnia. PMID:12451217

  7. Concept for modifying drafting instruments to minimize smearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Ball bearing standoffs added to drafting instruments enable the instruments to be moved about, with their surfaces out of contact with the drawing paper. This provides a safeguard against smearing of the lines.

  8. Oil-smeared models aid wind tunnel measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.; Loving, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    For visualizing flow characteristics in wind tunnel tests, model surfaces are smeared with any common petroleum-base oils. These fluoresce under ultraviolet light and the flow patterns are readily visualized.

  9. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation in an infant with central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villa, M P; Dotta, A; Castello, D; Piro, S; Pagani, J; Palamides, S; Ronchetti, R

    1997-07-01

    A 4-month-old baby girl, after a period of apparent good health, began to have aphonia, dyspnea, difficulties with swallowing, cyanosis, apnea, and hypopnea during sleep that resulted in admission to an intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. At the age of 9 months she was admitted to our hospital with a possible diagnosis of central hypoventilation syndrome. A polysomnographic study showed apnea and hypopnea (apnea + hypopnea index = 47.1), hypercapnia (mean end-tidal PCO2 89 +/- 15.0 mmHg), and arterial desaturation (mean SaO2 91 +/- 1.7%; lowest SaO2 < 50%; 68% of total sleep time at SaO2 below 93%); the study also showed an absent ventilatory response to CO2, absent cardiac responses to apnea during sleep, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Nocturnal nasal bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), applied initially at 6 cmH2O and gradually increased to 16 cmH2O, caused the sleep-related abnormal respiratory events to disappear. End-tidal PCO2 decreased to 39 mmHg, and SaO2 increased to 94%. After 6 months of nocturnal BiPAP ventricular right hypertrophy reversed and arrested growth and hypotonia normalized. The child has tolerated and has remained on BiPAP support up to her current age of 3 years and continues to use this form of ventilatory assistance without difficulties. PMID:9261857

  10. Penetration of smeared or nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Chandler, N P; Jenkinson, H F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetration of smeared and nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. Prepared human roots, grouped as either nonsmeared or smeared, were immersed in a suspension of S. gordonii cells for 3 weeks. The roots were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis. Dentine discs prepared from coronal dentine were grouped similarly. Using a fluid filtration apparatus, the hydraulic conductance (Lp) of each disc was determined before and after incubation with bacterial suspension. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the roots following infection with bacteria showed no change in the smear layer (P < 0.0001). Histological sections revealed that bacterial penetration of all the nonsmeared samples had occurred, while nine out of 10 smeared samples showed no bacterial penetration (P < 0.0001). The Lp of the nonsmeared discs was significantly reduced by 42% (P < 0.0001) after bacterial penetration. However, the smeared samples revealed a 1% reduction in Lp which was not significant (P > 0.05). The results suggest that dentinal smear layers are an effective barrier to dentinal tubule invasion by S. gordonii. PMID:9206406

  11. Perfusion from angiogram and a priori (PAP) with temporal regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2009-02-01

    Perfusion imaging is often used for diagnosis and for assessment of the response to the treatment. If perfusion can be measured during interventional procedures, it could lead to quantitative, more efficient and accurate treatment; however, imaging modalities that allow continuous dynamic scanning are not available in most of procedure rooms. Thus, we developed a method to measure the perfusion-time attenuation curves (TACs)-of regions-of-interest (ROIs) using xray C-arm angiography system with no gantry rotation but with a priori. The previous study revealed a problem of large oscillations in the estimated TACs and the lack of comparison with CT-based approaches. Thus the purposes of this study were (1) to reduce the variance of TDCs; and (2) to compare the performance of the improved PAP with that of the CT-based perfusion method. Our computer simulation study showed that the standard deviation of PAP method was decreased by 10.7-59.0% and that it outperformed (20× or 200× times) higher dose CT methods in terms of the accuracy, variance, and the temporal resolution.

  12. The MonoPrep Pap test for the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Part I: results of a multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cibas, Edmund S; Alonzo, Todd A; Austin, R Marshall; Bolick, David R; Glant, Michael D; Henry, Michael R; Moriarty, Ann T; Molina, J Thomas; Rushing, Lynda; Slowman, Sally D; Torno, Roosevelt; Eisenhut, Carol C

    2008-02-01

    The MonoPrep Pap Test (MPPT; MonoGen, Lincolnshire, IL) is a novel, liquid-based specimen collection and processing technology for cytologic and molecular testing. Its usefulness in the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors was evaluated in a multicenter, masked, adjudicated, split-sample study of 10,739 samples. After preparation of a conventional smear, the residuum on the collection device was rinsed into a collection vial from which an MPPT slide was prepared. Accuracy was assessed by masked reference interpretation by an independent pathologist. Slides prepared by MPPT, compared with smears, yielded statistically significant increases in relative sensitivity for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and worse, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/atypical glandular cells and worse, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and worse. There was no significant difference in relative specificity. MPPT provided a 58% reduction in unsatisfactory slides. There was no significant difference in the presentation of endocervical/transformation zone component or the detection of benign conditions. The MPPT is a promising new liquid-based technology for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18208798

  13. On the Application of Pattern Recognition and AI Technique to the Cytoscreening of Vaginal Smears by Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Xia-Fang

    1989-05-01

    In this paper the concepts of pattern recognition, image processing and artificial intelligence are applied to the development of an intelligent cytoscreening system to differentiate the abnormal cytological objects from the normal ones in vaginal smears. To achieve this goal,work listed below are involved: 1. Enhancement of the microscopic images of the smears; 2. Elevation of the qualitative differentiation under the microscope by cytologists to a quantitative differentiation plateau on the epithelial cells, ciliated cells, vacuolated cells, foreign-body-giant cells, plasma cells, lymph cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, etc. These knowledges are to be inputted into our intelligent cyto-screening system to ameliorate machine differentiation; 3. Selection of a set of effective features to characterize the cytological objects onto various regions of the multiclustered by computer algorithms; and 4. Systematical summarization of the knowledge that a gynecologist has and the way he/she follows when dealing with a case.

  14. Expression pattern and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase AtPAP9.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Katayoun; Lohrasebi, Tahmineh; Sabet, Mohammad S; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Mousavi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatase (PAP; EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes are metallophosphoesterases that hydrolysis phosphate ester bonds in a wide range of substrates. Twenty-nine PAP-encoding loci have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, many of which have multiple transcript variants expressed in response to diverse environmental conditions. Having analyzed T-DNA insertion mutants, we have provided strong pieces of evidence that AtPAP9 locus encodes at least two types of transcripts, designated as AtPAP9-1 and AtPAP9-2. These transcript variants expressed distinctly during the course of growth in medium containing sufficient phosphate or none. Further histochemical analysis by the use of AtPAP9-1 promoter fused to β-glucuronidase reporter gene indicated the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. AtPAP9-1 was highly expressed in stipule and vascular tissue, particularly in response to fungal infection. Subcellular localization of AtPAP9-1:green fluorescent fusion protein showed that it must be involved in plasma membrane and cell wall adhesion. PMID:24012521

  15. Effect of Addition of Chin Strap on PAP Compliance, Nightly Duration of Use, and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Shelley R.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Zhang, Shiling; Devara, Anupama; Rowley, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A chinstrap is potentially useful to reduce unintentional air leak by preventing mouth opening during PAP treatment. This study examines whether the addition of a chinstrap to PAP therapy has any effect on adherence, nightly duration of use, air leak, and residual AHI. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed at an AASM-accredited VAMC sleep center. Clinical sleep data of veterans (n = 124) prescribed PAP therapy for sleep apnea was evaluated, and the effect of chinstrap use vs non-use on the above parameters was assessed. Results: Chinstrap users had significantly greater PAP adherence, longer nightly duration of PAP use, lower residual AHI and lower leak compared to chinstrap non-users at first follow up visit. Conclusions: The addition of a chin strap to PAP therapy is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing PAP adherence. Citation: Knowles SR; O'Brien DT; Zhang S; Devara A; Rowley JA. Effect of addition of chin strap on PAP compliance, nightly duration of use, and other factors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):377-383. PMID:24733982

  16. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  17. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  18. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Penny; Fang, Dao Moua; Ly, May Ying; Stewart, Susan; Lee, Serge; Chen, Moon S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test. PMID:26594134

  19. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Dusetti, N.J.; Frigerio, J.M.; Dagorn, J.C.; Iovanna, J.L. ); Fox, M.F.; Swallow, D.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory pancreatic protein present in small amounts in normal pancreas and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PAP gene. The gene spans 2748 bp and contains six exons interrupted by five introns. The gene has a typical promoter containing the sequences TATAAA and CCAAT 28 and 52 bp upstream of the cap site, respectively. They found striking similarities in genomic organization as well as in the promoter sequences between the human and rat PAP genes. The human PAP gene was mapped to chromosome 2p12 using rodent-human hybrid cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization. This localization coincides with that of the reg/lithostathine gene, which encodes a pancreatic secretory protein structurally related to PAP, suggesting that both genes derived from the same ancestral gene by duplication. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  1. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. PMID:27162266

  2. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    PubMed

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916

  3. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Bielawski, Wieslaw

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  4. Metal Mesh Smear Sampling for Glow Discharge Analytical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.; Smith, D.H.

    2000-06-01

    Metal mesh smear sampling is being developed and evaluated for use in a number of glow discharge and other optical and mass spectrometric techniques. Sensitive elemental and isotopic analyses thus will be coupled with a convenient sampling scheme similar to one that is common for radiological surveys.

  5. Treatment of a Retarded Child's Faeces Smearing and Coprophagic Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedin, B. D.; Johnson, Helene K.

    1979-01-01

    The daily rearrangement of a profoundly retarded seven-year-old boy's routine shower was found to be effective in eliminating his low-frequency feces smearing and coprophagic (eating of feces) behavior during the late afternoon/early evening part of the day. (Author/DLS)

  6. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN FECAL SMEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium ...

  7. Hard-surface contamination detection exercise. [Smears:a3

    SciTech Connect

    Kawa, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a practical exercise which demonstrates the techniques used by Health Physicists to detect surface contamination, including both instrumentation and smear survey techniques. By understanding the basic principles of the most commonly found instruments the intent is that a new Health Physics graduate can correctly choose, and apply an instrument to their detection situation. The exercise is also intended to acquaint students with the very basic principles of smear techniques. Smear surveys are probably the most universally applied technique in this industry, however, very little literature exists on the subject. The techniques are usually taught, on-the-job and by demonstration. By their seeing and participating in this presentation, it is intended that Health Physics students can accelerate their first few weeks at their new careers, and enable them to recognize common mistakes. Health Physicists are expected to have knowledge of the basic practices of their profession. This exercise will allow Health Physics students to become familiar with the use of hand-held detection devices and the technique of smear surveys. Adequate measurement and recording of surface contamination information is necessary to: meet licensing requirements; protect the health and safety of the workers; maintain accurate records in the case of litigation or dose reconstruction; and maintain high levels of professional competency. This exercise will assist students in obtaining the skills necessary to adequately measure and record levels of surface contamination. 41 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  9. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Cancer.gov

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  10. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  12. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  13. A prospective, randomized trial of BiPAP in severe acute congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M A

    2001-11-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been found to be efficacious in the setting of acute respiratory failure, specifically in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Its use in congestive heart failure (CHF) is less well established. Additionally, it has been reported that there is an increase in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rate with the use of bilevel positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) in CHF patients. This study examined whether BiPAP decreases the intubation rate or improves cardiopulmonary parameters in severe CHF patients compared to high flow O(2) by mask (MASK), and whether there is an increase in AMI rate with the use of BiPAP. A prospective, randomized clinical trial at a county hospital teaching Emergency Department was conducted by enrolling 38 patients who were in severe CHF. Patients were randomized to receive either BiPAP or MASK in addition to adjunct therapy. Age and gender were not different between the groups. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and pulse oximetry all showed no significant difference in change over time between groups, but there was a significant change over time within groups. Arterial pH, pCO(2), and pO(2) also showed no significant difference in change over time between groups, but there was a significant change over time within groups. The intubation rate for BiPAP was 23.8% (5) vs. MASK at 41.2% (7). The AMI rate was 19% (4) in the BiPAP group and 29.4% (5) in the MASK group. No true differences were detected between groups for increased oxygenation or a reduction in intubation rate. An increase in AMI rate with BiPAP was not found in this study as previously reported. This study provides support for a larger clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of BiPAP in acute CHF. PMID:11728761

  14. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device

  15. The use of pronase enhances sensitivity of the PAP method in the detection of intracytoplasmic immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Pileri, S; Serra, L; Martinelli, G

    1980-01-01

    Application of immunocytochemistry to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material tends to provide capricious results, even when employing the unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method. This study shows that treatment of tissue sections with pronase, a protease isolated from a strain of Streptomyces griseus, prior to performance of the PAP procedure greatly enhances its sensitivity. The optimum conditions for use of this enzyme in detecting intracellular immunoglobulins are given. PMID:6160845

  16. Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O.; Walts, Ann E.; Bose, Shikha

    2012-01-01

    The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to supplement the morphological characteristics of cells by additional colorimetric features. In this study, an automated technique for the evaluation of dual p16/Ki67 immunoreactivity in cervical cell nuclei is introduced. Smears stained with p16 and Ki67 antibodies were digitized, and analyzed by algorithms we developed. Gradient-based radial symmetry operator and adaptive processing of symmetry image were employed to obtain the nuclear mask. This step was followed by the extraction of features including pixel data and immunoreactivity signature from each nucleus. The features were analyzed by two support vector machine classifiers to assign a nucleus into one of four types of immunoreactivity: p16 positive (p16+/Ki67-), Ki67 positive (p16-/Ki67+), dual p16/Ki67 positive (p16+/Ki67+) and negative (p16-/Ki67-) respectively. Results obtained by our method correlated well with readings by two cytopathologists (n=18068 cells); p16+/Ki67+ nuclei were classified with respective precisions of 77.1% and 82.6%. Specificity in identification of p16-/Ki67- nuclei was better than 99.5%, and the sensitivity in detection of all immunopositive nuclei was 86.3% and 89.4% respectively. We found that the quantitative characterization of immunoreactivity provided by the additional highlighting of classified nuclei can positively impact the efficacy and screening outcome of the Pap test. PMID:22215277

  17. Pap screening goals and perceptions of pain among black, Latina, and Arab women: steps toward breaking down psychological barriers.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Julie W; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Understanding women's psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among black, Latina, and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. Data on 420 women, in a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. At baseline, 30.3 % of black and 35.5 % of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2 % of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (odds ratio=0.58, 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women's perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P value <0.001) with Arab and black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 % reduction, respectively, compared to 8.4 % for Latina). Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of black, Latina, and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606

  18. Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, R. Christopher; Terneus, Marcus V.; Kiningham, Kinsley K.; Valentovic, Monica . E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

    2005-11-15

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 {sup o}C. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status.

  19. Arabidopsis phosphatase under-producer mutants pup1 and pup3 contain mutations in the AtPAP10 and AtPAP26 genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyue; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Production and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is a hallmark adaptive response of plants to phosphate (Pi) deprivation. Researchers have long hypothesized that Pi starvation-induced APases are involved in internal Pi recycling and remobilization as well as in external Pi utilization. Two phosphatase under-producer (pup) mutants, pup1 and pup3, were previously isolated in Arabidopsis. Characterization of these 2 pup mutants provided the first genetic evidence for the above hypothesis. To date, however, the molecular lesions in these 2 pup mutants remain unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that pup1 and pup3 contain point mutations in the Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase gene AtPAP10 and AtPAP26, respectively. Our results answer a long-standing question about the molecular identity of the PUP1 and PUP3 genes and corroborate the conclusions from previous studies regarding the function of AtPAP10 and AtPAP26 in plant acclimation to Pi deprivation. PMID:26251878

  20. Predictors for MTB Culture-Positivity among HIV-Infected Smear-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Application of New Tuberculosis Diagnostic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Nonyane, Bareng A. S.; Ssengooba, Willy; Kirenga, Bruce J.; Nakanjako, Damalie; Lubega, Gloria; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Joloba, Moses L.; Ellner, Jerry J.; Dorman, Susan E.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The existing World Health Organization diagnostic algorithms for smear-negative TB perform poorly in HIV-infected individuals. New TB diagnostics such as urine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) could improve the accuracy and reduce delays in TB diagnosis in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB. We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture-positivity among these patients. Methods This study was nested into a prospective evaluation of HIV-infected outpatients and inpatients clinically suspected to have TB who were screened by smear-microscopy on two spot sputum samples. Data on socio-demographics, clinical symptoms, antiretroviral therapy, CXR, CD4 count, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures and TB-LAM were collected. Logistic regression and conditional inference tree analysis were used to determine the most predictive indicators for MTB culture-positivity. Results Of the 418 smear-negative participants [female, 64%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years, median CD4 106 (IQR 22 - 298) cells/mm3], 96/418 (23%) were sputum and/ or blood culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Abnormal CXR (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 1.76- 7.71, p=0.001) and positive urine TB-LAM (aOR 6.21, 95% CI 3.14-12.27, p< 0.001) were significantly associated with MTB culture-positivity. Previous TB treatment (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, p=0.049) reduced the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. A conditional inference tree analysis showed that positive urine TB-LAM and abnormal CXR were the most predictive indicators of MTB culture-positivity. A combination of urine TB-LAM test and CXR had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 86.1% respectively overall, and 70.8% and 84.1% respectively among those with CD4<100 cells/mm3. Conclusions A positive urine TB-LAM test and an abnormal CXR significantly predict MTB culture-positivity among smear-negative HIV-infected presumptive TB patients while previous TB treatment reduces the likelihood of a positive MTB culture

  1. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong; Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 μM) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 μM reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 μM or above 9 μM also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 μM, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes. PMID:24370633

  2. [Value of serum PSA and PAP measurement with newly developed latex turbidimetric immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Akino, H; Tsuka, H; Okada, K; Tsuchiya, Y; Matsubara, M; Arimura, K

    1995-06-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid-phosphatase (PAP) levels in normal controls, and patients with prostate cancer, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and other urological diseases were examined with a newly developed latex turbidimetric immunoassay (LPIA ACE PSA, LPIA ACE PAP, IATRON LABORATORIES, INC., Tokyo, Japan). The advantageous characteristics of this method are small amount (10 microliters) of serum required and short time (about 20 min.) for performing this assay. There was a high linear correlation between LPIA ACE PSA and MARKIT-F PA (r2 = 0.953), between LPIA ACE PSA and TANDEM-E PSA (r2 = 0.881) and between LPIA ACE PAP and ABBOTT-PAP EIA (r2 = 0.946). When the BPH patients (n = 110) were used as negative controls, the cut-off value of PSA was determined to be 4.3 ng/ml. Using this level as the cut-off value, the sensitivity was 78% (42 positive/54 untreated prostate cancer patients), specificity (negative rate in BPH patients) was 95% and efficiency was 89%. In a follow-up study of prostate cancer, the PSA value was elevated above the cut-off value in 68% at the time of clinical progression. These findings suggest that LPIA ACE PSA is a useful tool for serum PSA measurement. The cut-off value of PAP measured with LPIA ACE PAP was 9.0 ng/ml, which was determined by the same method as PSA. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency ware 39%, 96% and 77%, respectively. These findings indicate that PAP is less useful than PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7544063

  3. Analysis for Ca --> 0 of smearing during gravure printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2015-11-01

    During gravure printing, excess liquid must be wiped from the substrate, but wiping itself also smears liquid from the engraved wells onto the substrate. Assuming the wiping blade and substrate to be orthonormal, Ceyhan & Morris (BAPS.2014.DFD.G10.1) treat the case in which the blade-liquid contact angle θ --> π / 2 . Streamlines are then everywhere quasiparallel, and the evolution equation for thin films describes the entire process. Comparing the solution of that equation for an emerging single well in plane flow with that for 3-dimensional flow, we found that smearing can be treated as a problem in plane flow. We now extend the analysis to cover the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 . Streamlines are no longer everywhere quasiparallel, and inner-and-outer analysis of an unsteady plane flow is required. Though the problem might appear intractable, it has two redeeming features: (a) the interface, in effect, pins first at the distal edge of a well and, then later, at its proximal edge; (b) except near the pinning points, the pressure is hydrostatic. Using these features, we show that smearing, including the formation of a local maximum in film thickness, can be understood by combining Euclid (geometry of the circle) with Reynolds (squeeze-film flow).

  4. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  5. Antibacterial and smear layer removal capability of oregano extract solution

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Ozturk, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of oregano extract solution (OES) against Enterococcus faecalis within root canals and dentin tubules, and its effect on smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 human maxillary central incisors was selected. After removal of coronal part of the teeth, root canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files (Dentsply, Tulsa Endodontics, OK, USA) to #F3 with the crown-down manner. The roots were randomly assigned to 15 groups (n = 12 for each). In the first seven groups, the antimicrobial effects of the test groups were evaluated. Suspensions of E. faecalis cultures were adjusted to 1.0 McFarland (1 × 108 colony-forming unit [CFU]/ml), and sterilized teeth were placed in Eppendorf tubes and kept at 37°C for 4 weeks. Samples were then taken from the root canals before irrigation using three sterile paper points. Dentin samples were taken from root canals with ProTaper #F4 and #F5 series rotary instruments after irrigation. The aliquots of samples were placed into the brain heart infusion and incubated at 37°C for 48 h and then the CFUs were counted. In the other eight groups, the efficacy of the irrigation solutions on removing the smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (Leo 440, Oxford Microscopy Ltd., Cambridge, England) analysis. Statistical evaluation of the microbiological data was performed using the Kruskall–Wallis and Mann–Witney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a statistically difference between the groups (P < 0.05). Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 5% and 2% OES wasn’t found to be statistically significant regarding their antibacterial activities against E. faecalis (P > 0.05). 1% OES and NaOCl showed similar antimicrobial effect (P > 0.05), and 1% OES and NaOCl were better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline (P < 0.05) but not as successful as CHX. According to the results obtained from dentin, CHX is the most

  6. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  7. Preventive and therapeutic vaccination with PAP-3, a novel human prostate cancer peptide, inhibits carcinoma development in HLA transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Machlenkin, Arthur; Azriel-Rosenfeld, Ronit; Volovitz, Ilan; Vadai, Ezra; Lev, Avital; Paz, Adrian; Goldberger, Ofir; Reiter, Yoram; Tzehoval, Esther; Benhar, Itai; Eisenbach, Lea

    2007-02-01

    Conventional treatment of recurrent and metastasized prostate cancer (CaP) remains inadequate; this fact mandates development of alternative therapeutic modalities, such as specific active or passive immunotherapy. Previously, we reported the identification of a novel highly immunogenic HLA-A*0201-restricted Prostatic Acid Phosphatase-derived peptide (PAP-3) by a two-step in vivo screening in an HLA-transgenic (HHD) mouse system. In the present study we aimed at elucidating the efficiency of PAP-3-based vaccine upon active antitumor immunization. To this end we established preventive and therapeutic carcinoma models in HHD mice. The 3LL murine Lewis lung carcinoma clone D122 transduced to express HLA-A*0201 and PAP served as a platform for these models. The HLA-A*0201-PAP-3 complex specific recombinant single chain scFV-PAP-3 antibodies were generated and used to confirm an endogenous PAP processing resulting in PAP-3 presentation by HLA-A*0201. PAP-3 based vaccines significantly decreased tumor incidence in a preventive immunization setting. Therapeutic vaccination of HHD mice with PAP-3 led to rejection of early established tumors and to increase of mouse survival. These results strongly support a therapeutic relevance of the identified CTL epitope upon active antitumor immunization. The newly established carcinoma model presented herein might be a useful tool for cancer vaccine design and optimization. PMID:16738849

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  9. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  10. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  12. Four-flap Breast Reconstruction: Bilateral Stacked DIEP and PAP Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population. PMID:26090273

  13. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together. PMID:24843821

  14. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Emad A.; Mohamed, Mostafa M. A.; Far, Behrouz H.; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together. PMID:24843821

  15. Pneumocephalus with BiPAP use after transsphenoidal surgery☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; de la Garza, Gabriel O.; Greenlee, Jeremy D.W.; Graham, Scott M.; Udeh, Chiedozie I.; O'Brien, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    While the benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea are well described, reports in the literature of complications from its use are rare. A patient who received postoperative BiPAP after undergoing transsphenoidal craniopharyngioma resection developed severe pneumocephalus and unplanned intensive care unit admission. Although the pneumocephalus resolved with conservative management over two weeks, we propose caution in the use of CPAP postoperatively in patients undergoing procedures of the head and neck. PMID:22626688

  16. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia with BiPAP-Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jadon, Ashok; Sinha, Neelam; Agarwal, Prashant S

    2009-01-01

    Summary We report three cases where BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) was used with CSEA (combined spinal epidural anaesthesia) to over come the hypoventilation due to preoperative poor respiratory reserves and additive effect of sedation. Combination of BiPAP with spinal, epidural and CSEA have been used successfully in patients of severe COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) for various surgical procedures. This combination provides safe alternative to conventional general anaesthesia, as it avoids need for postoperative ventilatory support and its deleterious effects. PMID:20640212

  17. Leukocyte segmentation and classification in blood-smear images.

    PubMed

    Ramoser, Herbert; Laurain, Vincent; Bischof, Horst; Ecker, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The detection and classification of leukocytes in blood smear images is a routine task in medical diagnosis. In this paper we present a fully automated approach to leukocyte segmentation that is robust with respect to cell appearance and image quality. A set of features is used to describe cytoplasm and nucleus properties. Pairwise SVM classification is used to discriminate between different cell types. Evaluation on a set of 1166 images (13 classes) resulted in 95% correct segmentations and 75% to 99% correct classification (with reject option). PMID:17280945

  18. Eruptive furunculosis following the soak and smear regimen.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn; Sukhdeo, Kumar; Meinhardt, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The 'soak and smear' regimen is a highly effective method for localised topical therapy employed by dermatologists for widespread inflammatory skin conditions. The regimen involves application of topical medication under occlusion after soaking in water. Complications from this treatment method are rare. We present a case of multiple, generalised methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive furuncles arising in a patient as an unexpected consequence of therapy. The case highlights an unanticipated risk of a commonly employed treatment amid an epidemic of MRSA in the community. PMID:25694635

  19. Smearing of Observables and Spectral Measures on Quantum Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2013-02-01

    An observable on a quantum structure is any σ-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel σ-algebra of the real line into the quantum structure which is in our case a monotone σ-complete effect algebra with the Riesz Decomposition Property. We show that every observable is a smearing of a sharp observable which takes values from a Boolean σ-subalgebra of the effect algebra, and we prove that for every element of the effect algebra there corresponds a spectral measure.

  20. [HPV-Hr detection by home self sampling in women not compliant with pap test for cervical cancer screening. Results of a pilot programme in Bouches-du-Rhône].

    PubMed

    Piana, Lucien; Leandri, François-Xavier; Le Retraite, Laurence; Heid, Patrice; Tamalet, Catherine; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène

    2011-07-01

    The non-participation to cervical screening is the major determinant in the risk of mortality due to cervical cancer. In France, around 40% of women do not participate to regular screening. The cultural or economic barriers for performing screening by Pap test are numerous; one of the most frequent is the refusal of gynaecological examination. A persistent HPV(HR) infection is a necessary factor for developing cervical cancer. The HPV(HR) testing has a high sensibility to detect high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and a satisfactory specificity after 30-35 years old. The principal objective of this study was to compare the participation rates in women 35-69 years old who did not perform a Pap test after a first individual invitation, either when an HPV(HR) auto-test was offered to be performed at home or a second invitation to Pap test was sent. We also evaluated the quality of the two tests, the positive results obtained by age groups and the following histological type of lesions diagnosed in the women with positive results. The study included 9,334 women, 35-69 years old, who did not realized a Pap-test during the 2 previous years and who did not respond at a first individual invitation. These non-responders were randomized into two groups: one group (n=4,934) received a second individual invitation and the other (n=4,400) an offer of receiving and performing an HPV auto-test at home. In women 35-69 years the participation to the second invitation to Pap test was significantly lower (7.2%) than the participation to auto-test (26.4%) with P<0.001. The quality of the two tests was satisfactory; the auto-test was not altered by the postage to laboratory (non interpretable rate=1.4% [CI at 95%=0.65%; 2.15%]. From the 311 Pap tests done, 5.5% (17) were classified "abnormal" (nine ASCUS, one high grade and seven low grades). The follow up of 13 women out of 17 confirmed the diagnosis for 1 case of CIN2 and 2 cases of CIN3, 4 women are lost of

  1. A five-year experience with the use of BiPAP in a pediatric intensive care unit population.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gayatri; Tobias, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to treat respiratory insufficiency in pediatric patients over a 5-year period. After excluding patients on chronic home BiPAP and those in whom BiPAP was used to facilitate tracheal extubation (because there were no pre-BiPAP values on which to judge its efficacy), the study cohort included 45 patients (1.5 to 22 years) in whom BiPAP was used for acute respiratory insufficiency. The primary indication for BiPAP was a primary pulmonary parenchymal process in 29 patients and postoperative atelectasis with respiratory insufficiency following cardiac or upper abdominal surgery in 16 patients. There were no differences in the pre-BiPAP values of oxygen requirement, PCO2, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate between the 2 groups. With the application of BiPAP in patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal disease, there was a decreased oxygen requirement, PCO2, and respiratory rate. No change in oxygen saturation was noted. In patients with postoperative respiratory insufficiency, there was an improvement in all 4 parameters. There was no difference in post-BiPAP values of oxygen requirement, respiratory rate, or PCO2 between the 2 groups. The post-BiPAP oxygen saturation was greater in patients with postoperative respiratory insufficiency (96% +/- 4%) than in patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal disease (92% +/- 6%, P = .02). Endotracheal intubation was required in 11 of 29 patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal pathology versus 1 of 16 patients with postoperative atelectasis and/or respiratory insufficiency (P = .03). The chances of requiring intubation were greater in patients < or = 6 years of age (relative risk 1.9), if the oxygen requirement did not decrease to less than 60% within the first 24 hours of BiPAP use (relative risk 3.3) and if there were any PCO2 values > or = 55 mmHg during the first 24 hours of BiPAP use (relative risk 9.8). No severe

  2. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  3. Prediction of 'highly skin smear positive' cases among MB leprosy patients using clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Lemaster, J W; Shwe, T; Butlin, C R; Roche, P W

    2001-03-01

    Although 'highly skin smear positive' MB leprosy cases are known to be at high risk of relapse after release from treatment, and have been recommended to receive 'prolonged duration' MDT, government field-based control programmes without skin smear facilities have no simple alternative method to detect such cases. This study reports a significant prevalence of 'highly smear positive' cases amongst 2374 new multibacillary cases recently surveyed by skin smears in Nepal, and retrospectively analyses 555 newly detected, previously untreated BL and LL cases to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that may be associated with a 'highly positive skin smear'. While some parameters showed high sensitivity in predicting 'highly positive smear' status, none showed both high sensitivity and high specificity simultaneously. PMID:11355514

  4. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Góes, Andréa Carla de Souza; de Carvalho, Jorge José; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes

    2004-03-01

    In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:15257364

  5. Utility of intradermal smear in the diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Sen, R; Singh, S; Siwach, S B; Jagdish; Singh, R M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the usefulness of the intradermal smear test in the diagnosis of malaria. One hundred cases of suspected malaria (having received no prior antimalarials) were investigated. Both peripheral blood film (PBF) and intradermal smears (IDS) were simultaneously prepared and patients placed on antimalarial therapy. The slides were repeated for the next 2 days. At admission, 70 cases were positive on PBF--59 were Plasmodium falciparum (PF) and 11 were Plasmodium vivax (PV) whereas surprisingly 62 cases were positive on IDS at admission--61 were PF, one was PV. IDS identified two more cases of PF [P value (not significant)] but failed to identify any new cases of PV (P value NS). On subsequent days IDS positivity for PF was higher than for PBF (P < 0.05 for day 1 and P < 0.001 for day 2). However, the PV yield was poor for any further statistical evaluation on subsequent days. We conclude that IDS is simple, easy to perform, requires no special infrastructure compared to PBF, and is a helpful diagnostic tool in cases where malaria is strongly suspected but peripheral blood slides are repeatedly negative due to prior use of antimalarial therapy. IDS may be added to routine PBF in malaria (especially PF). PMID:12680550

  6. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  9. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases and ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 to ...

  10. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of your uterus (womb). What is a Pap smear? A Pap smear is a test your doctor does to check ... a series of changes. The results of your Pap smear can show whether your cells are going through ...

  11. Trichomoniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or infection-causing germs in vaginal fluids. A Pap smear may also diagnose the condition. The disease can ... These changes may be seen on a routine Pap smear. Treatment should be started and the Pap smear ...

  12. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 ...

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  14. Stepwise Protocol for Cytospin-enhanced Smearing for Scraped Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeyalatha, Mani V; Malathi, Jambulingam; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2016-01-01

    Proteins and antigens present on the cell surface are usually determined by immunofluorescence staining. Uniform distribution of cells is required to appreciate the presence of surface proteins. Improper smearing or crushing of the corneal epithelial cells can potentially destroy the cellular integrity. Thus a simplified, systemic method was designed to smear the cells scraped from the cornea. The procedure includes trypsinisation for dissociation of corneal epithelial cells and cytospinning for concentrating the cells in a smear. The standardized protocol was found to be efficient in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelial cells and also the distribution of the cells in the smear. PMID:26633702

  15. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    PubMed

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy. PMID:26260828

  16. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears.

    PubMed

    Kamble, R R; Shinde, V S; Madhale, S P; Kamble, A A; Ravikumar, B P; Jadhav, R S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF) stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA) were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6%) samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases. PMID:20061767

  17. [Effect of n-BiPAP therapy on the hemodynamics in patients with central sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Thalhofer, S; Dorow, P

    1995-03-01

    We report of five patients, suffering from central sleep-apnea. All patients had a global respiratory failure during day-time and developed severe pulmonary artery hypertension during sleep. Therapy with n-BiPAP leeds to an improvement of blood gases and a decrease of pulmonary artery hypertension during sleep. PMID:7617605

  18. Pap Tests Every Three Years: Cost-Effective in the Long Run?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise Hope

    1983-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's guidelines, recommending that having Pap tests at three-year intervals is safe for many women, are questioned. Dangers to women with a high risk of cervical cancer, problems with faulty test results, and other gynecological problems that may be detected during pelvic examinations are discussed. (PP)

  19. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    PubMed

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26427364

  20. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteriophage PaP3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Canhuang; Shen, Wei; Huang, Guangtao; Le, Shuai; Lu, Shuguang; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jing; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Gang; Shen, Mengyu; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Tan, Yinling; Hu, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between Bacteriophage (phage) and host bacteria are widespread in nature and influences of phage replication on the host cells are complex and extensive. Here, we investigate genome-wide interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and its temperate phage PaP3 at five time points during phage infection. Compared to the uninfected host, 38% (2160/5633) genes of phage-infected host were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional analysis of the repressed DEGs revealed infection-stage-dependent pathway communications. Based on gene co-expression analysis, most PaP3 middle genes were predicted to have negative impact on host transcriptional regulators. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that adjacent genes of PaP3 interacted with the same host genes and might possess similar functions. Finally, our results suggested that during the whole infection stage, the early genes of PaP3 had stronger regulatory role in host gene expression than middle and late genes, while the host genes involved amino acid metabolism were the most “vulnerable” targets of these phage genes. This work provides the basis for understanding survival mechanisms of parasites and host, and seeking phage gene products that could potentially be used in anti-bacterial infection. PMID:26750429

  1. CstF-64 and 3′-UTR cis-element determine Star-PAP specificity for target mRNA selection by excluding PAPα

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Divya T.; Mohan, Nimmy; A, Vivekanand; AP, Sudheesh; G, Reshmi; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly (A) tail at the 3′-end. Canonical PAPs (PAPα/γ) polyadenylate nuclear pre-mRNAs. The recent identification of the non-canonical Star-PAP revealed specificity of nuclear PAPs for pre-mRNAs, yet the mechanism how Star-PAP selects mRNA targets is still elusive. Moreover, how Star-PAP target mRNAs having canonical AAUAAA signal are not regulated by PAPα is unclear. We investigate specificity mechanisms of Star-PAP that selects pre-mRNA targets for polyadenylation. Star-PAP assembles distinct 3′-end processing complex and controls pre-mRNAs independent of PAPα. We identified a Star-PAP recognition nucleotide motif and showed that suboptimal DSE on Star-PAP target pre-mRNA 3′-UTRs inhibit CstF-64 binding, thus preventing PAPα recruitment onto it. Altering 3′-UTR cis-elements on a Star-PAP target pre-mRNA can switch the regulatory PAP from Star-PAP to PAPα. Our results suggest a mechanism of poly (A) site selection that has potential implication on the regulation of alternative polyadenylation. PMID:26496945

  2. CstF-64 and 3'-UTR cis-element determine Star-PAP specificity for target mRNA selection by excluding PAPα.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Divya T; Mohan, Nimmy; A, Vivekanand; A P, Sudheesh; G, Reshmi; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2016-01-29

    Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly (A) tail at the 3'-end. Canonical PAPs (PAPα/γ) polyadenylate nuclear pre-mRNAs. The recent identification of the non-canonical Star-PAP revealed specificity of nuclear PAPs for pre-mRNAs, yet the mechanism how Star-PAP selects mRNA targets is still elusive. Moreover, how Star-PAP target mRNAs having canonical AAUAAA signal are not regulated by PAPα is unclear. We investigate specificity mechanisms of Star-PAP that selects pre-mRNA targets for polyadenylation. Star-PAP assembles distinct 3'-end processing complex and controls pre-mRNAs independent of PAPα. We identified a Star-PAP recognition nucleotide motif and showed that suboptimal DSE on Star-PAP target pre-mRNA 3'-UTRs inhibit CstF-64 binding, thus preventing PAPα recruitment onto it. Altering 3'-UTR cis-elements on a Star-PAP target pre-mRNA can switch the regulatory PAP from Star-PAP to PAPα. Our results suggest a mechanism of poly (A) site selection that has potential implication on the regulation of alternative polyadenylation. PMID:26496945

  3. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  4. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  5. Nursing and Respiratory Collaboration Prevents BiPAP-Related Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Acorda, Darlene E

    2015-01-01

    In early 2012, an increase in the incidence of BiPAP-related pressure ulcers was noted in the progressive care unit of a large pediatric facility. An interdisciplinary team of nursing and respiratory staff and leadership formed a collaborative to address the gaps in practice, recommend, and implement evidence-based interventions using a quality improvement model. Interventions included piloting new masks, changing the skin barrier from a hydrocolloid dressing to a foam dressing and using a template for better fit, including skin assessments every 4 hours as part of nursing and respiratory therapists' workflow, and implementing a notification process that included Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses, respiratory, and nursing leadership for any redness of skin noted. Weekly rounding and communication by nursing and respiratory leadership ensured consistency and sustainability of practice. Aside from implementation of interventions, the primary focus was to develop a collaborative relationship between nursing and respiratory teams for shared ownership and accountability of patients on BiPAP support. Three months after the implementation of interventions, the occurrence of BiPAP-related pressure ulcers decreased from eleven in the first three quarters to one occurrence in the fourth quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2012. In 2013, the occurrence decreased to five for the entire fiscal year. Since the end of FY 2013, there has only been one occurrence of a BiPAP-related pressure ulcer in the progressive care unit. Close collaboration between respiratory and nursing has been the primary factor in decreasing BiPAP-related pressure ulcers. An important lesson learned is that interdisciplinary collaboration leads to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25921961

  6. PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO) mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin), were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT) mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (<2 s) and were reduced (>60%) in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal. PMID:22011440

  7. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Hiroshi; Kitaura, Hirotake; Ariga, Hiroyoshi . E-mail: hiro@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.

    2005-02-15

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF{sup 35}. CIR was found to interact with U2AF{sup 35} through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation.

  8. Formation of DNA Methylation Patterns: Nonmethylated GATC Sequences in gut and pap Operons

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, Marjan; Hale, W. Bradley; Low, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the adenine residues in GATC sequences in the Escherichia coli chromosome are methylated by the enzyme deoxyadenosine methyltransferase (Dam). However, at least 20 GATC sequences remain nonmethylated throughout the cell cycle. Here we examined how the DNA methylation patterns of GATC sequences within the regulatory regions of the pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) operon and the glucitol utilization (gut) operon were formed. The results obtained with an in vitro methylation protection assay showed that the addition of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) to pap DNA was sufficient to protect the two GATC sequences in the pap regulatory region, GATC-I and GATC-II, from methylation by Dam. This finding was consistent with previously published data showing that Lrp was essential for methylation protection of these DNA sites in vivo. Methylation protection also occurred at a GATC site (GATC-44.5) centered 44.5 bp upstream of the transcription start site of the gutABD operon. Two proteins, GutR and the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP), bound to DNA sites overlapping the GATC-44.5-containing region of the gutABD operon. GutR, an operon-specific repressor, was essential for methylation protection in vivo, and binding of GutR protected GATC-44.5 from methylation in vitro. In contrast, binding of CAP at a site overlapping GATC-44.5 did not protect this site from methylation. Mutational analyses indicated that gutABD gene regulation was not controlled by methylation of GATC-44.5, in contrast to regulation of Pap pilus expression, which is directly controlled by methylation of the pap GATC-I and GATC-II sites. PMID:9811649

  9. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days. PMID:27605807

  10. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) and acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sarah

    2002-05-01

    Patients in acute respiratory failure (ARF) frequently present to the emergency department (ED). Traditionally management has involved mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation. Such invasive forms of treatment, however, correlate with a higher incidence of infection, mortality, length of stay and contribute to the costs of intensive care. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) such as bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) may therefore provide an alternative and preferable form of treatment. Whilst contemporary literature supports the use of BiPAP in hypercapnic ARF, its role in acute hypoxaemic presentations remains elusive. Specifically, the efficacy and safety of BiPAP in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) remains a contentious issue. The aim of this paper is to explore the physiological rationale for treatment of ACPO with BiPAP. Particular attention will focus on the comparative theoretical advantages of BiPAP in relation to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a review of recent research. Discussion will incorporate timeliness in the application of BiPAP, indicators of successful treatment, appropriate manipulation of pressure settings, nursing workload and management of patients beyond the ED. Whilst the theoretical advantages of BiPAP ventilation are acknowledged, larger randomised controlled research studies are recommended in order to clearly ensure its safe and effective application in the treatment of ACPO. PMID:12154698

  11. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  12. Specific immunofluorescence staining of Treponema pallidum in smears and tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, F; Hunter, E F; George, R W; Swisher, B L; Larsen, S A

    1991-03-01

    To date, tissue sections prepared from Formalin-fixed tissues have not been successfully stained with Treponema pallidum subspecies-specific antibody in a direct fluorescent-antibody assay. While current methods stain T. pallidum, they do not distinguish T. pallidum from other spirochetes such as Borrelia burgdorferi (E. F. Hunter, P. W. Greer, B. L. Swisher, A. R. Simons, C. E. Farshy, J. A. Crawford, and K. R. Sulzer, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108:878-880, 1984). Because trypsin pretreatment of tissue sections has enhanced other immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) applications, we compared the use of the trypsin digestion method with the current 1% ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) method as a means to obtain specific staining of T. pallidum in tissues by both direct and indirect IFA techniques. Pretreated T. pallidum-infected tissues sections from rabbits, hamsters, and humans were quantitatively examined with the direct fluorescent-antibody-T. pallidum test conjugate absorbed with Treponema phagedenis, the Reiter treponeme. For indirect staining, a serum specimen from a patients with syphilis absorbed by affinity chromatography with T. phagedenis was used as the primary reagent, and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-human globulin was used as the secondary reagent. Serum specificity was established first by examining antigen smears of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, B. burgdorferi, T. phagedenis, and Treponema denticola MRB and then by examining tissues infected with these pathogens plus those infected with four Leptospira serovars. When we stained tissue using the direct IFA method that is currently a standard method for the examination of chancre smears, we found it to be unsuitable for use with tissue. Trypsin digestion did not offer an improvement over the NH4OH pretreatment method in the specific identification of T. pallidum by direct IFA. However, specific identification of T. pallidum in tissue sections was obtained by the

  13. Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal. PMID:17368342

  14. [A case of child obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) improved by bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP)].

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Kuniaki; Niinomi, Kou; Tsukaguchi, Katsuhiko; Okamura, Hideo; Tamura, Mouka; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of severe obesity and disordered breathing with snoring during sleep. Child OHS was diagnosed using polysomnography (PSG). Although he was treated initially with nasal CPAP, it was not acceptable to him. BiPAP produced marked reduction of the respiratory disorders during sleep, as confirmed by PSG. Few reports of BiPAP for child OHS have appeared in Japan. We concluded that child OHS could be successfully treated with BiPAP when nasal CPAP was not acceptable. PMID:14531307

  15. [The applied value of BiPAP mechanical ventilation via facial of nasal mask before or after ordinary mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Chen, P

    1998-01-01

    To expore the applied value of BiPAP ventilator before or after regular ventilation, 44 patients who had indicators of regular mechanical ventilation and 4 patients who had difficulty of getting free from endotracheal intubation mechanical ventilation were ventilated with BiPAP ventilator via facial or nasal mask. The results showed that 13/44 patients had good responses and avoided receiving regular mechanical ventilation with endotracheal intubation or incision. BiPAP ventilation was also effective in patients who were dependent on regular mechanical ventilatin. PMID:10682574

  16. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    PubMed

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

  17. OsPAP10c, a novel secreted acid phosphatase in rice, plays an important role in the utilization of external organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linghong; Qiu, Wenmin; Gao, Wenwen; Tyerman, Stephen D; Shou, Huixia; Wang, Chuang

    2016-10-01

    Under phosphate (Pi ) starvation, plants increase the secretion of purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) into the rhizosphere to scavenge organic phosphorus (P) for plant use. To date, only a few members of the PAP family have been characterized in crops. In this study, we identified a novel secreted PAP in rice, OsPAP10c, and investigated its role in the utilization of external organic P. OsPAP10c belongs to a monocotyledon-specific subclass of Ia group PAPs and is specifically expressed in the epidermis/exodermis cell layers of roots. Both the transcript and protein levels of OsPAP10c are strongly induced by Pi starvation. OsPAP10c overexpression increased acid phosphatase (APase) activity by more than 10-fold in the culture media and almost fivefold in both roots and leaves under Pi -sufficient and Pi -deficient conditions. This increase in APase activity further improved the plant utilization efficiency of external organic P. Moreover, several APase isoforms corresponding to OsPAP10c were identified using in-gel activity assays. Under field conditions with three different Pi supply levels, OsPAP10c-overexpressing plants had significantly higher tiller numbers and shorter plant heights. This study indicates that OsPAP10c encodes a novel secreted APase that plays an important role in the utilization of external organic P in rice. PMID:27411391

  18. Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

  19. Associations Between Women's Perception of Their Husbands'/Partners' Social Support and Pap Screening in Pacific Islander Communities.

    PubMed

    Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Weiss, Jie Wu; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Flores, Preciosa; Flores, Peter; Paige, Ciara; Tui'one May, Vanessa; Tupua, Marina; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Taito, Peniamina; Vaikona, Elenoa; Vunileva, Isileli

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Islanders experience high rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which Samoan, Chamorro, and Tongan women's perceived receipt of social support from their husbands or male partners was associated with rates of routine cancer screening- specifically Pap testing. A total of 585 Pacific Islander women who live in the United States completed a self-report survey. Women who reported having a Pap test within the past 3 years had significantly higher scores on support from their husbands/male partners. Furthermore, the relationship of emotional support and informational support with increased Pap testing was significantly stronger for Tongan women. The findings suggest that men play an important role in promoting women's cancer prevention behaviors in Pacific Islander and potentially other collectivistic populations. Incorporating social support messages into interventions may be a simple yet effective strategy to increase women's Pap testing. PMID:26646422

  20. Cuando uno de tus papás tiene cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Sugerencias para saber qué decir a los amigos, cómo superar la tensión y en dónde encontrar apoyo; también, información sobre el cáncer y sobre los tratamientos de cáncer, para jóvenes que tienen a uno de sus papás con cáncer.

  1. PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination. PMID:24885884

  2. Allosteric signalling in the outer membrane translocation domain of PapC usher

    PubMed Central

    Farabella, Irene; Pham, Thieng; Henderson, Nadine S; Geibel, Sebastian; Phan, Gilles; Thanassi, David G; Delcour, Anne H; Waksman, Gabriel; Topf, Maya

    2014-01-01

    PapC ushers are outer-membrane proteins enabling assembly and secretion of P pili in uropathogenic E. coli. Their translocation domain is a large β-barrel occluded by a plug domain, which is displaced to allow the translocation of pilus subunits across the membrane. Previous studies suggested that this gating mechanism is controlled by a β-hairpin and an α-helix. To investigate the role of these elements in allosteric signal communication, we developed a method combining evolutionary and molecular dynamics studies of the native translocation domain and mutants lacking the β-hairpin and/or the α-helix. Analysis of a hybrid residue interaction network suggests distinct regions (residue ‘communities’) within the translocation domain (especially around β12–β14) linking these elements, thereby modulating PapC gating. Antibiotic sensitivity and electrophysiology experiments on a set of alanine-substitution mutants confirmed functional roles for four of these communities. This study illuminates the gating mechanism of PapC ushers and its importance in maintaining outer-membrane permeability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03532.001 PMID:25271373

  3. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  4. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  5. The amyloidogenic SEVI precursor, PAP248-286, is highly unfolded in solution despite an underlying helical tendency

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Popovych, Nataliya; Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibers in human semen known as SEVI (Semen-derived Enhancer of Viral Infection) dramatically increase the infectivity of HIV and other enveloped viruses, which appears to be linked to the promotion of bridging interactions and the neutralization of electrostatic repulsion between the host and the viral cell membranes. The SEVI precursor PAP248-286 is mostly disordered when bound to detergent micelles, in contrast to the highly α-helical structures found for most amyloid proteins. To determine the origin of this difference, the structures of PAP248-286 were solved in aqueous solution and with 30% and 50% trifluoroethanol. In solution, pulsed field gradient (PFG)-NMR and 1H-1H NOESY experiments indicate that PAP248-286 is unfolded to an unusual degree for an amyloidogenic peptide but adopts significantly helical structures in TFE solutions. The clear differences between the structures of PAP248-286 in TFE and SDS indicate electrostatic interactions play a large role in the folding of the peptide, consistent with the slight degree of penetration of PAP248-286 into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. This is another noticeable difference between PAP248-286 and other amyloid peptides, which generally show penetration into at least the headgroup region of the bilayer, and may explain some of the unusual properties of SEVI. PMID:21262195

  6. [Effect of CPAP and BiPAP assisted breathing on pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Pałasiewicz, G; Sliwiński, P; Hawrylkiewicz, I; Cieślicki, J; Koziej, M; Zieliński, J

    1996-01-01

    CPAP breathing increases alveolar and intrathoracic pressures. We aimed to investigate the effects of CPAP and BiPAP breathing on pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with OSA. Ten male patients with OSA (AHI = 48 +/- 22) were studied. In each patient intravascular and esophageal pressures were measured and mean transmural pulmonary artery and transmural wedge (Pwtm) pressures were calculated. After baseline recordings patients were submitted to 25 min. of CPAP and BiPAP breathing in random order. The pressure of 10 cm H20 for CPAP and 10/4 cm H20 for BiPAP was used. At baseline pulmonary arterial pressures and flow were normal. CPAP breathing resulted in an increase in mean pulmonary intravascular pressure from 15.5 +/- 1.8 mmHg to 17.1 +/- 2.3 mmHg (p < 0.05). Transmural pressure did not change. There was also no change in the cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). At some time points pulmonary arterial pressures were higher during CPAP breathing than during BiPAP breathing (p < 0.01). BiPAP breathing had no effect on intravascular and transmural pressures, CO and PVR. We conclude that CPAP breathing increase pulmonary intravascular but not transmural, true, pressure. BiPAP breathing does not change pulmonary haemodynamics what may be of importance as pulmonary circulation is concerned. PMID:8991563

  7. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  8. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  9. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of PAPS1-Dependent Polyadenylation Identifies Novel Roles for Functionally Specialized Poly(A) Polymerases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ramming, Anna; Kolbe, Benjamin; Vi, Son Lang; Bispo, Cláudia; Becker, Jörg D.; de Moor, Cornelia; Lenhard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The poly(A) tail at 3’ ends of eukaryotic mRNAs promotes their nuclear export, stability and translational efficiency, and changes in its length can strongly impact gene expression. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three canonical nuclear poly(A) polymerases, PAPS1, PAPS2 and PAPS4. As shown by their different mutant phenotypes, these three isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 modifying organ growth and suppressing a constitutive immune response. However, the molecular basis of this specialization is largely unknown. Here, we have estimated poly(A)-tail lengths on a transcriptome-wide scale in wild-type and paps1 mutants. This identified categories of genes as particularly strongly affected in paps1 mutants, including genes encoding ribosomal proteins, cell-division factors and major carbohydrate-metabolic proteins. We experimentally verified two novel functions of PAPS1 in ribosome biogenesis and redox homoeostasis that were predicted based on the analysis of poly(A)-tail length changes in paps1 mutants. When overlaying the PAPS1-dependent effects observed here with coexpression analysis based on independent microarray data, the two clusters of transcripts that are most closely coexpressed with PAPS1 show the strongest change in poly(A)-tail length and transcript abundance in paps1 mutants in our analysis. This suggests that their coexpression reflects at least partly the preferential polyadenylation of these transcripts by PAPS1 versus the other two poly(A)-polymerase isoforms. Thus, transcriptome-wide analysis of poly(A)-tail lengths identifies novel biological functions and likely target transcripts for polyadenylation by PAPS1. Data integration with large-scale co-expression data suggests that changes in the relative activities of the isoforms are used as an endogenous mechanism to co-ordinately modulate plant gene expression. PMID:26305463

  12. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

  13. Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion. PMID:20205743

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during pressure support ventilation with airway management system (BiPAP) devices.

    PubMed

    Lofaso, F; Brochard, L; Touchard, D; Hang, T; Harf, A; Isabey, D

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing occurs in acute respiratory failure patients ventilated using the standard airway management system (BiPAP pressure support ventilator; Respironics; Murrysville, Pa) with positive inspiratory airway pressure and a minimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and whether any CO2 rebreathing may be efficiently prevented by the addition of a nonrebreathing valve to the BiPAP system circuit. In the first part of the study, the standard device was tested on a lung model with a nonrebreathing valve (BiPAP-NRV) and with the usual Whisper Swivel connector (BiPAP-uc). With the BiPAP-uc device, the resident volume of expired air in the inspiratory circuit at the end of expiration (RVEA) was 55% of the tidal volume (VT) when the inspiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O and the frequency was at 15 cycles per minute. The BiPAP-NRV device efficiently prevented CO2 rebreathing but resulted in a slight decrease in VT, which was due to a significant increase in external PEEP (2.4 vs 1.3 cm H2O) caused by the additional expiratory valve resistance. For similar reasons, both the pressure swing necessary to trigger pressure support and the imposed expiratory work were increased in the lung model when the nonrebreathing valve was used. In the second part of the study, seven patients weaned from mechanical ventilation were investigated using a randomized crossover design to compare three situations: pressure support ventilation with a conventional intensive care ventilator (CIPS), BiPAP system use, and BiPAP-NRV. When we compared the BiPAP system use with the other two systems, we observed no significant effect on blood gases but found significant increases in VT, minute ventilation, and work of breathing. These findings are experimental and are clinical evidence that significant CO2 rebreathing occurs with the standard BiPAP system. This drawback can be overcome by using a non-rebreathing valve

  16. Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Snehalata; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2005-03-01

    In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220-12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552-3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049-1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs serve as a cofactor/anchor for PAPs (Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 197-208; Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (2004) 731-742), roles of these clip-domain proteins (i.e. PAPs and SPHs) in proPO activation are poorly defined. To better understand this process, we further characterized the activation reaction using proPO, PAP-1 and SPHs. PAP-1 itself cleaved nearly 1/3 of proPO at Arg51 without generating much phenoloxidase (PO) activity. In the presence of SPHs, the cleavage of proPO became more complete while the increase in PO activity was over 20-fold, indicating that the extent of cleavage does not directly correlate with PO activity. Since SPHs and p-amidinophenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF)-treated PAP-1 did not generate active PO by interacting with proPO, proteolytic cleavage is critical for proPO activation. After 1/5 of proPO was processed by PAP-1 alone which was then inactivated by M. sexta serpin-1J or APMSF, further incubation of the reaction mixture with SPHs failed to generate active PO either. Thus, SPHs cannot generate PO activity by simply binding to cleaved proPO. M. sexta proPO activation requires active PAP-1 and SPHs at the same time-one for limited proteolysis and the other as a cofactor, perhaps. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis revealed the PAP-SPH, proPO-PAP, and SPH-proPO associations, essential for generating high Mr, active PO at the site of infection. PMID:15705503

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain

    SciTech Connect

    Timonin, P. N.

    2012-12-15

    At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P(J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P(J) that is zero above some -J{sub 1} and behaves near it as (-J{sub 1}-J){sup {lambda}}, {lambda} > -1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > H{sub c} = 2J{sub 1}. At 0 > {lambda} > -1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near H{sub c} with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on {lambda}. At {lambda} > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate 'bow-tie' phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J{sub 1} < H < H{sub c}. Its origin can be traced to the infinite correlation length of the degenerate AF phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the 'bow-tie' phase in low-T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

  20. A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Fazzi, M.; Van Riet, T.

    2014-04-01

    In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in arXiv:1111.2605 and arXiv:1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur.

  1. [Effect of smear layer removal on bevelled and retrofilled teeth in vitro].

    PubMed

    Carlson, E; Simon, J

    1990-03-01

    The "smear layer" is composed of debris that cover and insert into dentinal tubules. It is not really known if this form of debris may harbon viable bacterias or does form a barrier that enhances endodontic fillings by lining or plugging the tubules. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the smear layer in leakage by using two groups of teeth in which the smear layer was removed of the root canals, in the first group and left into the roots in the second group. Some samples were beveled and all teeth were retrofilled after Root Canal Preparation, and then filled with India Ink. After examination of leakage under various conditions, it has been found a correlation between leakage and removal of smear layer. PMID:2382045

  2. Smeared quantum phase transition in the dissipative random quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.

  3. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  4. Diagnostic value of Tzanck smear in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yaeen, Atiya; Ahmad, Qazi Masood; Farhana, Anjum; Shah, Parveen; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous cytology has long been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of several erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. The Tzanck smear although an old tool, still remains a simple, rapid, easily applied, and inexpensive test for these skin lesions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Tzanck smear by determining its sensitivity and specificity in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with erosive, vesicular, and/or bullous skin lesions were included in the study. Four groups of disorders were identified: infections, immunologic disorders, genodermatosis, and spongiotic dermatitis. All the study cases were evaluated by Tzanck smear. Definitive diagnosis was established by standard diagnostic techniques (including when appropriate, viral serology, bacterial culture, histopathology, direct immunoflourescence). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytologic findings was respectively 86.36% and 91.30% for viral infections; for bacterial infections, it was 85.7% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear was respectively 85.0% and 83.33% for pemphigus; for bullous pemhigoid it was 11.11% and 100.0%. Tzanck smear sensitivity in genodermatoses was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test in spongiotic dermatitis could not be calculated due to an insufficient number of patients. Conclusion: The Tzanck smear is a quick and reliable tool for the evaluation of various erosive and vesiculobullous skin lesions. PMID:26751561

  5. Combined use of conventional smear and liquid-based preparation versus conventional smear for thyroid fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Song, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the diagnostic utility of the combined conventional smear (CS) and liquid-based preparation (LBP) compared to CS with respect to the non-diagnostic rate, the atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. In our institution, thyroid FNAs were processed with CS before October 2012, and LBP has been used in combination with CS after October 2012. On-site evaluation for the adequacy of CS was not performed. This study included nodules 5 mm or larger with FNAs performed by faculties: 811 nodules in 773 patients for CS, and 926 nodules in 894 patients for combined CS and LBP. Nodules with surgery or either benign or malignancy cytology on initial or repeat FNA were regarded to have the reference standards needed to calculate diagnostic performances. The proportion of Bethesda categories and diagnostic performances were compared between the two groups with z test. The non-diagnostic rate, the AUS or FLUS rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy were similar (All P > 0.05). The follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicious for FN rate decreased from 1.2 to 0.3 % (P = 0.034). The benign rate increased from 51.4 to 57.0 % (P = 0.019). Combined CS and LBP decreased FN or suspicious for FN diagnoses, and increased benign diagnoses compared to CS with comparable non-diagnostic rates and AUS or FLUS rates, and comparable diagnostic performances. PMID:26714459

  6. Evaluation of the management of Hr-HPV+/PapTest- women: results at 1-year recall

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Caterina; Puggioni, Chiara; Lendaro, Eugenio; Cacciotti, Jessica; Zaralli, Roberto; Migliore, Giovanna; Bellardini, Paola; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Di Cristofano, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    With cervical cancer screening the choice of 1-year as a period of follow-up in positive high-risk HPV women without cytological lesions is still under discussion. We evaluated the management of these women and the role of HPV genotyping test. We did a cervical cancer screening study of women aged 35-64 with primary high-risk HPV test. Women positive for high-risk HPV with negative cytology were followed-up after 1 year. In this study we selected women with high-risk HPV+/PapTest- resulted high-risk HPV+ at recall and performed the PapTest and HPV genotyping test. The detection rate of squamous high grade (CIN2+) relative to the total screened cohort was 2.1‰, and it was 0.2‰ at the 1-year recall. The colposcopy performed in women referred at the 1-year recall accounted for 48.8% of the total (baseline + 1-year recall), and 84.3% of these women had no cytological lesions. The most frequent hr-HPV genotype detected was HPV16 and 66.7% of co-infections were due to HPV16 and HPV18. 54.5% of women presented a persistent infection at 1-year recall with the same HPV subtype, 50% of persistent infections was due to HPV16 and 16.7% of these were determined to be CIN2+ histological lesions. Our data show that it may be useful to extend the period of follow-up for women hr-HPV+/PapTest- so as to reduce the number of unnecessary colposcopies due to the transitory infections and that the genotyping test could help to identify the persistent infections in which HPV16 is involved. PMID:26884886

  7. [BiPAP (Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure)--an apparatus for non-invasive respiratory support].

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, F O; Vindelev, P O; Juhl, B

    1996-01-22

    Ventilatory support to patients suffering from respiratory insufficiency using a non-invasive technique has gained increasing popularity during the last few years. BiPAP (biphasic positive airway pressure) (Respiconics) offers inspiratory support and expiratory resistance to this group of patients both in the hospital and, in particular, in the home. The apparatus has proven to be effective as for instance a long term support device for patients suffering from neuromuscular diseases, sleep apnoeas and during the postoperative period. It works without pressurized air and is portable. PMID:8638299

  8. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  9. [Nasal BiPAP (bilevel positive airway pressure) respiration with controlled respiratory mode in neuromuscular diseases and severe kyphoscoliosis].

    PubMed

    Netzer, N; Werner, P; Korinthenberg, R; Matthys, H

    1995-03-01

    The BiPAP-System is a useful ventilatory support for patients with severe sleep apnea and need for high inspiratory pressure. Using the BiPAP as a full ventilatory support is new due to the recent addition of a timed control modus and individual control of inspiratory time. We used the new BiPAP ST-System in one young men with Duchenne-disease, one man with heredo ataxia (Friedreich), one women with spinal muscular atrophy, one man with central sleep apnea due to brainstem infarction as well as two women and one men with severe kyphoscoliosis. All patients had a significant hypoventilation and hypoxemia at night, which was documented by polysomnography. Mechanical ventilation at night with nasal BiPAP increased the baseline oxygen saturation (SaO2) by an average of 11.9% in all seven patients. The frequency of desaturations below 90% diminished by an average of 81%. The lowest SaO2 measured increased by 28% in all seven patients combined. Rhinitis due to the dryness of the inspired air were noticed in only two patients. Two other patients needed adaptation to the customized mask. The nasal BiPAP-System using the T-mode is a useful device to support ventilation at night and thus it could replace ventilatory support by the IPPV-mode in many patients. PMID:7617604

  10. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  11. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  12. Pap test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/23090560 . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 463: Cervical cancer in adolescents: screening, evaluation, and management. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;116(2 Pt 1):469- ...

  13. A major root-associated acid phosphatase in Arabidopsis, AtPAP10, is regulated by both local and systemic signals under phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyue; Lu, Shan; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is a universal response of plants to phosphate (Pi) starvation. AtPAP10 (Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 10) is a major Pi starvation-induced APase that is associated with the root surface in Arabidopsis. So far, the roles of local and systemic signalling in regulating root-associated AtPAP10 activity remain largely unknown. In this work, we show that a decrease of local, external Pi availability is sufficient to induce AtPAP10 transcription in roots in the presence of sucrose, a systemic signal from shoots, whereas the magnitude of the induction is affected by the Pi status of the whole plant. Once the AtPAP10 mRNAs are synthesized in roots, subsequent accumulation of AtPAP10 proteins in root cells and increase in AtPAP10 activity on the root surface are mainly controlled by local signalling. Previously, ethylene has been demonstrated to be a positive regulator of AtPAP10 activity. In this study, we provide evidence that under Pi deficiency ethylene mainly modulates enzymatic activity of AtPAP10 on the root surface, but not AtPAP10 transcription and protein accumulation, suggesting that it functions as a local signal. Furthermore, our work indicates that the effect of ethylene on the induction of root-associated AtPAP10 activity depends on sucrose, but that the effect of sucrose does not depend on ethylene. These results reveal new insights into the distinct roles of local and systemic signalling in the regulation of root-associated AtPAP10 activity under Pi starvation. PMID:25246445

  14. Enhanced production and organic solvent stability of a protease fromBrevibacillus laterosporus strain PAP04

    PubMed Central

    Anbu, P.

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain (PAP04) isolated from cattle farm soil was shown to produce an extracellular, solvent-stable protease. Sequence analysis using 16S rRNA showed that this strain was highly homologous (99%) to Brevibacillus laterosporus. Growth conditions that optimize protease production in this strain were determined as maltose (carbon source), skim milk (nitrogen source), pH 7.0, 40°C temperature, and 48 h incubation. Overall, conditions were optimized to yield a 5.91-fold higher production of protease compared to standard conditions. Furthermore, the stability of the enzyme in organic solvents was assessed by incubation for 2 weeks in solutions containing 50% concentration of various organic solvents. The enzyme retained activity in all tested solvents except ethanol; however, the protease activity was stimulated in benzene (74%) followed by acetone (63%) and chloroform (54.8%). In addition, the plate assay and zymography results also confirmed the stability of the PAP04 protease in various organic solvents. The organic solvent stability of this protease at high (50%) concentrations of solvents makes it an alternative catalyst for peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:27007657

  15. An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255

  16. Enhanced production and organic solvent stability of a protease from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain PAP04.

    PubMed

    Anbu, P

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain (PAP04) isolated from cattle farm soil was shown to produce an extracellular, solvent-stable protease. Sequence analysis using 16S rRNA showed that this strain was highly homologous (99%) to Brevibacillus laterosporus. Growth conditions that optimize protease production in this strain were determined as maltose (carbon source), skim milk (nitrogen source), pH 7.0, 40°C temperature, and 48 h incubation. Overall, conditions were optimized to yield a 5.91-fold higher production of protease compared to standard conditions. Furthermore, the stability of the enzyme in organic solvents was assessed by incubation for 2 weeks in solutions containing 50% concentration of various organic solvents. The enzyme retained activity in all tested solvents except ethanol; however, the protease activity was stimulated in benzene (74%) followed by acetone (63%) and chloroform (54.8%). In addition, the plate assay and zymography results also confirmed the stability of the PAP04 protease in various organic solvents. The organic solvent stability of this protease at high (50%) concentrations of solvents makes it an alternative catalyst for peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:27007657

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  19. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Houshmand, B.; Ghandi, M.; Nekoofar, MH.; Gholamii, Gh. A.; Tabor, R. K.; Dummer, P. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces. Materials and Methods Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. The specimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD. All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer. Results MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001) the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used. Conclusion MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested. PMID:22509454

  20. Interphase Molecular Cytogenetic Detection Rates of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Specific Aberrations Are Higher in Cultivated Cells Than in Blood or Bone Marrow Smears.

    PubMed

    Alhourani, Eyad; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Harutyunyan, Tigran; Glaser, Anita; Schlie, Cordula; Pohle, Beate; Liehr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Banding cytogenetics is still the gold standard in many fields of leukemia diagnostics. However, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), GTG-banding results are hampered by a low mitotic rate of the corresponding malignant lymphatic cells. Thus, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) for the detection of specific cytogenetic aberrations is done nowadays as a supplement to or even instead of banding cytogenetics in many diagnostic laboratories. These iFISH studies can be performed on native blood or bone marrow smears or in nuclei after cultivation and stimulation by a suitable mitogen. As there are only few comparative studies with partially conflicting results for the detection rates of aberrations in cultivated and native cells, this question was studied in 38 CLL cases with known aberrations in 11q22.2, 11q22.3, 12, 13q14.3, 14q32.33, 17p13.1, or 18q21.32. The obtained results implicate that iFISH directly applied on smears is in general less efficient for the detection of CLL-specific genetic abnormalities than for cultivated cells. This also shows that applied cell culture conditions are well suited for malignant CLL cells. Thus, to detect malignant aberrant cells in CLL, cell cultivation and cytogenetic workup should be performed and the obtained material should be subjected to banding cytogenetics and iFISH. PMID:27315825

  1. Trichomoniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or infection-causing germs in vaginal fluids. A Pap smear may also diagnose the condition. The disease ... These changes may be seen on a routine Pap smear. Treatment should be started and the Pap ...

  2. Enhancement of chlorogenic acid production in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by over-expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtPAP1.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

  3. A novel 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-activin A pathway in human alveolar macrophages is dysfunctional in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    PubMed

    Barna, Barbara P; Malur, Anagha; Dalrymple, Heidi; Karnekar, Reema; Culver, Daniel A; Abraham, Susamma; Singh, Ravinder J; Brescia, Donald; Kavuru, Mani S; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that activin A, a cytokine implicated in regulating B-cell proliferation, is severely deficient in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), an autoimmune disorder characterized by surfactant accumulation and neutralizing autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mechanisms of activin regulation in alveolar macrophages are not well understood. Based on previous gene array results from PAP bronchoalveolar lavage cells suggesting deficiencies in vitamin D target genes, and on recent evidence of vitamin D receptor elements (VDREs) in the human activin A gene promoter, we investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D(3)) on activin A expression in alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals and PAP patients. Activin A expression was stimulated by LPS in cultures of either healthy control or PAP alveolar macrophages; in contrast, vitamin D(3) increased activin A only in healthy controls but not in PAP. Compared to healthy controls, freshly obtained (uncultured) PAP alveolar macrophages displayed healthy intrinsic vitamin D receptor expression but deficient expression of vitamin D target genes, cathelicidin and thioredoxin interacting protein. PAP patients also demonstrated a relative insufficiency of circulating vitamin D. Investigation of activin A in murine alveolar macrophages confirmed a lack of functional response to vitamin D as anticipated since murine activin A does not contain VDREs. Results suggest that mechanisms of activin A deficiency in PAP alveolar macrophages may involve dysregulation of a novel species-specific vitamin D-activin A pathway. PMID:18803071

  4. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA. PMID:25153629

  5. pap-2-encoded fimbriae adhere to the P blood group-related glycosphingolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 in the human kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Karr, J F; Nowicki, B J; Truong, L D; Hull, R A; Moulds, J J; Hull, S I

    1990-01-01

    A subtype of P fimbriae, encoded by the pap-2 gene cluster, has been analyzed for agglutination of erythrocytes and for binding to cryostat sections of the human kidney. We have demonstrated that pap-2-encoded fimbriae are capable of binding to erythrocytes from some animal species and to human erythrocytes which express globoside and the LKE (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 [SSEA-4]) antigen. The pap-2 fimbriae bind to Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Monoclonal antibodies directed against glycosphingolipids were used for the detection of specific P blood group-related antigens in the human kidney and on erythrocytes. Preincubation of kidney sections with monoclonal antibody MC813-70, which binds to the SSEA-4 antigen, inhibited adherence of purified pap-2-encoded fimbriae to Bowman's capsule. We suggest that one receptor for pap-2-encoded fimbriae is the antigen known as LKE (Luke) on human erythrocytes or SSEA-4 in the tissues. Images PMID:1979319

  6. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  7. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  8. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  9. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. PMID:24578310

  10. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (P<0.05). Coronal leakage afte smear layer removal with 17% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  11. The effects of cavity smear layer removal on experimental marginal leakage around amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Jodaikin, A; Austin, J C

    1981-11-01

    Unvarnished freshly-packed dental amalgam restorations leak initially. However, with time, a marginal seal is usually effected. It is not known whether the smear layer which forms during cavity preparation is associated with this leakage pattern. This study was undertaken to evaluate experimental marginal leakage around amalgam restorations (left in situ for one and 12 wk) which had been placed in cavities prepared with and without removal of the smear layer in vital and devitalized teeth. The cavities were obturated with two types of dental amalgams, a conventional and a dispersed-phase amalgam. The excised teeth restorations were subjected to a fluorescent dye marginal leakage experiment. All of the short-term specimens leaked severely, but some of the long-term specimens displayed significant sealing properties. No significant differences were found between the two types of amalgams. However, the non-vital tooth specimens and cavities without smear layers displayed significantly improved sealing properties. PMID:7026631

  12. Sputum smear microscopy result: a predictor for drug-resistant tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Dean, A S; Zignol, M; Lumb, R; Lalor, M; Skrahina, A; Floyd, K

    2016-07-01

    Until countries establish capacity for continuous surveillance systems, representative surveys of tuberculosis (TB) patients continue to improve our understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB and help ensure appropriate allocation of resources. Although the available data are limited, the current recommendation of restricting surveys to sputum smear-positive patients is justified, given the greatly simplified logistics and only limited evidence in specific settings of an association between drug resistance and sputum smear status. Nonetheless, the relationship between drug resistance and sputum smear microscopy results may vary according to the setting and population under study. With the increasing availability and use of molecular diagnostics and the drive for universal drug susceptibility testing under the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy, substantially more data on drug resistance in the whole TB patient population should become available in the near future. PMID:27287635

  13. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper. PMID:11589547

  14. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  15. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  16. Smeared hair and black holes in three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mu-In

    2009-10-15

    It is known that there is no three-dimensional analog of de Sitter black holes. I show that the analog does exist when non-Gaussian (i.e., ring-type) smearings of point matter hairs are considered. This provides a new way of constructing black hole solutions from hairs. I find that the obtained black hole solutions are quite different from the usual large black holes in that there are (i) large to small black hole transitions which may be considered as inverse Hawking-Page transitions and (ii) solitonlike (i.e., nonperturbative) behaviors. For Gaussian smearing, there is no black hole but a gravastar solution exists.

  17. Insights into pilus assembly and secretion from the structure and functional characterization of usher PapC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yihua; Smith, Barbara S.; Chen, Lucy X.; Baxter, Richard H.G.; Deisenhofer, Johann; UTSMC; Texas

    2009-07-10

    Ushers constitute a family of bacterial outer membrane proteins responsible for the assembly and secretion of surface organelles such as the pilus. The structure at 3.15-A resolution of the usher pyelonephritis-associated pili C (PapC) translocation domain reveals a 24-stranded kidney-shaped beta-barrel, occluded by an internal plug domain. The dimension of the pore allows tandem passage of individual folded pilus subunits in an upright pilus growth orientation, but is insufficient for accommodating donor strand exchange. The molecular packing revealed by the crystal structure shows that 2 PapC molecules in head-to-head orientation interact via exposed beta-strand edges, which could be the preferred dimer interaction in solution. In vitro reconstitution of fiber assemblies suggest that PapC monomers may be sufficient for fiber assembly and secretion; both the plug domain and the C-terminal domain of PapC are required for filament assembly, whereas the N-terminal domain is mainly responsible for recruiting the chaperone-subunit complexes to the usher. The plug domain has a dual function: gating the beta-pore and participating in pilus assembly.

  18. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    SciTech Connect

    Grum, Daniel; Boom, Johannes van den; Neumann, Daniel; Matena, Anja; Link, Nina M.; Mueller, Jonathan W.

    2010-05-07

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  19. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation: the benefits of the BiPAP system.

    PubMed

    Teba, L; Marks, P; Benzo, R

    1996-01-01

    Many of the complications with endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation can be avoided with the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). This technique has been especially successful in treating patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIMV improves gas exchange, avoids complications caused by endotracheal intubation, and allows patients to talk and take medications orally. This article reviews our experiences treating 27 patients with ARF with a BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) ventilator. This is a portable unit which allows for selection of different modes of ventilation and adjustment of inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered in patients presenting with ARF who are hemodynamically stable and in whom spontaneous breathing is preserved. PMID:8599242

  20. In silico identification of PAP-1 binding sites in the Kv1.2 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Christian; Darré, Leonardo; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Pryde, David; Domene, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1 family play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in excitable cells affecting neuronal and cardiac activities. Small-molecule blockage of these channels has been proposed to occur via a cooperative mechanism involving two main blocking sites: the inner-pore site located below the selectivity filter, and a side-pocket cavity located between the pore and the voltage sensor. Using 0.5 μs molecular dynamics simulation trajectories complemented by docking calculations, the potential binding sites of the PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) blocker to the crystal structure of Kv1.2 channel have been studied. The presence of both mentioned blocking sites at Kv1.2 is confirmed, adding evidence in favor of a cooperative channel blockage mechanism. These observations provide insight into drug modulation that will guide further developments of Kv inhibitors. PMID:25734225

  1. PAP-LMPCR for improved, allele-specific footprinting and automated chromatin fine structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R.; Gao, C.; LeBon, J.; Liu, Q.; Mayoral, R. J.; Sommer, S. S.; Hoogenkamp, M.; Riggs, A. D.; Bonifer, C.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of chromatin fine structure and transcription factor occupancy of differentially expressed genes by in vivo footprinting and ligation-mediated-PCR (LMPCR) is a powerful tool to understand the impact of chromatin on gene expression. However, as with all PCR-based techniques, the accuracy of the experiments has often been reduced by sequence similarities and the presence of GC-rich or repeat sequences, and some sequences are completely refractory to analysis. Here we describe a novel method, pyrophosphorolysis activated polymerization LMPCR or PAP-LMPCR, which is capable of generating accurate and reproducible footprints specific for individual alleles and can read through sequences previously not accessible for analysis. In addition, we have adapted this technique for automation, thus enabling the simultaneous and rapid analysis of chromatin structure at many different genes. PMID:18208840

  2. CPAP and Bi-level PAP Therapy: New and Established Roles

    PubMed Central

    Antonescu-Turcu, Andreea; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea has evolved into more and more sophisticated modes of therapy for various forms of sleep-disordered breathing. While the principles of splinting the airway and delivering assisted ventilation underpin the basics of this therapy, the introduction of newer technologies and miniaturization are revolutionizing the former conventions of the field. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of various forms of PAP therapy by providing the rationale for such modalities, gaining a basic working knowledge of device technology, and critically assessing the clinical research evidence while identifying barriers to implementation. Dissemination of such information is vital in order to prevent knowledge gaps in healthcare providers and systems. PMID:20800002

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  4. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  5. Acute effects of CPAP and BiPAP breathing on pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Palasiewicz, G; Sliwiński, P; Koziej, M; Zieliński, J

    1997-10-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) breathing increases alveolar and intrathoracic pressures, hampering venous return and pulmonary capillary flow. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) breathing assuring lower expiratory pressure should impede less the pulmonary circulation. We aimed to compare the effects of CPAP and BiPAP breathing on pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Nine male OSA patients (mean ( +/- SD) apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHD = 46 +/- 22) were studied. In each patient, intravascular and oesophageal pressures were measured and mean transmural pulmonary artery and transmural wedge pressures were calculated. After baseline recordings, patients were submitted to 25 min of CPAP and BiPAP breathing delivered in random order. The pressure of 10 cmH2O for CPAP and 10/4 cmH2O for BiPAP was used. At baseline, subjects presented with normal pulmonary arterial pressures and cardiac output (Q'). CPAP breathing resulted in a slow increase in mean pulmonary intravascular pressure from 13.8 +/- 2.0 mmHg reaching 14.8 +/- 1.8 mmHg at the 25th minute of investigation (p < 0.05). Transmural pressure did not change. There was also no change in the Q' and in the pulmonary vascular resistance. BiPAP breathing had no effect on intravascular and transmural pressures, Q' and pulmonary vascular resistance. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases pulmonary intravascular but not transmural, true, pressure. Bilevel positive airway pressure breathing does not affect central pulmonary haemodynamics. PMID:9510662

  6. Leucine-responsive regulatory protein Lrp and PapI homologues influence phase variation of CS31A fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Graveline, Richard; Garneau, Philippe; Martin, Christine; Mourez, Michaël; Hancock, Mark A; Lavoie, Rémi; Harel, Josée

    2014-08-15

    CS31A, a K88-related surface antigen specified by the clp operon, is a member of the type P family of adhesive factors and plays a key role in the establishment of disease caused by septicemic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Its expression is under the control of methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation, for which the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is essential. CS31A is preferentially in the OFF state and exhibits distinct regulatory features compared to the regulation of other P family members. In the present study, surface plasmon resonance and DNase I protection assays showed that Lrp binds to the distal moiety of the clp regulatory region with low micromolar affinity compared to its binding to the proximal moiety, which exhibits stronger, nanomolar affinity. The complex formation was also influenced by the addition of PapI or FooI, which increased the affinity of Lrp for the clp distal and proximal regions and was required to induce phase variation. The influence of PapI or FooI, however, was predominantly associated with a more complete shutdown of clp expression, in contrast to what has previously been observed with AfaF (a PapI ortholog). Taken together, these results suggest that the preferential OFF state observed in CS31A cells is mainly due to the weak interaction of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein with the clp distal region and that the PapI homolog favors the OFF phase. Within the large repertoire of fimbrial variants in the P family, our study illustrates that having a fimbrial operon that lacks its own PapI ortholog allows it to be more flexibly regulated by other orthologs in the cell. PMID:24914179

  7. Is There an Association Between Maternal Pap Test Use and Adolescent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination? Implications and Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the association between mother’s recent receipt of a Pap test and daughter’s uptake and completion of the three-shot human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 9 U.S. states and Puerto Rico and logistic regression models to examine the association between mother’s receipt of a Pap test in the past 3 years and daughter’s uptake and completion of the three-shot HPV vaccination series among adolescent girls aged 9-17 years (N = 4,776). Results Approximately one-quarter of adolescent girls began the HPV vaccination series, and 13.6% completed the three-shot series. Uptake and completion were more likely among girls whose mothers had obtained a Pap test within the past 3 years—for HPV uptake, odds ratio: 1.342, 95% confidence interval: 1.073-1.692; for HPV completion, odds ratio: 1.904; 95% confidence interval: 1.372-2.721—but the relationship between mother’s recent Pap test and vaccine uptake was explained by the mother’s use of a personal doctor and obtaining a routine physical examination in the past year. Conclusions HPV vaccination uptake and completion were more likely among adolescent girls whose mothers obtained a recent Pap test. Interventions designed to educate mothers on the importance of HPV vaccination and to facilitate relationships between physicians and mothers may prove successful at increasing HPV vaccination among adolescent girls. PMID:23332487

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence. PMID:26556834

  9. Don't Forget Morphology—The Importance of Evaluation of Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Hattersley, Paul G.; Ragusa, Dorothy

    1965-01-01

    A number of morphologic changes in the blood which may provide important diagnostic help, even in patients with normal blood counts, are frequently overlooked. Painstaking morphologic examination of a blood smear may at times lead directly to an important and unexpected diagnosis. PMID:14341317

  10. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired BTZ black hole based on Lorentzian smeared mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-11-01

    A noncommutative BTZ black hole is constructed in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this black-hole model, the noncommutative smearing is obtained by replacing the point-like source term with a Lorentzian distribution. We mainly investigate the thermodynamical properties of this black hole, including Hawking temperature, entropy, heat capacity and free energy.

  11. What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.

    PubMed

    Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2009-06-01

    An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359

  12. MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: FIELD TEST IN SNUFF USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A revised protocol for the exfoliated cell micronucleus assay was ie d-teste in a population exposed to a genotoxic agent at levels associated with a significant increase in cancer risk. The standard assay involves microscope examination of epithelial smears 0 determine the preva...

  13. Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Viney, K.; Tarivonda, L.; Roseveare, C.; Tagaro, M.; Marais, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis control programme, Vanuatu. Objective: To assess tuberculosis (TB) trends, characterise sputum smear-positive patients with non-conversion at 2 months and assess their treatment outcomes. Design: Evaluation of programme data over a 9-year period (2004–2012), comparing 2-month sputum non-converters (delayed converters) with sputum smear converters diagnosed in 2011 and 2012. Results: Annual TB case numbers were similar over the study period, with an average TB notification rate of 58 per 100 000 population. Of 417 sputum smear-positive cases, 74 (18%) were delayed converters. Delayed converters were more likely than converters (88% vs. 79%) to have had high pre-treatment sputum smear grades (OR 2.5, 95%CI 0.97–6.45). Among delayed converters, treatment adherence was high (99% good adherence), outcomes were generally good (90% treatment success, 85% cure, 4% treatment failure) and no drug resistance was detected. Deaths were unexpectedly common among converters (11/80, 14%), with significantly more deaths in Tafea than in Shefa Province (7/58 vs. 2/80, OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.07–26.79). Tafea Province also had the greatest number of delayed converters (30/74, 40.5%) and the highest TB incidence rate. Conclusion: Delayed sputum conversion was relatively uncommon, and was not associated with adverse outcomes or drug resistance. Regional differences require further investigation to better understand local factors that may compromise patient management. PMID:26477281

  14. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A. )

    1990-09-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously.

  15. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  16. Inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus in Whole-Blood Thin Smears Used for Malaria Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Todd; Cook, Bradley; Poliquin, Guillaume; Strong, James; Theriault, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is an important mimic or coinfection in potential Ebolavirus disease patients. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the 100% methanol-inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus Makona variant for malaria thin-smear preparation. We determined that 100% methanol completely inactivated the virus after 15 min. PMID:26865684

  17. THE ROLE OF TARGET ORGAN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS: NASAL SMEAR EOSINOPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Nurkic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Mona Al; Arifhodzic, Nermina; Jusufovic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) related to local weeds pollen sensitization (Chenopodiaceous family) is the most common cause of respiratory allergy in Kuwait. Local nasal accumulation of different cells typical of allergic inflammation is responsible for clinical symptoms of AR. Although nasal smear for Eosinophils (NSE) is one of the earliest included valuable test in diagnosis of AR, with time is underestimated. Aim: Explore possible correlation of natural pollen allergen stimulation with appearance and quantity of Eosinophils in nasal smear. Methods: A group of randomly selected patients with clinical history suggestive for seasonal AR (SAR), who came to Al Rashed Allergy Center in period from October 2014 to October 2015, obtain Nasal Smear for Eosinophils as a screening test before further diagnostic evaluation. Nasal samples were collected by passing a sterile swab, from each nasal cavity, along the medial surface of the inferior turbinate 2 to 3 times and the specimen smeared on a clear glass slide. Nasal smears were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Skin prick test is performed in all symptomatic patients with a battery of inhalant allergens that include local pollens. The control group was recruited, with their voluntary consent, from the medical stuff with a negative history of any allergic nasal symptoms. In this group we performed only nasal smear for Eosinophils. Air Biology Laboratory Kuwait provided us with daily pollen count. Results: From total 158 study participants, 132 had SAR symptoms and are divided in four groups. Fifth, control, group is non symptomatic. For 38.6% of symptomatic patients NSE were positive, while 45% of these patients have negative SPT. From 62.1% NSE negative patients, 37.8% have negative SPT. Our results showed expected positive correlation of NSE positive patients with pollen season in Kuwait, in SPT positive group. However, presence of Eosinophils in nasal smear was moderate

  18. PapR6, a Putative Atypical Response Regulator, Functions as a Pathway-Specific Activator of Pristinamycin II Biosynthesis in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Junling; Zhao, Yawei; Zheng, Guosong; Zhu, Hong; Ruan, Lijun; Wang, Wenfang; Ge, Mei; Jiang, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    There are up to seven regulatory genes in the pristinamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, which infers a complicated regulation mechanism for pristinamycin production. In this study, we revealed that PapR6, a putative atypical response regulator, acts as a pathway-specific activator of pristinamycin II (PII) biosynthesis. Deletion of the papR6 gene resulted in significantly reduced PII production, and its overexpression led to increased PII formation, compared to that of the parental strain HCCB 10218. However, either papR6 deletion or overexpression had very little effect on pristinamycin I (PI) biosynthesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that PapR6 bound specifically to the upstream region of snaF, the first gene of the snaFE1E2GHIJK operon, which is likely responsible for providing the precursor isobutyryl-coenzyme A (isobutyryl-CoA) and the intermediate C11 αβ-unsaturated thioester for PII biosynthesis. A signature PapR6-binding motif comprising two 4-nucleotide (nt) inverted repeat sequences (5′-GAGG-4 nt-CCTC-3′) was identified. Transcriptional analysis showed that inactivation of the papR6 gene led to markedly decreased expression of snaFE1E2GHIJK. Furthermore, we found that a mutant (snaFmu) with base substitutions in the identified PapR6-binding sequence in the genome exhibited the same phenotype as that of the ΔpapR6 strain. Therefore, it may be concluded that pathway-specific regulation of PapR6 in PII biosynthesis is possibly exerted via controlling the provision of isobutyryl-CoA as well as the intermediate C11 αβ-unsaturated thioester. PMID:25404695

  19. Comparison of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n = 10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P < 0.05). All experimental irrigation techniques except ANP and diode laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P < 0.05). Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. PMID:25582378

  20. Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2012-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (α = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p < 0.05) more debris inside the canals than the other protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p < 0.05) for debris removal. Regarding the removal of smear layer, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques. PMID:22131294

  1. To Evaluate the Efficacy of an Innovative Irrigant on Smear Layer Removal – SEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy; Subbiya, Arunajatesan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of endodontic therapy is to completely eliminate the microorganisms and the smear layer from the root canal in order to provide a good seal of the root filling materials. Aim The aim of this study was to find a viable alternative irrigant, which is easily available with less erosion and clinically acceptable smear layer removal by comparing the efficacy of EDTA and commercially available super-oxidized water, named Oxum, as a final rinse on smear layer removal and erosion in relation to coronal, middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 30 human lower second premolar teeth with straight roots and type I canal anatomy were selected. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using Universal Protaper Rotary System. Irrigation was performed with 1 ml of 2.5% of NaOCl solution after each instrument change. The final irrigation (5 ml) sequence was as follows: Group I- 17% EDTA, Group II – OXUM, and Group III - 0.9% saline (control) for one minute. Then, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5ml of distilled water to remove any precipitate. The roots were then gently split into two halves using a chisel and subjected to SEM analysis. Results The SEM photomicrographs were evaluated by two independent examiners and Mann Whitney results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two examiners. Non-parametric statistical analysis of all experimental groups showed significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third for smear layer removal with p-value<0.05. For erosion, in group II (oxum) showed statistically significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third and it showed significantly less dentine erosion when compared to EDTA. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, Oxum the commercially available super-oxidized water proved to be equally effective in smear layer removal with less

  2. Novel methodology to assess sputum smear microscopy quality in private laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In South Asia, it is estimated that 80% of patients choose to attend a private facility for their healthcare needs. Although patients generally believe that the private-sector provides high quality services, private diagnostic laboratories are largely unregulated and little is known about the accuracy of results provided. This study assesses the accuracy of sputum smear microscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in private laboratories operating in Karachi, Pakistan. A novel evaluation methodology was designed in which patient-actors submitted sputum specimens spiked with cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for testing such that laboratories were not aware that they were being assessed. Methods Smear-negative sputum specimens from Indus Hospital TB Program patients were collected and combined with an attenuated, cultured Mtb strain to create Mtb-spiked samples; for negative standards, no Mtb was added to the smear-negative sputum specimens. Seven of the largest private laboratories across Karachi were chosen for evaluation and were sent six Mtb-spiked and one Mtb-negative sputum specimens. Patient-actors pretending to be laboratory customers submitted these specimens to each laboratory for testing over a three day period. Results Only three laboratories accurately classified all the Mtb-spiked specimens which were submitted. A further three misclassified all the Mtb-spiked specimens as smear-negative, thus providing the ‘patients’ with false negative results. Conclusions TB sputum smear microscopy services are highly variable across private laboratories and are often of extremely poor quality. Engagement, capacity building and rigorous monitoring of standards at private laboratories are of vital importance for the control of TB. Our findings, while specific for TB diagnostic tests, could be symptomatic of other tests performed in private laboratories and warrant further investigation. PMID:23193964

  3. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in unconsolidated sediments - insights from 3-D observations of excavated normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Thronberens, Sebastian; Juarez, Oscar; Lajos Urai, Janos; Ziegler, Martin; Asmus, Sven; Kruger, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Clay smears in normal faults can form seals for hydrocarbons and groundwater, and their prediction in the subsurface is an important problem in applied and basic geoscience. However, neither their complex 3-D structure, nor their processes of formation or destruction are well understood, and outcrop studies to date are mainly 2-D. We present a 3-D study of an excavated normal fault with clay smear, together with both source layers, in unlithified sand and clay of the Hambach open-cast lignite mine in Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have shale gouge ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. The fault zones are layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. The thickness of clay smears in two excavated fault zones of 1.8 and 3.8 m2 is approximately log-normal, with values between 5 mm and 5 cm, without holes. The 3-D thickness distribution is heterogeneous. We show that clay smears are strongly affected by R and R' shears, mostly at the footwall side. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes in the clay smear, while thinning of the clay smear by shearing in the fault core is less important. The thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cut-offs. Locally, the clay smear consists of overlapping patches of sheared clay, separated by sheared sand. More commonly, it is one amalgamated zone of sheared sand and clay. A microscopic study of fault-zone samples shows that grain-scale mixing can lead to thickening of the low permeability smears, which may lead to resealing of holes.

  4. Engineering of the PapMV vaccine platform with a shortened M2e peptide leads to an effective one dose influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Damien; Thérien, Ariane; Rioux, Gervais; Paquet, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Ève Laliberté; Bolduc, Marilène; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis

    2015-12-16

    The emergence of highly virulent influenza strains and the risks of pandemics as well as the limited efficiency of the current seasonal vaccines are important public health concerns. There is a major need for new influenza vaccines that would be broadly cross-protective. The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst different influenza strains and could be used as a broad spectrum antigen. To overcome its low immunogenicity we have fused a short peptide epitope derived from the human consensus sequence of M2e (amino acids 6-14, EVETPIRNE) to the N-terminus of papaya mosaic virus coat protein. The fusion harboring coat proteins were assembled around a single stranded RNA into virus-like particles (PapMV-sM2e). The resulting PapMV-sM2e rod-shaped particle was stable and indistinguishable from regular PapMV particles. A single intramuscular immunization with PapMV-sM2e was sufficient to mount appreciable levels of CD4 dependent M2e specific total IgG and IgG2a antibody in mice sera. PapMV-sM2e proved to be self-adjuvanting since the addition of PapMV as an exogenous adjuvant did not result in significantly improved antibody titers. In addition, we confirmed the adjuvant property of PapMV-sM2e using the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine as antigen and demonstrated that the newly engineered nanoparticles areas efficacious as an adjuvant than the original PapMV nanoparticles. Upon infection with a sub-lethal dose of influenza, PapMV-sM2e vaccinated animals were completely protected from virus induced morbidity and mortality. Mice immunized with decreasing amounts of PapMV-sM2e and challenged with a more stringent dose of influenza virus displayed dose-dependent levels of protection. Seventy percent of the mice immunized once with the highest dose of PapMV-sM2e survived the challenged. The survival of the mice correlated mainly with the levels of anti-M2e IgG2a antibodies obtained before the infection. These results demonstrate that PapMV-sM2e can

  5. HPV vaccination programs have not been shown to be cost-effective in countries with comprehensive Pap screening and surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilyman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Pap screening combined with loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP) is almost 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer mortality yet many countries with these procedures have now implemented broad HPV vaccination programs. HPV vaccines have not been demonstrated to be more effective or safer than Pap screening in the prevention of cervical cancer and Pap screening will still be required even in vaccinated women. The HPV vaccine costs Au$450 per person and it does not protect against ~30% of cancer. This investigation analyses the cost-effectiveness of using the HPV vaccine in countries where Pap screening and surgical procedures have already reduced cervical cancer mortality to very low rates. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination programs is being determined by mathematical models which are founded on many assumptions. It is necessary to examine the rigor of these assumptions to be certain of the health benefits that are predicted. In 2002 scientists concluded that HPV 16 and 18 were the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer. This conclusion was based on molecular technology. If HPV 16 and 18 infections are the central and independent cause of most cervical cancer then the incidence of HPV 16 and 18 should vary with the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. This correlation does not exist. It is also observed that the majority of HPV 16/18 infections do not lead to cervical cancer. This indicates that other etiological or 'risk' factors are necessary for persistent HPV infection to progress to cancer. The benefits of HPV vaccines have been determined by using pre-cancerous lesions in young women as a surrogate for cervical cancer. This surrogate is found to be inadequate as an end-point for cervical cancer. Clinical trials have only provided speculative benefits for the efficacy of HPV vaccines against cancer and the long-term risks of the vaccine have not been established. Pap screening will still be required in vaccinated

  6. [Feasibility of cervical smear in HIV-positive women living in Chad].

    PubMed

    Mortier, E; Doudéadoum, N; Némian, F; Gaulier, A; Kemian, M

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death in Sub-Saharan African women. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are regularly actualized. There are no data on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Chad. Between August 2013 and May 2015, screening for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions was proposed to HIV-infected women living in Moundou (Chad). Cytology examination was performed after with Papanicolaou coloration. Three hundred and eleven HIV-seropositive women accepted the screening without refusal. Mean age of the patients was 38 years (95% Confidence Interval: 37.7-39.9). The women declared a mean of 4.1 pregnancies (range: 0-12). The patients had been followed-up for their seropositivity for 8 years (range: 0-25). All were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the patients whose results were known (N = 231), 98% had a CD4 lymphocyte nadir count less than 350/mm(3). Cytological results were as follows: normal smear (N = 59; 19%), inflammatory or hemorrhagic smear (N = 139; 44%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 58; 19%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 28; 9%), epidermoid carcinoma (N = 13; 4%), and uninterpretable smear (N = 14; 5%). The inflammatory lesions were due to cervicitis (N = 54), vaginosis (N = 22), and trichomonas infection (N = 3). The patients' age, CD4 lymphocyte nadir count, and CD4 count at the time of the cervical smear were not different according to the cytological results. Only five patients had a cone biopsy. Three patients deceased during the study of whom two from a gynaecological cancer diagnosed too late. The screening of dysplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women is possible in Chad. In our study, 13% of the women had highgrade dysplasia or carcinoma needing curative care. We also showed that simple

  7. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. [Comparison of CPAP and BiPAP equipment with reference to work of breathing, pressure and flow constancy].

    PubMed

    Raschke, F; Fischer, J

    1995-03-01

    We have investigated mask pressure curves and nasal flow during nasal C- and BiPAP ventilation in the recumbent position. Nasal spontaneous breathing, C- and BiPAP-applications of 10 and 10/7 cmH2O have been investigated in 7 patients and 4 controls. With aid of an automatic computerised analysis each in- and expiratory phase has been normalized by time and plotted as pressure-volume-loop from pooled data. The ventilators showed significant intra- and inter-machine differences. The investigations are considered as approach to real assessment of patient's work of breathing on home ventilators. They clearly show that ventilators have individual patterns, which should be considered carefully, long term machine-according effects are not yet known. PMID:7617616

  10. Pap test adherence, cervical cancer perceptions, and HPV knowledge among HIV-infected women in a community health setting.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Crystal Chapman; Chandler, Rasheeta; McMillan, Susan; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Kurtyka, Don

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used as a framework to explain health behaviors in diverse populations, but little HBM research has focused on HIV-infected women and their increased risks for cervical cancer. We used Champion's Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy scales to assess relationships between Pap test adherence and constructs of the HBM among 300 HIV-infected women. In addition, we assessed the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and key HBM concepts. Participants reported low levels of knowledge regarding risk for cervical cancer and HPV. They perceived lower personal risk for cervical cancer. Women with higher perceived self-efficacy and lower perceived barrier scores reported better Pap test adherence. Findings indicate that HIV-infected women are not aware of the risk for cervical cancer and may not take preventive actions. Further research is needed to identify the full range of factors that impact adherence to cervical cancer screening. PMID:25769754

  11. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  12. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  13. Encouraging Vietnamese-American Women to Obtain Pap Tests Through Lay Health Worker Outreach and Media Education

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram K; McPhee, Stephen J; Mock, Jeremiah; Wong, Ching; Doan, Hiep T; Nguyen, Thoa; Lai, Ky Q; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Luong, Thien-Nhien

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Five times more Vietnamese-American women develop cervical cancer than white women. Few studies have examined whether community-based participatory research can effectively address Asian immigrants' health problems. This article reports the preliminary evaluation of 1 such project. METHODS A coalition of 11 organizations in Santa Clara County, California worked with university researchers to design and simultaneously implement a media education (ME) campaign and a lay health worker outreach (LHWO) program to increase Vietnamese-American women's cervical cancer awareness, knowledge, and screening. Two agencies each recruited 10 lay health workers (LHWs), who, in turn, each recruited 20 women who were then randomized into 2 groups: 10 to LHWO+ME (n = 200) and 10 to ME alone (n = 200). LHWs organized meetings with women to increase their knowledge and to motivate them to obtain Pap tests. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. RESULTS At post-intervention, significantly more LHWO+ME women understood that human papillomavirus and smoking cause cervical cancer. The number of women who had obtained a Pap test increased significantly among women in both LHWO+ME and ME groups, but substantially more in the LHWO+ME group. Significantly more LHWO+ME women said they intended to have a Pap test. CONCLUSIONS Media education campaigns can increase Vietnamese women's awareness of the importance of Pap tests, but lay health workers are more effective at encouraging women to actually obtain the tests. Lay health workers are effective because they use their cultural knowledge and social networks to create change. Researchers, community members, and community-based organizations can share expert knowledge and skills, and build one another's capacities. PMID:12848834

  14. Non-invasive BiPAP--implementation of a new service.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Cindy

    2002-12-01

    Non-invasive ventilation has been shown to be an effective treatment for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It is now increasingly used in the treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. National guidelines published by the British Thoracic Society state that facilities for NIV should be available 24 hours per day in all hospitals likely to admit such patients. If an acute NIV service is not provided, the shortage of Intensive Care beds means that some patients will die because facilities to invasively ventilate are not available. Conversely, results of a survey performed by the indicate that at the time of data collection, only 48% of United Kingdom hospitals provided an acute NIV service. The BiPAP Vision (Respironics Inc.) offers Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), Bi-level Spontaneous/Timed and Proportional Assist Ventilation/Timed modes and is ideal for use in a critical care environment. This article presents some of the issues surrounding NIV, the impact of a new service, and the process of implementing NIV within a critical care setting. PMID:12526869

  15. Modelling the non steady state downward flux of particles at the PAP site in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R.; Lampitt, R.; Riley, J.; Lemoigne, F.; Marsay, C.; Giering, S.; Martin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The biological carbon pump, mediated principally via the sinking of organic matter from the surface ocean, is a significant term in the global carbon cycle. It transfers annually 5-15 GT C yr-1 out of the photic zone, an amount comparable to the annual accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere driven by anthropogenic processes, and mediates a storage of CO2 in the ocean interior without which atmospheric CO2 would be much larger than it is today. Yet most of the material exported from the photic zone does not penetrate the deep ocean, instead it is mineralised in the twilight zone with fluxes in the thin 100m thick layer under the photic zone being extremely rapidly attenuated. The shape of this attenuation varies in time and space yet appears to be a critical determinand over atmosphere - ocean CO2 partitioning. Attempts to predict this attenuation using independent measures of heterotrophic activity have often not yielded the observed pattern of attenuation implying substantial uncertainties in one or more of the terms that enter into the comparison. In this talk we will describe direct estimates of particle flux made using drifting neutrally buoyant traps at the PAP site in 2009. We show that although we can make substantial progress towards closing the mid water C budget we still have a significant excess of carbon consumption over supply. We believe that this is due to erroneous steady state assumptions, a hypothesis we explore via simple numerical models.

  16. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data in the presence of significant instrumental smearing

    PubMed Central

    Bergenholtz, Johan; Ulama, Jeanette; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-scale small-angle X-ray scattering instrument with pinhole collimation has been used to assess smearing effects due to instrumental resolution. A new, numerically efficient method to smear ideal model intensities is developed and presented. It allows for directly using measured profiles of isotropic but otherwise arbitrary beams in smearing calculations. Samples of low-polydispersity polymer spheres have been used to show that scattering data can in this way be quantitatively modeled even when there is substantial distortion due to instrumental resolution. PMID:26937235

  17. The Novel Poly(A) Polymerase Star-PAP is a Signal-Regulated Switch at the 3′-end of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The mRNA 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) modulates message stability, transport, intracellular location and translation. We have discovered a novel nuclear poly(A) polymerase termed Star-PAP (nuclear speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated-poly(A) polymerase) that couples with the transcriptional machinery and is regulated by the phosphoinositide lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), the central lipid in phosphoinositide signaling. PI4,5P2 is generated primarily by type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKI). Phosphoinositides are present in the nucleus including at nuclear speckles compartments separate from known membrane structures. PIPKs regulate cellular functions by interacting with PI4,5P2 effectors where PIPKs generate PI4,5P2 that then modulates the activity of the associated effectors. Nuclear PIPKIα interacts with and regulates Star-PAP, and PI4,5P2 specifically activates Star-PAP in a gene- and signaling-dependent manner. Importantly, other select signaling molecules integrated into the Star-PAP complex seem to regulate Star-PAP activities and processivities toward RNA substrates, and unique sequence elements around the Star-PAP binding sites within the 3′-UTR of target genes contribute to Star-PAP specificity for processing. Therefore, Star-PAP and its regulatory molecules form a signaling nexus at the 3′-end of target mRNAs to control the expression of select group of genes including the ones involved in stress responses. PMID:23306079

  18. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  19. Physical properties of the specific PapG-galabiose binding in E. coli P pili-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Björnham, Oscar; Nilsson, Håkan; Andersson, Magnus; Schedin, Staffan

    2009-02-01

    Detailed analyses of the mechanisms that mediate binding of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli to host cells are essential, as attachment is a prerequisite for the subsequent infection process. We explore, by means of force measuring optical tweezers, the interaction between the galabiose receptor and the adhesin PapG expressed by P pili on single bacterial cells. Two variants of dynamic force spectroscopy were applied based on constant and non-linear loading force. The specific PapG-galabiose binding showed typical slip-bond behaviour in the force interval (30-100 pN) set by the pilus intrinsic biomechanical properties. Moreover, it was found that the bond has a thermodynamic off-rate and a bond length of 2.6 x 10(-3) s(-1) and 5.0 A, respectively. Consequently, the PapG-galabiose complex is significantly stronger than the internal bonds in the P pilus structure that stabilizes the helical chain-like macromolecule. This finding suggests that the specific binding is strong enough to enable the P pili rod to unfold when subjected to strong shear forces in the urinary tract. The unfolding process of the P pili rod promotes the formation of strong multipili interaction, which is important for the bacterium to maintain attachment to the host cells. PMID:18923826

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  3. Bandwidth smearing in optical interferometry: analytic model of the transition to the double fringe packet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaume, R.; Berger, J.-P.

    2012-07-01

    Bandwidth smearing is a chromatic aberration due to the finite frequency bandwidth. In long-baseline optical interferometry terms, it is when the angular extension of the source is greater than the coherence length of the interferogram. As a consequence, separated parts of the source will contribute to fringe packets that are not fully overlapping; it is a transition from the classical interferometric regime to a double or multiple fringe packet. While studied in radio interferometry, there has been little work on the matter in the optical, where observables are measured and derived in a different manner, and are more strongly impacted by the turbulent atmosphere. We provide here the formalism and a set of usable equations to model and correct for the impact of smearing on the fringe contrast and phase, with the case of multiple stellar systems in mind. The atmosphere is briefly modeled and discussed.

  4. Why don't some women return for cervical smears? A hermeneutic phenomenological investigation.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Janes, Ron; Steed, Robin; Ihimaera, Louise; Elley, C Raina

    2007-10-01

    To enhance understanding of how having a cervical smear can lead some women not to keep up-to-date with this test, a hermeneutic (interpretative) phenomenological study was undertaken. Participants were six purposively selected New Zealand women -- predominantly Māori -- at least 6 months overdue for a follow-up cervical screen in the previous 6 years. Each woman gave an in-depth interview. Transcribed and analyzed via a general inductive approach, the interviews suggested that the smears can violate women's positive aloneness with their bodies, and magnify aloneness as a negative state. Overdueness for the test avoids these effects. To minimize such effects, primary health care needs to acknowledge and address these issues, for example by providing an opportunity to connect the aloneness to trusted others. PMID:17907011

  5. Blood Smear Image Based Malaria Parasite and Infected-Erythrocyte Detection and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Yu, Shyr-Shen; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Jen, Chun-Chu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an automatic malaria parasite detector is proposed to perceive the malaria-infected erythrocytes in a blood smear image and to separate parasites from the infected erythrocytes. The detector hence can verify whether a patient is infected with malaria. It could more objectively and efficiently help a doctor in diagnosing malaria. The experimental results show that the proposed method can provide impressive performance in segmenting the malaria-infected erythrocytes and the parasites from a blood smear image taken under a microscope. This paper also presents a weighted Sobel operation to compute the image gradient. The experimental results demonstrates that the weighted Sobel operation can provide more clear-cut and thinner object contours in object segmentation. PMID:26289625

  6. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  7. A Peptide Derived from the HIV-1 gp120 Coreceptor-Binding Region Promotes Formation of PAP248-286 Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinquan; Ren, Ruxia; Tan, Suiyi; Zhang, Wanyue; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Yu, Fei; Xun, Tianrong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Semen is a major vehicle for HIV transmission. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) fragments, such as PAP248-286, in human semen can form amyloid fibrils to enhance HIV infection. Other endogenous or exogenous factors present during sexual intercourse have also been reported to promote the formation of seminal amyloid fibrils. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we demonstrated that a synthetic 15-residue peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 coreceptor-binding region, designated enhancing peptide 2 (EP2), can rapidly self-assemble into nanofibers. These EP2-derivated nanofibers promptly accelerated the formation of semen amyloid fibrils by PAP248-286, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT) and Congo red assays. The amyloid fibrils presented similar morphology, assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in the presence or absence of EP2. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed that EP2 accelerates PAP248-286 amyloid fibril formation by promoting the structural transition of PAP248-286 from a random coil into a cross-β-sheet. Newly formed semen amyloid fibrils effectively enhanced HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells and U87 cells by promoting the binding of HIV-1 virions to target cells. Conclusions and Significance Nanofibers composed of EP2 promote the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils and enhance HIV-1 infection. PMID:26656730

  8. Erythrocyte echinocytosis in liver disease. Role of abnormal plasma high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, J S; Brown, D J; Harry, D S; McIntyre, N; Beaven, G H; Isenberg, H; Gratzer, W B

    1985-01-01

    Echinocytes were frequently found in patients with liver disease when their blood was examined in wet films, but rarely detected in dried, stained smears. When normal erythrocytes (discocytes) were incubated with physiologic concentrations of the abnormal high density lipoproteins (HDL) from some jaundiced patients, echinocytosis developed within seconds. Other plasma fractions were not echinocytogenic. There was a close correlation between the number of echinocytes found in vivo and the ability of the corresponding HDL to induce discocyte-echinocyte transformation. On incubation with normal HDL, echinocytes generated in vitro rapidly reverted to a normal shape, and echinocytes from patients showed a similar trend. Echinocytosis occurred without change in membrane cholesterol content, as did its reversal, and was not caused by membrane uptake of lysolecithin or bile acids. Abnormal, echinocytogenic HDL showed saturable binding to approximately 5,000 sites per normal erythrocyte with an association constant of 10(8) M-1. Nonechinocytogenic patient HDL and normal HDL showed only nonsaturable binding. Several minor components of electrophoretically separated erythrocyte membrane proteins bound the abnormal HDL; pretreatment of the cells with trypsin or pronase reduced or eliminated binding. Echinocytosis by abnormal HDL required receptor occupancy, rather than transfer of constituents to or from the membrane, because cells reversibly prefixed in the discoid shape by wheat germ agglutinin, and then exposed to abnormal HDL, did not become echinocytes when the HDL and lectin were successively removed. Binding did not cause dephosphorylation of spectrin. We conclude that the echinocytes of liver disease are generated from discocytes by abnormal HDL, and we infer that the shape change is mediated by cell-surface receptors for abnormal HDL molecules. Images PMID:4077979

  9. Determining the Stage of the Estrous Cycle in Female Mice by Vaginal Smear.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Female mice undergo a 3- to 5-d, hormonally controlled estrous cycle. The estrous cycle is divided into different stages, including diestrus, proestrus, estrus, and metestrus. These stages can easily be determined by examining washes or cell smears of the vagina. Determining the stage of the estrous cycle may be important for setting up matings, identifying receptive females for artificial insemination, and analyzing phenotypes of the female reproductive tract. PMID:27480723

  10. Near-threshold boson pair production in the model of smeared-mass unstable particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksa, V. I.; Pasechnik, R. S.

    2010-09-15

    Near-threshold production of boson pairs is considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with smeared mass. We describe the principal aspects of the model and consider the strategy of calculations including the radiative corrections. The results of calculations are in good agreement with LEP II data and Monte-Carlo simulations. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations with respect to the standard perturbative one.

  11. Factorization method in the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksa, V. I.

    2009-06-15

    The method of factorization, based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass, is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in the intermediate state. It was shown, that in the framework of the method suggested, the decay rate and cross section can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of particles. An exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We performed the phenomenological analysis of the factorization effect.

  12. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic. PMID:26980012

  13. SEM evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser in root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Roe, Iain M.; Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Barbizam, Joao Vicente B.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of two endodontic irrigants associated or not with Er:YAG laser on a smear layer created by hand instrumentation were evaluated in vitro in the middle and apical thirds of root canals. Twenty five human maxillary canines with a single root were distributed randomly into five groups of five teeth each. Group 1 was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, Group 2 received EDTAC 15% as irrigating solution and Group 3 received both NaClO 1.0% and EDTAC 15%. Group 4 was irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 5 received NaClO 1.0% as irrigating solution and was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Teeth were split longitudinally and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy. The teeth irrigated with NaClO (Group 1) showed the higher amount of smear layer, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) from the teeth irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser (Group 4), which showed intermediate amounts of smear layer. The teeth irrigated with EDTAC 15%, NaClO 1.0% associated with EDTAC 15% and NaClO 1.0% with Er:YAG laser (Groups 2,3 and 5) showed the lowest amounts of smear layer, being statistically similar between them and different (p<0.05) from Groups 1 and 4. There were no differences between the radicular thirds. It can be concluded that irradiation with Er:YAG laser can be as effective as EDTAC 15% when used associated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, but not as effective when used together with distilled water.

  14. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  15. Utility and challenges in intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions by crush smear cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dikondwar, Aparna R.; Dani, Aarti A.; Gaikwad, Saroj A.; Tathe, Shilpa P.; Randale, Archana A.; Chawhan, Sanjay M.; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used for intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions. Crush smear cytology is one such method that is accurate, rapid, and allows preservation of tissue for paraffin-embedded sections. Aims: To study the cytomorphology of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. To evaluate accuracy and discuss diagnostic pitfalls of crush smear cytology. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years (January 2008 to October 2012), a total of 57 spinal lesions were referred for intraoperative cytology. In four cases, material was inadequate for evaluation, so we analyzed 53 cases. Results: Majority of lesions were neoplastic accounting for 86.79% whereas nonneoplastic lesions constituted 13.20%. Most of the tumors were low grade (82.92%). Overall accuracy rate was 90.56% with accuracy of 91.30% and 85.71% for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. Conclusion: Crush smear technique is a simple, reliable, easy, and rapid method for diagnosing neoplastic and inflammatory lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. It gives an immediate idea of prognosis so that surgeon can modify the operative procedure, if necessary. PMID:27057218

  16. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  17. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-06-01

    This study determine, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty- four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 15% ETA, and was sealed as in group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (2940 nm, 140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J, 300 pulses, 500milli-sec pulse duration), and sealed as in group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 has significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (p<0.05). Coronal leakage after smear layer removal with 15% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  18. Enamel-smear compromises bonding by mild self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mine, A; De Munck, J; Vivan Cardoso, M; Van Landuyt, K L; Poitevin, A; Kuboki, T; Yoshida, Y; Suzuki, K; Van Meerbeek, B

    2010-12-01

    In light of the increased popularity of less acidic, so-called 'ultra-mild' self-etch adhesives, adhesion to enamel is becoming more critical. It is hypothesized that this compromised enamel bonding should, to a certain extent, be attributed to interference of bur debris smeared across enamel during cavity preparation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the enamel smear layer differed not only in thickness, but also in crystal density and size, depending on the surface-preparation method used. Lab-demineralization of sections clearly disclosed that resin-infiltration of an ultra-mild self-etch adhesive progressed preferentially along micro-cracks that were abundantly present at and underneath the bur-cut enamel surface. The surface-preparation method significantly affected the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild adhesive, being more uniform and dense for a lab-SiC-prepared surface vs. a clinically relevant bur-prepared surface. PMID:20929718

  19. Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral smear leading to the diagnosis of congenital hyposplenism in a patient with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Hannah; Dittus, Christopher; Malek, Anita; Negroiu, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a case of isolated congenital hyposplenism that was discovered after the peripheral smear revealed Howell-Jolly bodies. This case serves as the basis for a review of hyposplenism for the general practitioner. PMID:26331020

  20. Using patient and general practice characteristics to explain variations in cervical smear uptake rates.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F. A.; Cook, D. G.; Anderson, H. R.; Hilton, S.; Bunn, S.; Stones, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To produce practice and patient variables for general practices from census and family health services authority data, and to determine the importance of these variables in explaining variation in cervical smear uptake rates between practices. DESIGN--Population based study examining variations in cervical smear uptake rates among 126 general practices using routine data. SETTING--Merton, Sutton, and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, which covers parts of inner and outer London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Percentage of women aged 25-64 years registered with a general practitioner who had undergone a cervical smear test during the five and a half years preceding 31 March 1992. RESULTS--Cervical smear uptake rates varied from 16.5% to 94.1%. The estimated percentage of practice population from ethnic minority groups correlated negatively with uptake rates (r = -0.42), as did variables associated with social deprivation such as overcrowding (r = -0.42), not owning a car (r = -0.41), and unemployment (r = -0.40). Percentage of practice population under 5 years of age correlated positively with uptake rate (r = 0.42). Rates were higher in practices with a female partner than in those without (66.6% v 49.1%; difference 17.5% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 24.5%)), and in computerised than in non-computerised practices (64.5% v 50.5%; 14.0% (6.4% to 21.6%)). Rates were higher in larger practices. In a stepwise multiple regression model that explained 52% of variation, five factors were significant predictors of uptake rates: presence of a female partner; children under 5; overcrowding; number of women aged 35-44 as percentage of all women aged 25-64; change of address in past year. CONCLUSIONS--Over half of variation in cervical smear uptake rates can be explained by patient and practice variables derived from census and family health services authority data; these variables may have a role in explaining variations in performance of general practices

  1. Factors Associated with Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Laura J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Wordlaw-Stintson, Lashawn; Vidal, Adriana; Smith, Jennifer S.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose: To examine the relationship…

  2. A comparison between Pap and HPV screening tests and screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; Scarselli, Giorgio; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Fortunato, Carmine; Profeta, Valerio F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the results of cervical cancer (CC) screening over two 3-year periods (2008–2010 and 2011–2013) by comparing two screening tests [Papanicolaou (Pap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests] and two screening methods (organized and spontaneous). The study population includes women aged 25–64 years who underwent CC screening between 2008 and 2010 and/or 2011 and 2013, divided into those who responded to an invitation letter (organized screening) and those who spontaneously underwent testing at a public or private facility (non-programmed screening). Between 2008 and 2010, the response rates increased from 27.7% in 2008 to 44.5% in 2009 and 67.6% in 2010 (P<0.001). Women aged 25–34 years had the lowest response rate, whereas respondents were more frequent among women aged 35–44 and 45–54 years. Significant differences (P<0.001) were identified between organized and spontaneous screening test results with regard to diagnostic categories high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (50.5 vs. 49.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (42.8 vs. 57.2%) and undetermined lesion atypical glandular cells (AGC; 57.5 vs. 42.5%) or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 54.2 vs. 45.8%). Compared with spontaneous screening, the organized programme resulted in a larger number of women screened for CC; it reduced the frequency of undetermined diagnoses (AGC, ASC-US), and identified a larger number of high-grade lesions. PMID:27446578

  3. Adoption of Evidence-Based Interventions in Local Health Departments: "1-2-3 Pap NC".

    PubMed

    Winterbauer, Nancy L; Bridger, Colleen M; Tucker, Ashley; Rafferty, Ann P; Luo, Huabin

    2015-08-01

    Descriptions of barriers and facilitators to adoption of evidence-based interventions in local health departments (LHDs) are limited. This study was conducted by the North Carolina Public Health Practice-Based Research Network to identify factors associated with adoption of an evidence-based human papillomavirus video intervention, "1-2-3 Pap NC," in North Carolina LHDs. A sequential mixed-method study design was used. Data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments were used to test associations between LHD characteristics and adoption of the intervention. Qualitative, key stakeholder interviews with LHD directors provided the context for quantitative data. Data collection and analysis continued from March 3, 2014, to September 15, 2014. Overall, 28% of North Carolina health jurisdictions (33 of 100 counties) implemented the intervention. Of the three channels used to deliver the intervention to clients, most LHDs opted to show the video in the exam room (42%), followed by website/other social media (36%) and video loop in the lobby/waiting room (22%). In logistic regression, gender of the director (female) was significantly and positively associated with adoption of the intervention (AOR=4.44, p<0.05). Being a first-time director was marginally significant (AOR=0.28, p=0.074), suggesting first-time directors were less likely to adopt. Qualitative results suggested that aspects of communication (awareness and positive attitudes) and agency directors' evaluation of resources, balanced against intervention complexity and flexibility, competing priorities, and mandates, influenced adoption. Adoption of evidence-based interventions by LHDs is critical to improve population health. Practice-based research can contribute to understanding facilitators and modifying barriers to this process. PMID:26190805

  4. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Krishna Shivraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated) were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer. PMID:27041896

  5. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to toxins or tumor cells (myelophthisic process) Lead poisoning Myelofibrosis The presence of sickle cells may indicate ... disease of the newborn Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Hypochromia Lead poisoning Liver disease Malignancy Myelofibrosis Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Osmotic ...

  6. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean container given to you by your health care provider. A test kit is available that supplies a special toilet ... Your health care provider may order this test if you have severe diarrhea that will not go away or that keeps returning. The test result may ...

  7. Blood Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunoglobulins ). Numerous diseases and conditions can affect the absolute or relative number of WBCs and their appearance ... depending on the condition, may increase or decrease absolute and relative numbers of WBCs Allergies — may affect ...

  8. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... a clean container given to you by your health care provider. A test kit is available that supplies a special toilet ... no discomfort. Why the Test is Performed Your health care provider may order this test if you have severe diarrhea that will not ...

  9. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  10. CSF smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sample may be a sign of: Bacterial meningitis Fungal infections Tuberculosis Some bacteria or viruses can ... Saunders; 2011:chap 403. Swartz MN, Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  11. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  12. Impact of {Os(pap)2} in fine-tuning the binding modes and non-innocent potential of deprotonated 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prabir; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-03-28

    The reaction of ctc-Os(II)(pap)2Cl2 (pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, ctc = cis-trans-cis with respect to chlorides and pyridine/azo nitrogens of pap, respectively) and ambidentate 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol (H2L) leads to the simultaneous formation of isomeric [Os(II)(pap)2(HL(-))](+) ((2+)/(3+)), seven-membered chelate containing Os(II)(pap)2(L(2-)) (4) and diastereomeric [{Os(II)(pap)2}2(μ-L(2-))](2+) (5a(2+) (meso, ΔΛ)/5b(2+) (rac, ΔΔ/ΛΛ)). The reaction of 2,2'-biphenol (H2L') and ctc-Os(II)(pap)2Cl2 yields Os(II)(pap)2(L'(2-)) (6), an analogue of 4. The identities of the newly designed complexes have been established by different analytical, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction techniques. (1)H-NMR spectra of the complexes and single crystal X-ray structures of selective derivatives [2]ClO4, [3]ClO4, [5a](ClO4)2, and 6 establish the retention of the tc-configuration of the precursor {Os(pap)2}. In isomeric 2(+) and 3(+), monodeprotonated HL(-) is linked to the {Os(II)(pap)2} fragment through N,N and N,O(-) donors, resulting in nearly planar five- and six-membered chelates with O-HO(-) and O-HN hydrogen bonds at its back face, respectively. The O(-),O(-) donating L'(2-) extends a severely twisted seven-membered chelate with the {Os(pap)2} unit in 6. The N,O(-)/O(-),N donors of deprotonated L(2-) bridge the two {Os(II)(pap)2} units in a symmetric fashion in 5a(2+), forming two moderately twisted six-membered chelates. Though the deprotonation of the O-HN hydrogen bond in (+) by another unit of {Os(II)(pap)2} generates a diastereomeric mixture of 5a(2+) and 5b(2+), attempts to deprotonate the relatively stronger O-H···O(-) hydrogen bond in 2(+) have failed. The isomeric 2(+)/3(+), seven-membered chelate containing 4/6 and diastereomeric 5a(2+)/5b(2+) exhibit distinctive (1)H-NMR and absorption spectra as well as electrochemical responses. The pap (N[double bond, length as m-dash]N) based two successive reductions and the participation of HL(-), L(2-), L'(2-) in

  13. [Comparison of the efficacy of the BiPAP-S/T and the VPAP-S/T ventilators in patients with stable chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Teschler, H; Stampa, J W; Farhat, A A; Wessendorf, T E; Konietzko, N

    1998-06-01

    This study compares the performance characteristics and clinical effectiveness of the BiPAP-S/T (Respironics, USA) and VPAP-S/T (ResMed, Australia) pressure support ventilator during two weeks of nasal ventilation in 15 patients with stable chronic respiratory insufficiency. All patients were previously stabilised using nasal BiPAP ventilation for at least three months. Subjects had a maximum inspiratory pressure of 20 cm H2O and highest breathing rate of 24 per minute. VPAP is lighter and quieter than BiPAP-S/T (31 vs. 43 dB for IPAP:EPAP = 15:5 cm H2O and breathing frequency = 15 breaths per minute). Both machines demonstrate comparable and reliable triggering at low flow rates for zero and up to 30 l/min mask leak. Clinical evaluation in the S/T mode showed the two ventilators to be equally effective in supporting gas exchange during sleep. Sleep quality and number of respiratory arousals were very similar at the end of the two weeks' test period with BiPAP-S/T and VPAP-S/T. Synchronisation of VPAP-S/T during REM was probably better than with BiPAP-S/T, because in the presence of mouth leak BiPAP-S/T occasionally jammed in IPAP, but VPAP-S/T did not. In conclusion, in the tested settings VPAP-S/T is as effective as BiPAP-S/T in maintaining ventilation and controlling blood gases during sleep in patients with stable respiratory insufficiency. PMID:9715644

  14. Variations in helminth faecal egg counts in Kato-Katz thick smears and their implications in assessing infection status with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Birhanu; Smith, Tara; Gedamu, Selamawitt; Bereded, Dereje; Moore, Rashida; Habte, Endashaw; Redda, Abraham; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Examination of stool specimens by Kato-Katz (K-K) thick smears is the standard method recommended by the WHO for field diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. However, there is increasing concern that this technique has low diagnostic sensitivity. In 326 study subjects, we compared the diagnostic yield of examining one, three or five Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg templates. In a subset of 169 subjects who had no demonstrable Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their first three Kato-Katz thick smears, we assessed the comparative advantage of examining an additional three Kato-Katz thick smears from another stool specimen, taken four weeks later, to that of cumulative yield obtained by examining all five Kato-Katz thick smears derived from the first stool specimen. For all helminth infections, single Kato-Katz thick smear-based prevalence estimates were significantly lower than those obtained from triplet or quintet Kato-Katz thick smears. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on single, triplet and quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen were 31.3%, 45.7% and 52.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimate of S. mansoni based on quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from the first day stool specimens was not different from cumulative estimate obtained with two triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from two stool specimens, 52.1% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, either examination of quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg template or initial triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen, and if these are negative, followed by examination of additional triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from subsequent day stool specimen can adequately assess individuals for infection status with S. mansoni. PMID:15533288

  15. Improvement of the PapMV nanoparticle adjuvant property through an increased of its avidity for the antigen [influenza NP].

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Ève; Babin, Cindy; Bolduc, Marilène; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Majeau, Nathalie; Lapointe, Réjean; Leclerc, Denis

    2012-03-28

    The principal caveat of existing influenza vaccine is their failure to provide long-term protection. This lack of efficiency is caused by persistent (drift) and dramatic (shift) antigenic changes on the major surface proteins, the main target of protective immunity generated by traditional vaccines. Alternatively, vaccination with most conserved protein, like the nucleoprotein (NP) can stimulate immunity against multiple serotypes and could potentially provides an extended protection. The NP antigen contains more than 90% protein sequence homology among influenza A isolates and it also contains dominant CTL targets epitopes that made this antigen an attractive target for developing universal vaccine. However, NP protein is a weak antigen and need the use of adjuvant to increase its immunogenicity. We have developed an innovative high avidity VLP (HAV) nanoparticle to improve its adjuvant property to the NP antigen. The nanoparticles are derived from papaya mosaic virus capsid protein (PapMV CP) produced in a bacteria expression system. We generated the HAV by adding an affinity peptide directed to the NP protein at the surface of the VLPs. The fusions of the affinity peptide to PapMV VLPs increased the avidity of PapMV VLPs to NP protein. This modification enhanced the humoral and the IFN-γ response directed to NP. Moreover, the immunity generated by the HAV adjuvanted NP vaccine improved the protection of vaccinated mice to a challenge with influenza virus. The protection was characterized by accelerated virus elimination after the onset of infection and rapid recovery of the vaccinated animals. PMID:22326774

  16. Spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of phytopigments and phytoplanktonic groups at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Boswell, Stephen; Kim, Young-Nam; Kemp, Alan

    2010-08-01

    We have made a comprehensive study of pigment distributions and microscopically determined phytoplankton abundances within the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) location in the North Atlantic to better understand phytoplankton variability, and make some suggestions regarding the composition of the material falling to the sea bed and its impacts on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea. The area has been the focus of many studies of ocean fluxes and benthic communities over recent years, but little attention has been given to the spatio-temporal variability in the surface waters. Dawn casts over a 12-day period at the PAP mooring site (48.83°N 16.5°W) revealed the presence of only one species, the diatom Actinocyclus exiguus, at bloom concentrations for just 5 days. Smaller populations of other diatoms and the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium were also present at this time. Following this 5-day interval, a mixed population of small-sized dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria occurred. It is clear from concomitant CTD/bottle surveys that rapid changes in phytoplankton community structure at a fixed time series position do not necessarily reflect a degradation or manifestation of one particular species but rather represent the movement of eddies and other water masses within very short timescales. These cause substantial variability in the species class and size fraction that may explain the variability in carbon export that has been seen at the PAP site. We also make some suggestions on the variable composition of the material falling to the seabed and its impact on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea.

  17. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  18. [Early use of BiPAP in the management of respiratory failure in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta: case report].

    PubMed

    Vega-Briceño, Luis; Contreras, Ilse; Sánchez, Ignacio; Bertrand, Pablo

    2004-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that affect connective tissue integrity. Severe forms cause chest deformities, sometimes associated to alveolar hypoventilation. We report a 4 months old infant with OI type III, who developed respiratory failure (RF) due to a bronchiolitis and required mechanical ventilation. Weaning progressed successfully to a nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (n-BiPAP) device. Clinical follow up showed a normal cognitive development and growth. Respiratory condition, blood gases and ventilation status were in normal ranges. Non invasive ventilation, associated to careful monitoring may avoid tracheostomy and its complications in infants with OI. PMID:15379335

  19. Gravitational collapse of the shells with the smeared gravitational source in noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, John J.; Park, Chanyong

    2010-03-01

    We study the formation of the (noncommutative) Schwarzschild black hole from collapsing shell of the generalized matters containing polytropic and Chaplygin gas. We show that this collapsing shell depending on various parameters forms either a black hole or a naked singular shell with the help of the pressure. Furthermore, by considering the smeared gravitational sources, we investigate the noncommutative black holes formation. Though this mild noncommutative correction of matters cannot ultimately resolve the emergence of the naked singularity, we show that in some parameter region the collapsing shell evolves to a noncommutative black hole before becoming a naked singular shell.

  20. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant. PMID:3866520

  1. Origin of the kT smearing in direct photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Hsiang-Nan

    1998-12-01

    We show that the Sudakov factor from the resummation of double logarithms ln(s/k2T) contained in the distribution functions is responsible for the kT smearing mechanism employed in the next-to-leading-order QCD (αα2s) calculations of direct photon production. s is the center-of-mass energy, and kT the transverse momentum carried by a parton in a colliding hadron. This factor exhibits the appropriate s-dependent Gaussian width in kT, such that our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization’s recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). Methods The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB

  3. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  5. Variable electronic shutter in CMOS imager with improved anti smearing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A leakage compensated snapshot imager provides a number of different aspects to prevent smear and other problems in a snapshot imager. The area where the imager is formed may be biased in a way that prevents photo carriers including electrons and holes from reaching a storage area. In addition, a number of different aspects may improve the efficiency. The capacitance per unit area of the storage area may be one, two or more orders of magnitude greater than the capacitance per-unit area of the photodiode. In addition, a ratio between photodiode capacitance and storage area capacitance is maintained larger than 0.7.

  6. The diagnostic value of the ThinPrep pap test in endometrial carcinoma: a prospective study with histological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Tomashefski, Joseph F; Sawady, Joram; Ferrer, Hector; Khiyami, Amer

    2013-05-01

    Case-control studies have demonstrated that the ThinPrep Pap test may provide improved detection of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the diagnostic potential of the ThinPrep Pap test in the detection of endometrial carcinoma. ThinPrep Pap test slides were collected from high-risk patient groups. Pap-stained slides were reviewed and the cytological diagnosis was rendered independently by investigators. Each case was assigned to one of the four diagnostic categories: within normal limit (WNL); atypical glandular cells (AGC); atypical endometrial cells (AEC); or adenocarcinoma, probably endometrial origin. After cytological diagnosis was made, the histological follow-up diagnosis was obtained through the laboratory information system and the cyto-histological correlation was analyzed. Of 106 patients identified, 60 had histological follow-up. For all eight cases interpreted by cytology as positive, endometrial carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Among 25 patients with normal endometrial cells present, histological follow-up showed benign endometrium. Among 17 cases interpreted cytologically as AEC, 14 cases (82.4%) had benign histological follow-up and 3 cases (17.6%) had endometrial carcinoma. All 11 cases (100%) classified as AGC had benign histological follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting endometrial malignancy were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100%. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that the Thin Prep Pap test had a reasonably high sensitivity and/or specificity in detecting endometrial carcinoma. PMID:22351503

  7. Engineering of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) nanoparticles through fusion of the HA11 peptide to several putative surface-exposed sites.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Gervais; Babin, Cindy; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Papaya mosaic virus has been shown to be an efficient adjuvant and vaccine platform in the design and improvement of innovative flu vaccines. So far, all fusions based on the PapMV platform have been located at the C-terminus of the PapMV coat protein. Considering that some epitopes might interfere with the self-assembly of PapMV CP when fused at the C-terminus, we evaluated other possible sites of fusion using the influenza HA11 peptide antigen. Two out of the six new fusion sites tested led to the production of recombinant proteins capable of self assembly into PapMV nanoparticles; the two functional sites are located after amino acids 12 and 187. Immunoprecipitation of each of the successful fusions demonstrated that the HA11 epitope was located at the surface of the nanoparticles. The stability and immunogenicity of the PapMV-HA11 nanoparticles were evaluated, and we could show that there is a direct correlation between the stability of the nanoparticles at 37°C (mammalian body temperature) and the ability of the nanoparticles to trigger an efficient immune response directed towards the HA11 epitope. This strong correlation between nanoparticle stability and immunogenicity in animals suggests that the stability of any nanoparticle harbouring the fusion of a new peptide should be an important criterion in the design of a new vaccine. PMID:22363771

  8. Identification of Proteins and Peptide Biomarkers for Detecting Banned Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in Meat and Bone Meal by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marbaix, Hélène; Budinger, Dimitri; Dieu, Marc; Fumière, Olivier; Gillard, Nathalie; Delahaut, Philippe; Mauro, Sergio; Raes, Martine

    2016-03-23

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, with processed animal proteins (PAPs) as the main vector of the disease, has led to their prohibition in feed. The progressive release of the feed ban required the development of new analytical methods to determine the exact origin of PAPs from meat and bone meal. We set up a promising MS-based method to determine the species and the source (legal or not) present in PAPs: a TCA-acetone protein extraction followed by a cleanup step, an in-solution tryptic digestion of 5 h (with a 1:20 protein/trypsin ratio), and mass spectrometry analyses, first without any a priori, with a Q-TOF, followed by a targeted triple-quadrupole analysis. Using this procedure, we were able to overcome some of the major limitations of the official methods to analyze PAPs, detecting and identifying prohibited animal products in feedstuffs by the monitoring of peptides specific for cows, pigs, and sheep in PAPs. PMID:26943838

  9. Helical Conformation of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248-286, a Dramatic Enhancer of HIV Infectivity, Promotes Lipid Aggregation and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Gottler, Lindsey M.; Cavitt, Marchello E.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    In previous in vivo studies, amyloid fibers formed from a peptide ubiquitous in human seminal fluid (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI)) were found to dramatically enhance the infectivity of the HIV virus (3–5 orders of magnitude by some measures). To complement those studies, we performed in vitro assays of PAP248-286, the most active precursor to SEVI, and other polycationic polymers to investigate the physical mechanisms by which the PAP248-286 promotes the interaction with lipid bilayers. At acidic (but not at neutral) pH, freshly dissolved PAP248-286 catalyzes the formation of large lipid flocculates in a variety of membrane compositions, which may be linked to the promotion of convective transport in the vaginal environment rather than transport by a random Brownian motion. Furthermore, PAP248-286 is itself fusiogenic and weakens the integrity of the membrane in such a way that may promote fusion by the HIV gp41 protein. An α-helical conformation of PAP248-286, lying parallel to the membrane surface, is implicated in promoting bridging interactions between membranes by the screening of the electrostatic repulsion that occurs when two membranes are brought into close contact. This suggests that nonspecific binding of monomeric or small oligomeric forms of SEVI in a helical conformation to lipid membranes may be an additional mechanism by which SEVI enhances the infectivity of the HIV virus. PMID:19883590

  10. Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms, increased blood white cell count, or increased serum C reactive protein concentration. These results further support the suggestion that heavy longterm drinking often induces subclinical pancreatic damage, but not clinical pancreatitis. PMID:7890213

  11. 78 FR 55258 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... smears.'' In a conventional Pap smear, samples are smeared directly onto a glass microscope slide after... ``smearing'' cervical cells directly onto a glass microscope slide, the cells are sent to the laboratory in...

  12. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  13. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  14. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  15. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  16. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  17. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Swaty; Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods: Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M) is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont) sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. PMID:20543918

  18. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1 year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66 %) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33 %) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  19. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  20. Effect of smear layer treatment on dentin bond of self-adhesive cements.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Keisuke; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Hosaka, Keiichi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Ichinose, Shizuko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin bond strength of three self-adhesive cements with smear layer pretreatments using a calcium-chelating agent (EDTA) and deproteinizing solution (NaOCl) and to evaluate their interfacial characteristics. Smear layer-covered dentin surfaces were pretreated with EDTA for 60 s, NaOCl for 5 and 15 s, or none. Three self-adhesive cements; Clearfil SA luting (Kuraray Medical), Rely X Unicem clicker (3M ESPE) and Breeze (Pentron) were applied to the dentin surfaces. After 24-h water storage, shear bond strengths to dentin were determined. In addition, nanoleakage evaluation at the interface was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. EDTA-pretreatment significantly improved the bond strength of BR (p<0.05) and NaOCl-pretreatment for 15 s significantly improved the bond strength of RX (p<0.05). On the other hand, for SA, both pretreatments significantly decreased bond strength to dentin (p<0.05). Nanoleakage formation was observed in various amounts at the cement-dentin interfaces. PMID:23207204

  1. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  2. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  3. Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Images of ZN-Stained Sputum Smears

    PubMed Central

    Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S.

    2010-01-01

    Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric-transformation-invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow. Finally, different two-class object classifiers are compared. The sensitivity and specificity of all tested classifiers is above 95% for the identification of bacillus objects represented by Fisher-transformed features. Our results may be used to reduce technician involvement in screening for TB, and would be particularly useful in laboratories in countries with a high burden of TB, where, typically, ZN rather than auramine staining of sputum smears is the method of choice. PMID:19726269

  4. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  5. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  6. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactormore » designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.« less

  7. [Validity of the Gram and Lendrum stains in conjunctival smears for the identification of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    de Ramírez, I; Mejía, M; García de la Riva, J C; Hermes, F; Grazioso, C F

    1994-03-01

    With the objective of finding reliable, valid, and economic diagnostic tests to identify Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunctival smears, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of Lendrum and Giemsa stains were evaluated using direct immunofluorescence as the gold standard. In addition, inter- and intraobserver reproducibility were estimated through the use of two independent observers, who were blinded to the results during their readings. The prevalence of ocular chlamydiosis in the study area was around 50%. In all, 103 persons (206 eyes) were studied. Three smears from each eye were taken for each subject. The kappa statistic was used to estimate the reproducibility of the stains. Interobserver reproducibility was null, and intraobserver reproducibility ranged between 0.35 and 0.79. The sensitivity of the Giemsa stain was a bit higher than that of the Lendrum stain (28% and 22%, respectively), and the specificity was similar (82% and 85%, respectively). Based on these results, the ability of both stains to detect positive cases was judged to be low, as was their reliability. The Lendrum and Giemsa stains are not adequate tests for the diagnosis of ocular chlamydiosis. For this purpose the use of direct immunofluorescence is recommended. PMID:7518685

  8. Quantification of sickle cells in the peripheral smear as a marker of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Montague, Naomi S; Marin, Marta; O'Brien, Robert; Rodriguez, Maria Matilde

    2015-06-01

    Blinded readers examined peripheral smears of 108 children with steady sickle cell (SC) disease and controls by counting ten 100 × microscope fields and calculating percent of irreversible and reversible SC from total red cell population SC index (SCI). SCI was correlated to disease severity, and transfusion, hydroxyurea, or neither. Controls had a mean of 0.28% SC (range 0-0.64). Children with hemoglobin SS had a mean SCI of 5.12% ± 5.37 (range 0-30). SCI increased 0.33% with each increasing year (p < 0.0001). Patients with SCI >0.64 were 3.32 times as likely to experience clinical complications (p = 0.0124). Although blood transfusions and hydroxyurea decreased percent of SC, 72% treated patients had SCI >0.64, correlating with persistent sickling. This standardized method quantifies SC in peripheral smears. Percent of SC increased with age and correlated with disease severity, especially hemolytic complications, providing readily available information with minimal or no extra cost. PMID:25517885

  9. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  10. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

  11. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ajitkumar G.; Barkema, Herman W.; Wilde, Randy; Kastelic, John P.; Thundathil, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of breed, age, and scrotal circumference (SC), and their interaction, on the prevalence of sperm abnormalities in beef bulls in Alberta, Canada, and the percentage of satisfactory potential breeders identified during breeding soundness examination solely due to normal sperm morphology. Eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears and evaluation reports of 1642 bull breeding soundness evaluations were procured from 6 veterinary clinics in Alberta. Sperm morphology was determined for at least 100 sperm per bull. The most common defects were detached head [4.86% ± 5.71%; mean ± standard deviation (s)], distal midpiece reflex (6.19% ± 9.13%), and bent tail (1.01% ± 1.54%). Although breed, age, and SC did not significantly affect the prevalence of head or midpiece defects, morphologically normal or abnormal sperm, tail defects were more prevalent in Angus and Hereford bulls compared with other breeds. Overall, solely on the basis of sperm morphology, 1363 (83.0%) bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders and the remainder 279 (17.0%) as unsatisfactory (> 30% abnormal sperm, > 20% defective heads, or both). Although not significantly different, the breed with the highest percentage of satisfactory potential breeders was Limousin (90.6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance. PMID:22468020

  12. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R.; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B.; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain. PMID:26658437

  13. H-NS controls pap and daa fimbrial transcription in Escherichia coli in response to multiple environmental cues.

    PubMed

    White-Ziegler, C A; Villapakkam, A; Ronaszeki, K; Young, S

    2000-11-01

    A comparative study was completed to determine the influence of various environmental stimuli on the transcription of three different fimbrial operons in Escherichia coli and to determine the role of the histone-like protein H-NS in this environmental regulation. The fimbrial operons studied included the pap operon, which encodes pyelonephritis-associated pili (P pili), the daa operon, which encodes F1845 fimbriae, and the fan operon, which encodes K99 fimbriae. Using lacZYA transcriptional fusions within each of the fimbrial operons, we tested temperature, osmolarity, carbon source, rich medium, oxygen levels, pH, amino acids, solid medium, and iron concentration for their effects on fimbrial gene expression. Low temperature, high osmolarity, glucose as a carbon source, and rich medium repressed transcription of all three operons. High iron did not alter transcription of any of the operons tested, whereas the remaining stimuli had effects on individual operons. For the pap and daa operons, introduction of the hns651 mutation relieved the repression, either fully or partially, due to low temperature, glucose as a carbon source, rich medium, and high osmolarity. Taken together, these data indicate that there are common environmental cues that regulate fimbrial transcription in E. coli and that H-NS is an important environmental regulator for fimbrial transcription in response to several stimuli. PMID:11053383

  14. Links between surface productivity and deep ocean particle flux at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) sustained observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigstad, H.; Henson, S. A.; Hartman, S. E.; Omar, A. M.; Jeansson, E.; Cole, H.; Pebody, C.; Lampitt, R. S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present hydrography, biogeochemistry and sediment trap observations between 2003 and 2012 at Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) sustained observatory in the northeast Atlantic. The time series is valuable as it allows for investigation of the link between surface productivity and deep ocean carbon flux. The region is a perennial sink for CO2, with an average uptake of around 1.5 mmol m-2 d-1. The average monthly drawdowns of inorganic carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the net community production (NCP) and new production, respectively. Seasonal NCP and new production were found to be 4.57 ± 0.27 mol C m-2 and 0.37 ± 0.14 mol N m-2. The Redfield ratio was high (12), and the production calculated from carbon was higher than production calculated from nitrogen, which is indicative of carbon overconsumption. The export ratio and transfer efficiency were 16 and 4%, respectively, and the site thereby showed high flux attenuation. Particle tracking was used to examine the source region of material in the sediment trap, and there was large variation in source regions, both between and within years. There were higher correlations between surface productivity and export flux when using the particle-tracking approach, than by comparing with the mean productivity in a 100 km box around the PAP site. However, the differences in correlation coefficients were not significant, and a longer time series is needed to draw conclusions on applying particle tracking in sediment trap analyses.

  15. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S; Schwaderer, Andrew L; McHugh, Kirk M; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain. PMID:26658437

  16. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  17. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range.

  18. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P.; Koller, K.; Schierholz, G.; Weinberg, V.

    2008-04-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap nonzero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations.

  19. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  20. Survival of smear-positive multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Witbank, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Abiola O; Beke, Andy K

    2016-06-01

    Background A retrospective cohort study was carried out to compare the survival between smear-positive patients and smear-negative multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients hospitalised in a specialised TB hospital in Witbank, South Africa. Methods A review of medical records of MDR-TB patients treated from 2001 to 2010 was carried out. Survival time was measured from a patient's date of hospitalisation to the date when the patient died, was last treated at the hospital or the end of the study (whichever came first). All patients who were alive until the end of the study period or lost to follow-up were censored and those who died were considered as failures. Survival patterns were estimated using Kaplan Meier plots, log rank tests and life tables. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were also conducted. Results The mean age of the 442 MDR-TB patients in the study was 37.7 ± 11.2 years. The incidence rates of mortality were 13.4 and 43.9 per 1000 person-months for smear-negative and smear-positive MDR-TB patients, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the predictors of death among MDR-TB patients include HIV co-infection (adjusted Hazard Rate, aHR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.02-3.52), old age (above 60 years) (aHR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.04-3.60) and smear positivity at diagnosis (aHR = 3.29, 95% CI = 2.39-4.64). Conclusion The study showed that the probability of survival during the treatment is reduced in MDR-TB patients, who are smear-positive, HIV positive or older than 60 years. Special care should be given to these patients to improve survival. PMID:26954520

  1. Utility of Universal Sample Processing Methodology, Combining Smear Microscopy, Culture, and PCR, for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Dudeja, Mridu; Hanif, M.; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-01-01

    The universal sample processing (USP) multipurpose methodology was developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and other mycobacterial diseases by using smear microscopy, culture, and PCR (S. Chakravorty and J. S. Tyagi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:2697-2702, 2005). Its performance was evaluated in a blinded study of 571 sputa and compared with that of the direct and N-acetyl l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH methods of smear microscopy and culture. With culture used as the gold standard, USP smear microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% and 91.4%, respectively, compared to 68.6% and 92.6%, respectively, for the direct method. For a subset of 325 specimens, the USP method recorded a 97.1% sensitivity and 83.2% specificity compared to the NALC-NaOH method, which had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 89.7%, respectively, with culture used as the gold standard. Thus, the USP method exhibited a highly significant enhancement in sensitivity (P < 0.0001) compared to the direct and NALC-NaOH methods of smear microscopy. The USP culture sensitivity was 50.1% and was not significantly different from that of conventional methods (53.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of IS6110 PCR were 99.1% and 71.2%, respectively, with culture used as the gold standard, and increased to 99.7% and 78.8%, respectively, when compared with USP smear microscopy. Thus, the USP methodology was highly efficacious in diagnosing TB by smear microscopy, culture, and PCR in a clinical setting. PMID:15956386

  2. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  3. Validating a Scoring System for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Isabella; Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Batista, Joanna D’Arc Lyra; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Moura, Líbia Vilela; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito Barros; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge of diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB (tuberculosis) in people living with HIV justifies the use of instruments other than the smear test for diagnosing the disease. Considering the clinical-radiological similarities of TB amongst HIV-infected adults and children, the proposal of this study was to assess the accuracy of a scoring system used to diagnose smear-negative pulmonary TB in children and adolescents, in HIV-infected adults suspected of having smear-negative pulmonary TB. Methods A Phase III validation study aiming to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a scoring system for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values of the scoring system. Three versions of the scoring system were tested. Results From a cohort of 2,382 (HIV-infected adults), 1276 were investigated and 128 were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Variables associated with the diagnosis of TB were: coughing, weight loss, fever, malnutrition, chest X-ray, and positive tuberculin test. The best diagnostic performance occurred with the scoring system with new scores, with sensitivity = 81.2% (95%-CI 74.5% –88%), specificity = 78% (75.6% –80.4%), PPV = 29.2% (24.5% –33.9%) and NPV = 97.4% (96.4% –98.4%), LR+ = 3.7 (3.4–4.0) and LR− = 0.24 (0.2–0.4). Conclusion The proposed scoring system (with new scores) presented a good capacity for discriminating patients who did not have pulmonary TB, in the studied population. Further studies are necessary in order to validate it, thus permitting the assessment of its use in diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. PMID:24755628

  4. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  5. In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ringshausen, Felix C; Schlösser, Stephan; Nienhaus, Albert; Schablon, Anja; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Rohde, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW). Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST), but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence, in-hospital setting, is limited. We conducted a large-scale, in-hospital contact investigation among HCW of a German university hospital after exposure to a single case of extensive smear-negative, culture-positive TB with pulmonary involvement. The objective of the present study was to evaluate an IGRA in comparison to the TST and to identify risk factors for test positivity. Methods Contacts were prospectively enrolled, evaluated using a standardized questionnaire, the IGRA QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) and the TST, and followed-up for two years. Active TB was ruled out by chest x-ray in QFT-GIT-positive subjects. Independent predictors of test positivity were established through the use of logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the 143 subjects analyzed, 82 (57.3%) had close contact, but only four (2.8%) experienced cumulative exposure to the index case >40 hours. QFT-GIT results were positive in 13 subjects (9.1%), while TST results were positive in 40 subjects (28.0%) at an induration >5 mm. Overall agreement was poor between both tests (kappa = 0.15). Age was the only predictor of QFT-GIT-positivity (Odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.32–5.46), while TST-positivity was significantly related to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and foreign origin. Logistic regression analysis showed no relation between test results and exposure. No secondary cases of active TB were detected over an observational period of two years. Conclusion Our findings suggest a low contagiosity of

  6. Cervix cryosurgery

    MedlinePlus

    Your health care provider should do a repeat Pap smear or biopsy at a follow-up visit to ... tissue was destroyed. You may need more frequent Pap smears for the first 2 years after cryosurgery for ...

  7. Endometrial cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage ( D and C ) Pap smear (may raise a suspicion for endometrial cancer, but ... for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some ...

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... be detected by a medical test called a Pap smear . Dysplasia is fully treatable. That is why it is important for women to get regular Pap smears, so that precancerous cells can be removed before ...

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Get the screening tests you need Mammograms, Pap smears, colorectal cancer screens, and other tests can find ... about being tested. Cervical Cancer (Women) : Get a Pap smear every one to three years if you have ...

  10. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  11. Using a New Smearing Technique to Find Moments of the Quark Distribution Amplitude of the Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H. L. L.; Richards, David; Thomas, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    We study the distribution of momentum between valence quarks of the ground state and the first excited state of the pion using Lattice QCD on the anisotropic lattice. Our final goal is to extract the second moment of distribution amplitudes of the ground state and first excited state of the pion for exclusive processes at high momentum transfer. At this stage of the project, we can compute the ground state pion decay constant in a lattice renormalization scheme up to an overall normalization constant. We employ a variational technique that will allow us to determine the decay constant and second moment of the distribution amplitude of the first excited state of the pion also. We use a new smearing technique in order to minimize pollution of the data from higher-lying excited states. The anisotropy of the lattice is a novel feature of our approach, and strongly increases sensitivity to excited states through a better temporal resolution.

  12. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  13. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed by cervical smear.

    PubMed

    Arık, Deniz; Öge, Tufan; Kabukçuoğlu, Sare; Yalçın, Ömer Tarık; Özalp, Sinan

    2016-06-01

    The melanocytic cells of the cervical epithelium are capable of forming the complete spectrum of melanocytic lesions, from benign lentigines to melanoma. Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. The absence of melanin pigment can lead to misdiagnosis as carcinomas, sarcomas, or lymphoma. Immunohistochemical studies should be used for confirmation. In order to consent the cervix as a primary site, exclusion of any other probable primary sites of melanoma is needed. Here, we present a 61-year-old female patient with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. After cervical smear, diagnosis was confirmed by cervical punch biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:535-537. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991516

  14. Automated detection of malaria in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Mushabe, Mark C; Dendere, Ronald; Douglas, Tania S

    2013-01-01

    The current gold standard of malaria diagnosis is the manual, microscopy-based analysis of Giemsa-stained blood smears, which is a time-consuming process requiring skilled technicians. This paper presents an algorithm that identifies and counts red blood cells (RBCs) as well as stained parasites in order to perform a parasitaemia calculation. Morphological operations and histogram-based thresholding are used to extract the red blood cells. Boundary curvature calculations and Delaunay triangulation are used to split clumped red blood cells. The stained parasites are classified using a Bayesian classifier with their RGB pixel values as features. The results show 98.5% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity for detecting infected red blood cells. PMID:24110533

  15. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  16. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). A total of 180 specimen were used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the three irrigants in presence and absence of SL, 24 specimen were placed in the positive and negative controls, 2 samples were utilized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and 2 were used for Gram staining. Then, they were exposed to irrigants including 2.61% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 1% povidone-iodine (PI) for 5, 30 and 60 min. Presence/absence of test microorganisms was determined by incubation of specimens in test tubes containing brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth and then measuring the colony forming units (CFU) on BHI agar. A cumulative logistic model was used to analyze the ordinal response. Results: The 2.61% solution of NaOCl was significantly more effective than 0.2% CHX and the latter was more efficient than 1% PI for decreasing fungal and microbial infection of dentinal tubules in the presence and absence of SL. Conclusion: The presence of smear layer decreased the efficacy of antimicrobial irrigants. The minimum time required for elimination of fungal/microbial infection was 30 min. PMID:26213540

  17. The Effect of Preparation Size on Efficacy of Smear Layer Removal; A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Shareghi, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Enlargement of the root canal may potentially affect efficient smear layer (SL) removal. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare SL removal following canal preparation with two different sizes/tapers by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: A total of 50 extracted human mandibular premolars were decoronated. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20) and two negative control groups. In groups 1 and 2 the sizes of master apical file (MAF) were #25 and 40, respectively. Coronal part of the canals were flared with #2 Piezo drills in group 1 and sizes #2 to 6 in group 2. Finally FlexMaster NiTi rotary instruments were used to complete canal preparation (25/0.04 and 35/0.06 in groups 1 and 2, respectively). The irrigation protocol consisted of 10 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 1 min followed by 10 mL of 5.25% NaOCl for 3 min. The patency of dentinal tubules was evaluated under SEM with Hülsmann scores. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The number of patent dentinal tubules in coronal third of the group 1 was significantly more than group 2 (P<0.001). However, this difference was not significant for the middle and apical segments. There was a significant difference in the number of patent dentinal tubules between coronal, middle and apical thirds (P<0.05). Conclusion: Increasing the canal preparation size did not lead to better cleanliness of the canal walls and more efficient smear layer removal. PMID:26213539

  18. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  19. Quality and liability issues with the Papanicolaou smear: lessons from the science of error prevention.

    PubMed

    Derman, H

    1997-03-01

    The pathologists and cytologists who study Papanicolaou smears perform a highly successful cancer screening test in a low-prevalence population. This leads to a mathematically inevitable false-negative error rate even in the most competent professional hands. The US judicial system supports a public expectation of perfect performance by civil and, recently, criminal punishment of error. Lessons are sought from a considerable industrial experience with accident prevention for possible insights into process improvement that might mitigate the risk of false-negative errors. The elements that, by system analysis, contribute to accidents are reviewed, and the conditions that enhance the accident potential are outlined. The cognitive functions and aberrations that are involved in the operator component of error analysis are described. As a result of pathologists' activities in the systematic measurement of laboratory performance for the last half century, the College of American Pathologists' accreditation program and its derivative Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act requirements have already laid out the avenues of error minimalization. There are no lessons from the science of error prevention that can affect the public expectation of zero error in a screening test and the consequent punishment of cytology professionals. A thesis is offered that the problem is society's if its goal is eradication of cervical cancer mortality. A call is made for leadership by a prestigious, nonpathologist, national organization to make the public understand that the current cytology liability issue is primarily a threat to women and the public health. To initiate public dialogue, a mechanism is suggested to protect simultaneously a patient's right of access to the judicial system and the general availability of the Papanicolaou smear to reduce cervical cancer mortality and morbidity. PMID:9111120

  20. Effect of smear layer removal on the diffusion of calcium hydroxide through radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Foster, K H; Kulild, J C; Weller, R N

    1993-03-01

    Forty single-rooted teeth were sectioned transversely through the cementoenamel junction and instrumented to a size #50 K-Flex file at the working length by saline irrigation. Each root was placed in a dilution vial containing 10 ml of normal saline, and the pH and Ca2+ levels were recorded after 24 h. The roots in group 1 then received a final irrigation with 20 ml of normal saline. Group 2 received a final irrigation with 10 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl to remove the smear layer. Group 3 was irrigated in the same manner as group 2, but calcium hydroxide (CH) was placed into the root canal. Group 4 was irrigated with 20 ml of NaOCl, and CH was placed into the root canal. The pH and Ca2+ levels were recorded at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. After 7 days a 3- x 3- x 1-mm external defect was created in the coronal one third of the root surface. The pH and Ca2+ levels were subsequently recorded at 1, 3, and 7 days. Groups 3 and 4 demonstrated significantly higher H+ and Ca2+ levels than did groups 1 and 2 three days after CH placement and at all subsequent intervals. Group 3 demonstrated significantly higher H+ and Ca2+ readings at some but not all intervals. The results demonstrated that CH diffuses from the root canal to the exterior surface of the root and that the removal of the smear layer may facilitate this diffusion. PMID:8509752

  1. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 101–103 cfu/cm2 L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 103/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 108 or 1 × 109 pfu/cm2. With Scott A (103 cfu/cm2) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 108 pfu/cm2) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 109 pfu/cm2) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (101–102 cfu/cm2), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  2. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Susanne; Loessner, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 10(1)-10(3) cfu/cm(2)L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 10(3)/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2). With Scott A (10(3) cfu/cm(2)) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 10(8) pfu/cm(2)) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2)) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (10(1)-10(2) cfu/cm(2)), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  3. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  4. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  5. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  6. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  8. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  9. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results: The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions: These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies. PMID:26464770

  10. [Invasive ventilation. Classification, technique and clinical experiences with BiPAP/APRV (Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure/Airway Pressure Release Ventilation)].

    PubMed

    Antonsen, K; Jacobsen, E; Pedersen, J E; Porsborg, P A; Bonde, J

    1996-01-22

    BiPAP (bilevel or biphasic positive airway pressure) and APRV (airway pressure release ventilation) are new, and from a technical viewpoint closely related techniques recently introduced to the field of invasive ventilatory support. BiPAP/APRV can be described as a pressure controlled continuous high flow positive airway pressure system with a time-cycled change between a high inspiratory pressure level and a lower expiratory pressure level. Due to highly sensitive valves placed in the inspiratory and expiratory part of the system, unrestricted spontaneous breathing is possible at any moment of the mechanically supported ventilatory cycle. During invasive ventilation BiPAP offers potential advantages by allowing unrestricted spontaneous breathing thus reducing the need for sedation and facilitating weaning. APRV has primarily been investigated in conditions of moderate to severe acute lung injury and it seems that APRV is associated with less detrimental effects on the cardiopulmonary system compared to conventional ventilatory strategies. Apart from a review of the literature the article gives a classification and a technical description of the systems and focuses on the practical approach to BiPAP/APRV, e.g. the initiation and adjustment of respiratory support and the weaning from ventilatory support when applying these techniques. PMID:8638300

  11. [Use of BiPAP during weaning from mechanical ventilation in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Shimada, M; Ishizaki, T; Nakai, T

    1997-08-01

    In a 65-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure, bi-level positive airway pressure device (BiPAP) was used as part of weaning from mechanical ventilation. As an outpatient, he had had dyspnea of grade V (Hugh-Jones) and was hypercapnic (PaCO2 of 70 torr) and hypoxemic (PaO2 of 60 torr), while he was receiving oxygen at 2 L/min via nasal cannula. Acute respiratory failure developed due to pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation was begun. However, he could not be weaned with a standard weaning technique (T-piece). On the fifth day of mechanical ventilation, he was extubated and treatment with BiPAP was begun. He did not complain of dyspnea even though PaCO2 did not decrease, which indicates that BiPAP reduced the work of breathing. Use of BiPAP might make reintubation unnecessary when acute ventilatory failure develops soon after extubation in patients with COPD. PMID:9366166

  12. The role of noninvasive ventilation: CPAP and BiPAP in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common cause of respiratory failure for which patients seek emergency care. Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in the treatment for severe CHF. Studies have shown that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) methods, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), are effective in treating CHF and have fewer complications than endotracheal intubation. The use of NIV in the treatment of CHF has been shown to increase oxygenation, improve hemodynamic stability, and decrease the need for intubation. When NIV is chosen for a patient in CHF, the critical care nurse needs to be vigilant in assessing and monitoring these patients, especially those in severe CHF. This article evaluates the differences between the 2 types of NIV, the controversies that may exist, practice issues for the critical care nurse, and any financial considerations. PMID:16552275

  13. The use of the BiPAP biphasic positive airway pressure system in acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tromans, A M; Mecci, M; Barrett, F H; Ward, T A; Grundy, D J

    1998-07-01

    In recent years there has been increasing demand on our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) facilities, mainly due to improved resuscitation techniques in the pre-hospital management of spinal cord injury (SCI). This has resulted in an increasing number of high tetraplegic and paraplegic patients with respiratory problems who have survived the initial injury, but have subsequently required ventilatory support, often for several weeks. In view of the continuing pressure on ICU beds and a consequent need for alternative means of providing ventilatory support within the spinal centre rather than within the ICU setting, there was a requirement to provide a simple means of ventilatory support suitable for use within the ward setting. Ventilatory assistance using BiPAP appeared to fulfil these criteria, enabling patients to be managed at reduced cost. We present our experience using this system in 28 acute SCI patients over a 4 year period. PMID:9670384

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, Eric; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process. PMID:27445372

  15. Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U. S. Presidential Candidates and the Current U. S. President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to…

  16. In vitro evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser application with five different fiberoptic tip withdrawl techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Emboava Spano, Julio C.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal in apical and middle root thirds using five different fiberoptic tip withdrawal techniques. Thirty human canines were instrumented using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, with a final irrigation of distilled water, and divided randomly in 6 different groups. Er:YAG laser was applied in 5 groups with a 50/28 fiberoptic tip (250 mJ input, 112 mJ output, 10 Hz, 1 mm from apex) with distinct withdrawal techniques. Group 6 did not receive laser irradiation. Two pieces of each root canal (middle and apical thirds) were obtained under the SEM and analyzed for the amount of smear layer. Results showed statistical differences (p<0.05) between treatments and significant differences (p<0.01) between radicular thirds. It can be concluded that 1) all withdrawal techniques produced the same results on smear layer removal and 2) the middle third presented less smear layer t han the apical third after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

  17. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P < 0.05). There was not a significant difference among the three thirds of groups according to in-group comparisons (P > 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal. PMID:27355025

  18. Relative efficacy of bone marrow trephine biopsy sections as compared to trephine imprints and aspiration smears in routine hematological practice.

    PubMed

    Varma, N; Dash, S; Sarode, R; Marwaha, N

    1993-07-01

    The relative efficacy of trephine sections, trephine imprints and aspiration smears in yielding diagnostic and additional information was compared in 767 sets of bone marrow samples. Trephine sections were diagnostic in significantly more cases as compared to trephine imprints and aspiration smears (P < 0.001). Additional information was obtained in 326 trephine sections which was not available from trephine imprints and aspiration smears. Significantly more number of trephine sections provided diagnosis in case of dry tap/scanty material, for assessment of lymphoma-tumour infiltration, cellularity, Perl's reaction, megakaryocyte density and proliferating cell lines in myeloproliferative disorders. Fibrosis of bone marrow, pattern of bone marrow involvement and topographical alterations were appreciable only on trephine sections. The differential counts done on trephine imprints and aspiration smears correlated well and cytomorphological characterisation of immature cells (blasts and promyelocytes) could be done on these two preparations. Although trephine sections provide maximum information, all three preparations were found complementing each other and should be evaluated simultaneously for complete bone marrow interpretation. PMID:8300166

  19. Role of Multiparameter Analysis of AgNORs in FNA Smears of Thyroid Swellings in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Ismail; Hassan, Md Quamrul; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Ahamad, M. Shahab Uddin; Rahman, Zillur

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to assess the role of multiparameter analysis of silver (Ag)-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) technique on aspiration smears of thyroid swellings to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Materials and Methods. Aspiration smears from 166 cases of thyroid swellings were examined. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology in 61 cases. AgNOR staining was done on FNA smears according to silver-staining protocol proposed by the International Committee for AgNOR quantification. Multiparameter analysis of AgNORs such as mAgNOR, pAgNOR, and AgNOR size grade was done on 50–100 cells under oil immersion lens. Results. AgNOR parameter of benign and malignant thyroid lesions was compared and was found to be statistically significant. Out of 157 satisfactory AgNOR stained cases, 148 (94.3%) were benign lesions and 9 (5.7%) cases were malignant lesions. In AgNOR analysis, sensitivity was found to be 83.33%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 98.21%, and accuracy was 98.36%. Conclusions. AgNOR analysis in the FNA smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid swellings. PMID:22792510

  20. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

  1. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process. PMID:27445372

  3. Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model

    PubMed Central

    Blake, David T.; Byl, Nancy N.; Cheung, Steven; Bedenbaugh, Purvis; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Lamb, Michelle; Merzenich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In our hypothesis of focal dystonia, attended repetitive behaviors generate aberrant sensory representations. Those aberrant representations interfere with motor control. Abnormal motor control strengthens sensory abnormalities. The positive feedback loop reinforces the dystonic condition. Previous studies of primates with focal hand dystonia have demonstrated multi-digit or hairy-glabrous responses at single sites in area 3b, receptive fields that average ten times larger than normal, and high receptive field overlap as a function of horizontal distance. In this study, we strengthen and elaborate these findings. One animal was implanted with an array of micro-electrodes that spanned the border between the face and digits. After the animal developed hand dystonia, responses in the initial hand representation increasingly responded to low threshold stimulation of the face in a columnar substitution. The hand-face border that is normally sharp became patchy and smeared over one millimeter of cortex within six weeks. Two more trained animals developed a focal hand dystonia variable in severity across the hand. Receptive field size, presence of multi-digit or hairy-glabrous receptive fields, and columnar overlap covaried with the animal’s ability to use specific digits. A fourth animal performed the same behaviors without developing dystonia. Many of its physiological measures were similar to the dystonic animals, but receptive field overlap functions were minimally abnormal, and no sites shared response properties that are normally segregated such as hairy-glabrous combined fields, or multi-digit fields. Thalamic mapping demonstrated proportionate levels of abnormality in thalamic representations as was found in cortical representations. PMID:12590836

  4. Performance of the CellaVision® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Christopher L.; Mansoor, Adnan; Wood, Brenda; Nelson, Heather; Higa, Diane; Lee, Lik Hang; Naugler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Red blood cell (RBC) analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden) automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular). The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination) to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes) to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities. PMID:25774322

  5. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Touchette, Megan H; Bommineni, Gopal R; Delle Bovi, Richard J; Gadbery, John E; Nicora, Carrie D; Shukla, Anil K; Kyle, Jennifer E; Metz, Thomas O; Martin, Dwight W; Sampson, Nicole S; Miller, W Todd; Tonge, Peter J; Seeliger, Jessica C

    2015-09-01

    Although they are classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl β-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids known as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. Here, we show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl β-diol substrate analogues. By applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases PknB and PknE modify PapA5 on three overlapping Thr residues and that a fourth Thr is unique to PknE phosphorylation. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and indicate post-translational modifications that warrant further elucidation for their roles in the regulation of DIM biosynthesis. PMID:26271001

  6. Role of BiPAP applied through endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Jagdish; Sindhwani, Girish; Biswas, Debasis; Dua, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Mechanical ventilation is the recommended treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapenic respiratory failure. But, in resource-poor countries, many of these patients are not able to afford this treatment due to financial constraints. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness, safety and cost-effectiveness of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) applied via endotracheal tube in such patients. Methods Twenty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and altered sensorium, who were unable to afford ventilatory support, were intubated and BiPAP therapy was provided to these patients through the endotracheal tube. The outcome of these patients was studied. Results The BiPAP success rate and hospital mortality were 85% (17/20) and 15% (3/20) respectively. BiPAP failure was associated with high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at the time of admission (P = 0.002). Improvement in Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score (P < 0.001), pH (P = 0.001), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) (P < 0.001), respiratory rate (P < 0.001), and SOFA score (P = 0.001) was observed among the responders following 2 hours of therapy. Only one of the responders developed aspiration pneumonitis, as a complication. The daily cost of BiPAP therapy was 8.75 times lower than the average cost of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion This pilot study reveals that this treatment modality could be a safe, cost-effective and efficacious method of treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. PMID:22665995

  7. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl Beta-Diol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John E.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. Todd; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids known as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases PknB and PknE modify PapA5 on three overlapping Thr residues and a fourth Thr is unique to PknE phosphorylation. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and indicate post-translational modifications that warrant further elucidation for their roles in regulation DIM biosynthesis. PMID:26271001

  8. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study on the Effect of an Experimental Irrigation Solution on Smear Layer Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Mokhtari, Hadi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Saeed; Sohrabi, Aydin; Badamchi Zadeh, Sina; Mojaver Kahnamooie, Hanieh; Tehranchi, Pardis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of an experimental irrigation solution, containing two different concentrations of papain, Tween 80, 2% chlorhexidine and EDTA, on removal of the smear layer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six single-rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=12) and two positive and negative control groups of six. The canals were prepared with BioRaCe instruments up to BR7 (60/0.02). In group 1, canals were irrigated with a combination of 1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX; in group 2, canals were irrigated with a combination of 0.1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX. In group 3 (the negative control), the canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation and at the end of preparation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA was used; in group 4 (positive control), normal saline was used for irrigation. The amount of the remaining smear layer was quantified according to Hulsmann method using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Two-by-two comparisons of the groups revealed no significant differences in terms of smear layer removal at different canal sections between the negative control group (standard regiment for smear layer removal) and 1% papain groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, combination of 1% papain, EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine and Tween 80 can effectively remove smear layer from canal walls. PMID:24688583

  9. The efficacy of Salvadora persica extract in the elimination of the intracanal smear layer: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Hanan; Ghandourah, Basma; Al-Sulaiman, Hala

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of an ethanolic Salvadora persica extract in removing the smear layer following a root canal procedure. Methods Sixty extracted, single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and divided into four groups. Experimental groups 1 (n = 20) and 2 (n = 20) were irrigated with 1 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml of S. persica, respectively. The positive controls (n = 10) were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), while the negative controls (n = 10) were irrigated with saline. Approximately 5 ml of the irrigating solution was delivered into the root canals for 5 min, and the final rinse was performed with 5 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the endodontic smear layer removal at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the specimens. Results A significant difference in smear layer removal between groups 1 and 2 at the coronal and middle thirds of the canal was observed, and no significant difference was seen between group 2 and the positive control at the coronal third. At the apical third, both concentrations of S. persica had similar effects and were less effective than the positive control in removing the smear layer. Conclusion The 5 mg/ml S. persica solution was significantly more effective than the 1 mg/ml solution. In addition, the 5 mg/ml S. persica solution was as effective as 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer from the coronal third of the canal wall. PMID:23960532

  10. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

    PubMed Central

    Görduysus, Melahat; Bayramgil, Nursel Pekel; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA]) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl)2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA); G3, Ca(OCl)2 + Poly(AA-co-MA); G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05). EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA) is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl)2. PMID:26295025

  11. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. PMID:25285423

  12. Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser in Removing Smear Layer and Debris with Two Different Output Powers

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ehsani, Sara; Etemadi, Ardavan; Shafaq, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing debris and the smear layer using two different output powers on the apical, middle, and coronal segments of root canal walls. Background data: Previous literature has failed to evaluate the exclusive effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the quality of smear layer and debris removal in all three segments of the root canal space. Methods: Sixty extracted teeth were included in the study. After instrumentation, samples were divided into three experimental groups and one positive control group with no further treatment. In group 1, a final irrigation was performed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), sequentially. In group 2, the samples were treated with a 2.78 μm Er,Cr:YSGG laser with an output power of 1.5 W. The same laser was used in group 3, but with an output power of 2.5 W. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots were prepared and evaluated for both smear layer and debris removal by three blinded observers. Results: The results showed no differences between groups 1 and 2 regarding the quality of smear layer removal in all areas. However, the 2.5 W laser failed to remove the smear layer effectively. Regarding debris removal, the EDTA and NaOCl irrigation showed significantly better outcomes (adjusted p<0.05) in all areas. Conclusions: This study raises questions about the overall cleaning abilities of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. PMID:25198390

  13. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  14. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  15. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  16. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  17. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive and HIV negative females, in a tertiary care hospital - An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Dimple; Sandhu, Ivy; Bahl, RK; Bhatia, Ruby; Goyal, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The presentation and course of Sexually transmitted diseases(STI) may be altered by presence of coexisting HIV status. Aim of the study was to study the prevalence of STI in 50 females with HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection and to study the pap smear of patients to look for any cellular changes (dysplasia) due to sexually transmitted infections. Material and methods: The present study was an observational study, which was undertaken on 100 females with STIs (50 females with coexistent HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection), in the age group 15-49 years attending Skin and VD OPD of Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Results: In our study, the commonest presenting complaint in case of both HIV positive (66%) and HIV negative (80%) women was vaginal discharge. PAP smear abnormalities were present in 28 (56%) HIV positive women and 11 (22%) HIV negative women. In case of HIV positive women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 4 (8%), bacterial in 2 (4%), fungal in 2 (4%) and non-specific in 20 (40%) patients. In HIV negative women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 2 (4%) patients, bacterial in 2 (4%) patients and non-specific in 7 (14%) patients. The difference in abnormality seen in PAP smear between HIV positive and HIV negative women is statistically significant only in case of non-specific inflammation which is more common in case of HIV positive women. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded vaginal discharge was the commonest presenting complaint in both HIV positive and HIV negative women, though the commonest cause of vaginal discharge was candidiasis in HIV positive females and bacterial vaginosis in HIV negative females. Also, PAP smear abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. So it is important that HIV positive women should have complete gynecological evaluation including a PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs. PMID:26392656

  18. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  19. PA03.11. Evaluation of socioeconomic status and other factors with special reference to cervical cancer A survey based study

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. It is the third most common type of cancer in women. Cervical cancers start in the cells on the surface of the cervix. Most cervical cancers are from squamous cells. It starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by a Pap smear and is 100% treatable. It can take years for precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou test (also called Pap smear, Pap test, cervical smear, or smear test) is a screening test used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the endocervical canal (transformation zone) of the female reproductive system. The test aims to detect potentially precancerous changes (called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical dysplasia), which are usually caused by sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses. The present study was planned in the direction to evaluate. Method: In the present work, overall 50 patients of age group between 2050 yrs were selected to study their abnormal pap smear reports in relation to socioeconomic status, smoking, parity, and oral contraceptive and their relationship with abnormal cellular changes. So the patients were randomly selected for Pap smear from IPD or OPD of prasuti tantra and stri roga department of sdmca Hassan. Result: Out of 50 patients,10 patients belongs to higher class, 20 patients belongs to middle class,10 patients belongs lower middle class and 10 patients belongs to lower class. Conclusion: Cervical cancer is ranked as the most frequent cancer in women in India. India has a population of approximately 365.71 million women above 15 years of age, who are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Getting regular Pap smears can help detect precancerous changes, which can be treated before they turn into cervical cancer. Pap smears effectively spot such changes, but they

  20. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of