Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal protein accumulation

  1. Abnormality of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases at prodromal and early stages of Alzheimer's disease: an association with early beta-amyloid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Suo, Zhiming; Wu, Min; Citron, Bruce A; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Festoff, Barry W

    2004-03-31

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that the effects of beta-amyloid (Abeta) are dose dependent both in vitro and in vivo, which implies that Abeta is not directly detrimental to brain cells until it reaches a threshold concentration. In an effort to understand early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, this study focused on the effects of subthreshold soluble Abeta and the underlying molecular mechanisms in murine microglial cells and an AD transgenic mouse model. We found that there were two phases of dose-dependent Abeta effects on microglial cells: at the threshold of 5 microm and above, Abeta directly induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release, and at subthreshold doses, Abeta indirectly potentiated TNF-alpha release induced by certain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activators. Mechanistic studies revealed that subthreshold Abeta pretreatment in vitro reduced membrane GPCR kinase-2/5 (GRK2/5), which led to retarded GPCR desensitization, prolonged GPCR signaling, and cellular hyperactivity to GPCR agonists. Temporal analysis in an early-onset AD transgenic model, CRND8 mice, revealed that the membrane (functional) GRK2/5 in brain cortices were significantly reduced. More importantly, such a GRK abnormality took place before cognitive decline and changed in a manner corresponding with the mild to moderate soluble Abeta accumulation in these transgenic mice. Together, this study not only discovered a novel link between subthreshold Abeta and GRK dysfunction, it also demonstrated that the GRK abnormality in vivo occurs at prodromal and early stages of AD.

  2. G protein abnormalities in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Spada, A; Lania, A; Ballarè, E

    1998-07-25

    It has been demonstrated that the majority of secreting and nonsecreting adenomas is monoclonal in origin suggesting that these neoplasia arise from the replication of a single mutated cell, in which growth advantage results from either activation of protooncogenes or inactivation of antioncogenes. Although a large number of genes has been screened for mutations, only few genetic abnormalities have been found in pituitary tumors such as allelic deletion of chromosome 11q13 where the MEN-1 gene has been localised, and mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory Gs and Gi2 protein. These mutations constitutively activate the alpha subunit of the Gs and Gi2 protein by inhibiting their intrinsic GTPase activity. Both Gs alpha and Gi2alpha can be considered products of protooncogenes (gsp and gip2, respectively) since gain of function mutations that activate mitogenic signals have been recognized in human tumors. Gsp oncogene is found in 30-40% of GH-secreting adenomas, in a low percentage of nonfunctioning and ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, in toxic thyroid adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The same mutations, occurred early in embriogenesis, have been also identified in tissues from patients affected with the McCune Albright syndrome. These mutations result in an increased cAMP production and in the subsequent overactivation of specific pathways involved in both cell growth and specific programmes of cell differentiation. By consequence, the endocrine tumors expressing gsp oncogene retain differentiated functions. The gip2 oncogene has been identified in about 10% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, in tumors of the ovary and the adrenal cortex. However, it remains to be established whether Gi proteins activate mitogenic signals in pituitary cells. Since Gi proteins are involved in mediating the effect of inhibitory neurohormones on intracellular effectors, it has been proposed that in pituitary tumors the low expression of

  3. A SENSITIVE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF P53 PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN SPUTUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in lung cancers and usually result in p53 protein accumulation in tumor cells. Sputum is noninvasive to collect and ideal for screening p53 abnormalities. This study was to determine the feasibility of detecting p53 protein accumulatio...

  4. Neprilysin participates in skeletal muscle regeneration and is accumulated in abnormal muscle fibres of inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Broccolini, Aldobrando; Gidaro, Teresa; Morosetti, Roberta; Gliubizzi, Carla; Servidei, Tiziana; Pescatori, Mario; Tonali, Pietro A; Ricci, Enzo; Mirabella, Massimiliano

    2006-02-01

    Neprilysin (NEP, EP24.11), a metallopeptidase originally shown to modulate signalling events by degrading small regulatory peptides, is also an amyloid-beta- (Abeta) degrading enzyme. We investigated a possible role of NEP in inclusion body myositis (IBM) and other acquired and hereditary muscle disorders and found that in all myopathies NEP expression was directly associated with the degree of muscle fibre regeneration. In IBM muscle, NEP protein was also strongly accumulated in Abeta-bearing abnormal fibres. In vitro, during the experimental differentiation of myoblasts, NEP protein expression was regulated at the post-transcriptional level with a rapid increase in the early stage of myoblast differentiation followed by a gradual reduction thereafter, coincident with the progression of the myogenic programme. Treatment of differentiating muscle cells with the NEP inhibitor dl-3-mercapto-2-benzylpropanoylglycine resulted in impaired differentiation that was mainly associated with an abnormal regulation of Akt activation. Therefore, NEP may play an important role during muscle cell differentiation, possibly through the regulation, either directly or indirectly, of the insulin-like growth factor I-driven myogenic programme. In IBM muscle increased NEP may be instrumental in (i) reducing the Abeta accumulation in vulnerable fibres and (ii) promoting a repair/regenerative attempt of muscle fibres possibly through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor I-dependent pathways.

  5. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirch, D G; Kaufmann, C A; Papadopoulos, N M; Martin, B; Weinberger, D R

    1985-10-01

    Determinations of albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 subjects with schizophrenia. These determinations allowed calculation of two indices, one that is an indicator of integrity of the blood-brain barrier and the other a measure of selective IgG production within the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison with previously determined reference values, 7 of 24 (29%) subjects showed increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and 8 of 24 (33%) demonstrated elevated endogenous CNS IgG production. One of these eight also demonstrated oligoclonal banding on high-resolution protein electrophoresis of the CSF.

  6. Metabolic Adaptation in Transplastomic Plants Massively Accumulating Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) or a green fluorescent protein (GFP). While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. Conclusions/Significance The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation. PMID:21966485

  7. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  8. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. PMID:27515418

  9. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  11. Protein accumulation and rumen stability of wheat γ-gliadin fusion proteins in tobacco and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Cohen-Davidyan, Tamar; DeBen, Christopher; Getachew, Girma; DePeters, Edward; Putnam, Daniel; Bennett, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The nutritional value of various crops can be improved by engineering plants to produce high levels of proteins. For example, because methionine deficiency limits the protein quality of Medicago Sativa (alfalfa) forage, producing alfalfa plants that accumulate high levels of a methionine-rich protein could increase the nutritional value of that crop. We used three strategies in designing methionine-rich recombinant proteins that could accumulate to high levels in plants and thereby serve as candidates for improving the protein quality of alfalfa forage. In tobacco, two fusion proteins, γ-gliadin-δ-zein and γ-δ-zein, as well as δ-zein co-expressed with β-zein, all formed protein bodies. However, the γ-gliadin-δ-zein fusion protein accumulated to the highest level, representing up to 1.5% of total soluble protein (TSP) in one transformant. In alfalfa, γ-gliadin-δ-zein accumulated to 0.2% of TSP, and in an in vitro rumen digestion assay, γ-gliadin-δ-zein was more resistant to microbial degradation than Rubisco. Additionally, although it did not form protein bodies, a γ-gliadin-GFP fusion protein accumulated to much higher levels, 7% of TSP, than a recombinant protein comprised of an ER localization signal fused to GFP in tobacco. Based on our results, we conclude that γ-gliadin-δ-zein is a potential candidate protein to use for enhancing methionine levels in plants and for improving rumen stability of forage protein. γ-gliadin fusion proteins may provide a general platform for increasing the accumulation of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The muscle protein dysferlin accumulates in the Alzheimer brain

    PubMed Central

    Palamand, Divya; Strider, Jeff; Milone, Margherita; Pestronk, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Dysferlin is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in muscle. Dysferlin mutations cause limb-girdle dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy and distal anterior compartment myopathy. Dysferlin has also been described in neural tissue. We studied dysferlin distribution in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and controls. Twelve brains, staged using the Clinical Dementia Rating were examined: 9 AD cases (mean age: 85.9 years and mean disease duration: 8.9 years), and 3 age-matched controls (mean age: 87.5 years). Dysferlin is a cytoplasmic protein in the pyramidal neurons of normal and AD brains. In addition, there were dysferlin-positive dystrophic neurites within Aβ plaques in the AD brain, distinct from tau-positive neurites. Western blots of total brain protein (RIPA) and sequential extraction buffers (high salt, high salt/Triton X-100, SDS and formic acid) of increasing protein extraction strength were performed to examine solubility state. In RIPA fractions, dysferlin was seen as 230–272 kDa bands in normal and AD brains. In serial extractions, there was a shift of dysferlin from soluble phase in high salt/Triton X-100 to the more insoluble SDS fraction in AD. Dysferlin is a new protein described in the AD brain that accumulates in association with neuritic plaques. In muscle, dysferlin plays a role in the repair of muscle membrane damage. The accumulation of dysferlin in the AD brain may be related to the inability of neurons to repair damage due to Aβ deposits accumulating in the AD brain. PMID:17024495

  13. Abnormal accumulation and recycling of glycoproteins visualized in Niemann–Pick type C cells using the chemical reporter strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mbua, Ngalle Eric; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Johnson, Steven; Wolfert, Margreet A.; Boons, Geert-Jan; Steet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by impaired cholesterol efflux from late endosomes and lysosomes and secondary accumulation of lipids. Although impaired trafficking of individual glycoproteins and glycolipids has been noted in NPC cells and other storage disorders, there is currently no effective way to monitor their localization and movement en masse. Using a chemical reporter strategy in combination with pharmacologic treatments, we demonstrate a disease-specific and previously unrecognized accumulation of a diverse set of glycoconjugates in NPC1-null and NPC2-deficient fibroblasts within endocytic compartments. These labeled vesicles do not colocalize with the cholesterol-laden compartments of NPC cells. Experiments using the endocytic uptake marker dextran show that the endosomal accumulation of sialylated molecules can be largely attributed to impaired recycling as opposed to altered fusion of vesicles. Treatment of either NPC1-null or NPC2-deficient cells with cyclodextrin was effective in reducing cholesterol storage as well as the endocytic accumulation of sialoglycoproteins, demonstrating a direct link between cholesterol storage and abnormal recycling. Our data further demonstrate that this accumulation is largely glycoproteins, given that inhibitors of O-glycan initiation or N-glycan processing led to a significant reduction in staining intensity. Taken together, our results provide a unique perspective on the trafficking defects in NPC cells, and highlight the utility of this methodology in analyzing cells with altered recycling and turnover of glycoproteins. PMID:23733943

  14. Hepatitis C virus core protein triggers abnormal porphyrin metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Horie, Toshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the most common of the human porphyrias, arises from a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Studies have shown a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with PCT. While these observations implicate HCV infection as a risk factor for PCT pathogenesis, the mechanism of interaction between the virus and porphyrin metabolism is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effect of HCV core protein on intracellular porphyrin metabolism to elucidate the link between HCV infection and PCT. The accumulation and excretion of porphyrins after treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid, a porphyrin precursor, were compared between cells stably expressing HCV core protein and controls. Cells expressing HCV core protein had lower amounts of intracellular protoporphyrin IX and heme and had higher amounts of excreted coproporphyrin III, the oxidized form of coproporphyrinogen III, compared with controls. These observations suggest that HCV core protein affects porphyrin metabolism and facilitates the export of excess coproporphyrinogen III and/or coproporphyrin III, possibly via porphyrin transporters. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the presence of HCV core protein increased the mRNA expression of porphyrin exporters ABCG2 and FLVCR1. Western blot analysis showed a higher expression level of FLVCR1, but not ABCG2, as well as a higher expression level of mature ALAS1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway, in HCV core protein-expressing cells compared with controls. The data indicate that HCV core protein induced abnormal intracellular porphyrin metabolism, with an over-excretion of coproporphyrin III. These findings may partially account for the susceptibility of HCV-infected individuals to PCT development.

  15. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  16. Intranuclear inclusions of meningioma associated with abnormal cytoskeletal protein expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Hirato, J; Sasaki, A; Yokoo, H; Nakazato, Y; Kurachi, H

    1999-01-01

    We describe a case of meningothelial meningioma with a large number of intranuclear inclusions. Morphologically, these are divided into cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear vacuoles. The cytoplasmic inclusion has a limiting membrane with cell organelles and filaments. Inclusions of this type are generally eosinophilic, like the cytoplasm. However, there are many inclusions that are more eosinophilic than the cytoplasm or that have a ground-glass appearance. Some of them may contain fine or coarse granules. On the other hand, the nuclear vacuole lacks a limiting membrane and appears empty. In most of the inclusions of this type, there is a faintly basophilic substance in the margin. Generally, the cytoplasmic inclusions are as immunopositive as cytoplasm with vimentin, but some of these cytoplasmic inclusions are more reactive. Under the electron microscope, abnormal aggregation of intermediate filaments is recognized in the cytoplasmic inclusions. It is considered that a strong reaction of cytoplasmic inclusions with vimentin immunostaining is due to abnormal aggregation of intermediate filaments. The present study distinctly demonstrates abnormal localization of intermediate filaments in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and it is suggested that the cytoskeleton participates in the evolution of the cytoplasmic inclusions.

  17. Extracellular cystatin SN and cathepsin B prevent cellular senescence by inhibiting abnormal glycogen accumulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Seok; Park, Soojong; Lee, Ki-Won; Madhi, Hamadi; Park, Sae Gwang; Lee, Hee Gu; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yoo, Jiyun; Dong Kim, Kwang

    2017-04-06

    Cystatin SN (CST1), a known inhibitor of cathepsin B (CatB), has important roles in tumor development. Paradoxically, CatB is a member of the cysteine cathepsin family that acts in cellular processes, such as tumor development and invasion. However, the relationship between CST1 and CatB, and their roles in tumor development are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the knockdown of CST1 induced the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype genes, including interleukin-6 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, in MDA-MB-231 and SW480 cancer cells. Furthermore, CST1 knockdown decreased extracellular CatB activity, and direct CatB inhibition, using specific inhibitors or shCatB, induced cellular senescence. Reconstitution of CST1 restored CatB activity and inhibited cellular senescence in CST1 knockdown cells. CST1 knockdown or CatB inhibition increased glycogen synthase (GS) kinase 3β phosphorylation at serine 9, resulting in the activation of GS and the induction of glycogen accumulation associated with cellular senescence. Importantly, CST1 knockdown suppressed cancer cell proliferation, soft agar colony growth and tumor growth in a xenograft model. These results indicate that CST1-mediated extracellular CatB activity enhances tumor development by preventing cellular senescence. Our findings suggest that antagonists of CST1 or inhibitors of CatB are potential anticancer agents.

  18. The fanconi anemia proteins FANCA and FANCG stabilize each other and promote the nuclear accumulation of the Fanconi anemia complex.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Higuera, I; Kuang, Y; Denham, J; D'Andrea, A D

    2000-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility syndrome with 8 complementation groups. Four of the FA genes have been cloned, and at least 3 of the encoded proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG/XRCC9, interact in a multisubunit protein complex. The FANCG protein binds directly to the amino terminal nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of FANCA, suggesting that FANCG plays a role in regulating FANCA nuclear accumulation. In the current study the functional consequences of FANCG/FANCA binding were examined. Correction of an FA-G cell line with the FANCG complementary DNA (cDNA) resulted in FANCA/FANCG binding, prolongation of the cellular half-life of FANCA, and an increase in the nuclear accumulation of the FA protein complex. Similar results were obtained upon correction of an FA-A cell line, with a reciprocal increase in the half-life of FANCG. Patient-derived mutant forms of FANCA, containing an intact NLS sequence but point mutations in the carboxy-terminal leucine zipper region, bound FANCG in the cytoplasm. The mutant forms failed to translocate to the nucleus of transduced cells, thereby suggesting a model of coordinated binding and nuclear translocation. These results demonstrate that the FANCA/FANCG interaction is required to maintain the cellular levels of both proteins. Moreover, at least one function of FANCG and FANCA is to regulate the nuclear accumulation of the FA protein complex. Failure to accumulate the nuclear FA protein complex results in the characteristic spectrum of clinical and cellular abnormalities observed in FA.

  19. Disruption of Axonal Transport Perturbs Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) - Signaling and Contributes to Synaptic Abnormalities in Two Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478

  20. Protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm of cereals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-10-01

    There are mainly three endosperm storage tissues in the cereal endosperm: aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. The protein accumulation is very different in the three endosperm storage tissues. The aleurone cells accumulate protein in aleurone granules. The sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm accumulate protein in endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies and vacuolar protein bodies. Proteins are deposited in different patterns within different endosperm storage tissues probably because of the special storage properties of these tissues. There are several special genes and other molecular factors to mediate the protein accumulation in these tissues. Different proteins have distinct functions in the protein body formation and the protein interactions determine protein body assembly. There are both cooperation and competition relationships between protein, starch and lipid in the cereal endosperm. This paper reviews the latest investigations on protein accumulation in aleurone cells, sub-aleurone cells and the center starch endosperm. Useful information will be supplied for future investigations on the cereal endosperm development.

  1. Protein Kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) Promotes Synaptogenesis through Membrane Accumulation of the Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhik; Hongpaisan, Jarin; Wang, Desheng; Nelson, Thomas J.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) promotes synaptic maturation and synaptogenesis via activation of synaptic growth factors such as BDNF, NGF, and IGF. However, many of the detailed mechanisms by which PKCϵ induces synaptogenesis are not fully understood. Accumulation of PSD-95 to the postsynaptic density (PSD) is known to lead to synaptic maturation and strengthening of excitatory synapses. Here we investigated the relationship between PKCϵ and PSD-95. We show that the PKCϵ activators dicyclopropanated linoleic acid methyl ester and bryostatin 1 induce phosphorylation of PSD-95 at the serine 295 residue, increase the levels of PSD-95, and enhance its membrane localization. Elimination of the serine 295 residue in PSD-95 abolished PKCϵ-induced membrane accumulation. Knockdown of either PKCϵ or JNK1 prevented PKCϵ activator-mediated membrane accumulation of PSD-95. PKCϵ directly phosphorylated PSD-95 and JNK1 in vitro. Inhibiting PKCϵ, JNK, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity prevented the effects of PKCϵ activators on PSD-95 phosphorylation. Increase in membrane accumulation of PKCϵ and phosphorylated PSD-95 (p-PSD-95S295) coincided with an increased number of synapses and increased amplitudes of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in adult rat hippocampal slices. Knockdown of PKCϵ also reduced the synthesis of PSD-95 and the presynaptic protein synaptophysin by 30 and 44%, respectively. Prolonged activation of PKCϵ increased synapse number by 2-fold, increased presynaptic vesicle density, and greatly increased PSD-95 clustering. These results indicate that PKCϵ promotes synaptogenesis by activating PSD-95 phosphorylation directly through JNK1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and also by inducing expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin. PMID:27330081

  2. Protein Kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) Promotes Synaptogenesis through Membrane Accumulation of the Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Sen, Abhik; Hongpaisan, Jarin; Wang, Desheng; Nelson, Thomas J; Alkon, Daniel L

    2016-08-05

    Protein kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) promotes synaptic maturation and synaptogenesis via activation of synaptic growth factors such as BDNF, NGF, and IGF. However, many of the detailed mechanisms by which PKCϵ induces synaptogenesis are not fully understood. Accumulation of PSD-95 to the postsynaptic density (PSD) is known to lead to synaptic maturation and strengthening of excitatory synapses. Here we investigated the relationship between PKCϵ and PSD-95. We show that the PKCϵ activators dicyclopropanated linoleic acid methyl ester and bryostatin 1 induce phosphorylation of PSD-95 at the serine 295 residue, increase the levels of PSD-95, and enhance its membrane localization. Elimination of the serine 295 residue in PSD-95 abolished PKCϵ-induced membrane accumulation. Knockdown of either PKCϵ or JNK1 prevented PKCϵ activator-mediated membrane accumulation of PSD-95. PKCϵ directly phosphorylated PSD-95 and JNK1 in vitro Inhibiting PKCϵ, JNK, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity prevented the effects of PKCϵ activators on PSD-95 phosphorylation. Increase in membrane accumulation of PKCϵ and phosphorylated PSD-95 (p-PSD-95(S295)) coincided with an increased number of synapses and increased amplitudes of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in adult rat hippocampal slices. Knockdown of PKCϵ also reduced the synthesis of PSD-95 and the presynaptic protein synaptophysin by 30 and 44%, respectively. Prolonged activation of PKCϵ increased synapse number by 2-fold, increased presynaptic vesicle density, and greatly increased PSD-95 clustering. These results indicate that PKCϵ promotes synaptogenesis by activating PSD-95 phosphorylation directly through JNK1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and also by inducing expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Oil body proteins sequentially accumulate throughout seed development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Valot, Benoît; d'Andréa, Sabine; Zivy, Michel; Nesi, Nathalie; Chardot, Thierry

    2011-11-15

    Despite the importance of seed oil bodies (OBs) as enclosed compartments for oil storage, little is known about lipid and protein accumulation in OBs during seed formation. OBs from rapeseed (Brassica napus) consist of a triacylglycerol (TAG) core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded with integral proteins which confer high stability to OBs in the mature dry seed. In the present study, we investigated lipid and protein accumulation patterns throughout seed development (from 5 to 65 days after pollination [DAP]) both in the whole seed and in purified OBs. Deposition of the major proteins (oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins) into OBs was assessed through (i) gene expression pattern, (ii) proteomics analysis, and (iii) protein immunodetection. For the first time, a sequential deposition of integral OB proteins was established. Accumulation of oleosins and caleosins was observed starting from early stages of seed development (12-17 DAP), while steroleosins accumulated later (~25 DAP) onwards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Propiverine-induced accumulation of nuclear and cytosolic protein in F344 rat kidneys: Isolation and identification of the accumulating protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, D.R.; Heussner, A.H.; O'Brien, E.

    2008-12-15

    Male and female F344 rats but not B6C3F1 mice exposed for 104 weeks to propiverine hydrochloride (1-methylpiperid-4-yl 2,2-diphenyl-2-(1-propoxy)acetate hydrochloride), used for treatment of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB), presented with an accumulation of proteins in the cytosol and nuclei of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, yet despite this, no increased renal tumor incidence was observed. In order to provide an improved interpretation of these findings and a better basis for human health risk assessment, male and female F344 rats were exposed for 16 weeks to 1000 ppm propiverine in the diet, the accumulating protein wasmore » isolated from the kidneys via cytosolic and nuclear preparations or laser-capture microdissection and analyzed using molecular weight determination and mass spectrometry. The accumulating protein was found to be D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), an enzyme involved in amino and fatty acid metabolism. Subsequent reanalysis of kidney homogenate and nuclear samples as well as tissue sections using western blot and DAAO-immunohistochemistry, confirmed the presence and localization of DAAO in propiverine-treated male and female F344 rats. The accumulation of DAAO only in rats, and the limited similarity of rat DAAO with other species, including humans, suggests a rat-specific mechanism underlying the drug-induced renal DAAO accumulation with little relevance for patients chronically treated with propiverine.« less

  5. Disease-associated protein seeding suggests a dissociation between misfolded protein accumulation and neurodegeneration in prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Alibhai, James; Diack, Abigail; Manson, Jean

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as prion diseases or Alzheimer's disease, are associated with progressive accumulation of host proteins which misfold and aggregate. Neurodegeneration is restricted to specific neuronal populations which show clear accumulation of misfolded proteins, whilst neighbouring neurons remain unaffected. Such data raise interesting questions about the vulnerability of specific neuronal populations to neurodegeneration and much research has concentrated only on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in afflicted neuronal populations. An alternative, undervalued and almost completely unstudied question however is how and why neuronal populations are resilient to neurodegeneration. One potential answer is unaffected regions do not accumulate misfolded proteins, thus mechanisms of neurodegeneration do not become activated. In this perspectives, we discuss novel data from our laboratories which demonstrate that misfolded proteins do accumulate in regions of the brain which do not show evidence of neurodegeneration and further evidence that microglial responses may define the severity of neurodegeneration. PMID:29023184

  6. Nonadditive protein accumulation patterns in Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids during embryo development.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Caroline; Schützenmeister, André; Schütz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2010-12-03

    Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrid plants compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. In the present study, heterosis was detected for length, weight, and the time point of seminal root primordia initiation in maize (Zea mays L.) embryos of the reciprocal F(1)-hybrids UH005xUH250 and UH250xUH005. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteome survey of the most abundant proteins of the reciprocal hybrids and their parental inbred lines 25 and 35 days after pollination revealed that 141 of 597 detected proteins (24%) exhibited nonadditive accumulation in at least one hybrid. Approximately 44% of all nonadditively accumulated proteins displayed an expression pattern that was not distinguishable from the low parent value. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and subsequent functional classification of the 141 proteins revealed that development, protein metabolism, redox-regulation, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism were the most prominent functional classes among nonadditively accumulated proteins. In 35-day-old embryos of the hybrid UH250xUH005, a significant up-regulation of enzymes related to glucose metabolism which often exceeded the best parent values was observed. A comparison of nonadditive protein accumulation between rice and maize embryo data sets revealed a significant overlap of nonadditively accumulated proteins suggesting conserved organ- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms in monocots related to heterosis.

  7. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  8. Walnut diet reduces accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and inflammation in the brain of aged rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An increase in the aggregation of misfolded/damaged polyubiquitinated proteins has been the hallmark of many age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The accumulation of these potentially toxic proteins in brain increases with age, in part due to increased oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Walnuts...

  9. Abnormal Septation and Inhibition of Sporulation by Accumulation of l-α-Glycerophosphate in Bacillus subtilis Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yong K.; Freese, Elisabeth B.; Freese, Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Accumulation of l-α-glycerophosphate, in cells of Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-independent glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity, suppresses both growth and sporulation. After growth has stopped, the cells slowly develop one and later more asymmetric septa that are thicker than normal prespore septa and apparently contain too much cell wall material to allow further membrane development into forespores or spores. l-Malate prevents accumulation of glycerophosphate and restores sporulation of the mutant. Glucose or gluconate cannot resotre sporulation, because they still effect glycerophosphate accumulation via de novo synthesis. If that accumulation is blocked in a double mutant, which is unable to make glycerophosphate from or to metabolize it into Embden-Meyerhof compounds, then nonsuppressing amounts of glucose or gluconate can restore sporulation. Images PMID:4632310

  10. Melanin or a Melanin-Like Substance Interacts with the N-Terminal Portion of Prion Protein and Inhibits Abnormal Prion Protein Formation in Prion-Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Taichi; Nishizawa, Keiko; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Oguma, Ayumi; Teruya, Kenta; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Doh-Ura, Katsumi

    2017-03-15

    Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation. Melanin did not modify cellular or cell surface PrP levels, nor did it modify lipid raft or cellular cholesterol levels. Neither did it enhance autophagy or lysosomal function. Melanin was capable of interacting with PrP at two N-terminal domains. Specifically, it strongly interacted with the PrP region of amino acids 23 to 50 including a positively charged amino acid cluster and weakly interacted with the PrP octarepeat peptide region of residues 51 to 90. However, the in vitro and in vivo data were inconsistent with those of prion-infected cells. Abnormal PrP formation in protein misfolding cyclic amplification was not inhibited by melanin. Survival after prion infection was not significantly altered in albino mice or exogenously melanin-injected mice compared with that of control mice. These data suggest that melanin, a main determinant of skin color, is not likely to modify prion disease pathogenesis, even though racial differences in the incidence of human prion diseases have been reported. Thus, the findings identify an interaction between melanin and the N terminus of PrP, but the pathophysiological roles of the PrP-melanin interaction remain unclear. IMPORTANCE The N-terminal region of PrP is reportedly important for neuroprotection, neurotoxicity, and abnormal PrP formation, as this region is bound by many factors, such as metal ions, lipids, nucleic acids, antiprion compounds, and

  11. Melanin or a Melanin-Like Substance Interacts with the N-Terminal Portion of Prion Protein and Inhibits Abnormal Prion Protein Formation in Prion-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, Taichi; Nishizawa, Keiko; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Oguma, Ayumi; Teruya, Kenta; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation. Melanin did not modify cellular or cell surface PrP levels, nor did it modify lipid raft or cellular cholesterol levels. Neither did it enhance autophagy or lysosomal function. Melanin was capable of interacting with PrP at two N-terminal domains. Specifically, it strongly interacted with the PrP region of amino acids 23 to 50 including a positively charged amino acid cluster and weakly interacted with the PrP octarepeat peptide region of residues 51 to 90. However, the in vitro and in vivo data were inconsistent with those of prion-infected cells. Abnormal PrP formation in protein misfolding cyclic amplification was not inhibited by melanin. Survival after prion infection was not significantly altered in albino mice or exogenously melanin-injected mice compared with that of control mice. These data suggest that melanin, a main determinant of skin color, is not likely to modify prion disease pathogenesis, even though racial differences in the incidence of human prion diseases have been reported. Thus, the findings identify an interaction between melanin and the N terminus of PrP, but the pathophysiological roles of the PrP-melanin interaction remain unclear. IMPORTANCE The N-terminal region of PrP is reportedly important for neuroprotection, neurotoxicity, and abnormal PrP formation, as this region is bound by many factors, such as metal ions, lipids, nucleic acids, antiprion compounds

  12. Differential accumulation of proteins in oil palms affected by fatal yellowing disease

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sidney Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Marcelo Murad; Cunha, Roberto Lisboa; Costa, Paulo Henrique de Oliveira; Alves, Ronnie Cley de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa

    2018-01-01

    There is still no consensus on the true origin of fatal yellowing, one of the most important diseases affecting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations. This study involved two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D-UPLC-MSE) analyses to identify changes in protein profiles of oil palms affected by FY disease. Oil palm roots were sampled from two growing areas. Differential accumulation of proteins was assessed by comparing plants with and without symptoms and between plants at different stages of FY development. Most of the proteins identified with differential accumulation were those related to stress response and energy metabolism. The latter proteins include the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, related to alcohol fermentation, which were identified in plants with and without symptoms. The presence of these enzymes suggests an anaerobic condition before or during FY. Transketolase, isoflavone reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and ferritin, among others, were identified as potential marker proteins and could be used to guide selection of FY-tolerant oil palm genotypes or to understand the source of this anomaly. When comparing different stages of FY, we observed high accumulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and other abiotic stress related-proteins at all disease stages. On the other hand, biological stress-related proteins were more accumulated at later stages of the disease. These results suggest that changes in abiotic factors can trigger FY development, creating conditions for the establishment of opportunistic pathogens. PMID:29621343

  13. Suppression of the heterotrimeric G protein causes abnormal morphology, including dwarfism, in rice

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Yukiko; Kato, Teruhisa; Ohki, Shizuka; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kitano, Hidemi; Sasaki, Takuji; Asahi, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Yukimoto

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic rice containing an antisense cDNA for the α subunit of rice heterotrimeric G protein produced little or no mRNA for the subunit and exhibited abnormal morphology, including dwarf traits and the setting of small seeds. In normal rice, the mRNA for the α subunit was abundant in the internodes and florets, the tissues closely related to abnormality in the dwarf transformants. The position of the α-subunit gene was mapped on rice chromosome 5 by mapping with the restriction fragment length polymorphism. The position was closely linked to the locus of a rice dwarf mutant, Daikoku dwarf (d-1), which is known to exhibit abnormal phenotypes similar to those of the transformants that suppressed the endogenous mRNA for the α subunit by antisense technology. Analysis of the cDNAs for the α subunits of five alleles of Daikoku dwarf (d-1), ID-1, DK22, DKT-1, DKT-2, and CM1361–1, showed that these dwarf mutants had mutated in the coding region of the α-subunit gene. These results show that the G protein functions in the formation of normal internodes and seeds in rice. PMID:10377457

  14. Identification and correction of abnormal, incomplete and mispredicted proteins in public databases.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alinda; Hegyi, Hédi; Farkas, Krisztina; Tordai, Hedvig; Kozma, Evelin; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2008-08-27

    Despite significant improvements in computational annotation of genomes, sequences of abnormal, incomplete or incorrectly predicted genes and proteins remain abundant in public databases. Since the majority of incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted entries are not annotated as such, these errors seriously affect the reliability of these databases. Here we describe the MisPred approach that may provide an efficient means for the quality control of databases. The current version of the MisPred approach uses five distinct routines for identifying abnormal, incomplete or mispredicted entries based on the principle that a sequence is likely to be incorrect if some of its features conflict with our current knowledge about protein-coding genes and proteins: (i) conflict between the predicted subcellular localization of proteins and the absence of the corresponding sequence signals; (ii) presence of extracellular and cytoplasmic domains and the absence of transmembrane segments; (iii) co-occurrence of extracellular and nuclear domains; (iv) violation of domain integrity; (v) chimeras encoded by two or more genes located on different chromosomes. Analyses of predicted EnsEMBL protein sequences of nine deuterostome (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Monodelphis domestica, Gallus gallus, Xenopus tropicalis, Fugu rubripes, Danio rerio and Ciona intestinalis) and two protostome species (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) have revealed that the absence of expected signal peptides and violation of domain integrity account for the majority of mispredictions. Analyses of sequences predicted by NCBI's GNOMON annotation pipeline show that the rates of mispredictions are comparable to those of EnsEMBL. Interestingly, even the manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot dataset is contaminated with mispredicted or abnormal proteins, although to a much lesser extent than UniProtKB/TrEMBL or the EnsEMBL or GNOMON-predicted entries. MisPred works efficiently in

  15. ELLI-1, a novel germline protein, modulates RNAi activity and P-granule accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Andralojc, Karolina M.; Kelly, Ashley L.; Tanner, Paige C.

    2017-01-01

    Germ cells contain non-membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles that help maintain germline integrity. In C. elegans they are called P granules; without them, the germline undergoes partial masculinization and aberrant differentiation. One key P-granule component is the Argonaute CSR-1, a small-RNA binding protein that antagonizes accumulation of sperm-specific transcripts in developing oocytes and fine-tunes expression of proteins critical to early embryogenesis. Loss of CSR-1 complex components results in a very specific, enlarged P-granule phenotype. In a forward screen to identify mutants with abnormal P granules, ten alleles were recovered with a csr-1 P-granule phenotype, eight of which contain mutations in known components of the CSR-1 complex (csr-1, ego-1, ekl-1, and drh-3). The remaining two alleles are in a novel gene now called elli-1 (enlarged germline granules). ELLI-1 is first expressed in primordial germ cells during mid-embryogenesis, and continues to be expressed in the adult germline. While ELLI-1 forms cytoplasmic aggregates, they occasionally dock, but do not co-localize with P granules. Instead, the majority of ELLI-1 aggregates accumulate in the shared germline cytoplasm. In elli-1 mutants, several genes that promote RNAi and P-granule accumulation are upregulated, and embryonic lethality, sterility, and RNAi resistance in a hypomorphic drh-3 allele is enhanced, suggesting that ELLI-1 functions with CSR-1 to modulate RNAi activity, P-granule accumulation, and post-transcriptional expression in the germline. PMID:28182654

  16. Role of endometrial cancer abnormal MMR protein in screening Lynch-syndrome families.

    PubMed

    Long, Qiongxian; Peng, Yong; Tang, Zhirong; Wu, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    To identify patients with endometrial cancer with potential Lynch-related DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression defects and to explore the role of these defects in screening for LS. Endometrial cancers from 173 patients recruited to the Nanchong Central Hospital were tested for MMR (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6) protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the 173 tumor tissue samples, the expression loss rates of MSH6, MSH2, PMS2 and MLH1 protein were 16.18% (28/173), 12.14% (21/173), 7.51% (13/173) and 5.78% (10/173), respectively. The total loss rate of MMR protein was 29.89% (27/87). There were 19 patients with a family history of cancer, of which 18 patients demonstrated loss of expression of MMR protein. In the 22 abnormal MMR patients without family history, five families were found to have Lynch-associated cancer (colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer) after follow-up for two years. MMR proteins play an important role in the progress of endometrial cancer. The routine testing of MMR proteins in endometrial cancer can contribute to the screening of LS families, especially small families.

  17. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  18. A charge-dependent mechanism is responsible for the dynamic accumulation of proteins inside nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Musinova, Yana R; Kananykhina, Eugenia Y; Potashnikova, Daria M; Lisitsyna, Olga M; Sheval, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The majority of known nucleolar proteins are freely exchanged between the nucleolus and the surrounding nucleoplasm. One way proteins are retained in the nucleoli is by the presence of specific amino acid sequences, namely nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs). The mechanism by which NoLSs retain proteins inside the nucleoli is still unclear. Here, we present data showing that the charge-dependent (electrostatic) interactions of NoLSs with nucleolar components lead to nucleolar accumulation as follows: (i) known NoLSs are enriched in positively charged amino acids, but the NoLS structure is highly heterogeneous, and it is not possible to identify a consensus sequence for this type of signal; (ii) in two analyzed proteins (NF-κB-inducing kinase and HIV-1 Tat), the NoLS corresponds to a region that is enriched for positively charged amino acid residues; substituting charged amino acids with non-charged ones reduced the nucleolar accumulation in proportion to the charge reduction, and nucleolar accumulation efficiency was strongly correlated with the predicted charge of the tested sequences; and (iii) sequences containing only lysine or arginine residues (which were referred to as imitative NoLSs, or iNoLSs) are accumulated in the nucleoli in a charge-dependent manner. The results of experiments with iNoLSs suggested that charge-dependent accumulation inside the nucleoli was dependent on interactions with nucleolar RNAs. The results of this work are consistent with the hypothesis that nucleolar protein accumulation by NoLSs can be determined by the electrostatic interaction of positively charged regions with nucleolar RNAs rather than by any sequence-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perivascular Accumulation of β-Sheet-Rich Proteins in Offspring Brain following Maternal Exposure to Carbon Black Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Atsuto; Kawasaki, Takayasu; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Takeda, Ken; Umezawa, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stimulation during brain development is an important risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollutants leads to diffuse damage to the neurovascular unit in the developing brain and accelerates neurodegeneration. Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs), used as a model for particulate air pollution, induces long-lasting diffuse perivascular abnormalities. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the perivascular abnormalities related to maternal NPs exposure using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy ( in situ FT-IR) and classical staining analysis. Pregnant ICR mice were intranasally treated with a CB-NPs suspension (95 μg/kg at a time) on gestational days 5 and 9. Brains were collected 6 weeks after birth and sliced to prepare 10-μm-thick serial sections. Reflective spectra of in situ FT-IR were acquired using lattice measurements ( x -axis: 7, y -axis: 7, 30-μm apertures) around a centered blood vessel. We also performed mapping analysis of protein secondary structures. Serial sections were stained with using periodic acid-Schiff or immunofluorescence to examine the phenotypes of the perivascular areas. Peaks of amide I bands in spectra from perivascular areas were shifted by maternal NPs exposure. However, there were two types of peak-shift in one mouse in the exposure group. Some vessels had a large peak-shift and others had a small peak-shift. In situ FT-IR combined with traditional staining revealed that the large peak-shift was induced around blood vessel adjacent to astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidic protein and aquaporin-4 over-expression and perivascular macrophages (PVMs) with enlarged lysosome granules. Furthermore, protein secondary structural analysis indicated that maternal NPs exposure led to increases in β-sheet content and decreases in α-helix content in areas that are mostly close to the centered blood

  20. IFT Proteins Accumulate during Cell Division and Localize to the Cleavage Furrow in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher R.; Wang, Zhaohui; Diener, Dennis; Zones, James Matt; Rosenbaum, Joel; Umen, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are well established as conserved mediators of flagellum/cilium assembly and disassembly. However, data has begun to accumulate in support of IFT protein involvement in other processes elsewhere in the cell. Here, we used synchronous cultures of Chlamydomonas to investigate the temporal patterns of accumulation and localization of IFT proteins during the cell cycle. Their mRNAs showed periodic expression that peaked during S and M phase (S/M). Unlike most proteins that are synthesized continuously during G1 phase, IFT27 and IFT46 levels were found to increase only during S/M phase. During cell division, IFT27, IFT46, IFT72, and IFT139 re-localized from the flagella and basal bodies to the cleavage furrow. IFT27 was further shown to be associated with membrane vesicles in this region. This localization pattern suggests a role for IFT in cell division. PMID:22328921

  1. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Ivan R. B.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. Methods We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular-hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. Results We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17y and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m2 (range 16–47kg/m2). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P< 0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=−0.53) and NC (r=−0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Conclusion Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. PMID:27733254

  2. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway patency and whole-body adiposity.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ivan R B; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular plane to hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17years and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m 2 (range 16-47kg/m 2 ). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P<0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=-0.53) and NC (r=-0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding renal nuclear protein accumulation: an in vitro approach to explain an in vivo phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Luks, Lisanne; Maier, Marcia Y; Sacchi, Silvia; Pollegioni, Loredano; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Proper subcellular trafficking is essential to prevent protein mislocalization and aggregation. Transport of the peroxisomal enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) appears dysregulated by specific pharmaceuticals, e.g., the anti-overactive bladder drug propiverine or a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI), resulting in massive cytosolic and nuclear accumulations in rat kidney. To assess the underlying molecular mechanism of the latter, we aimed to characterize the nature of peroxisomal and cyto-nuclear shuttling of human and rat DAAO overexpressed in three cell lines using confocal microscopy. Indeed, interference with peroxisomal transport via deletion of the PTS1 signal or PEX5 knockdown resulted in induced nuclear DAAO localization. Having demonstrated the absence of active nuclear import and employing variably sized mCherry- and/or EYFP-fusion proteins of DAAO and catalase, we showed that peroxisomal proteins ≤134 kDa can passively diffuse into mammalian cell nuclei-thereby contradicting the often-cited 40 kDa diffusion limit. Moreover, their inherent nuclear presence and nuclear accumulation subsequent to proteasome inhibition or abrogated peroxisomal transport suggests that nuclear localization is a characteristic in the lifecycle of peroxisomal proteins. Based on this molecular trafficking analysis, we suggest that pharmaceuticals like propiverine or an NSRI may interfere with peroxisomal protein targeting and import, consequently resulting in massive nuclear protein accumulation in vivo.

  4. Minos-insertion mutant of the Drosophila GBA gene homologue showed abnormal phenotypes of climbing ability, sleep and life span with accumulation of hydroxy-glucocerebroside.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Takahara, Tsubasa; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sakata, Kazuki; Ishida, Norio

    2017-05-30

    Gaucher's disease in humans is considered a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase) that result in the accumulation of its substrate, glucocerebroside (GlcCer). Although mouse models of Gaucher's disease have been reported from several laboratories, these models are limited due to the perinatal lethality of GlcCerase gene. Here, we examined phenotypes of Drosophila melanogaster homologues genes of the human Gaucher's disease gene by using Minos insertion. One of two Minos insertion mutants to unknown function gene (CG31414) accumulates the hydroxy-GlcCer in whole body of Drosophila melanogaster. This mutant showed abnormal phenotypes of climbing ability and sleep, and short lifespan. These abnormal phenotypes are very similar to that of Gaucher's disease in human. In contrast, another Minos insertion mutant (CG31148) and its RNAi line did not show such severe phenotype as observed in CG31414 gene mutation. The data suggests that Drosophila CG31414 gene mutation might be useful for unraveling the molecular mechanism of Gaucher's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydroxynonenal-generated crosslinking fluorophore accumulation in Alzheimer disease reveals a dichotomy of protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Castellani, Rudy J; Moreira, Paula I; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Shenk, Justin C; Siedlak, Sandra L; Harris, Peggy L R; Fujioka, Hisashi; Sayre, Lawrence M; Szweda, Pamela A; Szweda, Luke I; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2012-02-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates reactive aldehydes, most notably hydroxynonenal (HNE), which covalently bind amino acid residue side chains leading to protein inactivation and insolubility. Specific adducts of lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated in intimate association with the pathological lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), suggesting that oxidative stress is a major component of AD pathogenesis. Some HNE-protein products result in protein crosslinking through a fluorescent compound similar to lipofuscin, linking lipid peroxidation and the lipofuscin accumulation that commonly occurs in post-mitotic cells such as neurons. In this study, brain tissue from AD and control patients was examined by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy for evidence of HNE-crosslinking modifications of the type that should accumulate in the lipofuscin pathway. Strong labeling of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) and Hirano bodies was noted but lipofuscin did not contain this specific HNE-fluorophore. These findings directly implicate lipid crosslinking peroxidation products as accumulating not in the lesions or the lipofuscin pathways, but instead in a distinct pathway, GVD, that accumulates cytosolic proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of PLK3 Mediates the Degradation of Abnormal Prion Proteins Dependent on Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Chan; Sun, Jing; Chen, Li-Na; Lv, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Cao; Shi, Qi; Shao, Qi-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3) is the main cause of cell cycle reentry-related neuronal apoptosis which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Previous work also showed the regulatory activity of exogenous PLK3 on the degradation of PrP (prion protein) mutants and pathogenic PrP Sc ; however, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we identified that the overexpression of PLK3-mediated degradation of PrP mutant and PrP Sc was repressed by lysosome rather than by proteasomal and macroautophagy inhibitors. Core components of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) effectors, lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a), and heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) are markedly decreased in the HEK293T cells expressing PrP mutant and scrapie-infected cell line SMB-S15. Meanwhile, PrP mutant showed ability to interact with LAMP2a and Hsc70. Overexpression of PLK3 sufficiently increased the cellular levels of LAMP2a and Hsc70, accompanying with declining the accumulations of PrP mutant and PrP Sc . The kinase domain (KD) of PLK3 was responsible for elevating LAMP2a and Hsc70. Knockdown of endogenous PLK3 enhanced the activity of macroautophagy in the cultured cells. Moreover, time-dependent reductions of LAMP2a and Hsc70 were also observed in the brain tissues of hamster-adapted scrapie agent 263K-infected hamsters, indicating an impairment of CMA during prion infection. Those data indicate that the overexpression of PLK3-mediated degradation of abnormal PrP is largely dependent on CMA pathway.

  7. Laminin-521 Protein Therapy for Glomerular Basement Membrane and Podocyte Abnormalities in a Model of Pierson Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Miller, Joseph B; Kikkawa, Yamato; Suleiman, Hani Y; Tryggvason, Karl; Hodges, Bradley L; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2018-05-01

    Background Laminin α 5 β 2 γ 1 (LM-521) is a major component of the GBM. Mutations in LAMB2 that prevent LM-521 synthesis and/or secretion cause Pierson syndrome, a rare congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and ocular and neurologic defects. Because the GBM is uniquely accessible to plasma, which permeates endothelial cell fenestrae, we hypothesized that intravenous delivery of LM-521 could replace the missing LM-521 in the GBM of Lamb2 mutant mice and restore glomerular permselectivity. Methods We injected human LM-521 (hLM-521), a macromolecule of approximately 800 kD, into the retro-orbital sinus of Lamb2 -/- pups daily. Deposition of hLM-521 into the GBM was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. We assayed the effects of hLM-521 on glomerular permselectivity by urinalysis and the effects on podocytes by desmin immunostaining and ultrastructural analysis of podocyte architecture. Results Injected hLM-521 rapidly and stably accumulated in the GBM of all glomeruli. Super-resolution imaging showed that hLM-521 accumulated in the correct orientation in the GBM, primarily on the endothelial aspect. Treatment with hLM-521 greatly reduced the expression of the podocyte injury marker desmin and attenuated the foot process effacement observed in untreated pups. Moreover, treatment with hLM-521 delayed the onset of proteinuria but did not prevent nephrotic syndrome, perhaps due to its absence from the podocyte aspect of the GBM. Conclusions These studies show that GBM composition and function can be altered in vivo via vascular delivery of even very large proteins, which may advance therapeutic options for patients with abnormal GBM composition, whether genetic or acquired. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Ozone-Induced Alterations in the Accumulation of Newly Synthesized Proteins in Leaves of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Pino, M. E.; Mudd, J. B.; Bailey-Serres, J.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the response of leaves of 3-week-old maize (Zea mays L.) to short-term (5 h) fumigation with O3-enriched air (0, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.36 [mu]L/L). Older leaves and leaf tissue developed more severe visible damage at higher external O3 concentrations. To investigate the immediate effect of O3 exposure on the accumulation of newly synthesized leaf proteins, leaves were labeled with [35S]methionine after 2 h and fumigated for an additional 3 h. O3-induced alterations of leaf proteins were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in [35S]methionine incorporation into protein at the highest O3 concentration. Developmental differences in accumulation of de novo-synthesized leaf proteins were observed when the leaf tip, middle, and basal sections were labeled under 0 [mu]L/L O3, and additional changes were apparent upon exposure to increasing O3 concentrations. Changes in leaf protein synthesis were observed in the absence of visible leaf injury. Subcellular fractionation revealed O3-induced alterations in soluble and membrane-associated proteins. A number of thylakoid membrane-associated proteins showed specific increases in response to O3 fumigation. In contrast, the synthesis of a 32-kD polypeptide associated with thylakoid membranes was reduced in response to O3 fumigation in parallel with reduced incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Immunoprecipitation identified this polypeptide as the D1 protein of photosystem II. A reduction in the accumulation of newly synthesized D1 could have consequences for the efficiency of photosynthesis and other cellular processes. PMID:12228510

  9. Intergenotypic replacement of lyssavirus matrix proteins demonstrates the role of lyssavirus M proteins in intracellular virus accumulation.

    PubMed

    Finke, Stefan; Granzow, Harald; Hurst, Jose; Pollin, Reiko; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2010-02-01

    Lyssavirus assembly depends on the matrix protein (M). We compared lyssavirus M proteins from different genotypes for their ability to support assembly and egress of genotype 1 rabies virus (RABV). Transcomplementation of M-deficient RABV with M from European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) types 1 and 2 reduced the release of infectious virus. Stable introduction of the heterogenotypic M proteins into RABV led to chimeric viruses with reduced virus release and intracellular accumulation of virus genomes. Although the chimeras indicated genotype-specific evolution of M, rapid selection of a compensatory mutant suggested conserved mechanisms of lyssavirus assembly and the requirement for only few adaptive mutations to fit the heterogenotypic M to a RABV backbone. Whereas the compensatory mutant replicated to similar infectious titers as RABV M-expressing virus, ultrastructural analysis revealed that both nonadapted EBLV M chimeras and the compensatory mutant differed from RABV M expressing viruses in the lack of intracellular viruslike structures that are enveloped and accumulate in cisterna of the degranulated and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum compartment. Moreover, all viruses were able to bud at the plasma membrane. Since the lack of the intracellular viruslike structures correlated with the type of M protein but not with the efficiency of virus release, we hypothesize that the M proteins of EBLV-1 and RABV differ in their target membranes for virus assembly. Although the biological function of intracellular assembly and accumulation of viruslike structures in the endoplasmic reticulum remain unclear, the observed differences could contribute to diverse host tropism or pathogenicity.

  10. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaF aand RsaF b, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug effluxmore » pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaF aand RsaF bare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaF aand RsaF bare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaF aand RsaF bled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaF aand RsaF bled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaF aand RsaF bin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This

  11. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.

    ABSTRACT Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaF aand RsaF b, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrugmore » efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaF aand RsaF bare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaF aand RsaF bare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaF aand RsaF bled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaF aand RsaF bled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaF aand RsaF bin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment

  12. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaF aand RsaF b, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug effluxmore » pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaF aand RsaF bare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaF aand RsaF bare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaF aand RsaF bled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaF aand RsaF bled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaF aand RsaF bin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This

  13. Extracellular accumulation of recombinant protein by Escherichia coli in a defined medium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiang-Yang

    2010-09-01

    Extracellular accumulation of recombinant proteins in the culture medium of Escherichia coli is desirable but difficult to obtain. The inner or cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane of E. coli are two barriers for releasing recombinant proteins expressed in the cytoplasm into the culture medium. Even if recombinant proteins have been exported into the periplasm, a space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane, the outer membrane remains the last barrier for their extracellular release. However, when E. coli was cultured in a particular defined medium, recombinant proteins exported into the periplasm could diffuse into the culture medium automatically. If a nonionic detergent, Triton X-100, was added in the medium, recombinant proteins expressed in the cytoplasm could also be released into the culture medium. It was then that extracellular accumulation of recombinant proteins could be obtained by exporting them into the periplasm or releasing them from the cytoplasm with Triton X-100 addition. The tactics described herein provided simple and valuable methods for achieving extracellular production of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  14. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-03-05

    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value < 0.05). Furthermore, we noticed that they included several proteins that could not be characterized by the shortest path analysis. The three potential targets, i.e. BMPR1B, ROCK, and LEPR, were manually validated with the literature. In this study, we suggest a new approach to predict potential therapeutic targets of muscle atrophy with an analysis of phosphorylation status simulated by Petri net. We generated a list of the potential

  15. Limits to sulfur accumulation in transgenic lupin seeds expressing a foreign sulfur-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Linda M; Droux, Michel

    2002-03-01

    The low sulfur amino acid content of legume seeds restricts their nutritive value for animals. We have investigated the limitations to the accumulation of sulfur amino acids in the storage proteins of narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seeds. Variation in sulfur supply to lupin plants affected the sulfur amino acid accumulation in the mature seed. However, when sulfur was in abundant supply, it accumulated to a large extent in oxidized form, rather than reduced form, in the seeds. At all but severely limiting sulfur supply, addition of a transgenic (Tg) sink for organic sulfur resulted in an increase in seed sulfur amino acid content. We hypothesize that demand, or sink strength for organic sulfur, which is itself responsive to environmental sulfur supply, was the first limit to the methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) content of wild-type lupin seed protein under most growing conditions. In Tg, soil-grown seeds expressing a foreign Met- and Cys-rich protein, decreased pools of free Met, free Cys, and glutathione indicated that the rate of synthesis of sulfur amino acids in the cotyledon had become limiting. Homeostatic mechanisms similar to those mediating the responses of plants to environmental sulfur stress resulted in an adjustment of endogenous protein composition in Tg seeds, even when grown at adequate sulfur supply. Uptake of sulfur by lupin cotyledons, as indicated by total seed sulfur at maturity, responded positively to increased sulfur supply, but not to increased demand in the Tg seeds.

  16. Limits to Sulfur Accumulation in Transgenic Lupin Seeds Expressing a Foreign Sulfur-Rich Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tabe, Linda M.; Droux, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The low sulfur amino acid content of legume seeds restricts their nutritive value for animals. We have investigated the limitations to the accumulation of sulfur amino acids in the storage proteins of narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seeds. Variation in sulfur supply to lupin plants affected the sulfur amino acid accumulation in the mature seed. However, when sulfur was in abundant supply, it accumulated to a large extent in oxidized form, rather than reduced form, in the seeds. At all but severely limiting sulfur supply, addition of a transgenic (Tg) sink for organic sulfur resulted in an increase in seed sulfur amino acid content. We hypothesize that demand, or sink strength for organic sulfur, which is itself responsive to environmental sulfur supply, was the first limit to the methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) content of wild-type lupin seed protein under most growing conditions. In Tg, soil-grown seeds expressing a foreign Met- and Cys-rich protein, decreased pools of free Met, free Cys, and glutathione indicated that the rate of synthesis of sulfur amino acids in the cotyledon had become limiting. Homeostatic mechanisms similar to those mediating the responses of plants to environmental sulfur stress resulted in an adjustment of endogenous protein composition in Tg seeds, even when grown at adequate sulfur supply. Uptake of sulfur by lupin cotyledons, as indicated by total seed sulfur at maturity, responded positively to increased sulfur supply, but not to increased demand in the Tg seeds. PMID:11891268

  17. Lipofuscin accumulation, abnormal electrophysiology, and photoreceptor degeneration in mutant ELOVL4 transgenic mice: a model for macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Karan, G; Lillo, C; Yang, Z; Cameron, D J; Locke, K G; Zhao, Y; Thirumalaichary, S; Li, C; Birch, D G; Vollmer-Snarr, H R; Williams, D S; Zhang, K

    2005-03-15

    Macular degeneration is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by photoreceptor degeneration and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the central retina. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt macular degeneration (STGD) is caused by mutations in ELOVL4, which is predicted to encode an enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of human ELOVL4 that causes STGD. In these mice, we show that accumulation by the RPE of undigested phagosomes and lipofuscin, including the fluorophore, 2-[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetraenyl]-1-(2-hyydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6,-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) is followed by RPE atrophy. Subsequently, photoreceptor degeneration occurs in the central retina in a pattern closely resembling that of human STGD and age-related macular degeneration. The ELOVL4 transgenic mice thus provide a good model for both STGD and dry age-related macular degeneration, and represent a valuable tool for studies on therapeutic intervention in these forms of blindness.

  18. Positive lysosomal modulation as a unique strategy to treat age-related protein accumulation diseases.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Ben A; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Butler, David

    2012-04-01

    Lysosomes are involved in degrading and recycling cellular ingredients, and their disruption with age may contribute to amyloidogenesis, paired helical filaments (PHFs), and α-synuclein and mutant huntingtin aggregation. Lysosomal cathepsins are upregulated by accumulating proteins and more so by the modulator Z-Phe-Ala-diazomethylketone (PADK). Such positive modulators of the lysosomal system have been studied in the well-characterized hippocampal slice model of protein accumulation that exhibits the pathogenic cascade of tau aggregation, tubulin breakdown, microtubule destabilization, transport failure, and synaptic decline. Active cathepsins were upregulated by PADK; Rab proteins were modified as well, indicating enhanced trafficking, whereas lysosome-associated membrane protein and proteasome markers were unchanged. Lysosomal modulation reduced the pre-existing PHF deposits, restored tubulin structure and transport, and recovered synaptic components. Further proof-of-principle studies used Alzheimer disease mouse models. It was recently reported that systemic PADK administration caused dramatic increases in cathepsin B protein and activity levels, whereas neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, α-secretase, and β-secretase were unaffected by PADK. In the transgenic models, PADK treatment resulted in clearance of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and concomitant reduction of extracellular deposits. Production of the less pathogenic Aβ(1-38) peptide corresponded with decreased levels of Aβ(1-42), supporting the lysosome's antiamyloidogenic role through intracellular truncation. Amelioration of synaptic and behavioral deficits also indicates a neuroprotective function of the lysosomal system, identifying lysosomal modulation as an avenue for disease-modifying therapies. From the in vitro and in vivo findings, unique lysosomal modulators represent a minimally invasive, pharmacologically controlled strategy against protein accumulation disorders to enhance

  19. How and why do toxic conformers of aberrant proteins accumulate during ageing?

    PubMed

    Josefson, Rebecca; Andersson, Rebecca; Nyström, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Ageing can be defined as a gradual decline in cellular and physical functions accompanied by an increased sensitivity to the environment and risk of death. The increased risk of mortality is causally connected to a gradual, intracellular accumulation of so-called ageing factors, of which damaged and aggregated proteins are believed to be one. Such aggregated proteins also contribute to several age-related neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, highlighting the importance of protein quality control (PQC) in ageing and its associated diseases. PQC consists of two interrelated systems: the temporal control system aimed at refolding, repairing, and/or removing aberrant proteins and their aggregates and the spatial control system aimed at harnessing the potential toxicity of aberrant proteins by sequestering them at specific cellular locations. The accumulation of toxic conformers of aberrant proteins during ageing is often declared to be a consequence of an incapacitated temporal PQC system-i.e. a gradual decline in the activity of chaperones and proteases. Here, we review the current knowledge on PQC in relation to ageing and highlight that the breakdown of both temporal and spatial PQC may contribute to ageing and thus comprise potential targets for therapeutic interventions of the ageing process. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded tau protein induces overexpression of Hsp27 in activated astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Filipcik, Peter; Cente, Martin; Zilka, Norbert; Smolek, Tomas; Hanes, Jozef; Kucerak, Juraj; Opattova, Alena; Kovacech, Branislav; Novak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of misfolded forms of microtubule associated, neuronal protein tau causes neurofibrillary degeneration typical of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. This process is accompanied by elevated cellular stress and concomitant deregulation of heat-shock proteins. We used a transgenic rat model of tauopathy to study involvement of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in the process of neurofibrillary degeneration, its cell type specific expression and correlation with the amount of insoluble tau protein aggregates. The expression of Hsp27-mRNA is more than doubled and levels of Hsp27 protein tripled in aged transgenic animals with tau pathology. The data revealed a strong positive and highly significant correlation between Hsp27-mRNA and amount of sarkosyl insoluble tau. Interestingly, intracellular accumulation of insoluble misfolded tau protein in neurons was associated with overexpression of Hsp27 almost exclusively in reactive astrocytes, not in neurons. The topological dissociation of neuronally expressed pathological tau and the induction of astrocytic Hsp27, GFAP, and Vimentin along with up-regulation of microglia specific markers such as CD18, CD68 and C3 point to cooperation of astrocytes, microglia and neurons in response to intra-neuronal accumulation of insoluble tau. Our data suggest that over expression of Hsp27 represents a part of microglia-mediated astrocytic response mechanism in the process of neurofibrillary degeneration, which is not necessarily associated with neuroprotection and which in contrary may accelerate neurodegeneration in late stage of the disease. This phenomenon should be considered during development of disease modifying strategies for treatment of tauopathies and AD via regulation of activity of Hsp27. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Cytoplasmic Zinc Finger Protein ZPR1 Accumulates in the Nucleolus of Proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Gangwani, Laxman; Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Mikrut, Monique; Theroux, Steven J.; Enoch, Tamar; Davis, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein ZPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after treatment of cells with mitogens. The function of nuclear ZPR1 has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells. The role of ZPR1 was examined using a gene disruption strategy. Cells lacking ZPR1 are not viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the loss of ZPR1 caused disruption of nucleolar function, including preribosomal RNA expression. These data establish ZPR1 as an essential protein that is required for normal nucleolar function in proliferating cells. PMID:9763455

  2. Type II fish antifreeze protein accumulation in transgenic tobacco does not confer frost resistance.

    PubMed

    Kenward, K D; Brandle, J; McPherson, J; Davies, P L

    1999-04-01

    Type II fish antifreeze protein (AFP) is active in both freezing point depression and the inhibition of ice recrystallization. This extensively disulfide-bonded 14 kDa protein was targeted for accumulation in its pro- and mature forms in the cytosol and apoplast of transgenic tobacco plants. Type II AFP gene constructs under control of a duplicate cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, both with and without a native plant transit peptide sequence, were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. AFP did not accumulate in the cytosol of transgenic plants, but active AFP was present as 2% the total protein present in the apoplast. Plant-produced AFP was the same size as mature Type II AFP isolated from fish, and was comparable to wild-type AFP in thermal hysteresis activity and its effect on ice crystal morphology. Field trials conducted in late summer on R1 generation transgenic plants showed similar AFP accumulation in plants under field conditions at levels suitable for large-scale production: but no difference in frost resistance was observed between transgenic and wild-type plants during the onset of early fall frosts.

  3. PML clastosomes prevent nuclear accumulation of mutant ataxin-7 and other polyglutamine proteins

    PubMed Central

    Janer, Alexandre; Martin, Elodie; Muriel, Marie-Paule; Latouche, Morwena; Fujigasaki, Hiroto; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Trottier, Yvon; Sittler, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 and other neurodegenerative polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders correlates with the aberrant accumulation of toxic polyQ-expanded proteins in the nucleus. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies are often present in polyQ aggregates, but their relation to pathogenesis is unclear. We show that expression of PML isoform IV leads to the formation of distinct nuclear bodies enriched in components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These bodies recruit soluble mutant ataxin-7 and promote its degradation by proteasome-dependent proteolysis, thus preventing the aggregate formation. Inversely, disruption of the endogenous nuclear bodies with cadmium increases the nuclear accumulation and aggregation of mutant ataxin-7, demonstrating their role in ataxin-7 turnover. Interestingly, β-interferon treatment, which induces the expression of endogenous PML IV, prevents the accumulation of transiently expressed mutant ataxin-7 without affecting the level of the endogenous wild-type protein. Therefore, clastosomes represent a potential therapeutic target for preventing polyQ disorders. PMID:16818720

  4. Paired Helical Filaments from Alzheimer Disease Brain Induce Intracellular Accumulation of Tau Protein in Aggresomes*

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Maria, Ismael; Varghese, Merina; Ksiȩżak-Reding, Hanna; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal folding of tau protein leads to the generation of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological feature in Alzheimer disease and tauopathies. A specific anatomical pattern of pathological changes developing in the brain suggests that once tau pathology is initiated it propagates between neighboring neuronal cells, possibly spreading along the axonal network. We studied whether PHFs released from degenerating neurons could be taken up by surrounding cells and promote spreading of tau pathology. Neuronal and non-neuronal cells overexpressing green fluorescent protein-tagged tau (GFP-Tau) were treated with isolated fractions of human Alzheimer disease-derived PHFs for 24 h. We found that cells internalized PHFs through an endocytic mechanism and developed intracellular GFP-Tau aggregates with attributes of aggresomes. This was particularly evident by the perinuclear localization of aggregates and redistribution of the vimentin intermediate filament network and retrograde motor protein dynein. Furthermore, the content of Sarkosyl-insoluble tau, a measure of abnormal tau aggregation, increased 3-fold in PHF-treated cells. An exosome-related mechanism did not appear to be involved in the release of GFP-Tau from untreated cells. The evidence that cells can internalize PHFs, leading to formation of aggresome-like bodies, opens new therapeutic avenues to prevent propagation and spreading of tau pathology. PMID:22496370

  5. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein promotes lipid accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, H B; Yu, K; Luo, J; Li, J; Tian, H B; Zhu, J J; Sun, Y T; Yao, D W; Xu, H F; Shi, H P; Loor, J J

    2015-10-01

    Milk fat originates from the secretion of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) synthesized within mammary epithelial cells. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; gene symbol PLIN2) is a CLD-binding protein that is crucial for synthesis of mature CLD. Our hypothesis was that ADRP regulates CLD production and metabolism in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) and thus plays a role in determining milk fat content. To understand the role of ADRP in ruminant milk fat metabolism, ADRP (PLIN2) was overexpressed or knocked down in GMEC using an adenovirus system. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of CLD. Supplementation with oleic acid (OA) enhanced its colocalization with CLD surface and enhanced lipid accumulation. Overexpression of ADRP increased lipid accumulation and the concentration of triacylglycerol in GMEC. In contrast, morphological examination revealed that knockdown of ADRP decreased lipid accumulation even when OA was supplemented. This response was confirmed by the reduction in mass of cellular TG when ADRP was knocked down. The fact that knockdown of ADRP did not completely eliminate lipid accumulation at a morphological level in GMEC without OA suggests that some other compensatory factors may also aid in the process of CLD formation. The ADRP reversed the decrease of CLD accumulation induced by adipose triglyceride lipase. This is highly suggestive of ADRP promoting triacylglycerol stability within CLD by preventing access to adipose triglyceride lipase. Collectively, these data provide direct in vitro evidence that ADRP plays a key role in CLD formation and stability in GMEC. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. mTORC1 Coordinates Protein Synthesis and Immunoproteasome Formation via PRAS40 to Prevent Accumulation of Protein Stress.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Sung; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Tschida, Barbara; Sachs, Zohar; Noble-Orcutt, Klara E; Moriarity, Branden S; Ai, Teng; Ding, Rui; Williams, Jessica; Chen, Liqiang; Largaespada, David; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2016-02-18

    Reduction of translational fidelity often occurs in cells with high rates of protein synthesis, generating defective ribosomal products. If not removed, such aberrant proteins can be a major source of cellular stress causing human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes the formation of immunoproteasomes for efficient turnover of defective proteins and cell survival. mTORC1 sequesters precursors of immunoproteasome β subunits via PRAS40. When activated, mTORC1 phosphorylates PRAS40 to enhance protein synthesis and simultaneously to facilitate the assembly of the β subunits for forming immunoproteasomes. Consequently, the PRAS40 phosphorylations play crucial roles in clearing aberrant proteins that accumulate due to mTORC1 activation. Mutations of RAS, PTEN, and TSC1, which cause mTORC1 hyperactivation, enhance immunoproteasome formation in cells and tissues. Those mutations increase cellular dependence on immunoproteasomes for stress response and survival. These results define a mechanism by which mTORC1 couples elevated protein synthesis with immunoproteasome biogenesis to protect cells against protein stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. COLLAPSED ABNORMAL POLLEN1 Gene Encoding the Arabinokinase-Like Protein Is Involved in Pollen Development in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Fumiaki; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a pollen-defective mutant, collapsed abnormal pollen1 (cap1), from Tos17 insertional mutant lines of rice (Oryza sativa). The cap1 heterozygous plant produced equal numbers of normal and collapsed abnormal grains. The abnormal pollen grains lacked almost all cytoplasmic materials, nuclei, and intine cell walls and did not germinate. Genetic analysis of crosses revealed that the cap1 mutation did not affect female reproduction or vegetative growth. CAP1 encodes a protein consisting of 996 amino acids that showed high similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) l-arabinokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of l-arabinose to l-arabinose 1-phosphate. A wild-type genomic DNA segment containing CAP1 restored mutants to normal pollen grains. During rice pollen development, CAP1 was preferentially expressed in anthers at the bicellular pollen stage, and the effects of the cap1 mutation were mainly detected at this stage. Based on the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, cap1 pollen phenotype may have been caused by toxic accumulation of l-arabinose or by inhibition of cell wall metabolism due to the lack of UDP-l-arabinose derived from l-arabinose 1-phosphate. The expression pattern of CAP1 was very similar to that of another Arabidopsis homolog that showed 71% amino acid identity with CAP1. Our results suggested that CAP1 and related genes are critical for pollen development in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23629836

  8. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produce distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Drori, Ran; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins that aid the survival of freeze-avoiding, cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of endogenous ice crystals are called antifreeze proteins (AFPs). The binding of AFPs to ice causes a separation between the melting point and the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). TH produced by hyperactive AFPs is an order of magnitude higher than that produced by a typical fish AFP. The basis for this difference in activity remains unclear. Here, we have compared the time dependence of TH activity for both hyperactive and moderately active AFPs using a custom-made nanolitre osmometer and a novel microfluidics system. We found that the TH activities of hyperactive AFPs were time-dependent, and that the TH activity of a moderate AFP was almost insensitive to time. Fluorescence microscopy measurement revealed that despite their higher TH activity, hyperactive AFPs from two insects (moth and beetle) took far longer to accumulate on the ice surface than did a moderately active fish AFP. An ice-binding protein from a bacterium that functions as an ice adhesin rather than as an antifreeze had intermediate TH properties. Nevertheless, the accumulation of this ice adhesion protein and the two hyperactive AFPs on the basal plane of ice is distinct and extensive, but not detectable for moderately active AFPs. Basal ice plane binding is the distinguishing feature of antifreeze hyperactivity, which is not strictly needed in fish that require only approximately 1°C of TH. Here, we found a correlation between the accumulation kinetics of the hyperactive AFP at the basal plane and the time sensitivity of the measured TH. PMID:25008081

  10. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing

    2017-08-02

    As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  11. UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in membranous nephropathy by protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Frithjof; Sachs, Marlies; Meyer, Tobias N; Sievert, Henning; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Wiech, Thorsten; Cohen, Clemens D; Balabanov, Stefan; Stahl, R A K; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Podocytes are terminally differentiated cells of the glomerular filtration barrier that react with hypertrophy in the course of injury such as in membranous nephropathy (MGN). The neuronal deubiquitinase ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is expressed and activated in podocytes of human and rodent MGN. UCH-L1 regulates the mono-ubiquitin pool and induces accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in affected podocytes. Here, we investigated the role of UCH-L1 in podocyte hypertrophy and in the homeostasis of the hypertrophy associated "model protein" p27(Kip1). A better understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to podocyte hypertrophy is crucial for the development of specific therapies in MGN. In human and rat MGN, hypertrophic podocytes exhibited a simultaneous up-regulation of UCH-L1 and of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) content. Functionally, inhibition of UCH-L1 activity and knockdown or inhibition of UCH-L1 attenuated podocyte hypertrophy by decreasing the total protein content in isolated glomeruli and in cultured podocytes. In contrast, UCH-L1 levels and activity increased podocyte hypertrophy and total protein content in culture, specifically of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1). UCH-L1 enhanced cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) levels by nuclear export and decreased poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1). In parallel, UCH-L1 increased podocyte turnover, migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement, which are associated with known oncogenic functions of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) in cancer. We propose that UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in MGN by increasing the total protein content through altered degradation and accumulation of proteins such as p27(Kip1) in the cytoplasm of podocytes. Modification of both UCH-L1 activity and levels could be a new therapeutic avenue to podocyte hypertrophy in MGN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced expression of the NMDA receptor-interacting protein SynGAP causes behavioral abnormalities that model symptoms of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Hamilton, Peter J; Reish, Nicholas J; Sweatt, J David; Miller, Courtney A; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2009-06-01

    Abnormal function of NMDA receptors is believed to be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR subunits and postsynaptic-interacting proteins of these channels are abnormally expressed in some patients with this illness. In mice, reduced NMDAR expression leads to behaviors analogous to symptoms of schizophrenia, but reports of animals with mutations in core postsynaptic density proteins having similar a phenotype have yet to be reported. Here we show that reduced expression of the neuronal RasGAP and NMDAR-associated protein, SynGAP, results in abnormal behaviors strikingly similar to that reported in mice with reduced NMDAR function. SynGAP mutant mice exhibited nonhabituating and persistent hyperactivity that was ameliorated by the antipsychotic clozapine. An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice but SynGAP mutants were less responsive, suggesting that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to this behavioral abnormality. SynGAP mutants exhibited enhanced startle reactivity and impaired sensory-motor gating. These mice also displayed a complete lack of social memory and a propensity toward social isolation. Finally, SynGAP mutants had deficits in cued fear conditioning and working memory, indicating abnormal function of circuits that control emotion and choice. Our results demonstrate that SynGAP mutant mice have gross neurological deficits similar to other mouse models of schizophrenia. Because SynGAP interacts with NMDARs, and the signaling activity of this protein is regulated by these channels, our data in dicate that SynGAP lies downstream of NMDARs and is a required intermediate for normal neural circuit function and behavior. Taken together, these data support the idea that schizophrenia may arise from abnormal signaling pathways that are mediated by NMDA receptors.

  13. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Kyla J.; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. PMID:26712829

  14. Soya protein attenuates abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue from obese rats.

    PubMed

    Frigolet, María E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2012-01-01

    Several metabolic disturbances during obesity are associated with adipose tissue-altered functions. Adipocytes contain the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates signalling pathways that control angiogenesis via Akt in an autocrine fashion. Soya protein (Soy) consumption modifies the gene expression pattern in adipose tissue, resulting in an improved adipocyte function. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study whether dietary Soy regulates the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes and its association with the phosphorylated state of Akt in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Animals were fed a 30 % Soy or casein (Cas) diet containing 5 or 25 % fat for 160 d. mRNA abundance was studied in the adipose tissue, and Akt phosphorylation and hormone release were measured in the primary adipocyte culture. The present results show that Soy treatment in comparison with Cas consumption induces lower angiotensin release and increased insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipocytes. Furthermore, Soy consumption varies the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes, which maintain cell size and vascularity in the adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis, which are frequently observed in dysfunctional adipose tissue, were avoided by consuming dietary Soy. Taken together, these findings suggest that Soy can be used as a dietary strategy to preserve adipocyte functionality and to prevent obesity abnormalities.

  15. Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 mutations lead to abnormal hematopoiesis, spinal defects and cataracts.

    PubMed

    Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Kiel, Mark J; Li, Lina; Rao, Dinesh S; Saint-Dic, Djenann; Kumar, Priti D; Provot, Melissa M; Hankenson, Kurt D; Reddy, Venkat N; Lieberman, Andrew P; Morrison, Sean J; Ross, Theodora S

    2004-04-15

    Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 (HIP1) binds clathrin and AP2, is overexpressed in multiple human tumors, and transforms fibroblasts. The function of HIP1 is unknown although it is thought to play a fundamental role in clathrin trafficking. Gene-targeted Hip1-/- mice develop premature testicular degeneration and severe spinal deformities. Yet, although HIP1 is expressed in many tissues including the spleen and bone marrow and was part of a leukemogenic translocation, its role in hematopoiesis has not been examined. In this study we report that three different mutations of murine Hip1 lead to hematopoietic abnormalities reflected by diminished early progenitor frequencies and resistance to 5-FU-induced bone marrow toxicity. Two of the Hip1 mutant lines also display the previously described spinal defects. These observations indicate that, in addition to being required for the survival/proliferation of cancer cells and germline progenitors, HIP1 is also required for the survival/proliferation of diverse types of somatic cells, including hematopoietic progenitors.

  16. Functional Accumulation of Antenna Proteins in Chlorophyll b-Less Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Bujaldon, Sandrine; Kodama, Natsumi; Rappaport, Fabrice; Subramanyam, Rajagopal; de Vitry, Catherine; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Wollman, Francis-André

    2017-01-09

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains several light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complexes (LHC): four major LHCIIs, two minor LHCIIs, and nine LHCIs. We characterized three chlorophyll b-less mutants to assess the effect of chlorophyll b deficiency on the function, assembly, and stability of these chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. We identified point mutations in two mutants that inactivate the CAO gene responsible for chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b conversion. All LHCIIs accumulated to wild-type levels in a CAO mutant but their light-harvesting function for photosystem II was impaired. In contrast, most LHCIs accumulated to wild-type levels in the mutant and their light-harvesting capability for photosystem I remained unaltered. Unexpectedly, LHCI accumulation and the photosystem I functional antenna size increased in the mutant compared with in the wild type when grown in dim light. When the CAO mutation was placed in a yellow-in-the-dark background (yid-BF3), in which chlorophyll a synthesis remains limited in dim light, accumulation of the major LHCIIs and of most LHCIs was markedly reduced, indicating that sustained synthesis of chlorophyll a is required to preserve the proteolytic resistance of antenna proteins. Indeed, after crossing yid-BF3 with a mutant defective for the thylakoid FtsH protease activity, yid-BF3-ftsh1 restored wild-type levels of LHCI, which defines LHCI as a new substrate for the FtsH protease. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium accumulation and protein binding patterns in tissues of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J; Thomas, D G; Brown, M W; Cryer, A; Shurben, D; Solbe, J F; Garvey, J S

    1986-01-01

    Rainbow trout were exposed to defined levels of cadmium in their aquarium water for differing periods at a variety of near-lethal concentrations that ensured the survival of the majority of the fish. The gills, liver and kidney together accounted for 99% of the accumulated load of body cadmium in the fish under these conditions. Although the proportion of total cadmium present in the liver remained relatively constant throughout, the distribution of the remainder between gill and kidney altered with the time of exposure. The cadmium in all three organs was bound by two low molecular weight proteins distinct in character from metallothionein. The isoforms of metallothionein were also present but were found to bind only zinc and copper. By contrast, when trout were injected with cadmium intraperitoneally, most of the metal accumulated in the liver where it was sequestered by the two isoforms of metallothionein. Pre-exposure of the trout to either a low concentration of cadmium (for several months) or to an elevated concentration of zinc (for 5 days) allowed the animals to survive a subsequent exposure to a high, otherwise lethal concentration of cadmium. The proteins responsible for sequestration of the two metals were identified, but two different mechanisms seemed to be involved in the protection of the animals. The significance of these observations in terms of the induction of proteins and the prevention of the toxic effects of cadmium is considered. PMID:3709433

  18. An early nodulin-like protein accumulates in the sieve element plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid A; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D; Schulz, Alexander; Thompson, Gary A

    2007-04-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae) tissue cultures, recognizes an antigen in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve element differentiation. The identity of the RS6 antigen was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins that have a similar overall domain structure of an amino-terminal signal peptide, plastocyanin-like copper-binding domain, proline/serine-rich domain, and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of the 21.5-kD sieve element-specific ENOD are posttranslationally cleaved from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both floral and vegetative tissues, the sieve element-specific ENOD is expressed only within the phloem. Members of the ENOD subfamily of the cupredoxin superfamily do not appear to bind copper and have unknown functions. Phenotypic analysis of homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for the gene At3g20570 shows minimal alteration in vegetative growth but a significant reduction in the overall reproductive potential.

  19. MTHFSD and DDX58 are novel RNA-binding proteins abnormally regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacNair, Laura; Xiao, Shangxi; Miletic, Denise; Ghani, Mahdi; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Keith, Julia; Zinman, Lorne; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Robertson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein normally localized to the nucleus of cells, where it elicits functions related to RNA metabolism such as transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, TDP-43 is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of diseased motor neurons, forming ubiquitinated inclusions. Although mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, are found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these are rare. However, TDP-43 pathology is common to over 95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that abnormalities of TDP-43 play an active role in disease pathogenesis. It is our hypothesis that a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus of affected motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will lead to changes in RNA processing and expression. Identifying these changes could uncover molecular pathways that underpin motor neuron degeneration. Here we have used translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with microarray analysis to identify the mRNAs being actively translated in motor neurons of mutant TDP-43(A315T) mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic littermates. No significant changes were found at 5 months (presymptomatic) of age, but at 10 months (symptomatic) the translational profile revealed significant changes in genes involved in RNA metabolic process, immune response and cell cycle regulation. Of 28 differentially expressed genes, seven had a ≥ 2-fold change; four were validated by immunofluorescence labelling of motor neurons in TDP-43(A315T) mice, and two of these were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Both of these identified genes, DDX58 and MTHFSD, are RNA-binding proteins, and we show that TDP-43 binds to their respective mRNAs and we identify MTHFSD as a novel component of stress granules. This discovery-based approach has for the first time revealed translational changes in motor neurons of a TDP-43 mouse model

  20. Differential Nanos 2 protein stability results in selective germ cell accumulation in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells. In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), Nanos 2 mRNA is broadly transcribed but accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage, in part because of the 3′UTR element GNARLE leads to turnover in somatic cells but retention in the sMics. Here we found that the Nanos 2 protein is also selectively stabilized; it is initially translated throughout the embryo but turned over in the future somatic cells and retained only in the sMics, the future germ line in this animal. This differential stability of Nanos protein is dependent on the open reading frame (ORF), and is independent of the sumoylation and ubiquitylation pathways. Manipulation of the ORF indicates that 68 amino acids in the N terminus of the Nanos protein are essential for its stability in the sMics whereas a 45 amino acid element adjacent to the zinc fingers targets its degradation. Further, this regulation of Nanos protein is cell autonomous, following formation of the germ line. These results are paradigmatic for the unique presence of Nanos in the germ line by a combination of selective RNA retention, distinctive translational control mechanisms (Oulhen et al., 2013), and now also by defined Nanos protein stability. PMID:27424271

  1. Differential Nanos 2 protein stability results in selective germ cell accumulation in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-10-01

    Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells. In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), Nanos 2 mRNA is broadly transcribed but accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage, in part because of the 3'UTR element GNARLE leads to turnover in somatic cells but retention in the sMics. Here we found that the Nanos 2 protein is also selectively stabilized; it is initially translated throughout the embryo but turned over in the future somatic cells and retained only in the sMics, the future germ line in this animal. This differential stability of Nanos protein is dependent on the open reading frame (ORF), and is independent of the sumoylation and ubiquitylation pathways. Manipulation of the ORF indicates that 68 amino acids in the N terminus of the Nanos protein are essential for its stability in the sMics whereas a 45 amino acid element adjacent to the zinc fingers targets its degradation. Further, this regulation of Nanos protein is cell autonomous, following formation of the germ line. These results are paradigmatic for the unique presence of Nanos in the germ line by a combination of selective RNA retention, distinctive translational control mechanisms (Oulhen et al., 2013), and now also by defined Nanos protein stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation and localization of extensin protein in apoplast of pea root nodule under aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Cell wall components such as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs, extensins) have been proposed to be involved in aluminum (Al) resistance mechanisms in plants. We have characterized the distribution of extensin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules apoplast under short (for 2 and 24h) Al stress. Monoclonal antibodie LM1 have been used to locate extensin protein epitope by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. The nodules were shown to respond to Al stress by thickening of plant and infection thread (IT) walls and disturbances in threads growth and bacteria endocytosis. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 17-kDa band specific for LM1. Irrespective of the time of Al stress, extensin content increased in root nodules. Further observation utilizing fluorescence and transmission electron microscope showed that LM1 epitope was localized in walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex tissues and in the infection threads matrix. Al stress in nodules appears to be associated with higher extensin accumulation in matrix of enlarged thick-walled ITs. In addition to ITs, thickened walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex were also associated with intense extensin accumulation. These data suggest that Al-induced extensin accumulation in plant cell walls and ITs matrix may have influence on the process of IT growth and tissue and cell colonization by Rhizobium bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear poly(A)-binding protein aggregates misplace a pre-mRNA outside of SC35 speckle causing its abnormal splicing

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pierre; Oloko, Martine; Roth, Fanny; Montel, Valérie; Malerba, Alberto; Jarmin, Susan; Gidaro, Teresa; Popplewell, Linda; Perie, Sophie; Lacau St Guily, Jean; de la Grange, Pierre; Antoniou, Michael N.; Dickson, George; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bastide, Bruno; Mouly, Vincent; Trollet, Capucine

    2016-01-01

    A short abnormal polyalanine expansion in the polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear-1 (PABPN1) protein causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Mutated PABPN1 proteins accumulate as insoluble intranuclear aggregates in muscles of OPMD patients. While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice have been established, the molecular mechanisms which trigger pathological defects in OPMD and the role of aggregates remain to be determined. Using exon array, for the first time we have identified several splicing defects in OPMD. In particular, we have demonstrated a defect in the splicing regulation of the muscle-specific Troponin T3 (TNNT3) mutually exclusive exons 16 and 17 in OPMD samples compared to controls. This splicing defect is directly linked to the SC35 (SRSF2) splicing factor and to the presence of nuclear aggregates. As reported here, PABPN1 aggregates are able to trap TNNT3 pre-mRNA, driving it outside nuclear speckles, leading to an altered SC35-mediated splicing. This results in a decreased calcium sensitivity of muscle fibers, which could in turn plays a role in muscle pathology. We thus report a novel mechanism of alternative splicing deregulation that may play a role in various other diseases with nuclear inclusions or foci containing an RNA binding protein. PMID:27507886

  4. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann; Nguyen, Thuy N; Gidda, Satinder K; Watt, Samantha C; Yurchenko, Olga; Park, Sunjung; Sturtevant, Drew; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M; Chapman, Kent D

    2017-07-01

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. Here, we tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids in leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. When expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ER-vesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. These results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. We tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids inmore » leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, when expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ERvesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. Our results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes.« less

  6. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann; ...

    2017-01-18

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. We tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids inmore » leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, when expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ERvesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. Our results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes.« less

  7. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal Behaviors and Developmental Disorder of Hippocampus in Zinc Finger Protein 521 (ZFP521) Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521 Δ/Δ pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521 +/Δ littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24676388

  9. The Sirtuin 2 microtubule deacetylase is an abundant neuronal protein that accumulates in the aging CNS

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Michele M.; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Nobles, Johnathan; Wizeman, John W.; Amore, Allison M.; Quinti, Luisa; Chopra, Vanita; Hersch, Steven M.; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.

    2011-01-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of seven known mammalian protein deacetylases homologous to the yeast master lifespan regulator Sir2. In recent years, the sirtuin protein deacetylases have emerged as candidate therapeutic targets for many human diseases, including metabolic and age-dependent neurological disorders. In non-neuronal cells, SIRT2 has been shown to function as a tubulin deacetylase and a key regulator of cell division and differentiation. However, the distribution and function of the SIRT2 microtubule (MT) deacetylase in differentiated, postmitotic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we show abundant and preferential expression of specific isoforms of SIRT2 in the mammalian central nervous system and find that a previously uncharacterized form, SIRT2.3, exhibits age-dependent accumulation in the mouse brain and spinal cord. Further, our studies reveal that focal areas of endogenous SIRT2 expression correlate with reduced α-tubulin acetylation in primary mouse cortical neurons and suggest that the brain-enriched species of SIRT2 may function as the predominant MT deacetylases in mature neurons. Recent reports have demonstrated an association between impaired tubulin acetyltransferase activity and neurodegenerative disease; viewed in this light, our results showing age-dependent accumulation of the SIRT2 neuronal MT deacetylase in wild-type mice suggest a functional link between tubulin acetylation patterns and the aging brain. PMID:21791548

  10. Nuclear Transport and Accumulation of Smad Proteins Studied by Single-Molecule Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yichen; Luo, Wangxi; Yang, Weidong

    2018-05-08

    Nuclear translocation of stimulated Smad heterocomplexes is a critical step in the signal transduction of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) from transmembrane receptors into the nucleus. Specifically, normal nuclear accumulation of Smad2/Smad4 heterocomplexes induced by TGF-β1 is involved in carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between nuclear accumulation and the nucleocytoplasmic transport kinetics of Smad proteins in the presence of TGF-β1 remains obscure. By combining a high-speed single-molecule tracking microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer technique, we tracked the entire TGF-β1-induced process of Smad2/Smad4 heterocomplex formation, as well as their transport through nuclear pore complexes in live cells, with a high single-molecule localization precision of 2 ms and <20 nm. Our single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer data have revealed that in TGF-β1-treated cells, Smad2/Smad4 heterocomplexes formed in the cytoplasm, imported through the nuclear pore complexes as entireties, and finally dissociated in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that basal-state Smad2 or Smad4 cannot accumulate in the nucleus without the presence of TGF-β1, mainly because both of them have an approximately twofold higher nuclear export efficiency compared to their nuclear import. Remarkably and reversely, heterocomplexes of Smad2/Smad4 induced by TGF-β1 can rapidly concentrate in the nucleus because of their almost fourfold higher nuclear import rate in comparison with their nuclear export rate. Thus, we believe that the determined TGF-β1-dependent transport configurations and efficiencies for the basal-state Smad or stimulated Smad heterocomplexes elucidate the basic molecular mechanism to understand their nuclear transport and accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation and processing of a recombinant protein designed as a cleavable fusion to the endogenous Rubisco LSU protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Machiko; Henry, Ryan E; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Background Expression of recombinant proteins in green algal chloroplast holds substantial promise as a platform for the production of human therapeutic proteins. A number of proteins have been expressed in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, including complex mammalian proteins, but many of these proteins accumulate to significantly lower levels than do endogenous chloroplast proteins. We examined if recombinant protein accumulation could be enhanced by genetically fusing the recombinant reporter protein, luciferase, to the carboxy-terminal end of an abundant endogenous protein, the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco LSU). Additionally, as recombinant proteins fused to endogenous proteins are of little clinical or commercial value, we explored the possibility of engineering our recombinant protein to be cleavable from the endogenous protein in vivo. This strategy would obviate the need for further in vitro processing steps in order to produce the desired recombinant protein. To achieve this, a native protein-processing site from preferredoxin (preFd) was placed between the Rubisco LSU and luciferase coding regions in the fusion protein construct. Results The luciferase from the fusion protein accumulated to significantly higher levels than luciferase expressed alone. By eliminating the endogenous Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL), we achieved a further increase in luciferase accumulation with respect to luciferase expression in the WT background. Importantly, near-wild type levels of functional Rubisco holoenzyme were generated following the proteolytic removal of the fused luciferase, while luciferase activity for the fusion protein was almost ~33 times greater than luciferase expressed alone. These data demonstrate the utility of using fusion proteins to enhance recombinant protein accumulation in algal chloroplasts, and also show that engineered proteolytic processing sites can be used to liberate the exogenous protein from

  12. RPLP1 and RPLP2 Are Essential Flavivirus Host Factors That Promote Early Viral Protein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Rafael K.; Wong, Benjamin; Lu, Yi-Fan; Shi, Pei-Yong; Pompon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Flavivirus genus contains several arthropod-borne viruses that pose global health threats, including dengue viruses (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). In order to understand how these viruses replicate in human cells, we previously conducted genome-scale RNA interference screens to identify candidate host factors. In these screens, we identified ribosomal proteins RPLP1 and RPLP2 (RPLP1/2) to be among the most crucial putative host factors required for DENV and YFV infection. RPLP1/2 are phosphoproteins that bind the ribosome through interaction with another ribosomal protein, RPLP0, to form a structure termed the ribosomal stalk. RPLP1/2 were validated as essential host factors for DENV, YFV, and ZIKV infection in two human cell lines: A549 lung adenocarcinoma and HuH-7 hepatoma cells, and for productive DENV infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Depletion of RPLP1/2 caused moderate cell-line-specific effects on global protein synthesis, as determined by metabolic labeling. In A549 cells, global translation was increased, while in HuH-7 cells it was reduced, albeit both of these effects were modest. In contrast, RPLP1/2 knockdown strongly reduced early DENV protein accumulation, suggesting a requirement for RPLP1/2 in viral translation. Furthermore, knockdown of RPLP1/2 reduced levels of DENV structural proteins expressed from an exogenous transgene. We postulate that these ribosomal proteins are required for efficient translation elongation through the viral open reading frame. In summary, this work identifies RPLP1/2 as critical flaviviral host factors required for translation. IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses cause important diseases in humans. Examples of mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses include dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Viruses require a plethora of cellular factors to infect cells, and the ribosome plays an essential role in all viral infections. The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine composed of RNA and

  13. Physiology and biochemistry of source-regulated protein accumulation in the wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Barneix, Atilio J

    2007-05-01

    Wheat is unique among cereals for the baking qualities of its flour, which are dependent upon the type and concentration of its proteins. As a consequence, the grain protein concentration (GPC) is one of the main determinants of wheat international market price. More than 50-70% of the final grain N is accumulated before flowering and later remobilized to the grain, N fertilization being the common practice used to produce high GPC. However, after incremental additions of N fertilizer, GPC reaches a maximum and then remains constant, without any increase in N uptake or remobilization by the crop, thus decreasing the efficiency of N fertilizer. Although, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate N uptake by the roots are being clarified quickly, the regulation and physiology of N transport from the leaves to the grain remains less clear. In this review, the possible regulatory points involved in N transport to the grain and the difficulties for increasing GPC are discussed. It has been demonstrated that protein synthesis in the grain is source-limited, and that the grain can accumulate protein limited only by the amino acids provided by the phloem. It has also been shown that there is no limitation in the amino acid/sugar ratios that can be exported to the phloem. On the other hand, NO(3)(-) uptake transporters are depressed when the plant concentration of some amino acids, such as glutamine, is high. It has also been shown that a high N supply increases cytokinins concentration, preventing leaf senescence and proteolysis. Based on this information, it is postulated that there are two main regulatory points during grain filling when plant N status is ample. On the one hand, the N uptake transporters in the roots are depressed due to the high amino acids concentration in the tissues, and N uptake is low. On the other, a high amino acids concentration keeps the cytokinins level high, repressing leaf protein degradation and decreasing amino acid export to the

  14. Spider dragline silk proteins in transgenic tobacco leaves: accumulation and field production.

    PubMed

    Menassa, Rima; Zhu, Hong; Karatzas, Costas N; Lazaris, Anthoula; Richman, Alex; Brandle, Jim

    2004-09-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique biomaterial and represents nature's strongest known fibre. As it is almost as strong as many commercial synthetic fibres, it is suitable for use in many industrial and medical applications. The prerequisite for such a widespread use is the cost-effective production in sufficient quantities for commercial fibre manufacturing. Agricultural biotechnology and the production of recombinant dragline silk proteins in transgenic plants offer the potential for low-cost, large-scale production. The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of producing the two protein components of dragline silk (MaSp1 and MaSp2) from Nephila clavipes in transgenic tobacco. Two different promoters, the enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (Kay et al., 1987) and a new tobacco cryptic constitutive promoter, tCUP (Foster et al., 1999) were used, in conjunction with a plant secretory signal (PR1b), a translational enhancer (alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV) and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL), to express the MaSp1 and MaSp2 genes in the leaves of transgenic plants. Both genes expressed successfully and recombinant protein accumulated in transgenic plants grown in both greenhouse and field trials.

  15. Hypoxia induces p53 accumulation in the S-phase and accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in all cell cycle phases of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T.; Hvidsten, M.; Stokke, T.; Solberg, K.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to induce accumulation of p53 and of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in tumour cells. In this study, the cell cycle dependence of p53 accumulation and pRb hypophosphorylation in four human melanoma cell lines that are wild type for p53 was investigated using two-parameter flow cytometry measurements of p53 or pRb protein content and DNA content. The hypoxia-induced increase in p53 protein was higher in S-phase than in G1 and G2 phases in all cell lines. The accumulation of p53 in S-phase during hypoxia was not related to hypoxia-induced apoptosis or substantial cell cycle specific cell inactivation during the first 24 h of reoxygenation. pRb was hypophosphorylated in all cell cycle phases by hypoxia treatment. The results did not support a direct link between p53 and pRb during hypoxia because p53 was induced in a cell cycle-specific manner, whereas no cell cycle-dependent differences in pRb hypophosphorylation were detected. Only a fraction of the cell populations (0.60+/-0.10) showed hypophosphorylated pRb. Thus, pRb is probably not the only mediator of the hypoxia-induced cell cycle block seen in all cells and all cell cycle phases. Moreover, the cell cycle-dependent induction of p53 by hypoxia suggests that the primary function of p53 accumulation during hypoxia is other than to arrest the cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9862563

  16. [The relationship between the abnormal behavior and serum C-reactive protein in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Yanzhong; Wang, Xin

    2009-12-01

    To explore the pathogenesis of abnormal behavior in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The behavioral problems and C-reactive protein were measured in 40 children with OSAHS and 30 children with habitual snoring who underwent overnight Polysomnography, 40 cases of healthy children for the control group. The ratio of abnormal behavior in OSAHS and habitual snoring children was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group, while no significant difference between the two groups. The content of C-reactive protein in OSAHS children (4.24 mg/L) was significantly higher than habitual snoring (2.76 mg/L) and healthy control group (1.27 mg/L); in habitual snoring children C-reactive protein was higher than in healthy control group. The content of serum C-reactive protein in OSAHS children accompanied by abnormal behavior (4.63 mg/L) was significantly higher than that without abnormal behavior (3.23 mg/L). The content of serum C-reactive protein content in habitual snoring children accompanied by abnormal behavior (3.63 mg/L) was significantly higher than that without abnormal behavior (1.76 mg/L). OSAHS and habitual snoring children have more behavior problems. C-reactive protein levels are higher in children with OSAHS and habitual snoring, and the levels of C-reactive protein are related to the abnormal behavior in these children.

  17. Promyelocytic Leukemia (Pml) Nuclear Bodies Are Protein Structures That Do Not Accumulate RNA

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, François-Michel; Hendzel, Michael J.; Bazett-Jones, David P.

    2000-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear body (also referred to as ND10, POD, and Kr body) is involved in oncogenesis and viral infection. This subnuclear domain has been reported to be rich in RNA and a site of nascent RNA synthesis, implicating its direct involvement in the regulation of gene expression. We used an analytical transmission electron microscopic method to determine the structure and composition of PML nuclear bodies and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) demonstrates that the core of the PML nuclear body is a dense, protein-based structure, 250 nm in diameter, which does not contain detectable nucleic acid. Although PML nuclear bodies contain neither chromatin nor nascent RNA, newly synthesized RNA is associated with the periphery of the PML nuclear body, and is found within the chromatin-depleted region of the nucleoplasm immediately surrounding the core of the PML nuclear body. We further show that the RNA does not accumulate in the protein core of the structure. Our results dismiss the hypothesis that the PML nuclear body is a site of transcription, but support the model in which the PML nuclear body may contribute to the formation of a favorable nuclear environment for the expression of specific genes. PMID:10648561

  18. RPT2/NCH1 subfamily of NPH3-like proteins is essential for the chloroplast accumulation response in land plants.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Takemiya, Atsushi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Higa, Takeshi; Komatsu, Aino; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Kohchi, Takayuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-09-13

    In green plants, the blue light receptor kinase phototropin mediates various photomovements and developmental responses, such as phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movements (accumulation and avoidance), stomatal opening, and leaf flattening, which facilitate photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, two phototropins (phot1 and phot2) redundantly mediate these responses. Two phototropin-interacting proteins, NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) and ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2), which belong to the NPH3/RPT2-like (NRL) family of BTB (broad complex, tramtrack, and bric à brac) domain proteins, mediate phototropism and leaf flattening. However, the roles of NRL proteins in chloroplast photorelocation movement remain to be determined. Here, we show that another phototropin-interacting NRL protein, NRL PROTEIN FOR CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT 1 (NCH1), and RPT2 redundantly mediate the chloroplast accumulation response but not the avoidance response. NPH3, RPT2, and NCH1 are not involved in the chloroplast avoidance response or stomatal opening. In the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, the NCH1 ortholog, MpNCH1, is essential for the chloroplast accumulation response but not the avoidance response, indicating that the regulation of the phototropin-mediated chloroplast accumulation response by RPT2/NCH1 is conserved in land plants. Thus, the NRL protein combination could determine the specificity of diverse phototropin-mediated responses.

  19. Neuronal-specific overexpression of a mutant valosin-containing protein associated with IBMPFD promotes aberrant ubiquitin and TDP-43 accumulation and cognitive dysfunction in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Hoshino, Hitomi; Cheng, David; Liu-Yescevitz, Liqun; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Wolozin, Benjamin; LaFerla, Frank M; Kitazawa, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause a rare, autosomal dominant disease called inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). One-third of patients with IBMPFD develop frontotemporal dementia, characterized by an extensive neurodegeneration in the frontal and temporal lobes. Neuropathologic hallmarks include nuclear and cytosolic inclusions positive to ubiquitin and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in neurons and glial activation in affected regions. However, the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutant VCP triggers neurodegeneration remain unknown. Herein, we generated a mouse model selectively overexpressing a human mutant VCP in neurons to study pathogenic mechanisms of mutant VCP-mediated neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. The overexpression of VCPA232E mutation in forebrain regions produced significant progressive impairments of cognitive function, including deficits in spatial memory, object recognition, and fear conditioning. Although overexpressed or endogenous VCP did not seem to focally aggregate inside neurons, TDP-43 and ubiquitin accumulated with age in transgenic mouse brains. TDP-43 was also found to co-localize with stress granules in the cytosolic compartment. Together with the appearance of high-molecular-weight TDP-43 in cytosolic fractions, these findings demonstrate the mislocalization and accumulation of abnormal TDP-43 in the cytosol of transgenic mice, which likely lead to an increase in cellular stress and cognitive impairment. Taken together, these results highlight an important pathologic link between VCP and cognition. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of EGFP and NPTII protein is not associated with organ abnormalities in deceased transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Huiting; Li, Qinghe; Zhao, Yiqiang; Luo, Juan; Liu, Qiuyue; Sun, Xiuzhu; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2008-12-01

    Both enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase type II enzyme (NPTII) are widely used in transgenic studies, but their side effects have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of the two marker genes and the relationship between their expression and organ abnormalities. Eight transgenic cloned cattle were studied, four harboring both EGFP and NPTII, and four harboring only the NPTII gene. Four age-matched cloned cattle were used as controls. EGFP and NPTII expression were measured and detected by Q-PCR, Western blot, ELISA, and RIA in heart, liver, and lungs, and the values ranged from 0.3 to 5 microg/g. The expression profiles exhibited differential or mosaic pattern between the organs, the pathologic symptoms of which were identified, but were similar to those of age-matched cloned cattle. All data indicated that the expression of EGFP and NPTII is not associated with organ abnormalities in transgenic cloned cattle.

  1. Mechanisms of Lipid Accumulation in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutant Right Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Evan L.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Penner, Niki; Atkinson, James; Funke, Mitch; Grueter, Carrie; Jerome, W. Gray; Freeman, Michael; Newman, John H.; West, James; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: In heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension with germline mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene, right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is associated with RV lipotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanism for lipid accumulation is not known. Objectives: We hypothesized that lipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes with BMPR2 mutation occurs owing to alterations in lipid transport and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which is exacerbated by a high-lipid (Western) diet (WD). Methods: We used a transgenic mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension with mutant BMPR2 and generated a cardiomyocyte cell line with BMPR2 mutation. Electron microscopy and metabolomic analysis were performed on mouse RVs. Measurements and Main Results: By metabolomics analysis, we found an increase in long-chain fatty acids in BMPR2 mutant mouse RVs compared with controls, which correlated with cardiac index. BMPR2-mutant cardiomyocytes had increased lipid compared with controls. Direct measurement of FAO in the WD-fed BMPR2-mutant RV showed impaired palmitate-linked oxygen consumption, and metabolomics analysis showed reduced indices of FAO. Using both mutant BMPR2 mouse RVs and cardiomyocytes, we found an increase in the uptake of 14C-palmitate and fatty acid transporter CD36 that was further exacerbated by WD. Conclusions: Taken together, our data suggest that impaired FAO and increased expression of the lipid transporter CD36 are key mechanisms underlying lipid deposition in the BMPR2-mutant RV, which are exacerbated in the presence of dietary lipids. These findings suggest important features leading to RV lipotoxicity in pulmonary arterial hypertension and may point to novel areas of therapeutic intervention. PMID:27077479

  2. Proteolysis of chloroplast proteins is responsible for accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyong; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Sihua; Zeng, Lanting; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-03-22

    Shade management (dark treatment) on tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a common approach to improve free amino acids in raw materials of tea leaves. However, the reason for amino acid accumulation in dark-treated tea leaves is still unknown. In the present study, dark treatment significantly increased content of free amino acids and reduced content of soluble proteins in tea leaves. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that most enzymes involved in biosyntheses of amino acids were down-accumulated by dark treatment. Chloroplast numbers reduced in dark-treated leaves and the content of soluble proteins reduced in the chloroplasts isolated from dark-treated leaves compared to control. These suggest that proteolysis of chloroplast proteins contributed to amino acid accumulation in dark-treated leaves. Two chloroplasts proteases, ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit 3 and protease Do-like 2, were up-accumulated in dark-treated leaves. This study firstly elucidated the mechanism of accumulation of amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves. Effect of dark on crop growth has been widely studied, while less attention has been paid to effect of dark on quality-related metabolites in crops. Shade management (dark treatment) on tea plants is a common approach to improve free amino acids in tea leaves. However, the reason for accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves is still unknown. In the present study, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was performed and the results revealed the accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves was not due to activation of biosyntheses of amino acids, but resulted from proteolysis of chloroplast proteins. The information will advance our understanding of formation of quality or function-related metabolites in agricultural crops exposed to dark stress/shade management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arabidopsis SEIPIN Proteins Modulate Triacylglycerol Accumulation and Influence Lipid Droplet Proliferation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. In contrast with the single SEIPIN genes in humans and yeast, there are three SEIPIN homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated SEIPIN1, SEIPIN2, and SEIPIN3. Essentially nothing is known about the functions of SEIPIN homologs in plants. Here, a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SEIPIN deletion mutant strain and a plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) transient expression system were used to test the ability of Arabidopsis SEIPINs to influence LD morphology. In both species, expression of SEIPIN1 promoted accumulation of large-sized lipid droplets, while expression of SEIPIN2 and especially SEIPIN3 promoted small LDs. Arabidopsis SEIPINs increased triacylglycerol levels and altered composition. In tobacco, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized SEIPINs reorganized the normal, reticulated ER structure into discrete ER domains that colocalized with LDs. N-terminal deletions and swapping experiments of SEIPIN1 and 3 revealed that this region of SEIPIN determines LD size. Ectopic overexpression of SEIPIN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in leaves, as well as in seeds, and increased seed oil content by up to 10% over wild-type seeds. By contrast, RNAi suppression of SEIPIN1 resulted in smaller seeds and, as a consequence, a reduction in the amount of oil per seed compared with the wild type. Overall, our results indicate that Arabidopsis SEIPINs are part of a conserved LD biogenesis machinery in eukaryotes and that in plants these proteins may have evolved specialized roles in the storage of neutral lipids by differentially modulating the number and sizes of lipid droplets. PMID:26362606

  4. Arabidopsis SEIPIN Proteins Modulate Triacylglycerol Accumulation and Influence Lipid Droplet Proliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yingqi; Goodman, Joel M.; Pyc, Michal; ...

    2015-09-01

    The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. In contrast with the single SEIPIN genes in humans and yeast, there are three SEIPIN homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated SEIPIN1, SEIPIN2, and SEIPIN3. Essentially nothing is known about the functions of SEIPIN homologs in plants. Here, a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SEIPIN deletion mutant strain and a plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) transient expression system were used to test the ability of Arabidopsis SEIPINs to influence LD morphology. In both species, expression of SEIPIN1 promoted accumulation of large-sized lipid droplets, while expression of SEIPIN2 and especiallymore » SEIPIN3 promoted small LDs. Arabidopsis SEIPINs increased triacylglycerol levels and altered composition. In tobacco, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized SEIPINs reorganized the normal, reticulated ER structure into discrete ER domains that colocalized with LDs. N-terminal deletions and swapping experiments of SEIPIN1 and 3 revealed that this region of SEIPIN determines LD size. Ectopic overexpression of SEIPIN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in leaves, as well as in seeds, and increased seed oil content by up to 10% over wild-type seeds. By contrast, RNAi suppression of SEIPIN1 resulted in smaller seeds and, as a consequence, a reduction in the amount of oil per seed compared with the wild type. Finally, overall, our results indicate that Arabidopsis SEIPINs are part of a conserved LD biogenesis machinery in eukaryotes and that in plants these proteins may have evolved specialized roles in the storage of neutral lipids by differentially modulating the number and sizes of lipid droplets.« less

  5. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-02-03

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H(+) transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties 'Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)' and an early maturing mutant 'Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)'. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis.

  6. C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels are associated with abnormal heart rate recovery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cemil; Akgül, Ebru; Pabuccu, Recai

    2010-06-01

    To determine heart rate recovery (HRR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its relation to C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Sixty-eight women with PCOS and 68 healthy women were included this study. Heart rate recovery was evaluated. We measured serum levels of CRP and Hcy. The presence of insulin resistance was investigated using homeostasis model assesment (HOMA-IR). Heart rate recovery, CRP, Hcy. Heart rate recovery was significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared with control group women. Subjects with abnormal HRR had significantly greater levels of CRP and Hcy. The PCOS patients with HRR in the top tertile compared with the bottom quartile tended to have lower mean CRP and Hcy levels. The HRR was significantly and negatively correlated with age, CRP, Hcy, HOMA-IR, and body mass index. C-reactive protein and Hcy are independent determinants of HRR. The CRP and Hcy levels may affect the development and progression of abnormal HRR in PCOS. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nipah Virus V Protein Evades Alpha and Gamma Interferons by Preventing STAT1 and STAT2 Activation and Nuclear Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jason J.; Parisien, Jean-Patrick; Horvath, Curt M.

    2002-01-01

    Characterization of recent outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in southeast Asia identified the causative agent to be a previously unrecognized enveloped negative-strand RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, Nipah virus. One feature linking Nipah virus to this family is a conserved cysteine-rich domain that is the hallmark of paramyxovirus V proteins. The V proteins of other paramyxovirus species have been linked with evasion of host cell interferon (IFN) signal transduction and subsequent antiviral responses by inducing proteasomal degradation of the IFN-responsive transcription factors, STAT1 or STAT2. Here we demonstrate that Nipah virus V protein escapes IFN by a distinct mechanism involving direct inhibition of STAT protein function. Nipah virus V protein differs from other paramyxovirus V proteins in its subcellular distribution but not in its ability to inhibit cellular IFN responses. Nipah virus V protein does not induce STAT degradation but instead inhibits IFN responses by forming high-molecular-weight complexes with both STAT1 and STAT2. We demonstrate that Nipah virus V protein accumulates in the cytoplasm by a Crm1-dependent mechanism, alters the STAT protein subcellular distribution in the steady state, and prevents IFN-stimulated STAT redistribution. Consistent with the formation of complexes, STAT protein tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibited in cells expressing the Nipah virus V protein. As a result, Nipah virus V protein efficiently prevents STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear translocation in response to IFN, inhibiting cellular responses to both IFN-α and IFN-γ. PMID:12388709

  8. Rapid auxin-induced nitric oxide accumulation and subsequent tyrosine nitration of proteins during adventitious root formation in sunflower hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunita; David, Anisha; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish C.

    2013-01-01

    Using NO specific probe (MNIP-Cu), rapid nitric oxide (NO) accumulation as a response to auxin (IAA) treatment has been observed in the protoplasts from the hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.). Incubation of protoplasts in presence of NPA (auxin efflux blocker) and PTIO (NO scavenger) leads to significant reduction in NO accumulation, indicating that NO signals represent an early signaling event during auxin-induced response. A surge in NO production has also been demonstrated in whole hypocotyl explants showing adventitious root (AR) development. Evidence of tyrosine nitration of cytosolic proteins as a consequence of NO accumulation has been provided by western blot analysis and immunolocalization in the sections of AR producing hypocotyl segments. Most abundant anti-nitrotyrosine labeling is evident in proteins ranging from 25–80 kDa. Tyrosine nitration of a particular protein (25 kDa) is completely absent in presence of NPA (which suppresses AR formation). Similar lack of tyrosine nitration of this protein is also evident in other conditions which do not allow AR differentiation. Immunofluorescent localization experiments have revealed that non-inductive treatments (such as PTIO) for AR develpoment from hypocotyl segments coincide with symplastic and apoplastic localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the xylem elements, in contrast with negligible (and mainly apoplastic) nitration of proteins in the interfascicular cells and phloem elements. Application of NPA does not affect tyrosine nitration of proteins even in the presence of an external source of NO (SNP). Tyrosine nitrated proteins are abundant around the nuclei in the actively dividing cells of the root primordium. Thus, NO-modulated rapid response to IAA treatment through differential distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins is evident as an inherent aspect of the AR development. PMID:23299324

  9. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation.

    PubMed

    Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; van Riemsdijk, Evine; Dance, Alysha L; Rajamanickam, Gayathri D; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2013-04-26

    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n=3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in all bulls by scrotal insulation for 72 consecutive hours during week 2. Total sperm proteins were extracted from pre- and post-thermal insult sperm samples and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the protein spots detected, 131 spots were significantly expressed (False Detection Rate <0.01) with ≥ 2 fold changes between normal and pyriform sperm. Among them, 25 spots with ≥ 4 fold difference in expression patterns were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Expression of several proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg interaction and sperm cytoskeletal structure was decreased in pyriform sperm, whereas proteins regulating antioxidant activity, apoptosis and metabolic activity were increased. Contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitinated proteins were higher in pyriform sperm. In addition to understanding the molecular basis of functional deficiencies in sperm with specific morphological abnormalities, comparing normal versus morphologically abnormal sperm appeared to be a suitable experimental model for identifying important sperm functional proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on differential expression of proteins in pyriform bovine sperm versus morphologically normal sperm. We report that expression of several proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg interaction and sperm cytoskeletal structure was decreased in pyriform sperm, whereas proteins which regulate antioxidant activity, apoptosis and metabolic activity were increased. Contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitinated proteins were higher in pyriform sperm. In addition to understanding

  10. Subcellular distribution of human RDM1 protein isoforms and their nucleolar accumulation in response to heat shock and proteotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Lydia; Yang, Yun-Gui; Kinomura, Aiko; Stavreva, Diana A; Yan, Gonghong; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Hainaut, Pierre; Cavaillé, Jérome; Takata, Minoru; Van Dyck, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The RDM1 gene encodes a RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein involved in the cellular response to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin in vertebrates. We previously reported a cDNA encoding the full-length human RDM1 protein. Here, we describe the identification of 11 human cDNAs encoding RDM1 protein isoforms. This repertoire is generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing and differential usage of two translational start sites, resulting in proteins with long or short N-terminus and a great diversity in the exonic composition of their C-terminus. By using tagged proteins and fluorescent microscopy, we examined the subcellular distribution of full-length RDM1 (renamed RDM1alpha), and other RDM1 isoforms. We show that RDM1alpha undergoes subcellular redistribution and nucleolar accumulation in response to proteotoxic stress and mild heat shock. In unstressed cells, the long N-terminal isoforms displayed distinct subcellular distribution patterns, ranging from a predominantly cytoplasmic to almost exclusive nuclear localization, suggesting functional differences among the RDM1 proteins. However, all isoforms underwent stress-induced nucleolar accumulation. We identified nuclear and nucleolar localization determinants as well as domains conferring cytoplasmic retention to the RDM1 proteins. Finally, RDM1 null chicken DT40 cells displayed an increased sensitivity to heat shock, compared to wild-type (wt) cells, suggesting a function for RDM1 in the heat-shock response.

  11. Differential protein accumulations in isolates of the strawberry wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae differing in virulence.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Barbetti, Martin J

    2014-08-28

    This study was conducted to define differences in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof) isolates with different virulence efficiency to strawberry at the proteome level, in combination with their differences in mycelial growth, conidial production and germination. Comparative proteome analyses revealed substantial differences in mycelial proteomes between Fof isolates, where the 54 differentially accumulated protein spots were consistently over-accumulated or exclusively in the highly virulent isolate. These protein spots were identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses, and the identified proteins were mainly related to primary and protein metabolism, antioxidation, electron transport, cell cycle and transcription based on their putative functions. Proteins of great potential as Fof virulence factors were those involved in ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation and reactive oxygen species detoxification; the hydrolysis-related protein haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase; 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase associated with riboflavin biosynthesis; and those exclusive to the highly virulent isolate. In addition, post-translational modifications may also make an important contribution to Fof virulence. F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in strawberry, is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, factors and mechanisms contributing to Fof virulence remained unknown. This study provides knowledge of the molecular basis for the differential expression of virulence in Fof, allowing new possibilities towards developing alternative and more effective strategies to manage Fusarium wilt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lysosomal damage after spinal cord injury causes accumulation of RIPK1 and RIPK3 proteins and potentiation of necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Li, Yun; Choi, Harry M C; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Koh, Eugene Y; Wu, Junfang; Lipinski, Marta M

    2018-04-23

    Necroptosis, a regulated necrosis pathway mediated by the receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3), is induced following spinal cord injury (SCI) and thought to contribute to neuronal and glial cell death. However, mechanisms leading to activation of necroptosis after SCI remain unclear. We have previously shown that autophagy, a catabolic pathway facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner, is inhibited following SCI in rats. Our current data confirm that inhibition of autophagy also occurs after thoracic contusive SCI in the mouse model, as indicated by accumulation of both the autophagosome marker, LC3-II and autophagy cargo protein, p62/SQSTM1. This was most pronounced in the ventral horn neurons and was caused by rapid inhibition of lysosomal function after SCI. Interestingly, RIPK1, RIPK3, and the necroptosis effector protein MLKL also rapidly accumulated after SCI and localized to neurons with disrupted autophagy, suggesting that these events may be related. To determine if lysosomal dysfunction could contribute to induction of necroptosis, we treated PC12 cells and primary rat cortical neurons with lysosomal inhibitors. This led to rapid accumulation of RIPK1 and RIPK3, confirming that they are normally degraded by the lysosomal pathway. In PC12 cells lysosomal inhibition also sensitized cells to necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and caspase inhibitor. Imaging studies confirmed that RIPK1 partially localized to lysosomes in both untreated and lysosomal inhibitor treated cells. Similarly, we detected presence of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL in both cytosol and at lysosomes after SCI in vivo. Furthermore, stimulation of autophagy and lysosomal function with rapamycin treatment led to decreased accumulation of RIPK1 and attenuated cell death after SCI. These data suggest that lysosomal dysfunction after SCI may contribute to both inhibition of autophagy and sensitize cells

  13. Tula hantavirus NSs protein accumulates in the perinuclear area in infected and transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi Maria; Djupsjöbacka, Janica; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The small RNA segment of some hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) encodes two proteins: the nucleocapsid protein and, in an overlapping reading frame, a non-structural (NSs) protein. The hantavirus NSs protein, like those of orthobunya- and phleboviruses, counteracts host innate immunity. Here, for the first time, the NSs protein of a hantavirus (Tula virus) has been observed in infected cells and shown to localize in the perinuclear area. Transiently expressed NSs protein showed similar localization, although the kinetics was slightly different, suggesting that to reach its proper location in the infected cell, the NSs protein does not have to cooperate with other viral proteins.

  14. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)more » which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.« less

  15. The Molecular Chaperone TRiC/CCT Binds to the Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) Repeat Protein WDR68 and Promotes Its Folding, Protein Kinase DYRK1A Binding, and Nuclear Accumulation*

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Takeshi; Aoshima, Masato; Tsubata, Takuichi; Nishida, Eisuke

    2014-01-01

    Trp-Asp (WD) repeat protein 68 (WDR68) is an evolutionarily conserved WD40 repeat protein that binds to several proteins, including dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase (DYRK1A), MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1), and Cullin4-damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1). WDR68 affects multiple and diverse physiological functions, such as controlling anthocyanin synthesis in plants, tissue growth in insects, and craniofacial development in vertebrates. However, the biochemical basis and the regulatory mechanism of WDR68 activity remain largely unknown. To better understand the cellular function of WDR68, here we have isolated and identified cellular WDR68 binding partners using a phosphoproteomic approach. More than 200 cellular proteins with wide varieties of biochemical functions were identified as WDR68-binding protein candidates. Eight T-complex protein 1 (TCP1) subunits comprising the molecular chaperone TCP1 ring complex/chaperonin-containing TCP1 (TRiC/CCT) were identified as major WDR68-binding proteins, and phosphorylation sites in both WDR68 and TRiC/CCT were identified. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the binding between TRiC/CCT and WDR68. Computer-aided structural analysis suggested that WDR68 forms a seven-bladed β-propeller ring. Experiments with a series of deletion mutants in combination with the structural modeling showed that three of the seven β-propeller blades of WDR68 are essential and sufficient for TRiC/CCT binding. Knockdown of cellular TRiC/CCT by siRNA caused an abnormal WDR68 structure and led to reduction of its DYRK1A-binding activity. Concomitantly, nuclear accumulation of WDR68 was suppressed by the knockdown of TRiC/CCT, and WDR68 formed cellular aggregates when overexpressed in the TRiC/CCT-deficient cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the molecular chaperone TRiC/CCT is essential for correct protein folding, DYRK1A binding, and nuclear accumulation of WDR68. PMID

  16. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm.

  17. Lysosomal activation is a compensatory response against protein accumulation and associated synaptopathogenesis--an approach for slowing Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Bendiske, Jennifer; Bahr, Ben A

    2003-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that age-related lysosomal disturbances contribute to Alzheimer-type accumulations of protein species, blockage of axonal/dendritic transport, and synaptic decline. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lysosomal enzymes are upregulated as a compensatory response to pathogenic protein accumulation. In the hippocampal slice model, tau deposits and amyloidogenic fragments induced by the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine were accompanied by disrupted microtubule integrity and by corresponding declines in postsynaptic glutamate receptors and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. In the same slices, cathepsins B, D, and L, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase were upregulated by 70% to 135%. To address whether this selective activation of the lysosomal system represents compensatory signaling, N-Cbz-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-diazomethylketone (PADK) was used to enhance the lysosome response, generating 4- to 8-fold increases in lysosomal enzymes. PADK-mediated lysosomal modulation was stable for weeks while synaptic components remained normal. When PADK and chloroquine were co-infused, chloroquine no longer increased cellular tau levels. To assess pre-existing pathology, chloroquine was applied for 6 days after which its removal resulted in continued degeneration. In contrast, enhancing lysosomal activation by replacing chloroquine after 6 days with PADK led to clearance of accumulated protein species and restored microtubule integrity. Transport processes lost during chloroquine exposure were consequently re-established, resulting in marked recovery of synaptic components. These data indicate that compensatory activation of lysosomes follows protein accumulation events, and that lysosomal modulation represents a novel approach for treating Alzheimer disease and other protein deposition diseases.

  18. Abnormal soluble CD40 ligand and C-reactive protein concentrations in hypertension: relationship to indices of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Lim, Hoong Sern; Nadar, Sunil; Tayebjee, Muzahir; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Yh

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal inflammation, platelets and angiogenesis are involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To test the hypothesis that concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, an index of inflammation) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, an index of platelet activation) would be abnormal in hypertension, and in turn, be related to plasma indices of angiogenesis, the angiopoietins-1 and -2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in addition to the presence or absence of CVD. Using a cross-sectional approach, we measured plasma concentrations of CRP, sCD40L, VEGF, and angiopoietins-1 and -2 in 147 patients with hypertension (85 with a history of CVD event/s, 62 CVD event-free) and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Concentrations of sCD40L (P = 0.039), CRP (P < 0.001), angiopoietin-1 (P < 0.001), angiopoietin-2 (P = 0.003) and VEGF (P < 0.001) were all greater amongst hypertensive patients than in controls. There were no significant differences in sCD40L and VEGF concentrations between hypertensive individuals with and without CVD events, but CRP and angiopoietin-1 concentrations were significantly greater amongst those with CVD events. On multiple regression analysis, sCD40L was associated with angiopoietin-2 (P = 0.01) and VEGF (P = 0.007) in hypertensive individuals, but no such associations were found within the healthy control group. In patients with hypertension, sCD40L was associated with increased circulating markers of abnormal angiogenesis (angiopoietin-2, VEGF). The interaction between sCD40L and angiogenesis may contribute to the pathophysiology of CVD in hypertension.

  19. Accumulation of p21 proteins at DNA damage sites independent of p53 and core NHEJ factors following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu, E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} p21 accumulated rapidly at laser-irradiated sites via its C-terminal region. {yields} p21 colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and the DSB sensor Ku80. {yields} Accumulation of p21 is dependent on PCNA, but not p53 and the NHEJ core factors. {yields} Accumulation activity of p21 was conserved among human and animal cells. {yields} p21 is a useful tool as a detection marker of DNA damaged sites. -- Abstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 plays key roles in p53-dependent DNA-damage responses, i.e., cell cycle checkpoints, senescence, or apoptosis. p21 might also play a role in DNA repair. p21 focimore » arise at heavy-ion-irradiated DNA-double-strand break (DSB) sites, which are mainly repaired by nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). However, no mechanisms of p21 accumulation at double-strand break (DSB) sites have been clarified in detail. Recent works indicate that Ku70 and Ku80 are essential for the accumulation of other NHEJ core factors, e.g., DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and XLF, and other DNA damage response factors, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that p21 foci arise at laser-irradiated sites in cells from various tissues from various species. The accumulation of EGFP-p21 was detected in not only normal cells, but also transformed or cancer cells. Our results also showed that EGFP-p21 accumulated rapidly at irradiated sites, and colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. On the other hand, the accumulation occurred in Ku70-, Ku80-, or DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines and in human papillomavirus 18-positive cells, whereas the p21 mutant without the PCNA-binding region (EGFP-p21(1-146)) failed to accumulate at the irradiated sites. These findings suggest that the accumulation of p21, but not functional p53 and the NHEJ core factors, is dependent on PCNA. These findings also suggest that the accumulation activity of p21 at DNA damaged sites is conserved among human and animal cells, and p21 is

  20. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  1. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C.; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H+ transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties ‘Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)’ and an early maturing mutant ‘Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)’. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis. PMID:26837571

  2. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of p62/SQSTM1 promotes the degradations of abnormally accumulated PrP mutants in cytoplasm and relieves the associated cytotoxicities via autophagy-lysosome-dependent way.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zhang, Jin; Tian, Chan; Ren, Ke; Yan, Yu-E; Wang, Ke; Wang, Hui; Chen, Cao; Wang, Jing; Shi, Qi; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The protein of p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), a key cargo adaptor protein involved in autophagy-lysosome degradation, exhibits inclusion bodies structure in cytoplasm and plays a protective role in some models of neurodegenerative diseases. Some PrP mutants, such as PrP-CYTO and PrP-PG14, also form cytosolic inclusion bodies and trigger neuronal apoptosis either in cultured cells or in transgenic mice. Here, we demonstrated that the cellular p62/SQSTM1 incorporated into the inclusion bodies formed by expressing the abnormal PrP mutants, PrP-CYTO and PrP-PG14, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Overexpression of p62/SQSTM1 efficiently relieved the cytosolic aggregations and cell apoptosis induced by the abnormal PrPs. Autophagy-lysosome inhibitors instead of proteasome inhibitor sufficiently blocked the p62/SQSTM1-mediated degradations of abnormal PrPs. Overexpression of p62/SQSTM1 did not alter the levels of light chain 3 (LC3) in the cells expressing various PrPs. However, more complexes of p62/SQSTM1 with LC3 were detected in the cells expressing the misfolded PrPs. These data imply that p62/SQSTM1 plays an important role in the homeostasis of abnormal PrPs via autophagy-lysosome-dependent way.

  4. Spatio-temporal accumulation and activity of calcium-dependent protein kinases during embryogenesis, seed development, and germination in sandalwood.

    PubMed

    Anil, V S; Harmon, A C; Rao, K S

    2000-04-01

    Western-blot analysis and protein kinase assays identified two Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) of 55 to 60 kD in soluble protein extracts of embryogenic cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). However, these sandalwood CDPKs (swCDPKs) were absent in plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos. swCDPKs exhibited differential expression (monitored at the level of the protein) and activity in different developmental stages. Zygotic embryos, seedlings, and endosperm showed high accumulation of swCDPK, but the enzyme was not detected in the soluble proteins of shoots and flowers. swCDPK exhibited a temporal pattern of expression in endosperm, showing high accumulation and activity in mature fruit and germinating stages; the enzyme was localized strongly in the storage bodies of the endosperm cells. The study also reports for the first time to our knowledge a post-translational inhibition/inactivation of swCDPK in zygotic embryos during seed dormancy and early stages of germination. The temporal expression of swCDPK during somatic/zygotic embryogenesis, seed maturation, and germination suggests involvement of the enzyme in these developmental processes.

  5. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Differential accumulation of photosynthetic proteins regulates diurnal photochemical adjustments of PSII in common fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Skendrović Babojelić, Martina; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje

    2017-02-01

    Molecular processes involved in photosystem II adaptation of woody species to diurnal changes in light and temperature conditions are still not well understood. Regarding this, here we investigated differences between young and mature leaves of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in photosynthetic performance as well as accumulation of the main photosynthetic proteins: light harvesting complex II, D1 protein and Rubisco large subunit. Investigated leaf types revealed different adjustment mechanisms to keep effective photosynthesis. Rather stable diurnal accumulation of light harvesting complex II in mature leaves enabled efficient excitation energy utilization (negative L-band) what triggered faster D1 protein degradation at high light. However, after photoinhibition, greater accumulation of D1 during the night enabled them faster recovery. So, the most photosynthetic parameters, as the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry, electron transport and overall photosynthetic efficiency in mature leaves successfully restored to their initial values at 1a.m. Reduced connectivity of light harvesting complexes II to its reaction centers (positive L-band) in young leaves increased dissipation of excess light causing less pressure to D1 and its slower degradation. Decreased electron transport in young leaves, due to reduced transfer beyond primary acceptor Q A - most probably additionally induced degradation of Rubisco large subunit what consequently led to the stronger decrease of overall photosynthetic efficiency in young leaves at noon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutant prenyltransferase-like mitochondrial protein (PLMP) and mitochondrial abnormalities in kd/kd mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Jarett, Leonard; Meade, Ray; Madaio, Michael P.; Hancock, Wayne W.; George, Alfred L.; Neilson, Eric G.; Gasser, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mice that are homozygous for the kidney disease (kd) mutation are apparently healthy for the first 8 weeks of life, but spontaneously develop a severe form of interstitial nephritis that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by 4 to 8 months of age. By testing for linkage to microsatellite markers, we previously localized the kd gene to a YAC/BAC contig. Methods The sequence of the entire critical region was examined, and candidate genes were identified. These candidate genes were sequenced in both mutant (kd/kd) mice and normal controls. The phenotype was further characterized by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Transgenic mice were constructed that carried the wild-type allele of the prime candidate gene, and this transgene was transferred to a kd/kd background by breeding. Results We have obtained evidence that kd is a mutant allele of a novel gene for a prenyltransferase-like mitochondrial protein (PLMP). This gene is alternatively spliced, with the larger gene product having one domain that resembles transprenyltransferase and another that is similar to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase. The smaller gene product includes only the first domain. An antiserum to PLMP localizes to mitochondria, and ultrastructural defects are present in the mitochondria of renal tubular epithelial cells, and to a lesser extent, hepatocytes and heart cells from kd/kd mice. In a line of kd/kd mice that carried the wild-type PLMP allele as a transgene, only 1 out of 13 animals expressed the disease by 120 days of age. Conclusion The kd allele codes for a novel protein that localizes to the mitochondria, and the kd/kd mouse has dysmorphic mitochondria in the renal tubular epithelial cells. This mouse is therefore a unique animal model for studying mechanisms that lead to tubulointerstitial nephritis. PMID:15200409

  8. Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

    2008-01-01

    Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal LPD offspring also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in males at 9 and 15 weeks and in both sexes at 21 weeks (P < 0.05). Male LPD offspring hypertension was accompanied by attenuated arterial responsiveness in vitro to vasodilators acetylcholine and isoprenaline (P < 0.05). LPD female offspring adult kidneys were also smaller, but had increased nephron numbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between SBP and kidney or heart size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome. PMID:18308825

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonism attenuates endotoxaemia-induced muscle protein loss and lactate accumulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Hannah; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Gardiner, Sheila M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone (Rosi) appears to provide protection against organ dysfunction during endotoxaemia. We examined the potential benefits of Rosi on skeletal muscle protein maintenance and carbohydrate metabolism during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxaemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (control) or standard chow containing Rosi (8.5 ± 0.1 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 2 weeks before and during 24 h continuous intravenous infusion of LPS (15 μg·kg -1 ·h -1 ) or saline. Rosi blunted LPS-induced increases in muscle tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA by 70% ( P <0.05) and 64% ( P <0.01) respectively. Furthermore, Rosi suppressed the LPS-induced reduction in phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated Forkhead box O (FOXO) 1 protein, as well as the up-regulation of muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1; P <0.01) mRNA and the LPS-induced increase in 20S proteasome activity ( P <0.05). Accordingly, LPS reduced the muscle protein:DNA ratio (∼30%, P <0.001), which Rosi offset. Increased muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA ( P <0.001) and muscle lactate accumulation ( P <0.001) during endotoxaemia were suppressed by Rosi. Thus, pre-treatment with Rosi reduced muscle cytokine accumulation and blunted muscle protein loss and lactate accumulation during endotoxaemia, and at least in part by reducing activation of molecular events known to increase muscle protein breakdown and mitochondrial pyruvate use. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) Expression in Normal and Abnormal Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Lessey, Bruce A.; Taylor, Robert N.; Wang, Wei; Bagchi, Milan K.; Yuan, Lingwen; Scotchie, Jessica; Fritz, Marc A.; Young, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid estrogen effects are mediated by membrane receptors, and evidence suggests a role for both a membrane-associated form of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1; ERα) and G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPER; GPR30). Considering estrogen’s importance in endometrial physiology and endometriosis pathophysiology, we hypothesized that GPER could be involved in both cyclic changes in endometrial estrogen action and that aberrant expression might be seen in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Using real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of normal endometrium, endometrial samples demonstrated cycle-regulated expression of GPER, with maximal expression in the proliferative phase. Eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis overexpressed GPER as compared to eutopic endometrium of normal participants. Ishikawa cells, an adenocarcinoma cell line, expressed GPER, with increased expression upon treatment with estrogen or an ESR1 agonist, but not with a GPER-specific agonist. Decreased expression was seen in Ishikawa cells stably transfected with progesterone receptor A. Together, these data suggest that normal endometrial GPER expression is cyclic and regulated by nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, while expression is dysregulated in endometriosis. PMID:22378861

  11. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression in normal and abnormal endometrium.

    PubMed

    Plante, Beth J; Lessey, Bruce A; Taylor, Robert N; Wang, Wei; Bagchi, Milan K; Yuan, Lingwen; Scotchie, Jessica; Fritz, Marc A; Young, Steven L

    2012-07-01

    Rapid estrogen effects are mediated by membrane receptors, and evidence suggests a role for both a membrane-associated form of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1; ERα) and G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPER; GPR30). Considering estrogen's importance in endometrial physiology and endometriosis pathophysiology, we hypothesized that GPER could be involved in both cyclic changes in endometrial estrogen action and that aberrant expression might be seen in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of normal endometrium, endometrial samples demonstrated cycle-regulated expression of GPER, with maximal expression in the proliferative phase. Eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis overexpressed GPER as compared to eutopic endometrium of normal participants. Ishikawa cells, an adenocarcinoma cell line, expressed GPER, with increased expression upon treatment with estrogen or an ESR1 agonist, but not with a GPER-specific agonist. Decreased expression was seen in Ishikawa cells stably transfected with progesterone receptor A. Together, these data suggest that normal endometrial GPER expression is cyclic and regulated by nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, while expression is dysregulated in endometriosis.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2018-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  14. Deficiency of a membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G, results in myelin abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Yamauchi, Junji; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a membrane skeletal molecular complex, 4.1G-membrane palmitoylated protein 6 (MPP6)-cell adhesion molecule 4, is incorporated in Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study, we evaluated motor activity and myelin ultrastructures in 4.1G-deficient (-/-) mice. When suspended by the tail, aged 4.1G -/- mice displayed spastic leg extension, especially after overwork. Motor-conduction velocity in 4.1G -/- mice was slower than that in wild-type mice. Using electron microscopy, 4.1G -/- mice exhibited myelin abnormalities: myelin was thicker in internodes, and attachment of myelin tips was distorted in some paranodes. In addition, we found a novel function of 4.1G for sorting a scaffold protein, Lin7, due to disappearance of the immunolocalization and reduction of the production of Lin7c and Lin7a in 4.1G -/- sciatic nerves, as well as the interaction of MPP6 and Lin7 with immunoprecipitation. Thus, we herein propose 4.1G functions as a signal for proper formation of myelin in PNS.

  15. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  16. High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  17. Multiple layers of temporal and spatial control regulate accumulation of the fruiting body-specific protein APP in Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou; Piotrowski, Markus; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    During fungal fruiting body development, specialized cell types differentiate from vegetative mycelium. We have isolated a protein from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora that is not present during vegetative growth but accumulates in perithecia. The protein was sequenced by mass spectrometry and the corresponding gene was termed app (abundant perithecial protein). app transcript occurs only after the onset of sexual development; however, the formation of ascospores is not a prerequisite for APP accumulation. The transcript of the Neurospora crassa ortholog is present prior to fertilization, but the protein accumulates only after fertilization. In crosses of N. crassa Deltaapp strains with the wild type, APP accumulates when the wild type serves as female parent, but not in the reciprocal cross; thus, the presence of a functional female app allele is necessary and sufficient for APP accumulation. These findings highlight multiple layers of temporal and spatial control of gene expression during fungal development.

  18. HCV core protein induces hepatic lipid accumulation by activating SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Hong, Sung Pyo; Kim, KyeongJin

    2007-04-20

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV core protein plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis in HCV infection. Because SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) and PPAR{gamma} (peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor {gamma}) are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism of hepatocyte, we sought to determine whether HCV core protein may impair the expression and activity of SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}. In this study, it was demonstrated that HCV core protein increases the gene expression of SREBP1 not only in Chang liver, Huh7, and HepG2 cells transiently transfectedmore » with HCV core protein expression plasmid, but also in Chang liver-core stable cells. Furthermore, HCV core protein enhanced the transcriptional activity of SREBP1. In addition, HCV core protein elevated PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity. However, HCV core protein had no effect on PPAR{gamma} gene expression. Finally, we showed that HCV core protein stimulates the genes expression of lipogenic enzyme and fatty acid uptake associated protein. Therefore, our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism of hepatic steatosis by HCV infection.« less

  19. Increased Temperature and Protein Oxidation Signal HSP72 mRNA and Protein Accumulation in the In Vivo Exercised Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Jessica L.; Tümer, Nihal; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, mediated by its transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), increases following exercise. However, the up-stream stimuli governing exercise-induced HSF1 activation and subsequent HSP72 gene expression in the whole animal remain unclear. Exercise-induced increases in body temperature may promote myocardial radical production leading to protein oxidation. Conceivably, myocardial protein oxidation during exercise may serve as an important signal promoting nuclear HSF1 migration and activation of HSP72 expression. Therefore, these experiments tested the hypothesis that preventing exercise-induced increases in body temperature attenuates cardiac protein oxidation, diminishes HSF1 activation and decreases HSP72 expression in vivo. To test this hypothesis, in vivo exercise-induced body temperature was manipulated by exercising male rats in either cold (4°C) or warm (22°C) ambient conditions. Warm exercise increased both body temperature (+ 3°C) and myocardial protein oxidation whereas these changes were attenuated by cold exercise. Interestingly, exercise in both conditions did not significantly increase myocardial nuclear localized phosphorylated HSF1. Nonetheless, warm exercise elevated left-ventricular HSP72 mRNA by 9-fold and increased myocardial HSP72 protein levels by 3-fold compared to cold-exercised animals. Collectively, these data indicate that elevated body temperature and myocardial protein oxidation promoted exercise-induced cardiac HSP72 mRNA expression and protein accumulation following in vivo exercise. However, these results suggest that exercise-induced myocardial HSP72 protein accumulation is not a result of nuclear-localized, phosphorylated HSF1 indicating that other transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms are involved in exercise-induced HSP72 expression. PMID:18931043

  20. The D1 and D2 proteins of dinoflagellates: unusually accumulated mutations which influence on PSII photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Iida, Satoko; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Ogata, Takehiko; Murakami, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Plastid encoded genes of the dinoflagellates are rapidly evolving and most divergent. The importance of unusually accumulated mutations on structure of PSII core protein and photosynthetic function was examined in the dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium sp. and Alexandrium tamarense. Full-length cDNA sequences of psbA (D1 protein) and psbD (D2 protein) were obtained and compared with the other oxygen-evolving photoautotrophs. Twenty-three amino acid positions (7%) for the D1 protein and 34 positions (10%) for the D2 were mutated in the dinoflagellates, although amino acid residues at these positions were conserved in cyanobacteria, the other algae, and plant. Many mutations were likely to distribute in the N-terminus and the D-E interhelical loop of the D1 protein and helix B of D2 protein, while the remaining regions were well conserved. The different structural properties in these mutated regions were supported by hydropathy profiles. The chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of the dinoflagellates was compared with Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 in relation to the altered protein structure.

  1. Essentiality Is a Strong Determinant of Protein Rates of Evolution during Mutation Accumulation Experiments in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ponce, David; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Toft, Christina; Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Fares, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution is considered the most powerful theory to understand the evolutionary behavior of proteins. One of the main predictions of this theory is that essential proteins should evolve slower than dispensable ones owing to increased selective constraints. Comparison of genomes of different species, however, has revealed only small differences between the rates of evolution of essential and nonessential proteins. In some analyses, these differences vanish once confounding factors are controlled for, whereas in other cases essentiality seems to have an independent, albeit small, effect. It has been argued that comparing relatively distant genomes may entail a number of limitations. For instance, many of the genes that are dispensable in controlled lab conditions may be essential in some of the conditions faced in nature. Moreover, essentiality can change during evolution, and rates of protein evolution are simultaneously shaped by a variety of factors, whose individual effects are difficult to isolate. Here, we conducted two parallel mutation accumulation experiments in Escherichia coli, during 5,500–5,750 generations, and compared the genomes at different points of the experiments. Our approach (a short-term experiment, under highly controlled conditions) enabled us to overcome many of the limitations of previous studies. We observed that essential proteins evolved substantially slower than nonessential ones during our experiments. Strikingly, rates of protein evolution were only moderately affected by expression level and protein length. PMID:27566759

  2. Essentiality Is a Strong Determinant of Protein Rates of Evolution during Mutation Accumulation Experiments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ponce, David; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Toft, Christina; Ruiz-González, Mario X; Fares, Mario A

    2016-09-26

    The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution is considered the most powerful theory to understand the evolutionary behavior of proteins. One of the main predictions of this theory is that essential proteins should evolve slower than dispensable ones owing to increased selective constraints. Comparison of genomes of different species, however, has revealed only small differences between the rates of evolution of essential and nonessential proteins. In some analyses, these differences vanish once confounding factors are controlled for, whereas in other cases essentiality seems to have an independent, albeit small, effect. It has been argued that comparing relatively distant genomes may entail a number of limitations. For instance, many of the genes that are dispensable in controlled lab conditions may be essential in some of the conditions faced in nature. Moreover, essentiality can change during evolution, and rates of protein evolution are simultaneously shaped by a variety of factors, whose individual effects are difficult to isolate. Here, we conducted two parallel mutation accumulation experiments in Escherichia coli, during 5,500-5,750 generations, and compared the genomes at different points of the experiments. Our approach (a short-term experiment, under highly controlled conditions) enabled us to overcome many of the limitations of previous studies. We observed that essential proteins evolved substantially slower than nonessential ones during our experiments. Strikingly, rates of protein evolution were only moderately affected by expression level and protein length. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Seeds Reveals the Accumulation of Numerous Stress-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Oehrle, Nathan W; Garrett, Wesley M; Darwish, Omar

    2017-06-14

    Pigeonpea is one of the major sources of dietary protein for more than a billion people living in South Asia. This hardy legume is often grown in low-input and risk-prone marginal environments. Considerable research effort has been devoted by a global research consortium to develop genomic resources for the improvement of this legume crop. These efforts have resulted in the elucidation of the complete genome sequence of pigeonpea. Despite these developments, little is known about the seed proteome of this important crop. Here, we report the proteome of pigeonpea seed. To enable the isolation of maximum number of seed proteins, including those that are present in very low amounts, three different protein fractions were obtained by employing different extraction media. High-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis of these protein fractions resulted in the identification of 373 pigeonpea seed proteins. Consistent with the reported high degree of synteny between the pigeonpea and soybean genomes, a large number of pigeonpea seed proteins exhibited significant amino acid homology with soybean seed proteins. Our proteomic analysis identified a large number of stress-related proteins, presumably due to its adaptation to drought-prone environments. The availability of a pigeonpea seed proteome reference map should shed light on the roles of these identified proteins in various biological processes and facilitate the improvement of seed composition.

  4. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Atorvastatin reduces lipid accumulation in the liver by activating protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin 5.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing; Nan, Yang; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Bincheng; Sun, Chao; Cao, Kaiyu; Yu, Ming; Feng, Xuyang; Ye, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Statins have been proven to be effective in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it was reported that statins decreased the hepatic expression of perilipin 5 (Plin5), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, which plays critical roles in regulating lipid accumulation and lipolysis in liver. However, the function and regulation mechanism of Plin5 have not yet been well-established in NAFLD treatment with statins. In this study, we observed that atorvastatin moderately reduced the expression of Plin5 in livers without changing the protein level of Plin5 in the hepatic LD fraction of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Intriguingly, atorvastatin stimulated the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5 and reduced the triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes with overexpression of wide type (Plin5-WT) compared to serine-155 mutant Plin5 (Plin5-S155A). Moreover, PKA-stimulated FA release of purified LDs carrying Plin5-WT but not Plin5-S155A. Glucagon, a PKA activator, stimulated the phosphorylation of Plin5-WT and inhibited its interaction with CGI-58. The results indicated that atorvastatin promoted lipolysis and reduced TG accumulation in the liver by increasing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5. This new mechanism of lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin might provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light1

    PubMed Central

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  7. MdHIR proteins repress anthocyanin accumulation by interacting with the MdJAZ2 protein to inhibit its degradation in apples

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke-Qin; Zhao, Xian-Yan; An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Liu, Dan-Dan; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In higher plants, jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins negatively regulate the biosynthesis of anthocyanins by interacting with bHLH transcription factors. However, it is largely unknown if and how other regulators are involved in this process. In this study, the apple MdJAZ2 protein was characterized in regards to its function in the negative regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and peel coloration. MdJAZ2 was used as a bait to screen a cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid method. The hypersensitive induced reaction (HIR) proteins, MdHIR2 and MdHIR4, were obtained from this yeast two-hybrid. The ZIM domain of MdJAZ2 and the PHB domain of the MdHIR proteins are necessary for their interactions. The interactions were further verified using an in vitro pull-down assay. Subsequently, immunoblotting assays demonstrated that MdHIR4 enhanced the stability of the MdJAZ2-GUS protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation method showed that MdHIR4 inhibited anthocyanin accumulation and fruit coloration in apple by modulating the expression of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:28317851

  8. Angiotensin II receptor blocker inhibits abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation end products and retinal damage in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Okuno, Takashi; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Oku, Hidehiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2007-09-01

    The effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the accumulation of one of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), pentosidine, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and retinal function were investigated in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. Candesartan, an ARB, was administered to SDT rats from 10 to 44 weeks of age and the results compared with untreated SDT rats and SD rats. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to evaluate retinal function. At 44 weeks of age, pentosidine was quantified in the vitreous, lens and plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was also performed in order to measure VEGF mRNA expression in the retina. Histological changes were examined and immunohistochemistry for pentosidine performed on the retina and retinal microvasculature. In untreated SDT rats, the amplitudes of a- and b-waves, oscillatory potentials were reduced significantly at 44 weeks of age compared with the 10-week levels, whereas they remained unchanged in SDT rats treated with candesartan. The concentration of pentosidine in the vitreous and lens did not change in treated SDT rats but increased in untreated SDT rats. Retinal VEGF mRNA expression was inhibited in treated SDT rats. Histologically, proliferative tissue was detected around the optic disc, with pentosidine being detected only in untreated SDT rats. Our findings indicate the ARB may inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy by reducing the accumulation of pentosidine, one of AGEs and expression of VEGF in the retina.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response and Mutant Protein Degradation in CHO Cells Accumulating Antithrombin (C95R) in Russell Bodies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Koji; Inoue, Kengo; Okubo, Jun; Ueda, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Wada, Ikuo; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Newly synthesized secretory proteins are folded and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where an efficient protein quality control system performs a critically important function. When unfolded or aggregated proteins accumulate in the ER, certain signaling pathways such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER-overload response (EOR) are functionally active in maintaining cell homeostasis. Recently we prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing mutant antithrombin (AT)(C95R) under control of the Tet-On system and showed that AT(C95R) accumulated in Russell bodies (RB), large distinctive structures derived from the ER. To characterize whether ER stress takes place in CHO cells, we examined characteristic UPR and EOR in ER stress responses. We found that the induction of ER chaperones such as Grp97, Grp78 and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was limited to a maximum of approximately two-fold. The processing of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) subunit were not induced. Furthermore, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was not observed. In contrast, CHO cells displayed UPR and EOR when the cells were treated with thapsigargin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, respectively. In addition, a portion of the mutant AT(C95R) was degraded through proteasomes and autophagy. CHO cells do respond to ER stress but the folding state of mutant AT(C95R) does not appear to activate the ER stress signal pathway.

  10. High levels of bcl-2 protein expression do not correlate with genetic abnormalities but predict worse prognosis in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yajun; Pan, Yi; Meng, Bin; Guan, Bingxin; Fu, Kai; Sun, Baocun; Zheng, Fang

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to investigate bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc rearrangements in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), especially focus on the correlation of protein expression with genetic abnormalities. Moreover, their prognostic significance was further analyzed in LBL. Protein expression and genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were investigated in microarrayed tumors from 33 cases of T cell LBL and eight cases of B cell lineage. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to evaluate protein expression, including bcl-2, bcl-6, c-myc, TdT, CD1α, CD34, Ki-67, PAX-5, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20. Genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were detected by dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bcl-2 protein was positive in 51.2 % (21/41) of the patients, bcl-6 protein in 7.3 % (three out of 41), and c-myc protein in 78.0 % (32/41). Bcl-2 breakpoint was found in two cases by FISH analysis. There was no evidence of bcl-6 or c-myc rearrangement in patients with LBL. However, both gene gain and loss events occurred in bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc. A univariate analysis showed that stage III or IV, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and positivity for bcl-2 protein were associated with shorter survival (p<0.05). Enhanced protein expression and detectable genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were observed in patients with LBL. No statistical correlation was found between IHC results and cytogenetic findings. Stage III or IV, elevated LDH, and positivity for bcl-2 protein were identified as adverse prognostic factors. The patients with more adverse factors would have increasingly worse prognosis.

  11. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase ofmore » wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.« less

  12. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, A.; Divsalar, D.; Yao, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes. This class of codes can be viewed as trubo-like codes, namely a double serial concatenation of a rate-1 accumulator as an outer code, a regular or irregular repetition as a middle code, and a punctured accumulator as an inner code.

  13. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. Here, we tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopi...

  14. β-Propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hayflick, Susan J; Kruer, Michael C; Gregory, Allison; Haack, Tobias B; Kurian, Manju A; Houlden, Henry H; Anderson, James; Boddaert, Nathalie; Sanford, Lynn; Harik, Sami I; Dandu, Vasuki H; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Dunaway, Todd; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Skinner, Steven; Holden, Kenton R; Frucht, Steven; Hanspal, Era; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Mignot, Cyril; Héron, Delphine; Saunders, Dawn E; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lascelles, Karine; Cuno, Stephan M; Meyer, Esther; Garavaglia, Barbara; Bhatia, Kailash; de Silva, Rajith; Crisp, Sarah; Lunt, Peter; Carey, Martyn; Hardy, John; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hogarth, Penelope

    2013-06-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a 'halo' of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.

  15. Accumulation of transcription factors and cell signaling-related proteins in the nucleus during citrus-Xanthomonas interaction.

    PubMed

    Rani, T Swaroopa; Durgeshwar, P; Podile, Appa Rao

    2015-07-20

    The nucleus is the maestro of the cell and is involved in the modulation of cell signaling during stress. We performed a comprehensive nuclear proteome analysis of Citrus sinensis during interaction with host (Xanthomonas citri pv. citri-Xcc) and non-host (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae-Xoo) pathogens. The nuclear proteome was obtained using a sequential method of organelle enrichment and determined by nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 243 proteins accumulated differentially during citrus-Xanthomonas interaction, belonging to 11 functional groups, with signaling and transcription-related proteins dominating. MADS-box transcription factors, DEAD-box RNA helicase and leucine aminopeptidase, mainly involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, were in high abundance during non-host interaction (Xoo). Signaling-related proteins like serine/threonine kinase, histones (H3.2, H2A), phosphoglycerate kinase, dynamin, actin and aldolase showed increased accumulation early during Xoo interaction. Our results suggest that there is a possible involvement of JA-triggered defense responses during non-host resistance, with early recognition of the non-host pathogen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. An Early Nodulin-Like Protein Accumulates in the Sieve Element Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Junaid A.; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D.; Schulz, Alexander; Thompson, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae) tissue cultures, recognizes an antigen in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve element differentiation. The identity of the RS6 antigen was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins that have a similar overall domain structure of an amino-terminal signal peptide, plastocyanin-like copper-binding domain, proline/serine-rich domain, and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of the 21.5-kD sieve element-specific ENOD are posttranslationally cleaved from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both floral and vegetative tissues, the sieve element-specific ENOD is expressed only within the phloem. Members of the ENOD subfamily of the cupredoxin superfamily do not appear to bind copper and have unknown functions. Phenotypic analysis of homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for the gene At3g20570 shows minimal alteration in vegetative growth but a significant reduction in the overall reproductive potential. PMID:17293437

  17. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators.

  18. Exogenous calcium improves viability of biocontrol yeasts under heat stress by reducing ROS accumulation and oxidative damage of cellular protein.

    PubMed

    An, Bang; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we investigated the effect of exogenous calcium on improving viability of Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia membranaefaciens under heat stress, and evaluated the role of calcium in reducing oxidant damage of proteins in the yeast cells. The results indicated that high concentration of exogenous calcium in culture medium was beneficial for enhancing the tolerance of the biocontrol yeasts to heat stress. The possible mechanism of calcium improving the viability of yeasts was attributed to enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities, decrease in ROS accumulation and reduction of oxidative damage of intracellular protein in yeast cells under heat stress. D. hansenii is more sensitive to calcium as compared to P. membranaefaciens. Our results suggest that application of exogenous calcium combined with biocontrol yeasts is a practical approach for the control of postharvest disease in fruit.

  19. Protein Hydrolysates from Beta-Conglycinin Enriched Soybean Genotypes Inhibit Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a worldwide health concern and a well recognized predictor of premature mortality associated with a state of chronic inflammation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) produced from different soybean genotypes by alcalase (SAH) or simulated gastroint...

  20. Proteomic analysis of Pigeonpea (cajanus cajan) seeds reveals the accumulation of numerous stress-related proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeonpea is one of the major sources of dietary protein for more than a billion people living in South Asia. This hardy legume is often grown in low-input and risk-prone marginal environments. Considerable research effort has been devoted by a global research consortium to develop genomic resources...

  1. Arabidopsis SEIPIN proteins modulate triacylglycerol accumulation and influence lipid droplet proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. By contrast to the single SEIPIN genes in humans and yeast, there are three SEIPIN homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated At-SEIPIN1, At-SEIPIN2 and At-SEIPIN3. Here, a yeast (Saccharomy...

  2. Cardiac Expression of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Is Increased in Obesity and Serves to Attenuate Cardiac Triglyceride Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Emil D.; Nielsen, Jan M.; Hellgren, Lars I.; Ploug, Thorkil; Nielsen, Lars B.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and β-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB) lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP); the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease. PMID:19390571

  3. Amyloid Precursor Protein Haploinsufficiency Preferentially Mediates Brain Iron Accumulation in Mice Transgenic for The Huntington's Disease Mutation.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Kiersten; Agrawal, Sonal; Fox, Julia A; Hildenbrand, Justin; Nelson, Ryan; Bush, Ashley I; Fox, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene that results in expression of mutant huntingtin protein. Iron accumulates in HD brain neurons. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes neuronal iron export. However, the role of APP in brain iron accumulation in HD is unclear. To determine the effects of APP insufficiency on HD in YAC128 mice. We crossed APP hemizygous mice (APP+/-) with YAC128 mice that are transgenic (Tg) for human mutant huntingtin (hmHTT) to generate APP+/+ hmHTT-/-, APP+/- hmHTT-/-, APP+/+ hmHTT+/- and APP+/- hmHTT+/- progeny. Mice were evaluated for behavioral, biochemical and neuropathology HD outcomes at 2-12 months of age. APP heterozygosity decreased cortical APP 25% and 60% in non-Tg and Tg mice, respectively. Cerebral and striatal iron levels were increased by APP knockdown in Tg mice only. Nest-building behavior was decreased in Tg mice; APP knockdown decreased nest building in non-Tg but not Tg mice. Rota-rod endurance was decreased in Tg mice. APP+/- hHTT+/- mice demonstrated additional decreases in rota-rod endurance from 4-10 months of age. Tg mice had smaller striatal volumes and fewer striatal neurons but were not affected by APP knockdown. APP heterozygosity results in greater decreases of cortical APP in Tg versus non-Tg mice. Mutant huntingtin transgenic mice develop brain iron accumulation as a result of greater suppression of APP levels. Elevated brain iron in Tg mice was associated with a decline in motor endurance consistent with a disease promoting effect of iron in the YAC128 model of human HD.

  4. Regulation of myofibrillar accumulation in chick muscle cultures - Evidence for the involvement of calcium and lysosomes in non-uniform turnover of contractile proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Geri; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of calcium on the synthesis and the degradation of individual myofibrillar proteins were investigated using primary chick-leg skeletal muscle cultures labeled with S-35-methionine (for protein accumulation experiments) or Ca(2+)-45 (for calcium efflux experiments). It was found that the turnover of individual contractile proteins is regulated nonuniformly by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving lysosomes. The results also indicate that contractile proteins are released from the myofibril before their breakdown to amino acids.

  5. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins involved in regulating independent and combined osmosis and cadmium stress response in Brachypodium seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyan; Zhu, Dong; Wu, Jisu; Cheng, Zhiwei; Yan, Xing; Deng, Xiong; Yan, Yueming

    2018-05-17

    In this study, we aimed to identify differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) involved in PEG mock osmotic stress, cadmium (Cd 2+ ) stress, and their combined stress responses in Brachypodium distachyon seedling roots. The results showed that combined PEG and Cd 2+ stresses had more significant effects on Brachypodium seedling root growth, physiological traits, and ultrastructures when compared with each individual stress. Totally, 106 DAPs were identified that are responsive to individual and combined stresses in roots. These DAPs were mainly involved in energy metabolism, detoxification and stress defense and protein metabolism. Principal component analysis revealed that DAPs from Cd 2+ and combined stress treatments were grouped closer than those from osmotic stress treatment, indicating that Cd 2+ and combined stresses had more severe influences on the root proteome than osmotic stress alone. Protein-protein interaction analyses highlighted a 14-3-3 centered sub-network that synergistically responded to osmotic and Cd 2+ stresses and their combined stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of 14 key DAP genes revealed that most genes showed consistency between transcriptional and translational expression patterns. A putative pathway of proteome metabolic changes in Brachypodium seedling roots under different stresses was proposed, which revealed a complicated synergetic responsive network of plant roots to adverse environments.

  6. Decreased mTOR signalling reduces mitochondrial ROS in brain via accumulation of the telomerase protein TERT within mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Satomi; Czapiewski, Rafal; Wan, Tengfei; Bell, Amy; Hill, Kirsten N; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-10-22

    Telomerase in its canonical function maintains telomeres in dividing cells. In addition, the telomerase protein TERT has non-telomeric functions such as shuttling to mitochondria resulting in a decreased oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. TERT protein persists in adult neurons and can co-localise to mitochondria under various stress conditions. We show here that TERT expression decreased in mouse brain during aging while release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased. Dietary restriction (DR) caused accumulation of TERT protein in mouse brain mitochondria correlating to decreased ROS release and improved learning and spatial short-term memory. Decreased mTOR signalling is a mediator of DR. Accordingly, feeding mice with rapamycin increased brain mitochondrial TERT and reduced ROS release. Importantly, the beneficial effects of rapamycin on mitochondrial function were absent in brains and fibroblasts from first generation TERT -/- mice, and when TERT shuttling was inhibited by the Src kinase inhibitor bosutinib. Taken together, our data suggests that the mTOR signalling pathway impinges on the mitochondrial localisation of TERT protein, which might in turn contribute to the protection of the brain by DR or rapamycin against age-associated mitochondrial ROS increase and cognitive decline.

  7. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos. PMID:22243837

  8. Abnormalities in Osteoclastogenesis and Decreased Tumorigenesis in Mice Deficient for Ovarian Cancer G Protein-Coupled Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Dongmei; Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar; Berk, Michael; Tan, Haiyan; Zhao, Zhenwen; Steinmetz, Rosemary; Kirmani, Kashif; Wei, Gang; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) has been shown to be a proton sensing receptor in vitro. We have shown that OGR1 functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor gene when it is over-expressed in human prostate cancer cells in vivo. To examine the physiological functions of OGR1, we generated conditional OGR1 deficient mice by homologous recombination. OGR1 deficient mice were viable and upon gross-inspection appeared normal. Consistent with in vitro studies showing that OGR1 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, reduced osteoclasts were detected in OGR1 deficient mice. A pH-dependent osteoclasts survival effect was also observed. However, overall abnormality in the bones of these animals was not observed. In addition, melanoma cell tumorigenesis was significantly inhibited in OGR1 deficient mice. OGR1 deficient mice in the mixed background produced significantly less peritoneal macrophages when stimulated with thioglycolate. These macrophages also showed altered extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation and nitric oxide (NO) production in response to lipopolysaccharide. OGR1-dependent pH responses assessed by cAMP production and cell survival in macrophages or brown fat cells were not observed, presumably due to the presence of other proton sensing receptors in these cells. Our results indicate that OGR1's role in osteoclastogenesis is not strong enough to affect overall bone development and its role in tumorigenesis warrants further investigation. The mice generated can be potentially used for several disease models, including cancers or osteoclast-related diseases. PMID:19479052

  9. FoxO proteins restrain osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by attenuating H2O2 accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bartell, Shoshana M.; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ambrogini, Elena; Han, Li; Iyer, Srividhya; Serra Ucer, S.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Jilka, Robert L.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Zhao, Haibo; O’Brien, Charles A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; Almeida, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Besides their cell-damaging effects in the setting of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological intracellular signalling by triggering proliferation and survival. FoxO transcription factors counteract ROS generation by upregulating antioxidant enzymes. Here we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation is a critical and purposeful adaptation for the differentiation and survival of osteoclasts, the bone cells responsible for the resorption of mineralized bone matrix. Using mice with conditional loss or gain of FoxO transcription factor function, or mitochondria-targeted catalase in osteoclasts, we demonstrate this is achieved, at least in part, by downregulating the H2O2-inactivating enzyme catalase. Catalase downregulation results from the repression of the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, 3 and 4 by RANKL, the indispensable signal for the generation of osteoclasts, via an Akt-mediated mechanism. Notably, mitochondria-targeted catalase prevented the loss of bone caused by loss of oestrogens, suggesting that decreasing H2O2 production in mitochondria may represent a rational pharmacotherapeutic approach to diseases with increased bone resorption. PMID:24781012

  10. Abnormalities of Calcium Handling Proteins in Skeletal Muscle Mirror those of the Heart in Humans with Heart Failure: a Shared Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Middlekauff, Holly R.; Vigna, Chris; Verity, M. Anthony; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Hamilton, Michele A.; Shieh, Perry; Tupling, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background In the failing human heart, abnormalities of Ca2+ cycling have been described, but there is scant knowledge about Ca2+ handling in the skeletal muscle of humans with HF. We tested the hypothesis that in humans with HF, Ca2+ cycling proteins in skeletal muscle are abnormal. Methods and Results Ten advanced HF patients (50.4±3.7 years), and 9 age matched controls underwent vastus lateralis biopsy. Western blot analysis showed that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)2a, which is responsible for Ca2+ sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR), was lower in HF vs controls (4.8±0.5vs7.5±0.8AU, p=0.01). Although phospholamban (PLN), which inhibits SERCA2a, was not different in HF vs controls, phosphorylation (SER16 site) of PLN, which relieves this inhibition, was reduced (0.8±0.1vs3.9±0.9AU, p=0.004). Dihydropyridine receptors were reduced in HF, (2.1±0.4vs3.6±0.5AU, p=0.04). We tested the hypothesis that these abnormalities of Ca2+ handling protein content and regulation were due to increased oxidative stress, but oxygen radical scavenger proteins were not elevated in the skeletal muscle of HF patients. Conclusion In chronic HF, marked abnormalities of Ca2+ handling proteins are present in skeletal muscle, which mirror those in failing heart tissue. This suggests a common mechanism, such as chronic augmentation of sympathetic activity and autophosphorylation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase II. PMID:22939042

  11. Abnormal swelling of the peritrophic membrane in Eri silkworm gut caused by MLX56 family defense proteins with chitin-binding and extensin domains.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kotaro; Shimura, Sachiko; Ueno, Chihiro; Arakawa, Toru; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    MLX56 family defense proteins, MLX56 and its close homolog LA-b, are chitin-binding defense proteins found in mulberry latex that show strong growth-inhibitions against caterpillars when fed at concentrations as low as 0.01%. MLX56 family proteins contain a unique structure with an extensin domain surrounded by two hevein-like chitin-binding domains, but their defensive modes of action remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the effects of MLX56 family proteins on the peritrophic membrane (PM), a thin and soft membrane consisting of chitin that lines the midgut lumen of insects. We observed an abnormally thick (>1/5 the diameter of midgut) hard gel-like membrane consisted of chitin and MLX56 family proteins, MLX56 and LA-b, in the midgut of the Eri silkworms, Samia ricini, fed a diet containing MLX56 family proteins, MLX56 and LA-b. When polyoxin AL, a chitin-synthesis-inhibitor, was added to the diet containing MLX56 family proteins, the toxicity of MLX56 family proteins disappeared and PM became thinner and fragmented. These results suggest that MLX56 family proteins, through their chitin-binding domains, bind to the chitin framework of PM, then through their extensin-domain (gum arabic-like structure), which functions as swelling agent, expands PM into an abnormally thick membrane that inhibits the growth of insects. This study shows that MLX56 family proteins are plant defense lectins with a totally unique mode of action, and reveals the functions of extensin domains and arabinogalactan proteins as swelling (gel-forming) agents of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  13. Overexpression of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Precludes the Dispersal of ND10 Structures and Has No Effect on Accumulation of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus 1 or Its Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Pascal; Jacob, Robert J.; Roizman, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    A key early event in the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the localization of infected-cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) in nuclear structures knows as ND10 or promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs). This is followed by dispersal of ND10 constituents such as the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), CREB-binding protein (CBP), and Daxx. Numerous experiments have shown that this dispersal is mediated by ICP0. PML is thought to be the organizing structural component of ND10. To determine whether the virus targets PML because it is inimical to viral replication, telomerase-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts and HEp-2 cells were transduced with wild-type baculovirus or a baculovirus expressing the Mr 69,000 form of PML. The transduced cultures were examined for expression and localization of PML in mock-infected and HSV-1-infected cells. The results obtained from studies of cells overexpressing PML were as follows. (i) Transduced cells accumulate large amounts of unmodified and SUMO-I-modified PML. (ii) Mock-infected cells exhibited enlarged ND10 structures containing CBP and Daxx in addition to PML. (iii) In infected cells, ICP0 colocalized with PML in ND10 early in infection, but the two proteins did not overlap or were juxtaposed in orderly structures. (iv) The enlarged ND10 structures remained intact at least until 12 h after infection and retained CBP and Daxx in addition to PML. (v) Overexpression of PML had no effect on the accumulation of viral proteins representative of α, β, or γ groups and had no effect on the accumulation of infectious virus in cells infected with wild-type virus or a mutant (R7910) from which the α0 genes had been deleted. These results indicate the following: (i) PML overexpressed in transduced cells cannot be differentiated from endogenous PML with respect to sumoylation and localization in ND10 structures. (ii) PML does not affect viral replication or the changes in the localization of ICP0 through infection

  14. Toxic Proteins in Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. Paul; Hardy, John; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2002-06-01

    A broad range of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by neuronal damage that may be caused by toxic, aggregation-prone proteins. As genes are identified for these disorders and cell culture and animal models are developed, it has become clear that a major effect of mutations in these genes is the abnormal processing and accumulation of misfolded protein in neuronal inclusions and plaques. Increased understanding of the cellular mechanisms for disposal of abnormal proteins and of the effects of toxic protein accumulation on neuronal survival may allow the development of rational, effective treatment for these disorders.

  15. A Caleosin-Like Protein with Peroxygenase Activity Mediates Aspergillus flavus Development, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Seed Infection.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Blee, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Caleosins are a small family of calcium-binding proteins endowed with peroxygenase activity in plants. Caleosin-like genes are present in fungi; however, their functions have not been reported yet. In this work, we identify a plant caleosin-like protein in Aspergillus flavus that is highly expressed during the early stages of spore germination. A recombinant purified 32-kDa caleosin-like protein supported peroxygenase activities, including co-oxidation reactions and reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides. Deletion of the caleosin gene prevented fungal development. Alternatively, silencing of the gene led to the increased accumulation of endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides and antioxidant activities but to a reduction of fungal growth and conidium formation. Two key genes of the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway, aflR and aflD, were downregulated in the strains in which A. flavus PXG (AfPXG) was silenced, leading to reduced aflatoxin B1 production in vitro. Application of caleosin/peroxygenase-derived oxylipins restored the wild-type phenotype in the strains in which AfPXG was silenced. PXG-deficient A. flavus strains were severely compromised in their capacity to infect maize seeds and to produce aflatoxin. Our results uncover a new branch of the fungal oxylipin pathway and may lead to the development of novel targets for controlling fungal disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Ophthalmic acid accumulation in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding protein YggS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein whose biochemical function is currently unknown. A previous study with a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) demonstrated that YggS controls l-Ile- and l-Val-metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB), l-2-aminobutyrate (l-2-AB), and/or coenzyme A (CoA) availability in a PLP-dependent fashion. In this study, we found that ΔyggS accumulates an unknown metabolite as judged by amino acid analyses. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses of the compound with propyl chloroformate derivatization, and co-chromatography analysis identified this compound as γ-l-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine (ophthalmic acid), a glutathione (GSH) analogue in which the l-Cys moiety is replaced by l-2-AB. We also determine the metabolic consequence of the yggS mutation. Absence of YggS initially increases l-2-AB availability, and then causes ophthalmic acid accumulation and CoA limitation in the cell. The expression of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a glutathione synthetase in a ΔyggS background causes high-level accumulation of ophthalmic acid in the cells (∼1.2 nmol/mg cells) in a minimal synthetic medium. This opens the possibility of a first fermentative production of ophthalmic acid. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antidepressants Accumulate in Lipid Rafts Independent of Monoamine Transporters to Modulate Redistribution of the G Protein, Gαs.

    PubMed

    Erb, Samuel J; Schappi, Jeffrey M; Rasenick, Mark M

    2016-09-16

    Depression is a significant public health problem for which currently available medications, if effective, require weeks to months of treatment before patients respond. Previous studies have shown that the G protein responsible for increasing cAMP (Gαs) is increasingly localized to lipid rafts in depressed subjects and that chronic antidepressant treatment translocates Gαs from lipid rafts. Translocation of Gαs, which shows delayed onset after chronic antidepressant treatment of rats or of C6 glioma cells, tracks with the delayed onset of therapeutic action of antidepressants. Because antidepressants appear to specifically modify Gαs localized to lipid rafts, we sought to determine whether structurally diverse antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts. Sustained treatment of C6 glioma cells, which lack 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters, showed marked concentration of several antidepressants in raft fractions, as revealed by increased absorbance and by mass fingerprint. Closely related molecules without antidepressant activity did not concentrate in raft fractions. Thus, at least two classes of antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts and effect translocation of Gαs to the non-raft membrane fraction, where it activates the cAMP-signaling cascade. Analysis of the structural determinants of raft localization may both help to explain the hysteresis of antidepressant action and lead to design and development of novel substrates for depression therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  19. Protein-accumulating cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in three glucosinolate-containing genera: Armoracia, Capparis, Drypetes.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, L B; Behnke, H D; Mabry, T J

    1977-01-01

    Three glucosinolate-containing species, Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer et Scherbius (Brassicaceae), Capparis cynophallophora L. (Capparaceae) and Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurusawa (Euphorbiaceae), are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain protein-accumulating cells (PAC). The PAC of Armoracia and Copparis (former "myrosin cells") occur as idioblasts. The PAC of Drypetes are usual members among axial phloem parenchyma cells rather than idioblasts. In Drypetes the vacuoles of the PAC are shown ultrastructurally to contain finely fibrillar material and to originate from local dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum. The vacuoles in PAC of Armoracia and Capparis seem to originate in the same way; but ultrastructurally, their content is finely granular. In addition, Armoracia and Capparis are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain dilated cisternae (DC) of the endoplasmic reticulum in normal parenchyma cells, in accord with previous findings for several species within Brassicaceae. The relationship of PAC and DC to glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase is discussed.

  20. Abscisic acid-regulated protein degradation causes osmotic stress-induced accumulation of branched-chain amino acids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Jander, Georg

    2017-10-01

    Whereas proline accumulates through de novo biosynthesis in plants subjected to osmotic stress, leucine, isoleucine, and valine accumulation in drought-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana is caused by abscisic acid-regulated protein degradation. In response to several kinds of abiotic stress, plants greatly increase their accumulation of free amino acids. Although stress-induced proline increases have been studied the most extensively, the fold-increase of other amino acids, in particular branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine, and valine), is often higher than that of proline. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), BCAAs accumulate in response to drought, salt, mannitol, polyethylene glycol, herbicide treatment, and nitrogen starvation. Plants that are deficient in abscisic acid signaling accumulate lower amounts of BCAAs, but not proline and most other amino acids. Previous bioinformatic studies had suggested that amino acid synthesis, rather than protein degradation, is responsible for the observed BCAA increase in osmotically stressed Arabidopsis. However, whereas treatment with the protease inhibitor MG132 decreased drought-induced BCAA accumulation, inhibition of BCAA biosynthesis with the acetolactate synthase inhibitors chlorsulfuron and imazapyr did not. Additionally, overexpression of BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASE2 (BCAT2), which is upregulated in response to osmotic stress and functions in BCAA degradation, decreased drought-induced BCAA accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that BCAA accumulation in osmotically stressed Arabidopsis is primarily the result of protein degradation. After relief of the osmotic stress, BCAA homeostasis is restored over time by amino acid degradation involving BCAT2. Thus, drought-induced BCAA accumulation is different from that of proline, which is accumulated due to de novo synthesis in an abscisic acid-independent manner and remains elevated for a more prolonged period of time after removal of

  1. Coat Protein Regulation by CK2, CPIP, HSP70, and CHIP Is Required for Potato Virus A Replication and Coat Protein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Andres; Hafrén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We demonstrate here that both coat protein (CP) phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 and a chaperone system formed by two heat shock proteins, CP-interacting protein (CPIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), are essential for potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) replication and that all these host proteins have the capacity to contribute to the level of PVA CP accumulation. An E3 ubiquitin ligase called carboxyl terminus Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which may participate in the CPIP-HSP70-mediated CP degradation, is also needed for robust PVA gene expression. Residue Thr243 within the CK2 consensus sequence of PVA CP was found to be essential for viral replication and to regulate CP protein stability. Substitution of Thr243 either with a phosphorylation-mimicking Asp (CPADA) or with a phosphorylation-deficient Ala (CPAAA) residue in CP expressed from viral RNA limited PVA gene expression to the level of nonreplicating PVA. We found that both the CPAAA mutant and CK2 silencing inhibited, whereas CPADA mutant and overexpression of CK2 increased, PVA translation. From our previous studies, we know that phosphorylation reduces the RNA binding capacity of PVA CP and an excess of CP fully blocks viral RNA translation. Together, these findings suggest that binding by nonphosphorylated PVA CP represses viral RNA translation, involving further CP phosphorylation and CPIP-HSP70 chaperone activities as prerequisites for PVA replication. We propose that this mechanism contributes to shifting potyvirus RNA from translation to replication. IMPORTANCE Host protein kinase CK2, two host chaperones, CPIP and HSP70, and viral coat protein (CP) phosphorylation at Thr243 are needed for potato virus A (PVA) replication. Our results show that nonphosphorylated CP blocks viral translation, likely via binding to viral RNA. We propose that this translational block is needed to allow time and space for the formation of potyviral replication complex around the 3′ end of

  2. The relationships among IGF-1, DNA content, and protein accumulation during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.; Haddad, F.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to have anabolic effects on skeletal muscle cells. This study examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy and associated IGF-1 peptide and mRNA expression. Data were collected at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after surgical removal of synergistic muscles of both normal and hypophysectomized (HX) animals. Overloading increased the plantaris (Plant) mass, myofiber size, and protein-to-body weight ratio in both groups (normal and HX; P < 0.05). Muscle IGF-1 peptide levels peaked at 3 (normal) and 7 (HX) days of overloading with maximum 4.1-fold (normal) and 6.2-fold (HX) increases. Increases in muscle IGF-1 preceded the hypertrophic response. Total DNA content of the overloaded Plant increased in both groups. There was a strong positive relationship between IGF-1 peptide and DNA content in the overloaded Plant from both groups. These results indicate that 1) the muscles from rats with both normal and severely depressed systemic levels of IGF-1 respond to functional overload with an increase in local IGF-1 expression and 2) this elevated IGF-1 may be contributing to the hypertrophy response, possibly via the mobilization of satellite cells to provide increases in muscle DNA.

  3. Identification and characterization of a fruit-specific, thaumatin-like protein that accumulates at very high levels in conjunction with the onset of sugar accumulation and berry softening in grapes.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, D B; van Heeswijck, R; Høj, P B

    1997-01-01

    The protein composition of the grape (Vitis vinifera cv Muscat of Alexandria) berry was examined from flowering to ripeness by gel electrophoresis. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 24 kD, which was one of the most abundant proteins in extracts of mature berries, was purified and identified by amino acid sequence to be a thaumatin-like protein. Combined cDNA sequence analysis and electrospray mass spectrometry revealed that this protein, VVTL1 (for V. vinifera thaumatin-like protein 1), is synthesized with a transient signal peptide as seen for apoplastic preproteins. Apart from the removal of the targeting signal and the formation of eight disulfide bonds, VVTL1 undergoes no other posttranslational modification. Southern, northern, and western analyses revealed that VVTL1 is found in the berry only and is encoded by a single gene that is expressed in conjunction with the onset of sugar accumulation and softening. The exact role of VVTL1 is unknown, but the timing of its accumulation correlates with the inability of the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) to initiate new infections of the berry. Western analysis revealed that the presence of thaumatin-like proteins in ripening fruit might be a widespread phenomenon. PMID:9232867

  4. UL31 and UL34 Proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Form a Complex That Accumulates at the Nuclear Rim and Is Required for Envelopment of Nucleocapsids

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley E.; Ryckman, Brent J.; Baines, Joel D.; Zhou, Yuping; Liang, Li; Roller, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL34 protein is likely a type II membrane protein that localizes within the nuclear membrane and is required for efficient envelopment of progeny virions at the nuclear envelope, whereas the UL31 gene product of HSV-1 is a nuclear matrix-associated phosphoprotein previously shown to interact with UL34 protein in HSV-1-infected cell lysates. For these studies, polyclonal antisera directed against purified fusion proteins containing UL31 protein fused to glutathione-S-transferase (UL31-GST) and UL34 protein fused to GST (UL34-GST) were demonstrated to specifically recognize the UL31 and UL34 proteins of approximately 34,000 and 30,000 Da, respectively. The UL31 and UL34 gene products colocalized in a smooth pattern throughout the nuclear rim of infected cells by 10 h postinfection. UL34 protein also accumulated in pleiomorphic cytoplasmic structures at early times and associated with an altered nuclear envelope late in infection. Localization of UL31 protein at the nuclear rim required the presence of UL34 protein, inasmuch as cells infected with a UL34 null mutant virus contained UL31 protein primarily in central intranuclear domains separate from the nuclear rim, and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasm. Conversely, localization of UL34 protein exclusively at the nuclear rim required the presence of the UL31 gene product, inasmuch as UL34 protein was detectable at the nuclear rim, in replication compartments, and in the cytoplasm of cells infected with a UL31 null virus. When transiently expressed in the absence of other viral factors, UL31 protein localized diffusely in the nucleoplasm, whereas UL34 protein localized primarily in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear rim. In contrast, coexpression of the UL31 and UL34 proteins was sufficient to target both proteins exclusively to the nuclear rim. The proteins were also shown to directly interact in vitro in the absence of other viral proteins. In cells infected with a virus

  5. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Picture of Protein Regulation in Response to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) Stress of Two Brassica parachinensis Cultivars Differing in DBP Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Huang, He-Biao; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Hui; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2018-05-09

    iTRAQ analysis was used to map the proteomes of two Brassica parachinensis cultivars that differed in dibutyl phthalate (DBP) accumulation. A total of 5699 proteins were identified to obtain 152 differentially regulated proteins, of which 64 and 48 were specific to a high- and a low-DBP-accumulation cultivar, respectively. Genotype-specific biological processes were involved in coping with DBP stress, accounting for the variation in DBP tolerance and accumulation. Formation of high DBP accumulation in B. parachinensis might attribute to the more effective regulation of protein expression in physiology and metabolism, including (a) enhanced cell wall biosynthesis and modification, (b) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance, (c) greatly improved total capacity for antioxidation and detoxification, and (d) enhanced cellular transport and signal transduction. Our novel findings contribute to a global picture of DBP-induced alterations of protein profiles in crops and provide valuable information for the development of molecular-assisted breeds of low-accumulation cultivars.

  7. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  8. Arabinogalactan Proteins Accumulate in the Cell Walls of Searching Hyphae of the Stem Parasitic Plants, Cuscuta campestris and Cuscuta japonica.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh

    2017-11-01

    Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michal

    2010-08-18

    Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls--from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye

  10. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. Results All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls - from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. Conclusions All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously

  11. Stable Accumulation of Photosystem II Requires ONE-HELIX PROTEIN1 (OHP1) of the Light Harvesting-Like Family1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kaori; Funk, Christiane; Nomura, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    The cellular functions of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) one-helix proteins, OHP1 and OHP2 (also named LIGHT-HARVESTING-LIKE2 [LIL2] and LIL6, respectively, because they have sequence similarity to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins), remain unclear. Tagged null mutants of OHP1 and OHP2 (ohp1 and ohp2) showed stunted growth with pale-green leaves on agar plates, and these mutants were unable to grow on soil. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and the composition of thylakoid membrane proteins revealed that ohp1 deletion substantially affected photosystem II (PSII) core protein function and led to reduced levels of photosystem I core proteins; however, it did not affect LHC accumulation. Transgenic ohp1 plants rescued with OHP1-HA or OHP1-Myc proteins developed a normal phenotype. Using these tagged OHP1 proteins in transgenic plants, we localized OHP1 to thylakoid membranes, where it formed protein complexes with both OHP2 and High Chlorophyll Fluorescence244 (HCF244). We also found PSII core proteins D1/D2, HCF136, and HCF173 and a few other plant-specific proteins associated with the OHP1/OHP2-HCF244 complex, suggesting that these complexes are early intermediates in PSII assembly. OHP1 interacted directly with HCF244 in the complex. Therefore, OHP1 and HCF244 play important roles in the stable accumulation of PSII. PMID:29438089

  12. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  13. Age-related accumulation of the advanced glycation endproduct pentosidine in human articular cartilage aggrecan: the use of pentosidine levels as a quantitative measure of protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Verzijl, N; DeGroot, J; Bank, R A; Bayliss, M T; Bijlsma, J W; Lafeber, F P; Maroudas, A; TeKoppele, J M

    2001-11-01

    During aging, non-enzymatic glycation results in the formation and accumulation of the advanced glycation endproduct pentosidine in long-lived proteins, such as articular cartilage collagen. In the present study, we investigated whether pentosidine accumulation also occurs in cartilage aggrecan. Furthermore, pentosidine levels in aggrecan subfractions of different residence time were used to explore pentosidine levels as a quantitative measure of aggrecan turnover. In order to compare protein turnover rates, protein residence time was measured as racemization of aspartic acid. As has previously been shown for collagen, pentosidine levels increase with age in cartilage aggrecan. Consistent with the faster turnover of aggrecan compared to collagen, the rate of pentosidine accumulation was threefold lower in aggrecan than in collagen. In the subfractions of aggrecan, pentosidine levels increased with protein residence time. These pentosidine levels were used to estimate the half-life of the globular hyaluronan-binding domain of aggrecan to be 19.5 years. This value is in good agreement with the half-life of 23.5 years that was estimated based on aspartic acid racemization. In aggrecan from osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, decreased pentosidine levels were found compared with normal cartilage, which reflects increased aggrecan turnover during the OA disease process. In conclusion, we showed that pentosidine accumulates with age in aggrecan and that pentosidine levels can be used as a measure of turnover of long-lived proteins, both during normal aging and during disease.

  14. Elucidation of metal-ion accumulation induced by hydrogen bonds on protein surfaces by using porous lysozyme crystals containing Rh(III) ions as the model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takafumi; Abe, Satoshi; Koshiyama, Tomomi; Ohki, Takahiro; Hikage, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Yoshihito

    2010-03-01

    Metal-ion accumulation on protein surfaces is a crucial step in the initiation of small-metal clusters and the formation of inorganic materials in nature. This event is expected to control the nucleation, growth, and position of the materials. There remain many unknowns, as to how proteins affect the initial process at the atomic level, although multistep assembly processes of the materials formation by both native and model systems have been clarified at the macroscopic level. Herein the cooperative effects of amino acids and hydrogen bonds promoting metal accumulation reactions are clarified by using porous hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals containing Rh(III) ions, as model protein surfaces for the reactions. The experimental results reveal noteworthy implications for initiation of metal accumulation, which involve highly cooperative dynamics of amino acids and hydrogen bonds: i) Disruption of hydrogen bonds can induce conformational changes of amino-acid residues to capture Rh(III) ions. ii) Water molecules pre-organized by hydrogen bonds can stabilize Rh(III) coordination as aqua ligands. iii) Water molecules participating in hydrogen bonds with amino-acid residues can be replaced by Rh(III) ions to form polynuclear structures with the residues. iv) Rh(III) aqua complexes are retained on amino-acid residues through stabilizing hydrogen bonds even at low pH (approximately 2). These metal-protein interactions including hydrogen bonds may promote native metal accumulation reactions and also may be useful in the preparation of new inorganic materials that incorporate proteins.

  15. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-21

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  16. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in senile dementia of Lewy body type and Alzheimer disease: evidence that the disorders are distinct.

    PubMed

    Strong, C; Anderton, B H; Perry, R H; Perry, E K; Ince, P G; Lovestone, S

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (senile dementia Lewy body type, or SDLT) and dementia in Parkinson's disease is unclear. AD pathology is characterised by both amyloid deposition and abnormal phosphorylation of tau in paired helical filaments (PHF-tau). In AD, abnormally phosphorylated PHF-tau is present in neurofibrillary tangles, in neuritic processes of senile plaques, and also in neuropil threads dispersed throughout the cerebral cortex. Cortical homogenates from 12 cases each of AD and SDLT, 13 cases of Parkinson's disease, and 11 normal controls were examined by Western blot analysis with antibodies that detect PHF-tau. No PHF-tau was found in Parkinson's disease or control cortex. No PHF-tau was found in SDLT cases without histological evidence of tangles. PHF-tau was detectable in SDLT cases with a low density of tangles, and large amounts of PHF-tau were present in AD cases. This study demonstrates that abnormally phosphorylated PHF-tau is only present where tangles are found and not in SDLT cases without tangles or with only occasional tangles. It is concluded that Lewy body dementias are distinct at a molecular level from AD.

  18. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models formore » intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.« less

  19. An E8 promoter-HSP terminator cassette promotes the high-level accumulation of recombinant protein predominantly in transgenic tomato fruits: a case study of miraculin.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Natsuko; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Takayama, Mariko; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The E8 promoter-HSP terminator expression cassette is a powerful tool for increasing the accumulation of recombinant protein in a ripening tomato fruit. Strong, tissue-specific transgene expression is a desirable feature in transgenic plants to allow the production of variable recombinant proteins. The expression vector is a key tool to control the expression level and site of transgene and recombinant protein expression in transgenic plants. The combination of the E8 promoter, a fruit-ripening specific promoter, and a heat shock protein (HSP) terminator, derived from heat shock protein 18.2 of Arabidopsis thaliana, produces the strong and fruit-specific accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato. Miraculin gene expression was driven by an E8 promoter and HSP terminator cassette (E8-MIR-HSP) in transgenic tomato plants, and the miraculin concentration was the highest in the ripening fruits, representing 30-630 μg miraculin of the gram fresh weight. The highest level of miraculin concentration among the transgenic tomato plant lines containing the E8-MIR-HSP cassette was approximately four times higher than those observed in a previous study using a constitutive 35S promoter and NOS terminator cassette (Hiwasa-Tanase et al. in Plant Cell Rep 30:113-124, 2011). These results demonstrate that the combination of the E8 promoter and HSP terminator cassette is a useful tool to increase markedly the accumulation of recombinant proteins in a ripening fruit-specific manner.

  20. The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in plants grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Wu, Yali; Zhang, Hongna; Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-09-01

    The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in seven species of plants from biosolids-amended soils were investigated. The PFOS and PFOA root concentration factors (Croot/Csoil) ranged from 1.37 to 4.68 and 1.69 to 10.3 (ng/groot)/(ng/gsoil), respectively, while the translocation factors (Cshoot/Croot) ranged from 0.055 to 0.16 and 0.093 to 1.8 (ng/gshoot)/(ng/groot), respectively. The PFOS and PFOA accumulations in roots correlated positively with root protein contents (P < 0.05), while negatively with root lipid contents (P < 0.05). These suggested the promotion effects of protein and inhibition effects of lipid on root uptake. The translocation factors correlated positively with the ratios between protein contents in shoots to those in roots (P < 0.05), showing the importance of protein on PFOS and PFOA translocation. This study is the first to reveal the different roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of PFOS and PFOA in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal resolution of misfolded prion protein transport, accumulation, glial activation, and neuronal death in the retinas of mice inoculated with scrapie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, there is a lack of pathologic landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. The goal of this work was to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrPSc in the retina, the respon...

  2. Behavioral abnormalities in prion protein knockout mice and the potential relevance of PrPc for the cytoskeleton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein, which is anchored to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Even though its physiological function has already been investigated in different cell or mouse models where PrPC expression is either up-regulated or depleted, its exact p...

  3. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Hu, Xiuli; Tai, Fuju; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5), deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation. PMID:25653661

  4. Metformin Accumulation Correlates with Organic Cation Transporter 2 Protein Expression and Predicts Mammary Tumor Regression in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, L. Allyson; Rudolph, Michael C.; Wellberg, Elizabeth A.; Giles, Erin D.; Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema S.; Houck, Julie A.; Edgerton, Susan M.; Thor, Ann D.; Schedin, Pepper; Anderson, Steven M.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have associated metformin treatment with a reduction in breast cancer incidence in pre-diabetic and type II diabetic populations. Uncertainty exists regarding which patient populations and/or tumor subtypes will benefit from metformin treatment, and most preclinical in vivo studies have given little attention to the cellular pharmacology of intratumoral metformin uptake. Epidemiological reports consistently link western-style high fat diets, which drive overweight and obesity, with increased risk of breast cancer. We used a rat model of high fat diet (HFD) induced overweight and mammary carcinogenesis to define intratumoral factors that confer metformin sensitivity. Mammary tumors were initiated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), and rats were randomized into metformin-treated (2 mg/ml drinking water) or control groups (water only) for 8 weeks. Two-thirds of existing mammary tumors responded to metformin treatment with decreased tumor volumes (p<0.05), reduced proliferative index (p<0.01), and activated AMPK (p<0.05). Highly responsive tumors accumulated 3-fold greater metformin amounts (p<0.05) that were positively correlated with organic cation transporter-2 (OCT2) protein expression (r=0.57, P=0.038). Importantly, intratumoral metformin concentration negatively associated with tumor volume (P=0.03), and each 10 pmol increase in intratumoral metformin predicted >0.11 cm3 reduction in tumor volume. Metformin treatment also decreased proinflammatory arachidonic acid >1.5 fold in responsive tumors (P=0.023). Collectively, these preclinical data provide evidence for a direct effect of metformin in vivo and suggest that OCT2 expression may predict metformin uptake and tumor response. PMID:28154203

  5. Streptococcus mutans Adherence: Presumptive Evidence for Protein-Mediated Attachment Followed by Glucan-Dependent Cellular Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Staat, Robert H.; Langley, Sharon D.; Doyle, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to smooth surfaces has been attributed to the production of sucrose-derived d-glucans. However, several studies indicate that the bacterium will adhere in the absence of sucrose. The present data confirmed that S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads in the absence of sucrose is described by the Langmuir equation. The nature of the sucrose-independent adherence was studied with the Persea americana agglutinin as a selective adherence inhibitor. Pretreatment of the bacterium with P. americana agglutinin caused a 10-fold reduction in adherence, and the inhibition was not reversed with the addition of sucrose. Pretreatment of S. mutans with proteases also reduced adherence, regardless of the sucrose content, whereas periodate oxidation and glucanohydrolase treatment of the bacteria reduced sucrose-mediated adherence to the levels found for sucrose-independent adherence. The P. americana agglutinin, glucanohydrolase, and pepsin pretreatment of the cells did not eliminate sucrose-induced agglutination. Scanning electron microscopy showed that short streptococcal chains were bound to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite crystals in the sucrose-independent system, whereas the presence of sucrose caused larger bacterial clumps to be found. A two-reaction model of S. mutans adherence was developed from these data. It is proposed that one reaction is attachment to the tooth pellicle which is mediated by cell-surface proteins rather than glucans or teichoic acids. The other reaction is cellular accumulation mediated by sucrose-derived d-glucans and cell surface lectins. A series of sequential adherence experiments with P. americana agglutinin as a selective inhibitor provided presumptive evidence for the validity of our model of S. mutans adherence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7380545

  6. Drosophila stem loop binding protein coordinates accumulation of mature histone mRNA with cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Eileen; Santiago, Carlos; Parker, Emily D.; Dominski, Zbigniew; Yang, Xiaocui; Lanzotti, David J.; Ingledue, Tom C.; Marzluff, William F.; Duronio, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Replication-associated histone genes encode the only metazoan mRNAs that lack polyA tails, ending instead in a conserved 26-nt sequence that forms a stem–loop. Most of the regulation of mammalian histone mRNA is posttranscriptional and mediated by this unique 3′ end. Stem–loop–binding protein (SLBP) binds to the histone mRNA 3′ end and is thought to participate in all aspects of histone mRNA metabolism, including cell cycle regulation. To examine SLBP function genetically, we have cloned the gene encoding Drosophila SLBP (dSLBP) by a yeast three-hybrid method and have isolated mutations in dSLBP. dSLBP function is required both zygotically and maternally. Strong dSLBP alleles cause zygotic lethality late in development and result in production of stable histone mRNA that accumulates in nonreplicating cells. These histone mRNAs are cytoplasmic and have polyadenylated 3′ ends like other polymerase II transcripts. Hypomorphic dSLBP alleles support zygotic development but cause female sterility. Eggs from these females contain dramatically reduced levels of histone mRNA, and mutant embryos are not able to complete the syncytial embryonic cycles. This is in part because of a failure of chromosome condensation at mitosis that blocks normal anaphase. These data demonstrate that dSLBP is required in vivo for 3′ end processing of histone pre-mRNA, and that this is an essential function for development. Moreover, dSLBP-dependent processing plays an important role in coupling histone mRNA production with the cell cycle. PMID:11157774

  7. Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Modulates the Sorting of Testican-1 and Contributes to Its Accumulation in Brain Tissue and Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro; Arlt, Sönke; Matschke, Jakob; Hartmann, Ursula; Puig, Berta; Ferrer, Isidre; Zürbig, Petra; Glatzel, Markus; Sepulveda-Falla, Diego; Jahn, Holger

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms leading to amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) are unknown but both increased production or impaired clearance likely contribute to aggregation. To understand the potential roles of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan Testican-1 in the pathophysiology of AD, we used samples from AD patients and controls and an in vitro approach. Protein expression analysis showed increased levels of Testican-1 in frontal and temporal cortex of AD patients; histological analysis showed that Testican-1 accumulates and co-aggregates with Aβ plaques in the frontal, temporal and entorhinal cortices of AD patients. Proteomic analysis identified 10 fragments of Testican-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients. HEK293T cells expressing human wild type or mutant Aβ precursor protein (APP) were transfected with Testican-1. The co-expression of both proteins modified the sorting of Testican-1 into the endocytic pathway leading to its transient accumulation in Golgi, which seemed to affect APP processing, as indicated by reduced Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in APP mutant cells. In conclusion, patient data reflect a clearance impairment that may favor Aβ accumulation in AD brains and our in vitro model supports the notion that the interaction between APP and Testican-1 may be a key step in the production and aggregation of Aβ species. © 2016 Oxford University Press OR American Association of Neuropathologists.

  8. Mutations that alter a conserved element upstream of the potato virus X triple block and coat protein genes affect subgenomic RNA accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Hemenway, C

    1997-05-26

    The putative subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) promoter regions upstream of the potato virus X (PVX) triple block and coat protein (CP) genes contain sequences common to other potexviruses. The importance of these sequences to PVX sgRNA accumulation was determined by inoculation of Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cell suspension protoplasts with transcripts derived from wild-type and modified PVX cDNA clones. Analyses of RNA accumulation by S1 nuclease digestion and primer extension indicated that a conserved octanucleotide sequence element and the spacing between this element and the start-site for sgRNA synthesis are critical for accumulation of the two major sgRNA species. The impact of mutations on CP sgRNA levels was also reflected in the accumulation of CP. In contrast, genomic minus- and plus-strand RNA accumulation were not significantly affected by mutations in these regions. Studies involving inoculation of tobacco plants with the modified transcripts suggested that the conserved octanucleotide element functions in sgRNA accumulation and some other aspect of the infection process.

  9. Rice choline monooxygenase (OsCMO) protein functions in enhancing glycine betaine biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco but does not accumulate in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).

    PubMed

    Luo, Di; Niu, Xiangli; Yu, Jinde; Yan, Jun; Gou, Xiaojun; Lu, Bao-Rong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is a compatible quaternary amine that enables plants to tolerate abiotic stresses, including salt, drought and cold. In plants, GB is synthesized through two-step of successive oxidations from choline, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Rice is considered as a typical non-GB accumulating species, although the entire genome sequencing revealed rice contains orthologs of both CMO and BADH. Several studies unraveled that rice has a functional BADH gene, but whether rice CMO gene (OsCMO) is functional or a pseudogene remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of rice CMO gene. The OsCMO gene was isolated from rice cv. Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) using RT-PCR. Northern blot demonstrated the transcription of OsCMO is enhanced by salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsCMO results in increased GB content and elevated tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrates that a functional OsCMO protein with correct size was present in transgenic tobacco but rarely accumulated in wild-type rice plants. Surprisingly, a large amount of truncated proteins derived from OsCMO was induced in the rice seedlings in response to salt stresses. This suggests that it is the lack of a functional OsCMO protein that presumably results in non-GB accumulation in the tested rice plant. Expression and transgenic studies demonstrate OsCMO is transcriptionally induced in response to salt stress and functions in increasing glycinebetaine accumulation and enhancing tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis suggests that no accumulation of glycinebetaine in the Japonica rice plant presumably results from lack of a functional OsCMO protein.

  10. Abnormal expression and functional characteristics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in postmortem brain of suicide subjects.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rao, Jagadeesh Sridhara; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Kotowski, Jacek; Conley, Robert R; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Tamminga, Carol A; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2003-03-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that, on phosphorylation by protein kinases, is activated, and in response, regulates the transcription of many neuronally expressed genes. In view of the recent observations that catalytic properties and/or expression of many kinases that mediate their physiological responses through the activation of CREB are altered in the postmortem brain of subjects who commit suicide (hereafter referred to as suicide subjects), we examined the status of CREB in suicidal behavior. These studies were performed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and hippocampus obtained from 26 suicide subjects and 20 nonpsychiatric healthy control subjects. Messenger RNA levels of CREB and neuron-specific enolase were determined in total RNA by means of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels and the functional characteristics of CREB were determined in nuclear fractions by means of Western blot and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element (CRE)-DNA binding activity, respectively. In the same nuclear fraction, we determined the catalytic activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase A by means of enzymatic assay. We observed a significant reduction in messenger RNA and protein levels of CREB, CRE-DNA binding activity, and basal and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase A activity in BA 9 and hippocampus of suicide subjects, without any change in messenger RNA levels of neuron-specific enolase in BA 9. Except for protein kinase A activity, changes in CREB expression and CRE-DNA binding activity were present in all suicide subjects, irrespective of diagnosis. These changes were unrelated to postmortem intervals, age, sex, or antidepressant treatment. Given the significance of CREB in mediating various physiological functions through gene transcription, our results of decreased expression and functional characteristics of CREB

  11. Abnormal expression and mutation of p53 in cervical cancer--a study at protein, RNA and DNA levels.

    PubMed

    Ngan, H Y; Tsao, S W; Liu, S S; Stanley, M

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to document the status of p53 expression and mutation in cervical cancer at protein, RNA and DNA levels and to relate this to the presence of HPV. Biopsy specimens from one hundred and three squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and histologically normal ectocervix were analysed. Fresh tissues were extracted for protein, RNA and DNA and flash frozen tissue cryostat sectioned for immunohistochemical staining. HPV DNA status was determined by PCR using L1 consensus primers and typed for HPV 16 and 18 with E6 specific primers. p53 expression was determined at the protein level by Western blotting on protein extracts and at RNA level by Northern blotting. There was no p53 overexpression or mutation detectable in the protein extracts. Three of 65 (4.6%) of the carcinomas were positive for p53 by immunostaining with the polyclonal antibody CM1. Overexpression at the RNA level was detected in 2 of 32 (6.3%) carcinomas. p53 mutation was screened for by PCR/SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) followed by sequencing to define the site of mutation. Two of the cervical cancers (2.0%) showed mutation in p53 in exons 7 or 8. The mutation rate in HPV positive tumours was 1.2% (1/81) and in HPV negative tumours was 5.2% (1/19). p53 overexpression or mutation does not seem to play a significant role in cervical carcinomas.

  12. The predominant circular form of avocado sunblotch viroid accumulates in planta as a free RNA adopting a rod-shaped secondary structure unprotected by tightly bound host proteins.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Flores, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), the type member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates and accumulates in chloroplasts. Whether this minimal non-protein-coding circular RNA of 246-250 nt exists in vivo as a free nucleic acid or closely associated with host proteins remains unknown. To tackle this issue, the secondary structures of the monomeric circular (mc) (+) and (-) strands of ASBVd have been examined in silico by searching those of minimal free energy, and in vitro at single-nucleotide resolution by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE). Both approaches resulted in predominant rod-like secondary structures without tertiary interactions, with the mc (+) RNA being more compact than its (-) counterpart as revealed by non-denaturing polyacryamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, in vivo SHAPE showed that the mc ASBVd (+) form accumulates in avocado leaves as a free RNA adopting a similar rod-shaped conformation unprotected by tightly bound host proteins. Hence, the mc ASBVd (+) RNA behaves in planta like the previously studied mc (+) RNA of potato spindle tuber viroid, the type member of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae), indicating that two different viroids replicating and accumulating in distinct subcellular compartments, have converged into a common structural solution. Circularity and compact secondary structures confer to these RNAs, and probably to all viroids, the intrinsic stability needed to survive in their natural habitats. However, in vivo SHAPE has not revealed the (possibly transient or loose) interactions of the mc ASBVd (+) RNA with two host proteins observed previously by UV irradiation of infected avocado leaves.

  13. The proteins encoded by the Drosophila Planar Polarity Effector genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz interact physically and can re-pattern the accumulation of “upstream” Planar Cell Polarity proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Jie; Lee, Haeryun; Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The frizzled/starry night pathway regulates planar cell polarity in a wide variety of tissues in many types of animals. It was discovered and has been most intensively studied in the Drosophila wing where it controls the formation of the array of distally pointing hairs that cover the wing. The pathway does this by restricting the activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal edge of wing cells. This results in hairs initiating at the distal edge and growing in the distal direction. All of the proteins encoded by genes in the pathway accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells. The pathway is a hierarchy with the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) genes (aka the core genes) functioning as a group upstream of the Planar Polarity Effector (PPE) genes which in turn function as a group upstream of multiple wing hairs. Upstream proteins, such as Frizzled accumulate on either the distal and/or proximal edges of wing cells. Downstream PPE proteins accumulate on the proximal edge under the instruction of the upstream proteins. A variety of types of data support this hierarchy, however, we have found that when over expressed the PPE proteins can alter both the subcellular location and level of accumulation of the upstream proteins. Thus, the epistatic relationship is context dependent. We further show that the PPE proteins interact physically and can modulate the accumulation of each other in wing cells. We also find that over expression of Frtz results in a marked delay in hair initiation suggesting that it has a separate role/activity in regulating the cytoskeleton that is not shared by other members of the group. PMID:25072625

  14. Ca(2+)-related signaling and protein phosphorylation abnormalities play central roles in a new experimental model of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yukiomi; Hojo, Mayumi; Voigt, Niels; El-Armouche, Ali; Inden, Yasuya; Murohara, Toyoaki; Dobrev, Dobromir; Nattel, Stanley; Kodama, Itsuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro

    2011-05-24

    Electrical storm (ES), characterized by recurrent ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, typically occurs in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients and adversely affects prognosis. However, the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. In the present study, we report a new experimental model featuring repetitive episodes of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator firing for recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF), in which we assessed involvement of Ca(2+)-related protein alterations in ES. We studied 37 rabbits with complete atrioventricular block for ≈80 days, all with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. All rabbits showed long-QT and VF episodes. Fifty-three percent of rabbits developed ES (≥3 VF episodes per 24-hour period; 103±23 VF episodes per rabbit). Expression/phosphorylation of Ca(2+)-handling proteins was assessed in left ventricular tissues from rabbits with the following: ES; VF episodes but not ES (non-ES); and controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter increased comparably in ES and non-ES rabbits, but contractile dysfunction was significantly greater in ES than in non-ES rabbits. ES rabbits showed striking hyperphosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, prominent phospholamban dephosphorylation, and increased protein phosphatase 1 and 2A expression versus control and non-ES rabbits. Ryanodine receptors were similarly hyperphosphorylated at Ser2815 in ES and non-ES rabbits, but ryanodine receptor Ser2809 and L-type Ca(2+) channel α-subunit hyperphosphorylation were significantly greater in ES versus non-ES rabbits. To examine direct effects of repeated VF/defibrillation, VF was induced 10 times in control rabbits. Repeated VF tissues showed autophosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II upregulation and phospholamban dephosphorylation like those of ES rabbit hearts. Continuous infusion of a calmodulin antagonist (W-7) to ES rabbits reduced Ca(2+)/calmodulin

  15. Structural and functional abnormalities of hepatic tissues in male Wistar rats fed hyperwhey and super amino anabolic protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, Doaa A; El-Sayyad, Hassan I H; Moftah, Osama A; Chilibeck, Phil D

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders consume high-protein supplements to obtain energy and enhance the development and strength of their muscles. Over time, different investigations have revealed dysfunctions of their body organs. There are contradictions among scientists concerning the benefits and the alarm of developing body dysfunction. The aim of this study was to illustrate the effects on consumption of two anabolic protein supplements on body weight and structure and function of hepatocytes in male albino Wistar rats. We assigned male Wistar albino rats into three groups (n = 10 each): control, hyperwhey protein (Nutrabolics, Richmond, Canada) (2.5 g/kg body weight), and super amino 2500 (SA) (APN, Ft. Launderale, FL, USA) (2.5 g/kg body weight). The applied dose was orally administered daily in tap water for 14 wk. Body weight was regularly measured. At 14 wk, animals were sacrificed and dissected. Blood was collected from a puncture of the heart and the liver was removed and weighed. Biochemical analysis of liver function tests, lipidogram, hematology, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B-cell lymphoma 2 and 70 kd heat shock proteins, and flow-cytometry of hepatocyte cell cycle were performed. Hyperwhey- and SA-supplemented rats had lower body weight gain compared with the control group and developed hepatic dysfunction manifested by apparent congestion of blood vessel, increased apoptosis, and breakdown of hepatocytes. The SA group had thickening of the liver capsule and more drastic damage of hepatocytes. The level of transaminases was markedly increased. Insulin level was also markedly decreased in parallel with increase cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerols. Hyperwhey and SA protein formula administration dramatically altered the liver function and increased hepatic damage similar to the development of suspected diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  17. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  18. The Bean Pod Mottle Virus RNA2-Encoded 58-Kilodalton Protein P58 Is Required in cis for RNA2 Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Junyan; Guo, Jiangbo; Finer, John; Dorrance, Anne E.; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a bipartite, positive-sense (+) RNA plant virus in the Secoviridae family. Its RNA1 encodes proteins required for genome replication, whereas RNA2 primarily encodes proteins needed for virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement. However, the function of a 58-kDa protein (P58) encoded by RNA2 has not been resolved. P58 and the movement protein (MP) of BPMV are two largely identical proteins differing only at their N termini, with P58 extending MP upstream by 102 amino acid residues. In this report, we unveil a unique role for P58. We show that BPMV RNA2 accumulation in infected cells was abolished when the start codon of P58 was eliminated. The role of P58 does not require the region shared by MP, as RNA2 accumulation in individual cells remained robust even when most of the MP coding sequence was removed. Importantly, the function of P58 required the P58 protein, rather than its coding RNA, as compensatory mutants could be isolated that restored RNA2 accumulation by acquiring new start codons upstream of the original one. Most strikingly, loss of P58 function could not be complemented by P58 provided in trans, suggesting that P58 functions in cis to selectively promote the accumulation of RNA2 copies that encode a functional P58 protein. Finally, we found that all RNA1-encoded proteins are cis-acting relative to RNA1. Together, our results suggest that P58 probably functions by recruiting the RNA1-encoded polyprotein to RNA2 to enable RNA2 reproduction. IMPORTANCE Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is one of the most important pathogens of the crop plant soybean, yet its replication mechanism is not well understood, hindering the development of knowledge-based control measures. The current study examined the replication strategy of BPMV RNA2, one of the two genomic RNA segments of this virus, and established an essential role for P58, one of the RNA2-encoded proteins, in the process of RNA2 replication. Our study demonstrates for

  19. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    PubMed

    Borek, Slawomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

  20. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    PubMed Central

    Borek, Sławomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed. PMID:19635747

  1. Antimicrobial proteins in human unstimulated whole saliva in relation to each other, and to measures of health status, dental plaque accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Krig, M A; Neuvar, E K; Soberay, A H; Iverson, L

    1991-01-01

    Saliva antimicrobial proteins may interact in a common system to influence the oral ecology. Clinical studies of antimicrobial protein action thus may require a multiple-protein approach. Multivariate statistical methods have been used to describe possible patterns of interaction for lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase and secretory IgA in stimulated parotid saliva. However, oral microbes are most likely to encounter antimicrobial proteins in mixed resting saliva. Relationships among levels of lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, and secretory IgA therefore were investigated in whole saliva from 216 subjects, and an attempt made to relate interperson variation in those proteins to differences in health and status, and dental plaque accumulation and composition. All proteins were significantly (alpha = 0.05) correlated with each other (r = 0.38-0.52, p less than 0.001). There was only one axis of common variation among proteins, and that axis was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with total protein (r = 0.84) and flow rate (r = -0.56). That pattern deviated from the previous finding that proteins of acinar origin tended to vary independently from proteins of ductal origin in stimulated parotid saliva. The difference between parotid and whole saliva may reflect constitutive secretion of all proteins at low levels of stimulation. Common variation of unstimulated saliva proteins suggests that antimicrobial actions can be compared in subjects at population extremes. There were no significant associations between antimicrobial proteins in whole saliva and measures of health status or plaque accumulation. However, the proportions of Streptococcus sanguis were significantly correlated with lysozyme (r = -0.26), lactoferrin (r = -0.34), peroxidase (r = -0.30), total protein (r = -0.37), flow rate (r = 0.24) and principal-components scores (r = -0.33) in a subset of subjects (n = 85) where commercial biochemical tests were used to supplement species

  2. Proteome analysis reveals differential expression of proteins involved in triacylglycerol accumulation by Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 after addition of methyl viologen.

    PubMed

    Dávila Costa, José Sebastián; Silva, Roxana A; Leichert, Lars; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2017-03-01

    Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 is able to degrade toxic compounds and accumulate high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) upon nitrogen starvation. These NADPH-dependent processes are essential for the adaptation of rhodococci to fluctuating environmental conditions. In this study, we used an MS-based, label-free and quantitative proteomic approach to better understand the integral response of R. jostii RHA1 to the presence of methyl viologen (MV) in relation to the synthesis and accumulation of TAG. The addition of MV promoted a decrease of TAG accumulation in comparison to cells cultivated under nitrogen-limiting conditions in the absence of this pro-oxidant. Proteomic analyses revealed that the abundance of key proteins of fatty acid biosynthesis, the Kennedy pathway, glyceroneogenesis and methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, among others, decreased in the presence of MV. In contrast, some proteins involved in lipolysis and β-oxidation of fatty acids were upregulated. Some metabolic pathways linked to the synthesis of NADPH remained activated during oxidative stress as well as under nitrogen starvation conditions. Additionally, exposure to MV resulted in the activation of complete antioxidant machinery comprising superoxide dismutases, catalases, mycothiol biosynthesis, mycothione reductase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductases, among others. Our study suggests that oxidative stress response affects TAG accumulation under nitrogen-limiting conditions through programmed molecular mechanisms when both stresses occur simultaneously.

  3. Abnormal subcellular localization of AQP5 and downregulated AQP5 protein in parotid glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Yuan, Zhenfang; Inoue, Noriko; Cho, Gota; Shono, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying diabetic xerostomia have not been clarified in relation with aquaporin-5 (AQP5) subcellular localization in salivary glands. Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunocytochemistry were used to analyse AQP5 protein levels and mRNA expression. AQP5 protein levels were measured in the apical plasma membrane (APM) and detergent-insoluble fraction prepared from streptozotocin-diabetic rat parotid glands. Despite an increase in AQP5 mRNA, AQP5 protein levels were decreased in diabetic parotid glands compared with controls. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that AQP5, under unstimulated conditions, colocalised with flotillin-2 and GM1 with a diffuse pattern in the apical cytoplasm of acinar and duct cells in both control and diabetic rats. Ten minutes after intravenous injection of muscarinic agonist cevimeline, AQP5 was dramatically increased together with flotillin-2 and GM1 in the APM of parotid acinar and duct cells of control but not diabetic rats. Sixty minutes after injection, AQP5 was located in a diffuse pattern in the apical cytoplasm in both rats. Treatment of the parotid tissues with cevimeline for 10min increased the Triton X-100 solubility of AQP5 in control but not diabetic rats. Administration of insulin to diabetic rats tended to restore the cevimeline-induced translocation of AQP5. Lack of AQP5 translocation in the salivary gland in response to a muscarinic agonist and downregulation of AQP5 protein might lead to diabetic xerostomia. Cevimeline is useful to cure diabetic xerostomia under insulin administration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigations into the Sarcomeric Protein and Ca2+-Regulation Abnormalities Underlying Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Cats (Felix catus)

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Andrew E.; Chan, Jasmine; Daley, Alex; Copeland, O'Neal; Marston, Steven B.; Connolly, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common single gene inherited cardiomyopathy. In cats (Felix catus) HCM is even more prevalent and affects 16% of the outbred population and up to 26% in pedigree breeds such as Maine Coon and Ragdoll. Homozygous MYBPC3 mutations have been identified in these breeds but the mutations in other cats are unknown. At the clinical and physiological level feline HCM is closely analogous to human HCM but little is known about the primary causative mechanism. Most identified HCM causing mutations are in the genes coding for proteins of the sarcomere. We therefore investigated contractile and regulatory proteins in left ventricular tissue from 25 cats, 18 diagnosed with HCM, including a Ragdoll cat with a homozygous MYBPC3 R820W, and 7 non-HCM cats in comparison with human HCM (from septal myectomy) and donor heart tissue. Myofibrillar protein expression was normal except that we observed 20–44% MyBP-C haploinsufficiency in 5 of the HCM cats. Troponin extracted from 8 HCM and 5 non-HCM cat hearts was incorporated into thin filaments and studied by in vitro motility assay. All HCM cat hearts had a higher (2.06 ± 0.13 fold) Ca2+-sensitivity than non-HCM cats and, in all the HCM cats, Ca2+-sensitivity was not modulated by troponin I phosphorylation. We were able to restore modulation of Ca2+-sensitivity by replacing troponin T with wild-type protein or by adding 100 μM Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG). These fundamental regulatory characteristics closely mimic those seen in human HCM indicating a common molecular mechanism that is independent of the causative mutation. Thus, the HCM cat is a potentially useful large animal model. PMID:28642712

  5. Two copies of mthmg1, encoding a novel mitochondrial HMG-like protein, delay accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Dequard-Chablat, Michelle; Allandt, Cynthia

    2002-08-01

    In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, two degenerative processes which result in growth arrest are associated with mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]) instability. Senescence is correlated with mtDNA rearrangements and amplification of specific regions (senDNAs). Premature death syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of specific mtDNA deletions. This accumulation is due to indirect effects of the AS1-4 mutation, which alters a cytosolic ribosomal protein gene. The mthmg1 gene has been identified as a double-copy suppressor of premature death. It greatly delays premature death and the accumulation of deletions when it is present in two copies in an ASI-4 context. The duplication of mthmg1 has no significant effect on the wild-type life span or on senDNA patterns. In anAS1+ context, deletion of the mthmg1 gene alters germination, growth, and fertility and reduces the life span. The deltamthmg1 senescent strains display a particular senDNA pattern. This deletion is lethal in an AS1-4 context. According to its physical properties (very basic protein with putative mitochondrial targeting sequence and HMG-type DNA-binding domains) and the cellular localization of an mtHMG1-green fluorescent protein fusion, mtHMG1 appears to be a mitochondrial protein possibly associated with mtDNA. It is noteworthy that it is the first example of a protein combining the two DNA-binding domains, AT-hook motif and HMG-1 boxes. It may be involved in the stability and/or transmission of the mitochondrial genome. To date, no structural homologues have been found in other organisms. However, mtHMG1 displays functional similarities with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial HMG-box protein Abf2.

  6. Traffic Jam at the Blood Brain Barrier Promotes Greater Accumulation of Alzheimer’s Disease Amyloid-β Proteins in the Cerebral Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Edward K.; Leonard, Sarah R.; Curran, Geoffry L.; Yu, Caroline C.; Lowe, Val J.; Paravastu, Anant K.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Kandimalla, Karunya K.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain vasculature results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which occurs in about 80% of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. While Aβ42 predominates parenchymal amyloid plaques in AD brain, Aβ40 is prevalent in the cerebrovascular amyloid. Dutch mutation of Aβ40 (E22Q) promotes aggressive cerebrovascular accumulation and leads to severe CAA in the mutation carriers; knowledge of how DutchAβ40 drives this process more efficiently than Aβ40 could reveal various pathophysiological events that promote CAA. In this study we have demonstrated that DutchAβ40 show preferential accumulation in the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) endothelial cells due to its inefficient blood-to-brain transcytosis. Consequently, DutchAβ40 establishes a permeation barrier in the BBB endothelium, prevents its own clearance from the brain and promotes the formation of amyloid deposits in the cerebral microvessels. The BBB endothelial accumulation of native Aβ40 is not robust enough to exercise such a significant impact on its brain clearance. Hence, the cerebrovascular accumulation of Aβ40 is slow and may require other co-pathologies to precipitate into CAA. In conclusion, the magnitude of Aβ accumulation in the BBB endothelial cells is a critical factor that promotes CAA; hence, clearing vascular endothelium of Aβ proteins may halt or even reverse CAA. PMID:23249146

  7. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism revealed by (1)H-NMR-based metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-04-14

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC.

  8. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  9. Abscisic Acid Deficiency Antagonizes High-Temperature Inhibition of Disease Resistance through Enhancing Nuclear Accumulation of Resistance Proteins SNC1 and RPS4 in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Hyung-Gon; Qian, Weiqiang; Zhu, Ying; Qian, Jun; Kang, Hong-Gu; Klessig, Daniel F.; Hua, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogens are influenced by abiotic factors, including temperature. Elevated temperatures often inhibit the activities of disease resistance proteins and the defense responses they mediate. A mutant screen with an Arabidopsis thaliana temperature-sensitive autoimmune mutant bonzai1 revealed that the abscisic acid (ABA)–deficient mutant aba2 enhances resistance mediated by the resistance (R) gene SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1 CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) at high temperature. ABA deficiency promoted nuclear accumulation of SNC1, which was essential for it to function at low and high temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of ABA deficiency on SNC1 protein accumulation is independent of salicylic acid, whose effects are often antagonized by ABA. ABA deficiency also promotes the activity and nuclear localization of R protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE4 at higher temperature, suggesting that the effect of ABA on R protein localization and nuclear activity is rather broad. By contrast, mutations that confer ABA insensitivity did not promote defense responses at high temperature, suggesting either tissue specificity of ABA signaling or a role of ABA in defense regulation independent of the core ABA signaling machinery. Taken together, this study reveals a new intersection between ABA and disease resistance through R protein localization and provides further evidence of antagonism between abiotic and biotic responses. PMID:22454454

  10. Spatio-Temporal Accumulation and Activity of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases during Embryogenesis, Seed Development, and Germination in Sandalwood1

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Veena S.; Harmon, Alice C.; Rao, K. Sankara

    2000-01-01

    Western-blot analysis and protein kinase assays identified two Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) of 55 to 60 kD in soluble protein extracts of embryogenic cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). However, these sandalwood CDPKs (swCDPKs) were absent in plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos. swCDPKs exhibited differential expression (monitored at the level of the protein) and activity in different developmental stages. Zygotic embryos, seedlings, and endosperm showed high accumulation of swCDPK, but the enzyme was not detected in the soluble proteins of shoots and flowers. swCDPK exhibited a temporal pattern of expression in endosperm, showing high accumulation and activity in mature fruit and germinating stages; the enzyme was localized strongly in the storage bodies of the endosperm cells. The study also reports for the first time to our knowledge a post-translational inhibition/inactivation of swCDPK in zygotic embryos during seed dormancy and early stages of germination. The temporal expression of swCDPK during somatic/zygotic embryogenesis, seed maturation, and germination suggests involvement of the enzyme in these developmental processes. PMID:10759499

  11. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  12. Ammonium accumulation in commercially available embryo culture media and protein supplements during storage at 2-8°C and during incubation at 37°C.

    PubMed

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Bekers, Otto; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2016-06-01

    Does ammonium accumulate in commercially available culture media and protein supplements used for in vitro development of human pre-implantation embryos during storage and incubation? Ammonium accumulates in ready-to-use in vitro fertilization (IVF) culture media during storage at 2-8°C and in ready-to-use IVF culture media and protein supplements during incubation at 37°C. Both animal and human studies have shown that the presence of ammonium in culture medium has detrimental effects on embryonic development and pregnancy rate. It is, therefore, important to assess the amount of ammonium accumulation in ready-to-use IVF culture media under conditions that are common in daily practice. Ammonium accumulation was investigated in 15 ready-to-use media, 11 protein-free media and 8 protein supplements. Ammonium was measured by the use of an enzymatic method with glutamate dehydrogenase. To simulate the storage and incubation conditions during IVF treatments, ammonium concentrations were measured at different time-points during storage at 2-8°C for 6 weeks and during incubation at 37°C for 4 days. All ready-to-use, i.e. protein supplemented, culture media showed ammonium accumulation during storage for 6 weeks (ranging from 9.2 to 99.8 µM) and during incubation for 4 days (ranging from 8.4 to 138.6 µM), resulting in levels that might affect embryo development. The protein supplements also showed ammonium accumulation, while the culture media without protein supplementation did not. The main sources of ammonium buildup in ready-to-use culture media were unstable glutamine and the protein supplements. No additional ammonium buildup was found during incubation when using an oil overlay or with the presence of an embryo in the culture droplet. In addition to the unstable glutamine and the protein supplements, other free amino acids might contribute to the ammonium buildup. We did not investigate the deterioration of other components in the media. Break-down of

  13. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  14. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  15. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  16. Abnormal expression of p27kip1 protein in levator ani muscle of aging women with pelvic floor disorders – a relationship to the cellular differentiation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Copas, Pleas; Caudle, Michael R; Cekanova, Maria; Dassanayake, Tamara; Asbury, Bridgett; Van Meter, Stuart E; Elder, Robert F; Brown, Jeffrey B; Cross, Stephanie B

    2001-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor disorders affect almost 50% of aging women. An important role in the pelvic floor support belongs to the levator ani muscle. The p27/kip1 (p27) protein, multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, shows changing expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells during development, and relatively high levels of p27 RNA were detected in the normal human skeletal muscles. Methods Biopsy samples of levator ani muscle were obtained from 22 symptomatic patients with stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and overlaps (age range 38–74), and nine asymptomatic women (age 31–49). Cryostat sections were investigated for p27 protein expression and type I (slow twitch) and type II (fast twitch) fibers. Results All fibers exhibited strong plasma membrane (and nuclear) p27 protein expression. cytoplasmic p27 expression was virtually absent in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal symptomatic patients (ages 38–55), muscle fibers showed hypertrophy and moderate cytoplasmic p27 staining accompanied by diminution of type II fibers. Older symptomatic patients (ages 57–74) showed cytoplasmic p27 overexpression accompanied by shrinking, cytoplasmic vacuolization and fragmentation of muscle cells. The plasma membrane and cytoplasmic p27 expression was not unique to the muscle cells. Under certain circumstances, it was also detected in other cell types (epithelium of ectocervix and luteal cells). Conclusions This is the first report on the unusual (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic) expression of p27 protein in normal and abnormal human striated muscle cells in vivo. Our data indicate that pelvic floor disorders are in perimenopausal patients associated with an appearance of moderate cytoplasmic p27 expression, accompanying hypertrophy and transition of type II into type I fibers. The patients in advanced postmenopause show shrinking and fragmentation of muscle fibers associated with strong cytoplasmic p27 expression. PMID:11696252

  17. Apple RING E3 ligase MdMIEL1 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation by ubiquitinating and degrading MdMYB1 protein.

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xin; Li, Hao-Hao; You, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-11-01

    MdMYB1 is an important regulator for anthocyanin accumulation in apple (Malus × domestica). Here, an apple RING E3 ligase, MdMIEL1, was screened out as a partner of MdMYB1 with a yeast two-hybrid approach. Pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays further verified the interaction between MdMIEL1 and MdMYB1 proteins. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdMIEL1 functioned as a ubiquitin E3 ligase to ubiquitinate MdMYB1 protein, followed by degradation through a 26S proteasome pathway. Furthermore, transgenic studies in apple calli and Arabidopsis demonstrated that MdMIEL1 negatively regulated anthocyanin accumulation by modulating the degradation of MdMYB1 protein. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which MdMIEL1 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by ubiquitinating and degrading MdMYB1 protein. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 couldmore » regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.« less

  19. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    PubMed

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  20. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  1. [FUNCTION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION A, FIBRINOGEN BINDING PROTEIN, AND ACCUMULATION-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN GENES IN FORMATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-CANDIDA ALBICANS MIXED SPECIES BIOFILMS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Youquan; Zhao, Guangqiang; Ye, Lianhua; Lei, Yujie; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of intercellular adhesion A (icaA), fibrinogen binding protein (fbe), and accumulation-associated protein (aap) genes in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed species biofilms. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: single culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC35984 (S. epidermidis group) or Candida albicans ATCC10231 (C. albicans group), and co-culture of two strains (mixed group) to build in vitro biofilm model. Biofilm mass was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after incubation. XTT assay was performed to determine the growth kinetics in the same time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the biofilms after 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The expressions of icaA, fbe, and aap genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilms thickened at 12 hours in the S. epidermidis and mixed groups; after co-cultured for 72 hours the thickness of biofilm in mixed group was more than that in the S. epidermidis group, and there was significant difference between 2 groups at the other time (P < 0.05) except at 72 hours (P > 0.05). In C. albicans group, the biofilm started to grow at 12 hours of cultivation, but the thickness of the biofilm was significantly lower than that in the mixed group in all the time points (P < 0.05). XTT assay showed that the overall growth speed in the mixed group was greater than that in the C. albicans group, and it was greater than that in the S. epidermidis group at 48 hours; there was no significant difference in the growth speed between the mixed groups and the S. epidermidis group in the other time points (P > 0.05) except at 12 hours (P < 0.05). The absorbance (A) value in the mixed group was lower than that in the S. epidermidis group at 2 and 4 hours, but no significant difference was shown (P > 0

  2. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  3. Accumulation of Amyloid β-Protein in the Low-Density Membrane Domain Accurately Reflects the Extent of β-Amyloid Deposition in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Noriko; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Sugihara, Shiro; Khan, Karen; Games, Dora; Schenk, Dale; Ihara, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    To learn more about the process of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposition in the brain, human prefrontal cortices were fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the Aβ content in each fraction was quantified by a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The fractionation protocol revealed two pools of insoluble Aβ. One corresponded to a low-density membrane domain; the other was primarily composed of extracellular Aβ deposits in those cases in which Aβ accumulated to significant levels. Aβ42 levels in the low-density membrane domain were proportional to the extent of total Aβ42 accumulation, which is known to correlate well with overall amyloid burden. In PDAPP mice that form senile plaques and accumulate Aβ in a similar manner to aging humans, Aβ42 accumulation in the low-density membrane domain also increased as Aβ deposition progressed with aging. These observations indicate that the Aβ42 associated with low-density membrane domains is tightly coupled with the process of extracellular Aβ deposition. PMID:11395399

  4. Accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins in response to Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone is independent of the inhibition of Tripeptidyl peptidase II.

    PubMed

    Villasevil, Eugenia M; Guil, Sara; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Sánchez, Carlos; Del Val, Margarita; Antón, Luis C

    2010-09-01

    In the present study we have addressed the issue of proteasome independent cytosolic protein degradation. Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) has been suggested to compensate for a reduced proteasome activity, partly based on evidence using the inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk). Here we show that AAF-cmk induces the formation of polyubiquitin-containing accumulations in osteosarcoma and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. These accumulations meet many of the landmarks of the aggresomes that form after proteasome inhibition. Using a combination of experiments with chemical inhibitors and interference of gene expression, we show that TPPII inhibition is not responsible for these accumulations. Our evidence suggests that the relevant target(s) is/are in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, most likely upstream the proteasome. We obtained evidence supporting this model by inhibition of Hsp90, which also acts upstream the proteasome. Although our data suggest that Hsp90 is not a target of AAF-cmk, its inhibition resulted in accumulations similar to those obtained with AAF-cmk. Therefore, our results question the proposed role for TPPII as a prominent alternative to the proteasome in cellular proteolysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic activity of a subtilisin homolog, Tk-SP, from Thermococcus kodakarensis in detergents and its ability to degrade the abnormal prion protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tk-SP is a member of subtilisin-like serine proteases from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. It has been known that the hyper-stable protease, Tk-SP, could exhibit enzymatic activity even at high temperature and in the presence of chemical denaturants. In this work, the enzymatic activity of Tk-SP was measured in the presence of detergents and EDTA. In addition, we focused to demonstrate that Tk-SP could degrade the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), a protease-resistant isoform of normal prion protein (PrPC). Results Tk-SP was observed to maintain its proteolytic activity with nonionic surfactants and EDTA at 80°C. We optimized the condition in which Tk-SP functions efficiently, and demonstrated that the enzyme is highly stable in the presence of 0.05% (w/v) nonionic surfactants and 0.01% (w/v) EDTA, retaining up to 80% of its activity. Additionally, we also found that Tk-SP can degrade PrPSc to a level undetectable by western-blot analysis. Conclusions Our results indicate that Tk-SP has a great potential for technological applications, such as thermo-stable detergent additives. In addition, it is also suggested that Tk-SP-containing detergents can be developed to decrease the secondary infection risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). PMID:23448268

  6. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  7. Metal accumulation and differentially expressed proteins in gill of oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) exposed to long-term heavy metal-contaminated estuary.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lianzhong; Ke, Caihuan; Guo, Xiaoyu; Shi, Bo; Huang, Miaoqin

    2014-06-01

    Bio-accumulation and bio-transmission of toxic metals and the toxicological responses of organisms exposed to toxic metals have been focused, due to heavy metal contaminations have critically threatened the ecosystem and food security. However, still few investigations focused on the responses of certain organisms exposed to the long term and severe heavy metal contamination in specific environments. In present investigation, the Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis were obtained from 3 sites which were contaminated by different concentrations of heavy metals (such as zinc, copper, manganese and lead etc.), respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in the sea water samples collected from the 3 sites and the dissected tissues of the oysters with blue visceral mass were determinated to estimate the metal contamination levels in environments and the bio-accumulation ratios of the heavy metals in the different tissues of oysters. Moreover, Proteomic methods were employed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term heavy metal contaminations. Results indicated that the Jiulong River estuary has been severely contaminated by Cu, Zn and slightly with Cr, Ni, Mn, etc, moreover, Zn and Cu were the major metals accumulated by oysters to phenomenally high concentrations (more than 3.0% of Zn and about 2.0% of Cu against what the dry weight of tissues were accumulated), and Cr, Ni, Mn, etc were also significantly accumulated. The differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to heavy metals participate in several cell processes, such as metal binding, transporting and saving, oxidative-reduction balance maintaining, stress response, signal transduction, etc. Significantly up-regulated expression (about 10 folds) of an important metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and granular cells was observed in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term and severely heavy-metal-contaminated estuary, it

  8. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72hmore » functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.« less

  9. Disruption of plastid acyl:acyl carrier protein synthetases increases medium chain fatty acid accumulation in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tjellström, Henrik; Strawsine, Merissa; Silva, Jillian; Cahoon, Edgar B; Ohlrogge, John B

    2013-04-02

    Engineering transgenic plants that accumulate high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) has been least successful for shorter chain lengths (e.g., C8). We demonstrate that one limitation is the activity of acyl-ACP synthetase (AAE) that re-activates fatty acids released by acyl-ACP thioesterases. Seed expression of Cuphea pulcherrima FATB acyl-ACP thioesterase in a double mutant lacking AAE15/16 increased 8:0 accumulation almost 2-fold compared to expression in wild type. These results also provide an in planta demonstration that AAE enzymes participate not only in activation of exogenously added MCFA but also in activation of MCFA synthesized in plastids. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein, but not mRNA, in a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Kawamura, Takuya; Tokui, Ryuji; Furuta, Kohei; Sugino, Mami; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-11-06

    Two channel proteins, inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) and water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), were recently identified as targets of an autoantibody response in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, respectively. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in a mouse model of demyelination induced by cuprizone, a copper chelator. Demyelination was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-proteolipid protein antibody in various brain regions, including the corpus callosum, of cuprizone-fed mice. Activation of microglial and astroglial cells was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry, using an anti-ionized calcium binding adapter molecule and a glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. Western blot analysis revealed the induction of Kir4.1 protein, but not AQP4, in the cortex of cuprizone-fed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the Kir4.1 protein induction in microvessels of the cerebral cortex. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the cortex did not change during cuprizone administration. These findings suggest that enhanced accumulation of Kir4.1 protein in the brain with an inflammatory condition facilitates the autoantibody formation against Kir4.1 in patients with multiple sclerosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Rupesh; Jamaluddin, Adam; Warren, James P; Doyle, Siamsa M; Robert, Stéphanie; Warriner, Stuart L; Baker, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Auxin gradients are established and maintained by polarized distribution of auxin transporters that undergo constitutive endocytic recycling from the PM (plasma membrane) and are essential for the gravitropic response in plants. The present study characterizes an inhibitor of endomembrane protein trafficking, TE1 (trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1) that reduces gravitropic root bending in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Short-term TE1 treatment causes accumulation of PM proteins, including the BR (brassinosteroid) receptor BRI1 (BR insensitive 1), PIP2a (PM intrinsic protein 2a) and the auxin transporter PIN2 (PIN-FORMED 2) in a PVC (pre-vacuolar related compartment), which is sensitive to BFA (Brefeldin A). This compound inhibits endocytosis from the PM and promotes trafficking to the vacuole, consistent with inhibition of retrieval of proteins to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) from the PVC and the PM. However, trafficking of newly synthesized proteins to the PM is unaffected. The short-term protein trafficking inhibition and long-term effect on plant growth and survival caused by TE1 were fully reversible upon drug washout. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that only minor modifications were possible without loss of biological activity. Diversity in Arabidopsis ecotypes was also exploited to identify two Arabidopsis accessions that display reduced sensitivity to TE1. This compound and the resistant Arabidopsis accessions may be used as a resource in future studies to better understand endomembrane trafficking in plants.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus and consequent contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxin is a persistent and serious agricultural problem causing disease and significant crop losses worldwide. The rachis (cob) is an important structure of maize ear that delivers essential nutrients to the developing kernels and A. flavus spreads through the rachis to infect kernels within the ear. Therefore, rachis plays an important role in fungal proliferation and subsequent kernel contamination. We used proteomic approaches and investigated the rachis tissue from aflatoxin accumulation resistant (Mp313E and Mp420) and susceptible (B73 and SC212m) maize inbred lines. First, we compared rachis proteins from resistant and susceptible inbred lines, which revealed that the young resistant rachis contains higher levels of abiotic stress-related proteins and proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas susceptible young rachis contains pathogenesis-related proteins, which are generally inducible upon biotic stress. Second, we identified A. flavus-responsive proteins in rachis of both resistant and susceptible genotypes after 10- and 35-day infection. Differential expression of many stress/defense proteins during rachis juvenility, maturation and after A. flavus challenge demonstrates that resistant rachis relies on constitutive defenses, while susceptible rachis is more dependent on inducible defenses. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Novel Kleefstra Syndrome-associated Variant That Affects the Conserved TPLX Motif within the Ankyrin Repeat of EHMT1 Leads to Abnormal Protein Folding*

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Patrick R.; Tischer, Alexander; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Kemppainen, Jennifer L.; Sastry, Sujatha; Knight Johnson, Amy E.; Cousin, Margot A.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Oliver, Gavin; Misra, Vinod K.; Gavrilova, Ralitza H.; Lomberk, Gwen; Auton, Matthew; Urrutia, Raul; Klee, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    Kleefstra syndrome (KS) (Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) no. 610253), also known as 9q34 deletion syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatic histone methyltransferase-1 (EHMT1). The clinical phenotype of KS includes moderate to severe intellectual disability with absent speech, hypotonia, brachycephaly, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic facial features with hypertelorism, synophrys, macroglossia, protruding tongue, and prognathism. Only a few cases of de novo missense mutations in EHMT1 giving rise to KS have been described. However, some EHMT1 variants have been described in individuals presenting with autism spectrum disorder or mild intellectual disability, suggesting that the phenotypic spectrum resulting from EHMT1 alterations may be quite broad. In this report, we describe two unrelated patients with complex medical histories consistent with KS in whom next generation sequencing identified the same novel c.2426C>T (p.P809L) missense variant in EHMT1. To examine the functional significance of this novel variant, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type and p.P809L variant, which predicted that the latter would have a propensity to misfold, leading to abnormal histone mark binding. Recombinant EHMT1 p.P809L was also studied using far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy and intrinsic protein fluorescence. These functional studies confirmed the model-based hypotheses and provided evidence for protein misfolding and aberrant target recognition as the underlying pathogenic mechanism for this novel KS-associated variant. This is the first report to suggest that missense variants in EHMT1 that lead to protein misfolding and disrupted histone mark binding can lead to KS. PMID:28057753

  14. Accumulation of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) A and D in granular osmiophilic deposits in miniature Schnauzer dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, D N; Tyynelä, J; van Mil, H C; Westlake, V J; Jolly, R D

    1997-03-01

    The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL, Batten disease) are fatal inherited neurodegenerative diseases of children characterized by retinal and brain atrophy and the accumulation of electron-dense storage bodies in cells. Mutations in different genes underlie different major forms. The infantile disease (CLN-1, McKusick 256730) is distinguished by the storage of the sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) A and D in distinctive granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). This contrasts with the other major forms, where subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase is stored in various multilamellar profiles. Ceroid-lipofuscinoses also occur in dogs, including a form in miniature Schnauzers with distinctive granular osmiophilic deposit-like storage bodies. Antisera to SAPs A and D reacted to these storage bodies in situ. The presence of SAP D was confirmed by Western blotting and of SAP A by protein sequencing. Neither subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase nor of vacuolar ATPase is stored. This suggests that there are two families of ceroid-lipofuscinoses, the subunit c-storing forms, and those in which SAPs A and D, and perhaps other proteins, accumulate. Further work is required to determine whether other forms with granular osmiophilic deposits belong to the latter class and the genetic relationships between them and the human infantile disease.

  15. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, a nuclear ribosome biogenesis-related protein in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ji, M-M; Liu, A-Q; Sima, Y-H; Xu, S-Q

    2016-10-01

    The pathway of communication between endocrine hormones and ribosome biogenesis critical for physiological adaptation is largely unknown. Nucleolar essential protein 1 (Nep1) is an essential gene for ribosome biogenesis and is functionally conserved in many in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we cloned Bombyx mori Nep1 (BmNep1) due to its high expression in silk glands of silkworms on day 3 of the fifth instar. We found that BmNep1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in silk glands during fourth-instar ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis. By immunoprecipitation with the anti-BmNep1 antibody and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses, it was shown that BmNep1 probably interacts with proteins related to ribosome structure formation. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that BmNep1 is localized to the nuclei in Bombyx cells. Using BmN cells originally derived from ovaries, we demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced BmNep1 expression and stimulated nuclear accumulation of BmNep1. Under physiological conditions, BmNep1 was also upregulated in ovaries during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Overall, our results indicate that the endocrine hormone 20E facilitates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, which is involved in nuclear ribosome biogenesis in Bombyx. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2014-03-01

    The phenotype of articular chondrocytes is dependent on the cytoskeleton, specifically the actin microfilament architecture. Articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture undergo dedifferentiation and assume a fibroblastic phenotype. This process can be reversed by altering the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin. Whereas dedifferentiation has been studied on chondrocytes isolated from the whole cartilage, the effects of cytoskeletal alteration on specific zones of cells such as superficial zone chondrocytes are not known. Chondrocytes from the superficial zone secrete superficial zone protein (SZP), a lubricating proteoglycan that reduces the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage. A better understanding of this phenomenon may be useful in elucidating chondrocyte dedifferentiation in monolayer and accumulation of the cartilage lubricant SZP, with an eye toward tissue engineering functional articular cartilage. In this investigation, the effects of cytoskeletal modulation on the ability of superficial zone chondrocytes to secrete SZP were examined. Primary superficial zone chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and treated with a combination of cytoskeleton modifying reagents and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 1, a critical regulator of SZP production. Whereas cytochalasin D maintains the articular chondrocyte phenotype, the hallmark of the superficial zone chondrocyte, SZP, was inhibited in the presence of TGFβ1. A decrease in TGFβ1-induced SZP accumulation was also observed when the microtubule cytoskeleton was modified using paclitaxel. These effects of actin and microtubule alteration were confirmed through the application of jasplakinolide and colchicine, respectively. As Rho GTPases regulate actin organization and microtubule polymerization, we hypothesized that the cytoskeleton is critical for TGFβ-induced SZP accumulation. TGFβ-mediated SZP accumulation was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors ML141 (Cdc42), NSC23766 (Rac1

  17. Two key arginine residues in the coat protein of Bamboo mosaic virus differentially affect the accumulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Lee, Ya-Chien; Meng, Menghsiao; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2014-02-01

    The interactions between viral RNAs and coat proteins (CPs) are critical for the efficient completion of infection cycles of RNA viruses. However, the specificity of the interactions between CPs and genomic or subgenomic RNAs remains poorly understood. In this study, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was used to analyse such interactions. Using reversible formaldehyde cross-linking and mass spectrometry, two regions in CP, each containing a basic amino acid (R99 and R227, respectively), were identified to bind directly to the 5' untranslated region of BaMV genomic RNA. Analyses of the alanine mutations of R99 and R227 revealed that the secondary structures of CP were not affected significantly, whereas the accumulation of BaMV genomic, but not subgenomic, RNA was severely decreased at 24 h post-inoculation in the inoculated protoplasts. In the absence of CP, the accumulation levels of genomic and subgenomic RNAs were decreased to 1.1%-1.5% and 33%-40% of that of the wild-type (wt), respectively, in inoculated leaves at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). In contrast, in the presence of mutant CPs, the genomic RNAs remained about 1% of that of wt, whereas the subgenomic RNAs accumulated to at least 87%, suggesting that CP might increase the accumulation of subgenomic RNAs. The mutations also restricted viral movement and virion formation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves at 5 dpi. These results demonstrate that R99 and R227 of CP play crucial roles in the accumulation, movement and virion formation of BaMV RNAs, and indicate that genomic and subgenomic RNAs interact differently with BaMV CP. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Regulates Free Cholesterol Accumulation and Influences Hepatic Stellate Cell Proliferation and Mitochondrial Respiration Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Hsi; Twu, Yuh-Ching; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Lin, Fu-Zhen; Lee, Chun-Ya; Liao, Yi-Jen

    2018-06-05

    Liver fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A high-cholesterol diet is associated with liver fibrosis via the accumulation of free cholesterol in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular free cholesterol homeostasis via direct binding with free cholesterol. Previously, we reported that NPC2 was downregulated in liver cirrhosis tissues. Loss of NPC2 enhanced the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs and made them more susceptible to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In this study, we showed that knockdown of NPC2 resulted in marked increases in platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced HSC proliferation through enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation. In contrast, NPC2 overexpression decreased PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation by inhibiting p38, JNK, and AKT phosphorylation. Although NPC2 expression did not affect caspase-related apoptosis, the autophagy marker light chain 3β (LC3B) was decreased in NPC2 knockdown, and free cholesterol accumulated in the HSCs. The mitochondrial respiration functions (such as oxygen consumption rate, ATP production, and maximal respiratory capacity) were decreased in NPC2 knockdown, and free cholesterol accumulated in the HSCs, while NPC2-overexpressed cells remained normal. In addition, NPC2 expression did not affect the susceptibility of HSCs to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and U18666A treatment induced free cholesterol accumulation, which enhanced LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 expression. Our study demonstrated that NPC2-mediated free cholesterol homeostasis controls HSC proliferation and mitochondrial function.

  19. Distinct kinetics of DNA repair protein accumulation at DNA lesions and cell cycle-dependent formation of γH2AX- and NBS1-positive repair foci.

    PubMed

    Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Küntziger, Thomas; Bártová, Eva

    2015-12-01

    The DNA damage response is a fundamental, well-regulated process that occurs in the genome to recognise DNA lesions. Here, we studied kinetics of proteins involved in DNA repair pathways and their recruitment to DNA lesions during the cell cycle. In non-irradiated and irradiated cells, we analysed the distribution pattern and spatiotemporal dynamics of γH2AX, 53BP1, BMI1, MDC1, NBS1, PCNA, coilin and BRCA1 proteins. We observed that spontaneous and irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) demonstrated a high abundance of phosphorylated H2AX, which was consistent with 53BP1 and BMI1 protein accumulation. However, NBS1 and MDC1 proteins were recruited to nuclear bodies (NBs) to a lesser extent. Irradiation by γ-rays significantly increased the number of 53BP1- and γH2AX-positive IRIF, but cell cycle-dependent differences were only observed for γH2AX-positive foci in both non-irradiated and γ-irradiated cells. In non-irradiated cells, the G2 phase was characterised by an increased number of spontaneous γH2AX-foci; this increase was more pronounced after γ-irradiation. Cells in G2 phase had the highest number of γH2AX-positive foci. Similarly, γ-irradiation increased the number of NBS1-positive NBs only in G2 phase. Moreover, NBS1 accumulated in nucleoli after γ-irradiation showed the slowest recovery after photobleaching. Analysis of protein accumulation kinetics at locally induced DNA lesions showed that in HeLa cells, BMI1, PCNA and coilin were rapidly recruited to the lesions, 10-15 s after UVA-irradiation, whereas among the other proteins studied, BRCA1 demonstrated the slowest recruitment: BRCA1 appeared at the lesion 20 min after local micro-irradiation by UVA laser. We show that the kinetics of the accumulation of selected DNA repair-related proteins is protein specific at locally induced DNA lesions, and that the formation of γH2AX- and NBS1-positive foci, but not 53BP1-positive NBs, is cell cycle dependent in HeLa cells. Moreover, γH2AX is the most

  20. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids.

  1. Chromoplast-Specific Carotenoid-Associated Protein Appears to Be Important for Enhanced Accumulation of Carotenoids in hp1 Tomato Fruits1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids. PMID:23400702

  2. Up-regulated Ectonucleotidases in Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein- and Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1-Deficient Jurkat Leukemia Cells Counteract Extracellular ATP/AMP Accumulation via Pannexin-1 Channels during Chemotherapeutic Drug-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Tressler, Andrea M; Lane, Graham S; Dubyak, George R

    2017-07-01

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels mediate the efflux of ATP and AMP from cancer cells in response to induction of extrinsic apoptosis by death receptors or intrinsic apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents. We previously described the accumulation of extracellular ATP /AMP during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells. In this study, we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat lines that lack the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) cell death regulatory proteins. Tumor necrosis factor- α induced extrinsic apoptosis in control Jurkat cells and necroptosis in FADD-deficient cells; treatment of both lines with chemotherapeutic drugs elicited similar intrinsic apoptosis. Robust extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation was observed in the FADD-deficient cells during necroptosis, but not during apoptotic activation of Panx1 channels. Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to chemotherapeutic agents. Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. The differences in extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation correlated with cell-line-specific expression of ectonucleotidases that metabolized the released ATP/AMP. CD73 mRNA, and α β -methylene-ADP-inhibitable ecto-AMPase activity were elevated in the FADD-deficient cells. In contrast, the RIP1-deficient cells were defined by increased expression of tartrate-sensitive prostatic acid phosphatase as a broadly acting ectonucleotidase. Thus, extracellular nucleotide accumulation during regulated tumor cell death involves interplay between ATP/AMP efflux pathways and different cell-autonomous ectonucleotidases. Differential expression of particular ectonucleotidases in tumor cell variants will determine whether chemotherapy-induced activation of Panx1 channels

  3. Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins Rapidly Accumulate but Fail to Persist in Human XP-E (DDB2 Mutant) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Emmert, Steffen; Tamura, Deborah; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth. H.

    2011-01-01

    The XP-E DNA damage binding protein (DDB2) is involved in early recognition of global genome DNA damage during DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER). We found that skin fibroblasts from 4 newly reported XP-E patients with numerous skin cancers and DDB2 mutations had slow repair of 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP) and markedly reduced repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). NER proteins (XPC, XPB, XPG, XPA, and XPF) co-localized to CPD and 6-4PP positive regions immediately (< 0.1h) after localized UV irradiation in cells from the XP-E patients and normal controls. While these proteins persist in normal cells, surprisingly, within 0.5h these repair proteins were no longer detectable at the sites of DNA damage in XP-E cells. Our results indicate that DDB2 is not required for the rapid recruitment of NER proteins to sites of UV photoproducts or for partial repair of 6-4PP but is essential for normal persistence of these proteins for CPD photoproduct removal. PMID:21388382

  4. Nuclear protein accumulation in cellular senescence and organismal aging revealed with a novel single-cell resolution fluorescence microscopy assay.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Marco; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Zhao, Xiaoai; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Sedivy, John M

    2011-10-01

    Replicative cellular senescence was discovered some 50 years ago. The phenotypes of senescent cells have been investigated extensively in cell culture, and found to affect essentially all aspects of cellular physiology. The relevance of cellular senescence in the context of age-associated pathologies as well as normal aging is a topic of active and ongoing interest. Considerable effort has been devoted to biomarker discovery to enable the microscopic detection of single senescent cells in tissues. One characteristic of senescent cells documented very early in cell culture studies was an increase in cell size and total protein content, but whether this occurs in vivo is not known. A limiting factor for studies of protein content and localization has been the lack of suitable fluorescence microscopy tools. We have developed an easy and flexible method, based on the merocyanine dye known as NanoOrange, to visualize and quantitatively measure total protein levels by high resolution fluorescence microscopy. NanoOrange staining can be combined with antibody-based immunofluorescence, thus providing both specific target and total protein information in the same specimen. These methods are optimally combined with automated image analysis platforms for high throughput analysis. We document here increasing protein content and density in nuclei of senescent human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and in liver nuclei of aged mice in vivo. Additionally, in aged liver nuclei NanoOrange revealed protein-dense foci that colocalize with centromeric heterochromatin.

  5. Nuclear protein accumulation in cellular senescence and organismal aging revealed with a novel single-cell resolution fluorescence microscopy assay

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Marco; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Zhao, Xiaoai; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Replicative cellular senescence was discovered some 50 years ago. The phenotypes of senescent cells have been investigated extensively in cell culture, and found to affect essentially all aspects of cellular physiology. The relevance of cellular senescence in the context of age-associated pathologies as well as normal aging is a topic of active and ongoing interest. Considerable effort has been devoted to biomarker discovery to enable the microscopic detection of single senescent cells in tissues. One characteristic of senescent cells documented very early in cell culture studies was an increase in cell size and total protein content, but whether this occurs in vivo is not known. A limiting factor for studies of protein content and localization has been the lack of suitable fluorescence microscopy tools. We have developed an easy and flexible method, based on the merocyanine dye known as NanoOrange, to visualize and quantitatively measure total protein levels by high resolution fluorescence microscopy. NanoOrange staining can be combined with antibody-based immunofluorescence, thus providing both specific target and total protein information in the same specimen. These methods are optimally combined with automated image analysis platforms for high throughput analysis. We document here increasing protein content and density in nuclei of senescent human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and in liver nuclei of aged mice in vivo. Additionally, in aged liver nuclei NanoOrange revealed protein-dense foci that colocalize with centromeric heterochromatin. PMID:22006542

  6. Altered localization, abnormal modification and loss of function of Sigma receptor-1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prause, J; Goswami, A; Katona, I; Roos, A; Schnizler, M; Bushuven, E; Dreier, A; Buchkremer, S; Johann, S; Beyer, C; Deschauer, M; Troost, D; Weis, J

    2013-04-15

    Intracellular accumulations of mutant, misfolded proteins are major pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related disorders. Recently, mutations in Sigma receptor 1 (SigR1) have been found to cause a form of ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Our goal was to pinpoint alterations and modifications of SigR1 in ALS and to determine how these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. In the present study, we found that levels of the SigR1 protein were reduced in lumbar ALS patient spinal cord. SigR1 was abnormally accumulated in enlarged C-terminals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structures of alpha motor neurons. These accumulations co-localized with the 20s proteasome subunit. SigR1 accumulations were also observed in SOD1 transgenic mice, cultured ALS-8 patient's fibroblasts with the P56S-VAPB mutation and in neuronal cell culture models. Along with the accumulation of SigR1 and several other proteins involved in protein quality control, severe disturbances in the unfolded protein response and impairment of protein degradation pathways were detected in the above-mentioned cell culture systems. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of SigR1 lead to deranged calcium signaling and caused abnormalities in ER and Golgi structures in cultured NSC-34 cells. Finally, pharmacological activation of SigR1 induced the clearance of mutant protein aggregates in these cells. Our results support the notion that SigR1 is abnormally modified and contributes to the pathogenesis of ALS.

  7. Characterization of UO2(2+) binding to osteopontin, a highly phosphorylated protein: insights into potential mechanisms of uranyl accumulation in bones.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lei; Basset, Christian; Averseng, Olivier; Quéméneur, Eric; Hagège, Agnès; Vidaud, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Bones are one of the few organs in which uranyl (UO2(2+)) accumulates. This large dioxo-cation displays affinity for carboxylates, phenolates and phosphorylated functional groups in proteins. The noncollagenous protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. It is mainly found in the extracellular matrix of mineralized tissues but also in body fluids such as milk, blood and urine. Furthermore, OPN is an intrinsically disordered protein, which, like other proteins of the SIBLING family, contains a polyaspartic acid sequence and numerous patterns of alternating acidic and phosphorylated residues. All these properties led to the hypothesis that this protein could be prone to UO2(2+) binding. In this work, a simple purification procedure enabling highly purified bovine (bOPN) and human OPN (hOPN) to be obtained was developed. Various biophysical approaches were set up to study the impact of phosphorylations on the affinity of OPN for UO2(2+) as well as the formation of stable complexes originating from structural changes induced by the binding of this metal cation. The results obtained suggest a new mechanism of the interaction of UO2(2+) with bone metabolism and a new role for OPN as a metal transporter.

  8. The Arabidopsis ppi1 Mutant Is Specifically Defective in the Expression, Chloroplast Import, and Accumulation of Photosynthetic ProteinsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kubis, Sybille; Baldwin, Amy; Patel, Ramesh; Razzaq, Azam; Dupree, Paul; Lilley, Kathryn; Kurth, Joachim; Leister, Dario; Jarvis, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The import of nucleus-encoded proteins into chloroplasts is mediated by translocon complexes in the envelope membranes. A component of the translocon in the outer envelope membrane, Toc34, is encoded in Arabidopsis by two homologous genes, atTOC33 and atTOC34. Whereas atTOC34 displays relatively uniform expression throughout development, atTOC33 is strongly upregulated in rapidly growing, photosynthetic tissues. To understand the reason for the existence of these two related genes, we characterized the atTOC33 knockout mutant ppi1. Immunoblotting and proteomics revealed that components of the photosynthetic apparatus are deficient in ppi1 chloroplasts and that nonphotosynthetic chloroplast proteins are unchanged or enriched slightly. Furthermore, DNA array analysis of 3292 transcripts revealed that photosynthetic genes are moderately, but specifically, downregulated in ppi1. Proteome differences in ppi1 could be correlated with protein import rates: ppi1 chloroplasts imported the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit and 33-kD oxygen-evolving complex precursors at significantly reduced rates, but the import of a 50S ribosomal subunit precursor was largely unaffected. The ppi1 import defect occurred at the level of preprotein binding, which is consistent with a role for atToc33 during preprotein recognition. The data suggest that atToc33 is involved preferentially in the import of photosynthetic proteins and, by extension, that atToc34 is involved in the import of nonphotosynthetic chloroplast proteins. PMID:12897258

  9. Vaccinia Virus Mutations in the L4R Gene Encoding a Virion Structural Protein Produce Abnormal Mature Particles Lacking a Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron micrographs from the 1960s revealed the presence of an S-shaped tubular structure in the center of the vaccinia virion core. Recently, we showed that packaging of virus transcription enzymes is necessary for the formation of the tubular structure, suggesting that the structure is equivalent to a nucleocapsid. Based on this study and on what is known about nucleocapsids of other viruses, we hypothesized that in addition to transcription enzymes, the tubular structure also contains the viral DNA and a structural protein as a scaffold. The vaccinia virion structural protein L4 stands out as the best candidate for the role of a nucleocapsid structural protein because it is abundant, it is localized in the center of the virion core, and it binds DNA. In order to gain more insight into the structure and relevance of the nucleocapsid, we analyzed thermosensitive and inducible mutants in the L4R gene. Using a cryo-fixation method for electron microscopy (high-pressure freezing followed by freeze-substitution) to preserve labile structures like the nucleocapsid, we were able to demonstrate that in the absence of functional L4, mature particles with defective internal structures are produced under nonpermissive conditions. These particles do not contain a nucleocapsid. In addition, the core wall of these virions is abnormal. This suggests that the nucleocapsid interacts with the core wall and that the nucleocapsid structure might be more complex than originally assumed. IMPORTANCE The vaccinia virus nucleocapsid has been neglected since the 1960s due to a lack of electron microscopy techniques to preserve this labile structure. With the advent of cryo-fixation techniques, like high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, we are now able to consistently preserve and visualize the nucleocapsid. Because vaccinia virus early transcription is coupled to the viral core structure, detailing the structure of the nucleocapsid is indispensable for determining the

  10. Dysregulation of synaptic proteins, dendritic spine abnormalities and pathological plasticity of synapses as experience-dependent mediators of cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, J; Hannan, A J

    2013-10-22

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant tandem repeat expansion disorder involving cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms. The expanded trinucleotide (CAG) repeat leads to an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein and a subsequent cascade of molecular and cellular pathogenesis. One of the key features of neuropathology, which has been shown to precede the eventual loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex, striatum and other areas, are changes to synapses, including the dendritic protrusions known as spines. In this review we will focus on synapse and spine pathology in HD, including molecular and experience-dependent aspects of pathogenesis. Dendritic spine pathology has been found in both the human HD brain at post mortem as well as various transgenic and knock-in animal models. These changes may help explain the symptoms in HD, and synaptopathy within the cerebral cortex may be particularly important in mediating the psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of this disease. The earliest stages of synaptic dysfunction in HD, as assayed in various mouse models, appears to involve changes in synaptic proteins and associated physiological abnormalities such as synaptic plasticity deficits. In mouse models, synaptic and cortical plasticity deficits have been directly correlated with the onset of cognitive deficits, implying a causal link. Furthermore, following the discovery that environmental enrichment can delay onset of affective, cognitive and motor deficits in HD transgenic mice, specific synaptic molecules shown to be dysregulated by the polyglutamine-induced toxicity were also found to be beneficially modulated by environmental stimulation. This identifies potential molecular targets for future therapeutic developments to treat this devastating disease. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein profiling of plastoglobules in chloroplasts and chromoplasts. A surprising site for differential accumulation of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Peltier, Jean-Benoit; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2006-03-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are oval or tubular lipid-rich structures present in all plastid types, but their specific functions are unclear. PGs contain quinones, alpha-tocopherol, and lipids and, in chromoplasts, carotenoids as well. It is not known whether PGs contain any enzymes or regulatory proteins. Here, we determined the proteome of PGs from chloroplasts of stressed and unstressed leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as well as from pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit chromoplasts using mass spectrometry. Together, this showed that the proteome of chloroplast PGs consists of seven fibrillins, providing a protein coat and preventing coalescence of the PGs, and an additional 25 proteins likely involved in metabolism of isoprenoid-derived molecules (quinines and tocochromanols), lipids, and carotenoid cleavage. Four unknown ABC1 kinases were identified, possibly involved in regulation of quinone monooxygenases. Most proteins have not been observed earlier but have predicted N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides and lack transmembrane domains, consistent with localization in the PG lipid monolayer particles. Quantitative differences in PG composition in response to high light stress and degreening were determined by differential stable-isotope labeling using formaldehyde. More than 20 proteins were identified in the PG proteome of pepper chromoplasts, including four enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis and several homologs of proteins observed in the chloroplast PGs. Our data strongly suggest that PGs in chloroplasts form a functional metabolic link between the inner envelope and thylakoid membranes and play a role in breakdown of carotenoids and oxidative stress defense, whereas PGs in chromoplasts are also an active site for carotenoid conversions.

  12. Protein Profiling of Plastoglobules in Chloroplasts and Chromoplasts. A Surprising Site for Differential Accumulation of Metabolic Enzymes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ytterberg, A. Jimmy; Peltier, Jean-Benoit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2006-01-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are oval or tubular lipid-rich structures present in all plastid types, but their specific functions are unclear. PGs contain quinones, α-tocopherol, and lipids and, in chromoplasts, carotenoids as well. It is not known whether PGs contain any enzymes or regulatory proteins. Here, we determined the proteome of PGs from chloroplasts of stressed and unstressed leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as well as from pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit chromoplasts using mass spectrometry. Together, this showed that the proteome of chloroplast PGs consists of seven fibrillins, providing a protein coat and preventing coalescence of the PGs, and an additional 25 proteins likely involved in metabolism of isoprenoid-derived molecules (quinines and tocochromanols), lipids, and carotenoid cleavage. Four unknown ABC1 kinases were identified, possibly involved in regulation of quinone monooxygenases. Most proteins have not been observed earlier but have predicted N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides and lack transmembrane domains, consistent with localization in the PG lipid monolayer particles. Quantitative differences in PG composition in response to high light stress and degreening were determined by differential stable-isotope labeling using formaldehyde. More than 20 proteins were identified in the PG proteome of pepper chromoplasts, including four enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis and several homologs of proteins observed in the chloroplast PGs. Our data strongly suggest that PGs in chloroplasts form a functional metabolic link between the inner envelope and thylakoid membranes and play a role in breakdown of carotenoids and oxidative stress defense, whereas PGs in chromoplasts are also an active site for carotenoid conversions. PMID:16461379

  13. Protein Profiles for Muscle Development and Intramuscular Fat Accumulation at Different Post-Hatching Ages in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Fu, Ruiqi; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Cui, Huanxian; Li, Qinghe; Song, Jiao; Wang, Jie; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Muscle development and growth influences the efficiency of poultry meat production, and is closely related to deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF), which is crucial in meat quality. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens, protein expression profiles were examined in the breast muscle of Beijing-You chickens at ages 1, 56, 98 and 140 days, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Two hundred and four of 494 proteins were expressed differentially. The expression profile at day 1 differed greatly from those at day 56, 98 and 140. KEGG pathway analysis of differential protein expression from pair-wise comparisons (day 1 vs. 56; 56 vs. 98; 98 vs. 140), showed that the fatty acid degradation pathway was more active during the stage from day 1 to 56 than at other periods. This was consistent with the change in IMF content, which was highest at day 1 and declined dramatically thereafter. When muscle growth was most rapid (days 56-98), pathways involved in muscle development were dominant, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac muscle contraction, tight junctions and focal adhesion. In contrast with hatchlings, the fatty acid degradation pathway was downregulated from day 98 to 140, which was consistent with the period for IMF deposition following rapid muscle growth. Changes in some key specific proteins, including fast skeletal muscle troponin T isoform, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 and apolipoprotein A1, were verified by Western blotting, and could be potential biomarkers for IMF deposition in chickens. Protein-protein interaction networks showed that ribosome-related functional modules were clustered in all three stages. However, the functional module involved in the metabolic pathway was only clustered in the first stage (day 1 vs. 56). This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in

  14. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β) Negatively Regulates PTTG1/Human Securin Protein Stability, and GSK3β Inactivation Correlates with Securin Accumulation in Breast Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M. Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCFβTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers. PMID:21757741

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-08-26

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCF(βTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers.

  16. Activation of the Protein Kinase C1 Pathway upon Continuous Heat Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Triggered by an Intracellular Increase in Osmolarity due to Trehalose Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Brul, Stanley; Klis, Frans M.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on physiological and molecular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat stress conditions. We observed that within a very narrow range of culture temperatures, a shift from exponential growth to growth arrest and ultimately to cell death occurred. A detailed analysis was carried out of the accumulation of trehalose and the activation of the protein kinase C1 (PKC1) (cell integrity) pathway in both glucose- and ethanol-grown cells upon temperature upshifts within this narrow range of growth temperatures. It was observed that the PKC1 pathway was hardly activated in a tps1 mutant that is unable to accumulate any trehalose. Furthermore, it was observed that an increase of the extracellular osmolarity during a continuous heat stress prevented the activation of the pathway. The results of these analyses support our hypothesis that under heat stress conditions the activation of the PKC1 pathway is triggered by an increase in intracellular osmolarity, due to the accumulation of trehalose, rather than by the increase in temperature as such. PMID:16085846

  17. Abnormally phosphorylated tau protein related to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads in the cerebral cortex of sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Braak, H; Braak, E; Strothjohann, M

    1994-04-25

    Frontal sections including temporal isocortex, entorhinal region and hippocampus from aged domestic animals (dog, cat, horse, sheep and goat) were studied for Alzheimer-related changes using immunostaining with the AT8 antibody for abnormally phosphorylated tau protein and selective silver techniques for A4 amyloid and neurofibrillary changes of the Alzheimer type. The material available to us did not show A4 amyloid deposits or argyrophilic neurofibrillary changes. Only the brains of aged sheep and goat exhibited the presence of AT8-immunoreactive pyramidal cells in the entorhinal region and hippocampal formation. Two groups of AT8-positive neurons could be observed: The first group contained evenly distributed immunoreactive material in all parts of the soma, the dendrites and the axon. The neuronal processes appeared quite normal. The second group, however, showed conspicuous changes in the cellular processes consisting of a loss of immunoreactivity within the axon and the proximal dendrites and the appearance of intensely stained swellings within the curved distal dendrites. These changes were closely reminiscent to alterations of the cytoskeleton known to occur at the same location in the aging human brain and in Alzheimer's disease. The findings justify a closer look at sheep and goat when searching for suitable animal models for experimental studies of the conditions responsible for the development of Alzheimer-related neurofibrillary changes.

  18. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Methods Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. Results In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. Conclusions ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP

  19. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-08-01

    The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP/SIFE and higher resolution protein

  20. Accumulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Early and Leaky-Late Proteins Correlates with Apoptosis Prevention in Infected Human HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Martine; Rice, Stephen A.; Blaho, John A.

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that a recombinant ICP27-null virus stimulated, but did not prevent, apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells during infection (M. Aubert and J. A. Blaho, J. Virol. 73:2803–2813, 1999). In the present study, we used a panel of 15 recombinant ICP27 mutant viruses to determine which features of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication are required for the apoptosis-inhibitory activity. Each virus was defined experimentally as either apoptotic, partially apoptotic, or nonapoptotic based on infected HEp-2 cell morphologies, percentages of infected cells with condensed chromatin, and patterns of specific cellular death factor processing. Viruses d27-1, d1-5, d1-2, M11, M15, M16, n504R, n406R, n263R, and n59R are apoptotic or partially apoptotic in HEp-2 cells and severely defective for growth in Vero cells. Viruses d2-3, d3-4, d4-5, d5-6, and d6-7 are nonapoptotic, demonstrating that ICP27 contains a large amino-terminal region, including its RGG box RNA binding domain, which is not essential for apoptosis prevention. Accumulations of viral TK, VP16, and gD but not gC, ICP22, or ICP4 proteins correlated with prevention of apoptosis during the replication of these viruses. Of the nonapoptotic viruses, d4-5 did not produce gC, indicating that accumulation of true late gene products is not necessary for the prevention process. Analyses of viral DNA synthesis in HEp-2 cells indicated that apoptosis prevention by HSV-1 requires that the infection proceeds to the stage in which viral DNA replication takes place. Infections performed in the presence of the drug phosphonoacetic acid confirmed that the process of viral DNA synthesis and the accumulation of true late (γ2) proteins are not required for apoptosis prevention. Based on our results, we conclude that the accumulation of HSV-1 early (β) and leaky-late (γ1) proteins correlates with the prevention of apoptosis in infected HEp-2 cells. PMID:11134315

  1. Heat-induced accumulation of protein synthesis elongation factor 1A indicates an important role in heat tolerance in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress substantially reduces crop productivity worldwide, and will become more severe due to global warming. Identification of proteins involved in heat stress response may help develop varieties for heat tolerance. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a cytosolic, multifunctional protei...

  2. The brain-specific double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen2: nucleolar accumulation and isoform-specific exportin-5-dependent export.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Paolo; Brownawell, Amy M; Grunewald, Barbara; DesGroseillers, Luc; Macara, Ian G; Kiebler, Michael A

    2004-07-23

    The mammalian double-stranded RNA-binding proteins Staufen (Stau1 and Stau2) are involved in RNA localization in polarized neurons. In contrast to the more ubiquitously expressed Stau1, Stau2 is mainly expressed in the nervous system. In Drosophila, the third double-stranded RNA-binding domain (RBD3) of Staufen is essential for RNA interaction. When conserved amino acids within the RBD3 of Stau2 were mutated to render Stau2 defective for RNA binding, the mutant Stau2 proteins accumulate predominantly in the nucleolus. This is in contrast to wild type Stau2 that mostly localizes in the cytosol. The nuclear import is dependent on a nuclear localization signal in close proximity to the RBD3. The nuclear export of Stau2 is not dependent on CRM1 but rather on Exportin-5. We show that Exportin-5 interacts with the RBD3 of wild type Stau2 in an RNA-dependent manner in vitro but not with mutant Stau2. When Exportin-5 is down-regulated by RNA interference, only the largest isoform of Stau2 (Stau2(62)) preferentially accumulates in the nucleolus. It is tempting to speculate that Stau2(62) binds RNA in the nucleus and assembles into ribonucleoparticles, which are then exported via the Exportin-5 pathway to their final destination.

  3. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12more » h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.« less

  4. Effect of ethephon on protein degradation and the accumulation of pathogensis-related (PR) proteins in tomato leaf discs. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, P.; Conejero, V.

    The effect of ethephon (2-chloroetylphosphonic acid) on the degradation of proteins and on the induction of Lycopersicon esculentum pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was studied in tomato leaf discs. The rate of ribulose, -1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) degradation was maximal in discs after 48 hours of incubation with 1 millimolar ethephon, leading to complete disappearance of Rubisco after 96 hours. This effect was correlated with an increase in PR protein synthesis and the induction of the previously reported alkaline proteolytic enzyme PR-P69. In vivo pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that ethephon not only affected Rubisco content but that of many other {sup 35}S-labeled proteins asmore » well, indicating that ethylene activates a general and nonspecific mechanism of protein degradation. This effect was partially inhibited in vivo by the action of pCMB, a selective inhibitor of cysteine-proteinases such as P69. These data reinforce the hypothesis that P69 and perhaps other PR proteins are involved in the mechanism of accelerated protein degradation activated by ethylene.« less

  5. Defects in the Expression of Chloroplast Proteins Leads to H2O2 Accumulation and Activation of Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, Deserah D.; Livingston, Aaron K.; Satoh-Cruz, Mio

    We describe a new member of the class of mutants in Arabidopsis exhibiting high rates of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF), a light-driven process that produces ATP but not NADPH. High cyclic electron flow 2 (hcef2) shows strongly increased CEF activity through the NADPH dehydrogenase complex (NDH), accompanied by increases in thylakoid proton motive force (pmf), activation of the photoprotective qE response, and the accumulation of H 2O 2 . Surprisingly, hcef2 was mapped to a nonsense mutation in the TADA1 (tRNA adenosine deaminase arginine) locus, coding for a plastid targeted tRNA editing enzyme required for efficient codonmore » recognition. Comparison of protein content from representative thylakoid complexes, the cytochrome bf complex and the ATP synthase, suggests that inefficient translation of hcef2 leads to compromised complex assembly or stability leading to alterations in stoichiometries of major thylakoid complexes as well as their constituent subunits. Altered subunit stoichiometries for photosystem I, ratios and properties of cytochrome bf hemes, and the decay kinetics of the flash induced thylakoid electric field suggest that these defect lead to accumulation of H 2O 2 in hcef2, which we have previously shown leads to activation of NDHrelated CEF. We observed similar increases in CEF and H 2O 2 accumulation in other translation defective mutants, suggesting that loss of coordination in plastid protein levels lead to imbalances in the photosynthetic energy balance that leads to increased CEF. These results, together with a large body of previous observations, support a general model in which processes that imbalances in chloroplast energetics result in the production of H 2O 2 , which activates CEF, either as a redox signal or by inducing deficits in ATP levels.« less

  6. Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini P; Nimal, Sonali; Mastorides, Stephen; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Kahn, C Ronald; Fields, Alan P; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese, Robert V

    2012-04-01

    Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PB1-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that

  7. Disruption of the A-Kinase Anchoring Domain in Flagellar Radial Spoke Protein 3 Results in Unregulated Axonemal cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Activity and Abnormal Flagellar Motility

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Anne R.; Fox, Laura A.; Rhea, Jeanne M.; Craige, Branch

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical studies of Chlamydomonas flagellar axonemes revealed that radial spoke protein (RSP) 3 is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). To determine the physiological role of PKA anchoring in the axoneme, an RSP3 mutant, pf14, was transformed with an RSP3 gene containing a mutation in the PKA-binding domain. Analysis of several independent transformants revealed that the transformed cells exhibit an unusual phenotype: a fraction of the cells swim normally; the remainder of the cells twitch feebly or are paralyzed. The abnormal/paralyzed motility is not due to an obvious deficiency of radial spoke assembly, and the phenotype cosegregates with the mutant RSP3. We postulated that paralysis was due to failure in targeting and regulation of axonemal cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). To test this, reactivation experiments of demembranated cells were performed in the absence or presence of PKA inhibitors. Importantly, motility in reactivated cell models mimicked the live cell phenotype with nearly equal fractions of motile and paralyzed cells. PKA inhibitors resulted in a twofold increase in the number of motile cells, rescuing paralysis. These results confirm that flagellar RSP3 is an AKAP and reveal that a mutation in the PKA binding domain results in unregulated axonemal PKA activity and inhibition of normal motility. PMID:16571668

  8. Common and Specific Protein Accumulation Patterns in Different Albino/Pale-Green Mutants Reveals Regulon Organization at the Proteome Level1[W

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Reiko; Rödiger, Anja; Agne, Birgit; Baerenfaller, Katja; Baginsky, Sacha

    2012-01-01

    Research interest in proteomics is increasingly shifting toward the reverse genetic characterization of gene function at the proteome level. In plants, several distinct gene defects perturb photosynthetic capacity, resulting in the loss of chlorophyll and an albino or pale-green phenotype. Because photosynthesis is interconnected with the entire plant metabolism and its regulation, all albino plants share common characteristics that are determined by the switch from autotrophic to heterotrophic growth. Reverse genetic characterizations of such plants often cannot distinguish between specific consequences of a gene defect from generic effects in response to perturbations in photosynthetic capacity. Here, we set out to define common and specific features of protein accumulation in three different albino/pale-green plant lines. Using quantitative proteomics, we report a common molecular phenotype that connects the loss of photosynthetic capacity with other chloroplast and cellular functions, such as protein folding and stability, plastid protein import, and the expression of stress-related genes. Surprisingly, we do not find significant differences in the expression of key transcriptional regulators, suggesting that substantial regulation occurs at the posttranscriptional level. We examine the influence of different normalization schemes on the quantitative proteomics data and report all identified proteins along with their fold changes and P values in albino plants in comparison with the wild type. Our analysis provides initial guidance for the distinction between general and specific adaptations of the proteome in photosynthesis-impaired plants. PMID:23027667

  9. Iron deficiency cause changes in photochemistry, thylakoid organization, and accumulation of photosystem II proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Devadasu, Elsin Raju; Madireddi, Sai Kiran; Nama, Srilatha; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2016-12-01

    A trace element, iron (Fe) plays a pivotal role in photosynthesis process which in turn mediates the plant growth and productivity. Here, we have focused majorly on the photochemistry of photosystem (PS) II, abundance of proteins, and organization of supercomplexes of thylakoids from Fe-depleted cells in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Confocal pictures show that the cell's size has been reduced and formed rosette-shaped palmelloids; however, there is no cell death. Further, the PSII photochemistry was reduced remarkably. Further, the photosynthetic efficiency analyzer data revealed that both donor and acceptor side of PSII were equally damaged. Additionally, the room-temperature emission spectra showed the fluorescence emission maxima increased due to impaired energy transfer from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, the protein data reveal that most of the proteins of reaction center and light-harvesting antenna were reduced in Fe-depleted cells. Additionally, the supercomplexes of PSI and PSII were destabilized from thylakoids under Fe-deficient condition showing that Fe is an important element in photosynthesis mechanism.

  10. Deficiency in EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein Ameliorates Abnormal Anxiety-Like Behavior and Brain Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2017-08-01

    Microglia are thought to play key roles in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Overactivated microglia produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which appear to contribute to disease progression. Previously, we reported that prostaglandin E 2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) promotes microglial activation. We crossed human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice from strain J20 +/- onto an EPRAP-deficient background to determine the role of EPRAP in AD. Behavioral tests were performed in 5-month-old male J20 +/- EPRAP +/+ and J20 +/- EPRAP -/- mice. EPRAP deficiency reversed the reduced anxiety of J20 +/- mice but did not affect hyperactivity. No differences in spatial memory were observed between J20 +/- EPRAP +/+ and J20 +/- EPRAP -/- mice. In comparison with J20 +/- EPRAP +/+ , J20 +/- EPRAP -/- mice exhibited less microglial accumulation and reductions in the Cd68 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNAs in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. No significant differences were found between the two types of mice in the amount of amyloid-β 40 or 42 in the cortex and hippocampus. J20 +/- EPRAP -/- mice reversed the reduced anxiety-like behavior and had reduced microglial activation compared with J20 +/- EPRAP +/+ mice. Further research is required to identify the role of EPRAP in AD, but our results indicate that EPRAP may be related to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and inflammation in patients with AD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies for Cd accumulation in Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter: role of the cell wall, non-protein thiols and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, R; Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2014-05-01

    Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter is plant species commonly found in degraded zones of Asturias (Spain), where it accumulates high levels of Cd, but the mechanisms involved in this response in non-model plants have not been elucidated. In this way, we analysed the fraction of the total Cd bound to the cell walls, the ultrastructural localization of this metal, and non-protein thiol and organic acid concentrations of two clones of D. viscosa: DV-A (from a metal-polluted soil) and DV-W (from a non-polluted area). After 10 days of hydroponic culture with Cd, fractionation and ultrastructural localisation studies showed that most of the Cd accumulated by D. viscosa was kept in the cell wall. The non-protein thiol content rose in D. viscosa with Cd exposure, especially in the non-metallicolous DV-W clone, and in both clones we found with Cd exposure a synthesis de novo of phytochelatins PC2 and PC3 in shoots and roots and also of other phytochelatin-related compounds, particularly in roots. Regarding organic acids, their concentration in both clones decreased in shoots after Cd treatment, but increased in roots, mainly due to changes in the citric acid concentration. Thus, retention of Cd in the cell wall seems to be the first strategy in response to metal entry in D. viscosa and once inside cells non-protein thiols and organic acids might also participate in Cd tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  13. The Human Cytomegalovirus IE2 and UL112-113 Proteins Accumulate in Viral DNA Replication Compartments That Initiate from the Periphery of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein-Associated Nuclear Bodies (PODs or ND10)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Hyun; Jang, Won-Jong; Hayward, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    During human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the periphery of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML)-associated nuclear bodies (also known as PML oncogenic domains [PODs] or ND10) are sites for both input viral genome deposition and immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. At very early times after infection, the IE1 protein localizes to and subsequently disrupts PODs, whereas the IE2 protein localizes within or adjacent to PODs. This process appears to be required for efficient viral gene expression and DNA replication. We have investigated the initiation of viral DNA replication compartment formation by studying the localization of viral IE proteins, DNA replication proteins, and the PML protein during productive infection. Localization of IE2 adjacent to PODs between 2 and 6 h after infection was confirmed by confocal microscopy of human fibroblasts (HF cells) infected with both wild-type HCMV(Towne) and with an IE1-deletion mutant HCMV(CR208) that fails to disrupt PODs. In HCMV(Towne)-infected HF cells at 24 to 48 h, IE2 also accumulated in newly formed viral DNA replication compartments containing the polymerase processivity factor (UL44), the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB; UL57), the UL112-113 accessory protein, and newly incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Double labeling of the HCMV(CR208)-infected HF cells demonstrated that formation of viral DNA replication compartments initiates within granular structures that bud from the periphery of some of the PODs and subsequently coalesce into larger structures that are flanked by PODs. In transient DNA transfection assays, both the N terminus (codons 136 to 290) and the C terminus (codons 379 to 579) of IE2 exon 5, but not the central region between them, were found to be necessary for both the punctate distribution of IE2 and its association with PODs. Like IE2, the UL112-113 accessory replication protein was also distributed in a POD-associated pattern in both DNA-transfected and virus

  14. Accumulation of PrP-Sc in hemal nodes of naturally and experimentally scrapie-infected sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent. Infection is accompanied by accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Hemal nodes, which are unique ...

  15. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Ho; Bae, Si Hyun; Oh, Seh Hoon; Kim, Gi Jin

    2016-09-01

    Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  16. Effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage and grain protein accumulation of dryland wheat and its regulatory effect by nitrogen application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm(-2), was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat.

  17. Effect of Subsoiling in Fallow Period on Soil Water Storage and Grain Protein Accumulation of Dryland Wheat and Its Regulatory Effect by Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0–300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60–160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40–160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm−2, was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat. PMID:24098371

  18. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  19. Low cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration but normal CETP activity in serum from patients with short-term hypothyroidism Lack of relationship to lipoprotein abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dedecjus, Marek; Masson, David; Gautier, Thomas; de Barros, Jean-Paul Pais; Gambert, Philippe; Lewinski, Andrzej; Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Moulin, Philippe; Lagrost, Laurent

    2003-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with a number of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism. Although alterations in neutral lipid exchanges among plasma lipoproteins might be one characteristic feature of hypothyroidism, a few human studies of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity have led to heterogeneous and fragmentary observations. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of short-term hypothyroidism on CETP activity, as well as on the structure and composition of lipoproteins. PATIENTS, DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Sixty-six thyroidectomized patients were withdrawn from L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment for 5 weeks. Subsequently, L-T4 therapy was reinstated for 2 months and patients were compared to 61 matched normolipidaemic controls. Serum CETP activity and mass concentration, serum lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein size distribution were determined in the three groups. Serum CETP mass concentration was significantly decreased in short-term hypothyroid patients, as compared to control subjects (3.22 +/- 0.98 vs. 3.79 +/- 1.2 mg/l, respectively; P < 0.001), and the values were normalized during L-T4 therapy. The ability of endogenous serum lipoproteins to interact with CETP was normal in short-term hypothyroid patients. Concordant observations were made regardless of whether neutral lipid transfers were measured from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) toward apo B-containing lipoproteins or from liposomes toward HDL. The size distribution of HDL was significantly different in short-term hypothyroid patients, compared to either the control or treated subgroups, with significant higher proportions of large-sized HDL2b and HDL2a (HDL2b: 13.6 +/- 6.5% before vs. 8.5 +/- 4.2% during L-T4 therapy, P < 0.05; HDL2a, 33.0 +/- 7.0% before vs. 29.3 +/- 6.9% during L-T4 therapy, P < 0.05). Although serum CETP mass concentration correlated negatively with the HDL2 to HDL3 ratio in control subjects (r = -0.588; P < 0.0001), no significant correlations

  20. Accumulation and altered localization of telomere-associated protein TRF2 in immortally transformed and tumor-derived human breast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Bassett, Ekaterina; Garbe, James

    2004-12-23

    We have used cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and breast tumor-derived lines to gain information on defects that occur during breast cancer progression. HMEC immortalized by a variety of agents (the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene, oncogenes c-myc and ZNF217, and/or dominant negative p53 genetic suppressor element GSE22) displayed marked up regulation (10-15 fold) of the telomere binding protein, TRF2. Up-regulation of TRF2 protein was apparently due to differences in post-transcriptional regulation, as mRNA levels remained comparable in finite life span and immortal HMEC. TRF2 protein was not up-regulated by the oncogenic agents alone in the absence of immortalization, nor bymore » expression of exogenously introduced hTERT genes. We found TRF2 levels to be at least 2-fold higher than in control cells in 11/15 breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that elevated TRF2 levels are a frequent occurrence during the transformation of breast tumor cells in vivo. The dispersed distribution of TRF2 throughout the nuclei in some immortalized and tumor-derived cells indicated that not all the TRF2 was associated with telomeres in these cells. The process responsible for accumulation of TRF2 in immortalized HMEC and breast tumor-derived cell lines may promote tumorigenesis by contributing to the cells ability to maintain an indefinite life span.« less

  1. SET protein accumulates in HNSCC and contributes to cell survival: antioxidant defense, Akt phosphorylation and AVOs acidification.

    PubMed

    Leopoldino, Andréia M; Squarize, Cristiane H; Garcia, Cristiana B; Almeida, Luciana O; Pestana, Cezar R; Sobral, Lays M; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Tajara, Eloiza H; Silvio Gutkind, J; Curti, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the SET protein levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissue samples and the SET role in cell survival and response to oxidative stress in HNSCC cell lineages. SET protein was analyzed in 372 HNSCC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray and HNSCC cell lineages. Oxidative stress was induced with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (50 and 250μM) in the HNSCC HN13 cell lineage either with (siSET) or without (siNC) SET knockdown. Cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V/propidium iodide assays. It was assessed caspase-3 and -9, PARP-1, DNA fragmentation, NM23-H1, SET, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) status. Acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) were assessed by the acridine orange assay. Glutathione levels and transcripts of antioxidant genes were assayed by fluorometry and real time PCR, respectively. SET levels were up-regulated in 97% tumor tissue samples and in HNSCC cell lineages. SiSET in HN13 cells (i) promoted cell death but did not induced caspases, PARP-1 cleavage or DNA fragmentation, and (ii) decreased resistance to death induced by oxidative stress, indicating SET involvement through caspase-independent mechanism. The red fluorescence induced by siSET in HN13 cells in the acridine orange assay suggests SET-dependent prevention of AVOs acidification. NM23-H1 protein was restricted to the cytoplasm of siSET/siNC HN13 cells under oxidative stress, in association with decrease of cleaved SET levels. In the presence of oxidative stress, siNC HN13 cells showed lower GSH antioxidant defense (GSH/GSSG ratio) but higher expression of the antioxidant genes PRDX6, SOD2 and TXN compared to siSET HN13 cells. Still under oxidative stress, p-Akt levels were increased in siNC HN13 cells but not in siSET HN13, indicating its involvement in HN13 cell survival. Similar results for the main SET effects were observed in HN12 and CAL 27 cell lineages, except that HN13 cells were more

  2. Copper-Deficiency in Brassica napus Induces Copper Remobilization, Molybdenum Accumulation and Modification of the Expression of Chloroplastic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Billard, Vincent; Ourry, Alain; Maillard, Anne; Garnica, Maria; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Cruz, Florence; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Etienne, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the last 40 years, crop breeding has strongly increased yields but has had adverse effects on the content of micronutrients, such as Fe, Mg, Zn and Cu, in edible products despite their sufficient supply in most soils. This suggests that micronutrient remobilization to edible tissues has been negatively selected. As a consequence, the aim of this work was to quantify the remobilization of Cu in leaves of Brassica napus L. during Cu deficiency and to identify the main metabolic processes that were affected so that improvements can be achieved in the future. While Cu deficiency reduced oilseed rape growth by less than 19% compared to control plants, Cu content in old leaves decreased by 61.4%, thus demonstrating a remobilization process between leaves. Cu deficiency also triggered an increase in Cu transporter expression in roots (COPT2) and leaves (HMA1), and more surprisingly, the induction of the MOT1 gene encoding a molybdenum transporter associated with a strong increase in molybdenum (Mo) uptake. Proteomic analysis of leaves revealed 33 proteins differentially regulated by Cu deficiency, among which more than half were located in chloroplasts. Eleven differentially expressed proteins are known to require Cu for their synthesis and/or activity. Enzymes that were located directly upstream or downstream of Cu-dependent enzymes were also differentially expressed. The overall results are then discussed in relation to remobilization of Cu, the interaction between Mo and Cu that occurs through the synthesis pathway of Mo cofactor, and finally their putative regulation within the Calvin cycle and the chloroplastic electron transport chain. PMID:25333918

  3. Mutation of the OsSAC1 Gene, which Encodes an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein with an Unknown Function, Causes Sugar Accumulation in Rice Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Wenqiang; Huang, Junyang; Zhang, Tianquan; Zhang, Xiaobo; Cui, Yuanjiang; Sang, Xianchun; Ling, Yinghua; Li, Yunfeng; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fangmin; Zhang, Changwei; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2018-03-01

    Sugars are the most abundant organic compounds produced by plants, and can be used to build carbon skeletons and generate energy. The sugar accumulation 1 (OsSAC1) gene encodes a protein with an unknown function that exhibits four N-terminal transmembrane regions and two conserved domains of unknown function, DUF4220 and DUF594. OsSAC1 was found to be poorly and specifically expressed at the bottoms of young leaves and in the developing leaf sheaths. Subcellular location results showed that OsSAC1 was co-localized with ER:mCherry and targeted the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). OsSAC1 has been found to affect sugar partitioning in rice (Oryza sativa). I2/KI starch staining, ultrastructure observations and starch content measurements indicated that more and larger starch granules accumulated in ossac1 source leaves than in wild-type (WT) source leaves. Additionally, higher sucrose and glucose concentrations accumulated in the ossac1 source leaves than in WT source leaves, whereas lower sucrose and glucose concentrations were observed in the ossac1 young leaves and developing leaf sheaths than in those of the WT. Much greater expression of OsAGPL1 and OsAGPS1 (responsible for starch synthesis) and significantly less expression of OscFBP1, OscFBP2, OsSPS1 and OsSPS11 (responsible for sucrose synthesis) and OsSWEET11, OsSWEET14 and OsSUT1 (responsible for sucrose loading) occurred in ossac1 source leaves than in WT source leaves. A greater amount of the rice plasmodesmatal negative regulator OsGSD1 was detected in ossac1 young leaves and developing leaf sheaths than in those of the WT. These results suggest that ER-targeted OsSAC1 may indirectly regulate sugar partitioning in carbon-demanding young leaves and developing leaf sheaths.

  4. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  5. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) controls ganciclovir intracellular accumulation and contributes to ganciclovir-induced neutropenia in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Billat, Pierre-André; Ossman, Tahani; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Essig, Marie; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel; Kaminski, Hannah; Fabre, Gabin; Otyepka, Michal; Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Marquet, Pierre; Trouillas, Patrick; Picard, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is the cornerstone of cytomegalovirus prevention and treatment in transplant patients. It is associated with problematic adverse hematological effects in this population of immunosuppressed patients, which may lead to dose reduction thus favoring resistance. GCV crosses the membranes of cells, is activated by phosphorylation, and then stops the replication of viral DNA. Its intracellular accumulation might favor host DNA polymerase inhibition, hence toxicity. Following this hypothesis, we investigated the association between a selected panel of membrane transporter polymorphisms and the evolution of neutrophil counts in n=174 renal transplant recipients. An independent population of n=96 renal transplants served as a replication and experiments using HEK293T-transfected cells were performed to validate the clinical findings. In both cohorts, we found a variant in ABCC4 (rs11568658) associated with decreased neutrophil counts following valganciclovir (GCV prodrug) administration (exploratory cohort: β±SD=-0.68±0.28, p=0.029; replication cohort: β±SD=-0.84±0.29, p=0.0078). MRP4-expressing cells showed decreased GCV accumulation as compared to negative control cells (transfected with an empty vector) (-61%; p<0.0001). The efflux process was almost abolished in cells expressing MRP4 rs11568658 variant protein. Molecular dynamic simulations of GCV membrane crossing showed a preferred location of the drug just beneath the polar head group region, which supports its interaction with efflux transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Houttuynia cordata attenuates lipid accumulation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun; Koppula, Sushruta

    2014-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) from the family Saururaceae is a perennial herb native to Southeast Asia. It possesses a range of medicinal properties to treat several disease symptoms including allergic inflammation and anaphylaxis. In the present investigation, we provided the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of H. cordata extract (HCE) in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of HCE (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL) and treated with serum-free medium with normal glucose (5 mM) for 1 h, followed by exposure to high glucose (25 mM D-glucose) for 24 h. HCE significantly and dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes when exposed to high glucose (25 mM D-glucose) (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 at 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL concentrations, respectively). Further, HCE attenuated the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs). The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also activated by HCE treatment when exposed to high glucose (25 mM D-glucose) in human HepG2 hepatocytes. This study suggests the hypolipidemic effects of HCE by the inhibition of lipid biosynthesis mediated through AMPK signaling, which may play an active role and can be developed as an anti-obesity agent.

  8. Adaptation to a high-protein diet progressively increases the postprandial accumulation of carbon skeletons from dietary amino acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Magdalena; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Khodorova, Nadezda; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether oxidative pathways adapt to the overproduction of carbon skeletons resulting from the progressive activation of amino acid (AA) deamination and ureagenesis under a high-protein (HP) diet. Ninety-four male Wistar rats, of which 54 were implanted with a permanent jugular catheter, were fed a normal protein diet for 1 wk and were then switched to an HP diet for 1, 3, 6, or 14 days. On the experimental day, they were given their meal containing a mixture of 20 U-[ 15 N]-[ 13 C] AA, whose metabolic fate was followed for 4 h. Gastric emptying tended to be slower during the first 3 days of adaptation. 15 N excretion in urine increased progressively during the first 6 days, reaching 29% of ingested protein. 13 CO 2 excretion was maximal, as early as the first day, and represented only 16% of the ingested proteins. Consequently, the amount of carbon skeletons remaining in the metabolic pools 4 h after the meal ingestion progressively increased to 42% of the deaminated dietary AA after 6 days of HP diet. In contrast, 13 C enrichment of plasma glucose tended to increase from 1 to 14 days of the HP diet. We conclude that there is no oxidative adaptation in the early postprandial period to an excess of carbon skeletons resulting from AA deamination in HP diets. This leads to an increase in the postprandial accumulation of carbon skeletons throughout the adaptation to an HP diet, which can contribute to the sustainable satiating effect of this diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Protein Precursor Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H; Rao, Eshaan R; McNellis, Brittany M; Huang, Eric S; Hemmy, Laura S; Forster, Colleen L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Borchelt, David R; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H; Zahs, Kathleen R

    2017-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ∼4.5 times that of 21-month-old Tg2576 mice and ∼15 times that of 21-24-month-old rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort.

  10. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H.; Rao, Eshaan R.; McNellis, Brittany M.; Huang, Eric S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Borchelt, David R.; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H.; Zahs, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ~4.5 times that of 21-month Tg2576 mice and ~15 times that of 21–24-month rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort. PMID:28059792

  11. Oral sensitization to whey proteins induces age- and sex-dependent behavioral abnormality and neuroinflammatory responses in a mouse model of food allergy: a potential role of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Germundson, Danielle L; Smith, Nicholas A; Vendsel, Lane P; Kelsch, Andrea V; Combs, Colin K; Nagamoto-Combs, Kumi

    2018-04-23

    Growing evidence has strengthened the association of food allergy with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms by which peripheral allergic responses lead to behavioral dysfunction are yet to be determined. Allergen-activated mast cells may serve as mediators by releasing histamine and other inflammatory factors that could adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that eliciting food allergy in experimental animals would result in behavioral changes accompanied by mast cell accumulation in the brain. Our hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of milk allergy using bovine milk whey proteins (WP) as the allergen. Male and female C57BL/6 mice at 4 weeks (young) and 10 months (old) of age underwent 5-week WP sensitization with weekly intragastric administration of 20 mg WP and 10 μg cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Age-matched sham animals were given the vehicle containing only the adjuvant. All animals were orally challenged with 50 mg WP in week 6 and their intrinsic digging behavior was assessed the next day. Animals were sacrificed 3 days after the challenge, and WP-specific serum IgE, intestinal and brain mast cells, glial activation, and epigenetic DNA modification in the brain were examined. WP-sensitized males showed significantly less digging activity than the sham males in both age groups while no apparent difference was observed in females. Mast cells and their activities were evident in the intestines in an age- and sex-dependent manner. Brain mast cells were predominantly located in the region between the lateral midbrain and medial hippocampus, and their number increased in the WP-sensitized young, but not old, male brains. Noticeable differences in for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine immunoreactivity were observed in WP mice of both age groups in the amygdala, suggesting epigenetic regulation. Increased microglial Iba1 immunoreactivity and perivascular astrocytes hypertrophy were also observed

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  14. Cell wall accumulation of fluorescent proteins derived from a trans-Golgi cisternal membrane marker and paramural bodies in interdigitated Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Kobayashi, Megumi; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ueda, Takashi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nagata, Noriko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Higaki, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    In most dicotyledonous plants, leaf epidermal pavement cells develop jigsaw puzzle-like shapes during cell expansion. The rapid growth and complicated cell shape of pavement cells is suggested to be achieved by targeted exocytosis that is coordinated with cytoskeletal rearrangement to provide plasma membrane and/or cell wall materials for lobe development during their morphogenesis. Therefore, visualization of membrane trafficking in leaf pavement cells should contribute an understanding of the mechanism of plant cell morphogenesis. To reveal membrane trafficking in pavement cells, we observed monomeric red fluorescent protein-tagged rat sialyl transferases, which are markers of trans-Golgi cisternal membranes, in the leaf epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative fluorescence imaging techniques and immunoelectron microscopic observations revealed that accumulation of the red fluorescent protein occurred mostly in the curved regions of pavement cell borders and guard cell ends during leaf expansion. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that apoplastic vesicular membrane structures called paramural bodies were more frequent beneath the curved cell wall regions of interdigitated pavement cells and guard cell ends in young leaf epidermis. In addition, pharmacological studies showed that perturbations in membrane trafficking resulted in simple cell shapes. These results suggested possible heterogeneity of the curved regions of plasma membranes, implying a relationship with pavement cell morphogenesis.

  15. Effective charge measurements reveal selective and preferential accumulation of anions, but not cations, at the protein surface in dilute salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gokarn, Yatin R; Fesinmeyer, R Matthew; Saluja, Atul; Razinkov, Vladimir; Chase, Susan F; Laue, Thomas M; Brems, David N

    2011-01-01

    Specific-ion effects are ubiquitous in nature; however, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Although Hofmeister-ion effects on proteins are observed at higher (>0.3M) salt concentrations, in dilute (<0.1M) salt solutions nonspecific electrostatic screening is considered to be dominant. Here, using effective charge (Q*) measurements of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a direct and differential measure of ion-association, we experimentally show that anions selectively and preferentially accumulate at the protein surface even at low (<100 mM) salt concentrations. At a given ion normality (50 mN), the HEWL Q* was dependent on anion, but not cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, GdnH+, and Ca2+), identity. The Q* decreased in the order F− > Cl− > Br− > NO3− ∼ I− > SCN− > ClO4− ≫ SO42−, demonstrating progressively greater binding of the monovalent anions to HEWL and also show that the SO42− anion, despite being strongly hydrated, interacts directly with the HEWL surface. Under our experimental conditions, we observe a remarkable asymmetry between anions and cations in their interactions with the HEWL surface. PMID:21432935

  16. Myxococcus xanthus Developmental Cell Fate Production: Heterogeneous Accumulation of Developmental Regulatory Proteins and Reexamination of the Role of MazF in Developmental Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongsoo; Holkenbrink, Carina; Treuner-Lange, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus undergoes a starvation-induced multicellular developmental program during which cells partition into three known fates: (i) aggregation into fruiting bodies followed by differentiation into spores, (ii) lysis, or (iii) differentiation into nonaggregating persister-like cells, termed peripheral rods. As a first step to characterize cell fate segregation, we enumerated total, aggregating, and nonaggregating cells throughout the developmental program. We demonstrate that both cell lysis and cell aggregation begin with similar timing at approximately 24 h after induction of development. Examination of several known regulatory proteins in the separated aggregated and nonaggregated cell fractions revealed previously unknown heterogeneity in the accumulation patterns of proteins involved in type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated motility (PilC and PilA) and regulation of development (MrpC, FruA, and C-signal). As part of our characterization of the cell lysis fate, we set out to investigate the unorthodox MazF-MrpC toxin-antitoxin system which was previously proposed to induce programmed cell death (PCD). We demonstrate that deletion of mazF in two different wild-type M. xanthus laboratory strains does not significantly reduce developmental cell lysis, suggesting that MazF's role in promoting PCD is an adaption to the mutant background strain used previously. PMID:22493014

  17. Late G1 accumulation after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation is related to endogenous Raf-1 protein expression and intrinsic radiosensitivity in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Warenius, H. M.; Jones, M.; Jones, M. D.; Browning, P. G.; Seabra, L. A.; Thompson, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported a correlation between high endogenous expression of the protein product of the RAF-1 proto-oncogene, intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity and rapid exit from a G2/M delay induced by 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation. Raf1 is a positive serine/threonine kinase signal transduction factor that relays signals from the cell membrane to the MAP kinase system further downstream and is believed to be involved in an ionizing radiation signal transduction pathway modulating the G1/S checkpoint. We therefore extended our flow cytometric studies to investigate relationships between radiosensitivity, endogenous expression of the Raf1 protein and perturbation of cell cycle checkpoints, leading to alterations in the G1, S and G2/M populations after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation. Differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity after modulation of the G1/S checkpoint have generally been understood to involve p53 function up to the present time. A role for dominant oncogenes in control of G1/S transit in radiation-treated cells has not been identified previously. Here, we show in 12 human in vitro cancer cell lines that late G1 accumulation after 2 Gy of radiation is related to both Raf1 expression (r = 0.91, P = 0.0001) and the radiosensitivity parameter SF2 (r = -0.71, P = 0.009). PMID:9579826

  18. Tissue-specific autoregulation of Drosophila suppressor of forked by alternative poly(A) site utilization leads to accumulation of the suppressor of forked protein in mitotically active cells.

    PubMed Central

    Juge, F; Audibert, A; Benoit, B; Simonelig, M

    2000-01-01

    The Suppressor of forked protein is the Drosophila homolog of the 77K subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor, a complex required for the first step of the mRNA 3'-end-processing reaction. We have shown previously that wild-type su(f) function is required for the accumulation of a truncated su(f) transcript polyadenylated in intron 4 of the gene. This led us to propose a model in which the Su(f) protein would negatively regulate its own accumulation by stimulating 3'-end formation of this truncated su(f) RNA. In this article, we demonstrate this model and show that su(f) autoregulation is tissue specific. The Su(f) protein accumulates at a high level in dividing tissues, but not in nondividing tissues. We show that this distribution of the Su(f) protein results from stimulation by Su(f) of the tissue-specific utilization of the su(f) intronic poly(A) site, leading to the accumulation of the truncated su(f) transcript in nondividing tissues. Utilization of this intronic poly(A) site is affected in a su(f) mutant and restored in the mutant with a transgene encoding wild-type Su(f) protein. These data provide an in vivo example of cell-type-specific regulation of a protein level by poly(A) site choice, and confirm the role of Su(f) in regulation of poly(A) site utilization. PMID:11105753

  19. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction and amyloid precursor protein accumulation in microvascular compartment following ischemia-reperfusion brain injury with 1-year survival.

    PubMed

    Pluta, R

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the late microvascular consequences of brain ischemia due to cardiac arrest in rats. In reacted vibratome sections scattered foci of extravasated horseradish peroxidase were noted throughout the brain and did not appear to be restricted to any specific area of brain. Ultrastructural investigation of leaky sites frequently presented platelets adhering to the endothelium of venules and capillaries. Endothelial cells demonstrated pathological changes with evidence of perivascular astrocytic swelling. At the same time, we noted C-terminal of amyloid precursor protein/beta-amyloid peptide (CAPP/betaA) deposits in cerebral blood vessels, with a halo of CAPP/betaA immunoreactivity in the surrounding parenchyma suggested diffusion of CAPP/betaA out of the vascular compartment. Changes predominated in the hippocampus, cerebral and entorhinal cortex, corpus callosum, thalamus, basal ganglia and around the lateral ventricles. These data implicate delayed abnormal endothelial function of vessels following ischemia-reperfusion brain injury as a primary event in the pathogenesis of the recurrent cerebral infarction.

  20. Protein kinase C isoforms in iris sphincter smooth muscle: differential effects of phorbol ester on contraction and cAMP accumulation are species specific.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1996-03-01

    Objectives were to identify PKC isoforms in iris sphincter isolated from rabbit, cat, dog and bovine irides, to determine their subcellular distribution, and to investigate the effects of the phorbol ester, PDBu, on contraction and cAMP accumulation in this tissue. Using six isoform (alpha, beta, gamma, epsilon, delta, zeta)-specific polyclonal antibodies, PKC alpha, beta, epsilon, delta, and zeta were detected in the four species, whereas PKC gamma was detected only in dog and bovine. PKC alpha and epsilon are the most abundant isoforms in this tissue. PKC alpha is mainly cytosolic in rabbit and bovine and membrane associated in cat and dog. PKC gamma is equally distributed in cytosol and membrane fractions of bovine, but mostly cytosolic in dog. PKC beta, delta and epsilon are mainly membraneous and PKC zeta is mainly cytosolic in all species. PDBu (100 nM) induced a contractile response in rabbit- and cat-, but not in dog and bovine, sphincters, and increased cAMP accumulation in rabbit, cat, dog and bovine by 111, 130, 458 and 294%, respectively. Therefore, the lack of effect of PDBu on contraction in dog and bovine, as compared to rabbit and cat, may be due: (a) to the presence of PKC gamma isoform, and (b) to the stronger stimulatory effects of the phorbol ester on cAMP production in the non-contracting species. In addition to demonstrating the presence of various PKC isoforms in the iris sphincter and the activation of adenylyl cyclase by this protein kinase, we have shown that the distribution of the PKC isoforms in this tissue is species specific. Furthermore, our data suggest that there may be specific physiological functions associated with each of the PKC isoforms and that PKC is involved in the contractile response of some but not all smooth muscles.

  1. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  2. Nuclear accumulation of myocyte muscle LIM protein is regulated by heme oxygenase 1 and correlates with cardiac function in the transition to failure

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Anju; Dewan, Sukriti; Ikie, Cindy; Whalley, Benjamin J; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The present study investigated the mechanism associated with impaired cardiac mechanosensing that leads to heart failure by examining the factors regulating muscle LIM protein subcellular distribution in myocytes.In myocytes, muscle LIM protein subcellular distribution is regulated by cell contractility rather than passive stretch via heme oxygenase‐1 and histone deacetylase signalling. The result of the present study provide new insights into mechanotransduction in cardiac myocytes.Myocyte mechanosensitivity, as indicated by the muscle LIM protein ratio, is also correlated with cardiac function in the transition to failure in a guinea‐pig model of disease. This shows that the loss mechanosensitivity plays an important role during the transition to failure in the heart.The present study provides the first indication that mechanosensing could be modified pharmacologically during the transition to heart failure. Abstract Impaired mechanosensing leads to heart failure and a decreased ratio of cytoplasmic to nuclear CSRP3/muscle LIM protein (MLP ratio) is associated with a loss of mechanosensitivity. In the present study, we tested whether passive or active stress/strain was important in modulating the MLP ratio and determined whether this correlated with heart function during the transition to failure. We exposed cultured neonatal rat myocytes to a 10% cyclic mechanical stretch at 1 Hz, or electrically paced myocytes at 6.8 V (1 Hz) for 48 h. The MLP ratio decreased by 50% (P < 0.05, n = 4) only in response to electrical pacing, suggesting impaired mechanosensitivity. Inhibition of contractility with 10 μm blebbistatin resulted in an ∼3‐fold increase in the MLP ratio (n = 8, P < 0.05), indicating that myocyte contractility regulates nuclear MLP. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) signalling with trichostatin A increased nuclear MLP following passive stretch, suggesting that HDACs block MLP nuclear accumulation. Inhibition of heme

  3. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage.

  4. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  5. The requirements of yeast Hsp70 of SSA family for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Hee; Sherman, Michael Y; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2016-06-17

    Cytoplasmic Hsp70s of SSA family, especially Ssa1p, are involved in the degradation of a variety of misfolded proteins in yeast. However the importance of other Ssa proteins in this process is unclear. To clarify the role(s) of individual Ssa proteins in proteolysis, we measured the breakdown of various cell proteins in mutants lacking different Ssa proteins. In mutants lacking Ssa1p and Ssa2p, the proteasomal degradation of short-lived proteins was reduced, which was not restored fully by the over-expression of Ssa1p. By contrast, the degradation of stable cellular proteins did not require Ssa proteins. The degradation of the cytosolic model substrates (Ub-P-β-gal and R-β-gal) and their ubiquitylation were inhibited by the inactivation of Ssa proteins. In addition, Ssa1p and the co-chaperone Ydj1p are indispensable for the intracellular degradation of a mutant secretory protein, Siiyama variant of human antitrypsin. Our findings indicate that both Ssa1p and Ssa2p are essential for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of short-lived proteins and the requirements of Ssa proteins and the co-chaperones widely vary depending on the conformations and folding status of the substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Craterostigma plantagineum glycine-rich protein CpGRP1 interacts with a cell wall-associated protein kinase 1 (CpWAK1) and accumulates in leaf cell walls during dehydration.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Valentino; Krey, Stephanie; von den Driesch, Barbara; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-04-01

    Craterostigma plantagineum tolerates extreme desiccation. Leaves of this plant shrink and extensively fold during dehydration and expand again during rehydration, preserving their structural integrity. Genes were analysed that may participate in the reversible folding mechanism. Analysis of transcripts abundantly expressed in desiccated leaves identified a gene putatively coding for an apoplastic glycine-rich protein (CpGRP1). We studied the expression, regulation and subcellular localization of CpGRP1 and its ability to interact with a cell wall-associated protein kinase (CpWAK1) to understand the role of CpGRP1 in the cell wall during dehydration. The CpGRP1 protein accumulates in the apoplast of desiccated leaves. Analysis of the promoter revealed that the gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) and involves a drought-responsive cis-element (DRE). CpGRP1 interacts with CpWAK1 which is down-regulated in response to dehydration. Our data suggest a role of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex in dehydration-induced morphological changes in the cell wall during dehydration in C. plantagineum. Cell wall pectins and dehydration-induced pectin modifications are predicted to be involved in the activity of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Absence of an Orphan Mitochondrial Protein, C19orf12, Causes a Distinct Clinical Subtype of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Monika B.; Iuso, Arcangela; Haack, Tobias; Kmiec, Tomasz; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Heim, Katharina; Roeber, Sigrun; Tarabin, Victoria; Dusi, Sabrina; Krajewska-Walasek, Malgorzata; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Hempel, Maja; Winkelmann, Juliane; Elstner, Matthias; Oexle, Konrad; Klopstock, Thomas; Mueller-Felber, Wolfgang; Gasser, Thomas; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Tiranti, Valeria; Kretzschmar, Hans; Schmitz, Gerd; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The disease classification neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by brain iron deposits in the basal ganglia. For about half of the cases, the molecular basis is currently unknown. We used homozygosity mapping followed by candidate gene sequencing to identify a homozygous 11 bp deletion in the orphan gene C19orf12. Mutation screening of 23 ideopathic NBIA index cases revealed two mutated alleles in 18 of them, and one loss-of-function mutation is the most prevalent. We also identified compound heterozygous missense mutations in a case initially diagnosed with Parkinson disease at age 49. Psychiatric signs, optic atrophy, and motor axonal neuropathy were common findings. Compared to the most prevalent NBIA subtype, pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), individuals with two C19orf12 mutations were older at age of onset and the disease progressed more slowly. A polyclonal antibody against the predicted membrane spanning protein showed a mitochondrial localization. A histopathological examination in a single autopsy case detected Lewy bodies, tangles, spheroids, and tau pathology. The mitochondrial localization together with the immunohistopathological findings suggests a pathomechanistic overlap with common forms of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21981780

  8. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of <10 years. Furthermore, HA and IαI amassed in follicular germinal centers and in T-cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  9. PDK1 inhibitor GSK2334470 synergizes with proteasome inhibitor MG‑132 in multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting full AKT activity and increasing nuclear accumulation of the PTEN protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yang, Chunmei; Zhou, Fengping; Chen, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is generally active in multiple myeloma (MM) and higher expression than other hematopoietic cells, which is associated with the drug resistance and the disease progression. Previous studies have demonstrated that PDK1 can be targeted therapeutically in MM. In the present study, we examined the combination effect of GSK2334470 (GSK‑470), a novel and highly specific inhibitor of PDK1, with proteasome inhibitor MG‑132 in MM cell lines. GSK‑470 monotherapy significantly inhibited growth of MM cell lines and induced apoptosis that was associated with the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic death receptor pathway. Moreover, GSK‑470 demonstrated synergistic growth inhibitory effects with MG‑132. Notably, treatment with these inhibitors resulted in an almost complete inhibition of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin on Ser2448 and Ser2481 and full activation of AKT. The combination therapy also caused an upregulation of PTEN and an increased nuclear accumulation of PTEN protein. Collectively, our results provide the rationale for novel combination treatment with PDK1 inhibitor and proteasome inhibitors to improve outcomes in patients with MM.

  10. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  11. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Vivek; Bagler, Ganesh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein–protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum. PMID:26579141

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. ACCUMULATION OF PHOTOSYSTEM ONE1, a Member of a Novel Gene Family, Is Required for Accumulation of [4Fe-4S] Cluster–Containing Chloroplast Complexes and Antenna Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Katrin; Lezhneva, Lina; Wanner, Gerd; Herrmann, Reinhold G.; Meurer, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nuclear-controlled mechanisms of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly in chloroplasts, we selected Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with a decreased content of photosystem I (PSI) containing three [4Fe-4S] clusters. One identified gene, ACCUMULATION OF PHOTOSYSTEM ONE1 (APO1), belongs to a previously unknown gene family with four defined groups (APO1 to APO4) only found in nuclear genomes of vascular plants. All homologs contain two related motifs of ∼100 amino acid residues that could potentially provide ligands for [4Fe-4S] clusters. APO1 is essentially required for photoautotrophic growth, and levels of PSI core subunits are below the limit of detection in the apo1 mutant. Unlike other Arabidopsis PSI mutants, apo1 fails to accumulate significant amounts of the outer antenna subunits of PSI and PSII and to form grana stacks. In particular, APO1 is essentially required for stable accumulation of other plastid-encoded and nuclear-encoded [4Fe-4S] cluster complexes within the chloroplast, whereas [2Fe-2S] cluster–containing complexes appear to be unaffected. In vivo labeling experiments and analyses of polysome association suggest that translational elongation of the PSI transcripts psaA and psaB is specifically arrested in the mutant. Taken together, our findings suggest that APO1 is involved in the stable assembly of several [4Fe-4S] cluster–containing complexes of chloroplasts and interferes with translational events probably in association with plastid nucleoids. PMID:15494558

  14. Effects of Point Mutations in the Major Capsid Protein of Beet Western Yellows Virus on Capsid Formation, Virus Accumulation, and Aphid Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Brault, V.; Bergdoll, M.; Mutterer, J.; Prasad, V.; Pfeffer, S.; Erdinger, M.; Richards, K. E.; Ziegler-Graff, V.

    2003-01-01

    Point mutations were introduced into the major capsid protein (P3) of cloned infectious cDNA of the polerovirus beet western yellows virus (BWYV) by manipulation of cloned infectious cDNA. Seven mutations targeted sites on the S domain predicted to lie on the capsid surface. An eighth mutation eliminated two arginine residues in the R domain, which is thought to extend into the capsid interior. The effects of the mutations on virus capsid formation, virus accumulation in protoplasts and plants, and aphid transmission were tested. All of the mutants replicated in protoplasts. The S-domain mutant W166R failed to protect viral RNA from RNase attack, suggesting that this particular mutation interfered with stable capsid formation. The R-domain mutant R7A/R8A protected ∼90% of the viral RNA strand from RNase, suggesting that lower positive-charge density in the mutant capsid interior interfered with stable packaging of the complete strand into virions. Neither of these mutants systemically infected plants. The six remaining mutants properly packaged viral RNA and could invade Nicotiana clevelandii systemically following agroinfection. Mutant Q121E/N122D was poorly transmitted by aphids, implicating one or both targeted residues in virus-vector interactions. Successful transmission of mutant D172N was accompanied either by reversion to the wild type or by appearance of a second-site mutation, N137D. This finding indicates that D172 is also important for transmission but that the D172N transmission defect can be compensated for by a “reverse” substitution at another site. The results have been used to evaluate possible structural models for the BWYV capsid. PMID:12584348

  15. ZmDof3, a maize endosperm-specific Dof protein gene, regulates starch accumulation and aleurone development in maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Li, Shixue; Zhu, Yaxi; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the function of Dof transcription factors during kernel development in maize, we first identified Dof genes in the maize genome. We found that ZmDof3 was exclusively expressed in the endosperm of maize kernel and had the features of a Dof transcription factor. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype with reduced starch content and a partially patchy aleurone layer. The expression levels of starch synthesis-related genes and aleurone differentiation-associated genes were down-regulated in ZmDof3 knockdown kernels, indicating that ZmDof3 plays an important role in maize endosperm development. The maize endosperm, occupying a large proportion of the kernel, plays an important role in seed development and germination. Current knowledge regarding the regulation of endosperm development is limited. Dof proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, play critical roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, an endosperm-specific Dof protein gene, ZmDof3, was identified in maize through genome-wide screening. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype. The endosperm of ZmDof3 knockdown kernels was loosely packed with irregular starch granules observed by electronic microscope. Through genome-wide expression profiling, we found that down-regulated genes were enriched in GO terms related to carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, ZmDof3 could bind to the Dof core element in the promoter of starch biosynthesis genes Du1 and Su2 in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the aleurone at local position in mature ZmDof3 knockdown kernels varied from one to three layers, which consisted of smaller and irregular cells. Further analyses showed that knockdown of ZmDof3 reduced the expression of Nkd1, which is involved in aleurone cell differentiation, and that ZmDof3 could bind to the Dof core element in the Nkd1 promoter. Our study reveals that ZmDof3 functions in maize endosperm development as a positive regulator in

  16. Clinical and Imaging Presentation of a Patient with Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration, a Rare and Sporadic form of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA).

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Handke, Nikolaus; Cremer, Kirsten; Hoffjan, Sabine; Kukuk, Guido Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurologic disorders with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia, which share magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, histopathologic and clinical features. According to the affected basal nuclei, clinical features include extrapyramidal movement disorders and varying degrees of intellectual disability status. The most common NBIA subtype is caused by pathogenic variants in PANK2. The hallmark of MR imaging in patients with PANK2 mutations is an eye-of-the-tiger sign in the globus pallidus. We report a 33-year-old female with a rare subtype of NBIA, called beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) with a hitherto unknown missense variant in WDR45. She presented with BPAN's particular biphasic course of neurological symptoms and with a dominant iron accumulation in the midbrain that enclosed a spotty T2-hyperintensity.

  17. Abnormal protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a submicroscopic X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Joy, J E; Poglod, R; Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Merril, C R

    1991-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and, in many cases, mental retardation. Some Norrie disease cases have been shown to be associated with a submicroscopic deletion in chromosomal region Xp11.3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from four male patients with an X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease. CSF proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and then analyzed by computer using the Elsie V program. Our analysis revealed a protein that appears to be altered in patients with Norrie disease deletion.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang, E-mail: 18710470987@163.com; Ye, Chaofei, E-mail: yechaofei001@163.com; Zhao, Rui, E-mail: 571828628@qq.com

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of amore » series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.« less

  19. An XPA gene splicing mutation resulting in trace protein expression in an elderly patient with xeroderma pigmentosum group A without neurological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Endo, Y; Kusaka-Kikushima, A; Nakamaura, S; Nakazawa, Y; Ogi, T; Uryu, M; Tsuji, G; Furue, M; Moriwaki, S

    2017-07-01

    A certain relationship between XPA gene mutations and the severity of symptoms has been observed in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A). Patients with mutations within the DNA-binding domain usually exhibit severe symptoms, whereas splicing mutations in the same domain sometimes cause very mild symptoms. This inconsistency can be explained by a small amount of functional XPA protein produced from normally spliced transcripts. We herein report the case of an adult Japanese patient with XP-A with unusually mild symptoms. We identified a homozygous c.529G>A mutation in exon 4 of the XPA gene, which resulted in aberrant splicing with a 29-bp deletion in exon 4 causing a frameshift. Intact mRNA was observable, but a Western blot analysis failed to detect any normal XPA protein. We therefore evaluated the DNA repair capacity in normal cells in which the XPA expression was artificially diminished. The repair capacity was still present in cells with trace levels of the XPA protein. The repair capacity of the cells derived from our patient with mild symptoms was poor by comparison, but still significant compared with that of the cells derived from a patient with XP-A with severe symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that a trace level of XPA protein can still exert a relatively strong repair capacity, resulting in only a mild phenotype. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  1. Herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory protein ICP22 interacts with a new cell cycle-regulated factor and accumulates in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Roizman, B

    1998-11-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 infected cell protein 22 (ICP22), the product of the alpha22 gene, is a nucleotidylylated and phosphorylated nuclear protein with properties of a transcriptional factor required for the expression of a subset of viral genes. Here, we report the following. (i) ICP22 interacts with a previously unknown cellular factor designated p78 in the yeast two-hybrid system. The p78 cDNA encodes a polypeptide with a distribution of leucines reminiscent of a leucine zipper. (ii) In uninfected and infected cells, antibody to p78 reacts with two major bands with an apparent Mr of 78,000 and two minor bands with apparent Mrs of 62, 000 and 55,000. (ii) p78 also interacts with ICP22 in vitro. (iii) In uninfected cells, p78 was dispersed largely in the nucleoplasm in HeLa cells and in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in HEp-2 cells. After infection, p78 formed large dense bodies which did not colocalize with the viral regulatory protein ICP0. (iv) Accumulation of p78 was cell cycle dependent, being highest very early in S phase. (v) The accumulation of ICP22 in synchronized cells was highest in early S phase, in contrast to the accumulation of another protein, ICP27, which was relatively independent of the cell cycle. (vi) In the course of the cell cycle, ICP22 was transiently modified in an aberrant fashion, and this modification coincided with expression of p78. The results suggest that ICP22 interacts with and may be stabilized by cell cycle-dependent proteins.

  2. Dysregulation of gene expression in the striatum of BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and associated abnormalities on molecular and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bonin, Michael; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Hoa Huu Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the huntingtin protein (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) has been proposed to cause neuronal dysfunction and neuronal loss through multiple mechanisms. Transcriptional changes may be a core pathogenic feature of HD. Utilizing the Affymetrix platform we performed a genome-wide RNA expression analysis in two BACHD transgenic rat lines (TG5 and TG9) at 12 months of age, both of which carry full-length human mHTT but with different expression levels. By defining the threshold of significance at p < 0.01, we found 1608 genes and 871 genes differentially expressed in both TG5 and TG9 rats when compared to the wild type littermates, respectively. We only chose the highly up-/down-regulated genes for further analysis by setting an additional threshold of 1.5 fold change. Comparing gene expression profiles of human HD brains and BACHD rats revealed a high concordance in both functional and IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) canonical pathways relevant to HD. In addition, we investigated the causes leading to gene expression changes at molecular and protein levels in BACHD rats including the involvement of polyQ-containing transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 and CBP as well as the chromatin structure. We demonstrate that the BACHD rat model recapitulates the gene expression changes of the human disease supporting its role as a preclinical research animal model. We also show for the first time that TFIID complex formation is reduced, while soluble TBP is increased in an HD model. This finding suggests that mHTT is a competitor instead of a recruiter of polyQ-containing transcription factors in the transcription process in HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  4. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 10 (DPP10789): A Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Associated Protein Is Abnormally Expressed in Alzheimer's and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Wei-Ping; Abbott, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-β peptide-containing plaques and intracellular tau positive neurofibrillary tangles and the loss of synapses and neurons in defined regions of the brain. Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10) is a protein that facilitates Kv4 channel surface expression and neuronal excitability. This study aims to explore DPP10789 protein distribution in human brains and its contribution to the neurofibrillary pathology of AD and other tauopathies. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominant neuronal staining of DPP10789 in control brains, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus contained strong reactivity in the distal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. In AD brains, robust DPP10789 reactivity was detected in neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites, most of which colocalized with the doubly phosphorylated Ser-202/Thr-205 tau epitope. DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites also appeared in other neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, diffuse Lewy body disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Occasional DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and neurites were seen in some aged control brains. Western blot analysis showed both full length and truncated DPP10789 fragments with the later increasing significantly in AD brains compared to control brains. Our results suggest that DPP10789 is involved in the pathology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25025038

  5. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drosophila Syd-1, Liprin-α, and Protein Phosphatase 2A B′ Subunit Wrd Function in a Linear Pathway to Prevent Ectopic Accumulation of Synaptic Materials in Distal Axons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Tian, Xiaolin; Zhu, Mingwei; Bulgari, Dinara; Böhme, Mathias A.; Goettfert, Fabian; Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2014-01-01

    During synaptic development, presynaptic differentiation occurs as an intrinsic property of axons to form specialized areas of plasma membrane [active zones (AZs)] that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Genetic and biochemical studies in vertebrate and invertebrate model systems have identified a number of proteins involved in AZ assembly. However, elucidating the molecular events of AZ assembly in a spatiotemporal manner remains a challenge. Syd-1 (synapse defective-1) and Liprin-α have been identified as two master organizers of AZ assembly. Genetic and imaging analyses in invertebrates show that Syd-1 works upstream of Liprin-α in synaptic assembly through undefined mechanisms. To understand molecular pathways downstream of Liprin-α, we performed a proteomic screen of Liprin-α-interacting proteins in Drosophila brains. We identify Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B′ [Wrd (Well Rounded)] as a Liprin-α-interacting protein, and we demonstrate that it mediates the interaction of Liprin-α with PP2A holoenzyme and the Liprin-α-dependent synaptic localization of PP2A. Interestingly, loss of function in syd-1, liprin-α, or wrd shares a common defect in which a portion of synaptic vesicles, dense-core vesicles, and presynaptic cytomatrix proteins ectopically accumulate at the distal, but not proximal, region of motoneuron axons. Strong genetic data show that a linear syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway in the motoneuron antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3β kinase activity to prevent the ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials. Furthermore, we provide data suggesting that the syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway stabilizes AZ specification at the nerve terminal and that such a novel function is independent of the roles of syd-1/liprin-α in regulating the morphology of the T-bar structural protein BRP (Bruchpilot). PMID:24948803

  7. Drosophila Syd-1, liprin-α, and protein phosphatase 2A B' subunit Wrd function in a linear pathway to prevent ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials in distal axons.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Tian, Xiaolin; Zhu, Mingwei; Bulgari, Dinara; Böhme, Mathias A; Goettfert, Fabian; Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J; Levitan, Edwin S; Wu, Chunlai

    2014-06-18

    During synaptic development, presynaptic differentiation occurs as an intrinsic property of axons to form specialized areas of plasma membrane [active zones (AZs)] that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Genetic and biochemical studies in vertebrate and invertebrate model systems have identified a number of proteins involved in AZ assembly. However, elucidating the molecular events of AZ assembly in a spatiotemporal manner remains a challenge. Syd-1 (synapse defective-1) and Liprin-α have been identified as two master organizers of AZ assembly. Genetic and imaging analyses in invertebrates show that Syd-1 works upstream of Liprin-α in synaptic assembly through undefined mechanisms. To understand molecular pathways downstream of Liprin-α, we performed a proteomic screen of Liprin-α-interacting proteins in Drosophila brains. We identify Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B' [Wrd (Well Rounded)] as a Liprin-α-interacting protein, and we demonstrate that it mediates the interaction of Liprin-α with PP2A holoenzyme and the Liprin-α-dependent synaptic localization of PP2A. Interestingly, loss of function in syd-1, liprin-α, or wrd shares a common defect in which a portion of synaptic vesicles, dense-core vesicles, and presynaptic cytomatrix proteins ectopically accumulate at the distal, but not proximal, region of motoneuron axons. Strong genetic data show that a linear syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway in the motoneuron antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3β kinase activity to prevent the ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials. Furthermore, we provide data suggesting that the syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway stabilizes AZ specification at the nerve terminal and that such a novel function is independent of the roles of syd-1/liprin-α in regulating the morphology of the T-bar structural protein BRP (Bruchpilot). Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348474-14$15.00/0.

  8. The Bean pod mottle virus RNA2-encoded 58-kilodalton protein P58 is required in cis for RNA2 accumulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a bipartite, positive sense (+) RNA plant virus in the Secoviridae family. Its RNA1 encodes proteins required for genome replication, whereas RNA2 primarily encodes proteins needed for virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement. However, the function of a 58 kilo-dalto...

  9. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Céu; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  10. Abnormal retention of nuclear lamina and disorganization of chromatin-related proteins in spermatozoa from DPY19L2-deleted globozoospermic patients.

    PubMed

    Paci, Marine; Elkhatib, Razan; Longepied, Guy; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Bessonat, Julien; Courbière, Blandine; Bourgeois, Patrice; Levy, Nicolas; Mitchell, Michael J; Metzler-Guillemain, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the nuclear lamina (NL) and lamin chromatin-partners in spermatozoa from four DPY19L2-deleted globozoospermic patients. We tested for spermatid transcripts encoding lamins and their chromatin-partners emerin, LAP2α, BAF and BAF-L, by reverse transcriptase-PCR using spermatozoa RNA. We also determined the localization of lamin B1, BAF and BAF-L by immunofluorescent analysis of spermatozoa from all patients. In RNA from globozoospermic and control spermatozoa we detected transcripts encoding lamin B1, lamin B3, emerin, LAP2α and BAF-L, but not A-type lamins. In contrast, BAF transcripts were detected in globozoospermic but not control spermatozoa. The NL was immature in human globozoospermic spermatozoa: lamin B1 signal was detected in the nuclei of globozoospermic spermatozoa in significantly higher proportions than the control (P < 0.05; 56-91% versus 40%) and was predominantly observed at the whole nuclear periphery, not polarized as in control spermatozoa. Conversely, BAF and BAF-L were detected in control, but not globozoospermic spermatozoa. Our results strongly emphasize the importance of the NL and associated proteins during human spermiogenesis. In globozoospermia, the lack of maturation of the NL, and the modifications in expression and location of chromatin-partners, could explain the chromatin defects observed in this rare phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Ursolic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces accumulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Satoshi; Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Yokoigawa, Junpei; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid that is present in many plants, including medicinal herbs, and foods. Ursolic acid was initially identified as an inhibitor of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in response to interleukin-1α (IL-1α). We report here a novel biological activity: ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins. Ursolic acid markedly inhibited the IL-1α-induced cell-surface ICAM-1 expression in human cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. By contrast, ursolic acid exerted weak inhibitory effects on the IL-1α-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Surprisingly, we found that ursolic acid decreased the apparent molecular weight of ICAM-1 and altered the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides bound to ICAM-1. Ursolic acid induced the accumulation of ICAM-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was linked mainly to high-mannose-type glycans. Moreover, in ursolic-acid-treated cells, the Golgi apparatus was fragmented into pieces and distributed over the cells. Thus, our results reveal that ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces the accumulation of ICAM-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:24649404

  13. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  15. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  16. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins

  17. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  18. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  19. cis-Golgi proteins accumulate near the ER exit sites and act as the scaffold for Golgi regeneration after brefeldin A treatment in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Shoda, Keiko; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus forms stacks of cisternae in many eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about how such a stacked structure is formed and maintained. To address this question, plant cells provide a system suitable for live-imaging approaches because individual Golgi stacks are well separated in the cytoplasm. We established tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing multiple Golgi markers tagged by different fluorescent proteins and observed their responses to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and BFA removal. BFA treatment disrupted cis, medial, and trans cisternae but caused distinct relocalization patterns depending on the proteins examined. Medial- and trans-Golgi proteins, as well as one cis-Golgi protein, were absorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but two other cis-Golgi proteins formed small punctate structures. After BFA removal, these puncta coalesced first, and then the Golgi stacks regenerated from them in the cis-to-trans order. We suggest that these structures have a property similar to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and function as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration. PMID:22740633

  20. cis-Golgi proteins accumulate near the ER exit sites and act as the scaffold for Golgi regeneration after brefeldin A treatment in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Shoda, Keiko; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus forms stacks of cisternae in many eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about how such a stacked structure is formed and maintained. To address this question, plant cells provide a system suitable for live-imaging approaches because individual Golgi stacks are well separated in the cytoplasm. We established tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing multiple Golgi markers tagged by different fluorescent proteins and observed their responses to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and BFA removal. BFA treatment disrupted cis, medial, and trans cisternae but caused distinct relocalization patterns depending on the proteins examined. Medial- and trans-Golgi proteins, as well as one cis-Golgi protein, were absorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but two other cis-Golgi proteins formed small punctate structures. After BFA removal, these puncta coalesced first, and then the Golgi stacks regenerated from them in the cis-to-trans order. We suggest that these structures have a property similar to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and function as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration.

  1. Chickpea transcription factor CaTLP1 interacts with protein kinases, modulates ROS accumulation and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure

    PubMed Central

    Wardhan, Vijay; Pandey, Aarti; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), in mammals, play critical roles in neural development, while its function in plants is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the chickpea TLP, CaTLP1, participates in osmotic stress response and might be associated with ABA-dependent network. However, how CaTLP1 is connected to ABA signaling remains unclear. The CaTLP1 was found to be engaged in ABA-mediated gene expression and stomatal closure. Complementation of the yeast yap1 mutant with CaTLP1 revealed its role in ROS scavenging. Furthermore, complementation of Arabidopsis attlp2 mutant displayed enhanced stress tolerance, indicating the functional conservation of TLPs across the species. The presence of ABA-responsive element along with other motifs in the proximal promoter regions of TLPs firmly established their involvement in stress signalling pathways. The CaTLP1 promoter driven GUS expression was restricted to the vegetative organs, especially stem and rosette leaves. Global protein expression profiling of wild-type, attlp2 and complemented Arabidopsis plants revealed 95 differentially expressed proteins, presumably involved in maintaining physiological and biological processes under dehydration. Immunoprecipitation assay revealed that protein kinases are most likely to interact with CaTLP1. This study provides the first demonstration that the TLPs act as module for ABA-mediated stomatal closure possibly via interaction with protein kinase. PMID:27934866

  2. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Jana V., E-mail: Jana.maier@kit.edu; Volz, Yvonne; Berger, Caroline

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields}Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B. {yields}Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B p65 and p50. {yields}Bag-1 interacts with I{kappa}B{alpha} and partially restores I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulatemore » the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-{kappa}B proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.« less

  3. Tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 (TFT7) positively regulates immunity-associated programmed cell death by enhancing accumulation and signaling ability of MAPKKKalpha

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is triggered when Pto, a serine-threonine protein kinase recognizes either the AvrPto or AvrPtoB effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. This PCD requires MAPKKKalpha as a positive regulator in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. To examine how PCD-eliciting activi...

  4. Lack of Prion Accumulation in Lymphoid Tissues of Scrapie-affected Sheep with the AA136, QR171 Prion Protein Genotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy which can be transmitted horizontally through the shedding of an infectious conformer (PrP**Sc) of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP**c). Genetics profoundly influence the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie. PrP**c amino-aci...

  5. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.

  7. The mRNA cap-binding protein Cbc1 is required for high and timely expression of genes by promoting the accumulation of gene-specific activators at promoters.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianlu; De Clercq, Nikki; Medina, Daniel A; Garre, Elena; Sunnerhagen, Per; Pérez-Ortín, José E; Alepuz, Paula

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae cap-binding protein Cbc1/Sto1 binds mRNA co-transcriptionally and acts as a key coordinator of mRNA fate. Recently, Cbc1 has also been implicated in transcription elongation and pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation. Previously, we described Cbc1 to be required for cell growth under osmotic stress and to mediate osmostress-induced translation reprogramming. Here, we observe delayed global transcription kinetics in cbc1Δ during osmotic stress that correlates with delayed recruitment of TBP and RNA polymerase II to osmo-induced promoters. Interestingly, we detect an interaction between Cbc1 and the MAPK Hog1, which controls most gene expression changes during osmostress, and observe that deletion of CBC1 delays the accumulation of the activator complex Hot1-Hog1 at osmostress promoters. Additionally, CBC1 deletion specifically reduces transcription rates of highly transcribed genes under non-stress conditions, such as ribosomal protein (RP) genes, while having low impact on transcription of weakly expressed genes. For RP genes, we show that recruitment of the specific activator Rap1, and subsequently TBP, to promoters is Cbc1-dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that binding of Cbc1 to the capped mRNAs is necessary for the accumulation of specific activators as well as PIC components at the promoters of genes whose expression requires high and rapid transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein accumulation in leaves and roots associated with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass expressing an ipt gene for cytokinin synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Merewitz, Emily B.; Gianfagna, Thomas; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) may be involved in the regulation of plant adaptation to drought stress. The objectives of the study were to identify proteomic changes in leaves and roots in relation to improved drought tolerance in transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) containing a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) and the isopentyl transferase (ipt) transgene that increases endogenous CK content. Leaves of SAG12-ipt bentgrass exhibited less severe senescence under water stress, as demonstrated by maintaining lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, and higher photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), compared with the null transformant (NT) plants. SAG12-ipt plants had higher root/shoot ratios and lower lipid peroxidation in leaves under water stress than the NT plants. The suppression of drought-induced leaf senescence and root dieback in the transgenic plants was associated with the maintenance of greater antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase). The SAG12-ipt and NT plants exhibited differential protein expression patterns under well-watered and drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Under equivalent leaf water deficit (47% relative water content), SAG12-ipt plants maintained higher abundance of proteins involved in (i) energy production within both photosynthesis and respiration [ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)]; (ii) amino acid synthesis (methionine and glutamine); (iii) protein synthesis and destination [chloroplastic elongation factor (EF-Tu) and protein disulphide isomerases (PDIs)]; and (iv) antioxidant defence system (catalase and peroxidase) than the NT plants. These results suggest that increased endogenous CKs under drought stress may directly or indirectly regulate protein abundance and enzymatic activities involved in the above-mentioned metabolic processes, thereby enhancing plant drought tolerance. PMID:21831843

  9. Cynanchum wilfordii Radix attenuates liver fat accumulation and damage by suppressing hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-A; Lee, SungRyul; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Yang, Jaehyuk; Park, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Kwon, Jung Eun; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Meng, Xue; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-09-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice were fed either a normal diet or an atherogenic diet with fructose (ATHFR) in the presence or absence of CWE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; n=6/group). Treatment with ATHFR induced a hepatosplenomegaly-like condition (increased liver and spleen weight); this pathological change was attenuated in the presence of CWE. The ATHFR group exhibited impaired liver function, as evidenced by increased blood levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fat accumulation in the liver, and lipid profiles. Supplementation of CWE (100 and 200 mg/kg, P<.05) ameliorated these impaired liver functions. Atherogenic diet with fructose increased the protein levels of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These signaling pathways, which are associated with the inflammatory response, were markedly suppressed after CWE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg). In summary, CWE supplementation reduced high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced fat accumulation and damage in the liver by suppressing COX-2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutation of the 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (PDK1) Substrate-Docking Site in the Developing Brain Causes Microcephaly with Abnormal Brain Morphogenesis Independently of Akt, Leading to Impaired Cognition and Disruptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cordón-Barris, Lluís; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Yang, Shaobin; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; Niemeyer, Carlota; Claro, Enrique; Lizcano, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway plays essential roles during neuronal development. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) coordinates the PI 3-kinase signals by activating 23 kinases of the AGC family, including Akt. Phosphorylation of a conserved docking site in the substrate is a requisite for PDK1 to recognize, phosphorylate, and activate most of these kinases, with the exception of Akt. We exploited this differential mechanism of regulation by generating neuron-specific conditional knock-in mice expressing a mutant form of PDK1, L155E, in which the substrate-docking site binding motif, termed the PIF pocket, was disrupted. As a consequence, activation of all the PDK1 substrates tested except Akt was abolished. The mice exhibited microcephaly, altered cortical layering, and reduced circuitry, leading to cognitive deficits and exacerbated disruptive behavior combined with diminished motivation. The abnormal patterning of the adult brain arises from the reduced ability of the embryonic neurons to polarize and extend their axons, highlighting the essential roles that the PDK1 signaling beyond Akt plays in mediating the neuronal responses that regulate brain development. PMID:27644329

  11. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  12. Down-regulation of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 (Nramp1) is associated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ )-induced α-synuclein accumulation and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, K-C; Liou, H-H; Lee, C-Y; Lin, C-J

    2018-04-21

    The accumulation of α-synuclein is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 (Nramp1) was previously shown to contribute to the degradation of extracellular α-synuclein in microglia under conditions of iron overload. This study was aimed at investigating the role of Nramp1 in α-synuclein pathology in the neurone under 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) treatment. The expression of Nramp1 and pathological features (including iron and α-synuclein accumulation) were examined in the dopaminergic neurones of humans (with and without PD) and of mice [with and without receiving chronic MPTP intoxication]. The effects of Nramp1 expression on low-dose MPP + -induced α-synuclein expression and neurotoxicity were determined in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Similar to the findings in the substantia nigra of human PD, lower expression of Nramp1 but higher levels of iron and α-synuclein were identified in the dopaminergic neurones of mice receiving chronic MPTP intoxication, compared to controls. In parallel to the loss of dopaminergic neurones, the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein- and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1-positive cells were significantly increased in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. Likewise, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to low-dose MPP + , Nramp1 expression and cathepsin D activity were decreased, along with an increase in α-synuclein protein expression and aggregation. Overexpression of functional Nramp1 restored cathepsin D activity and attenuated α-synuclein up-regulation and neuronal cell death caused by MPP + treatment. These data suggest that the neuronal expression of Nramp1 is important for protecting against the development of MPTP/MPP + -induced α-synuclein pathology and neurotoxicity. © 2018 British Neuropathological Society.

  13. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-07-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. PMID:25998127

  15. Overexpression of SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) promotes de novo fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, H F; Luo, J; Zhao, W S; Yang, Y C; Tian, H B; Shi, H B; Bionaz, M

    2016-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1; gene name SREBF1) is known to be the master regulator of lipid homeostasis in mammals, including milk fat synthesis. The major role of SREBP1 in controlling milk fat synthesis has been demonstrated in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Except for a demonstrated role in controlling the expression of FASN, a regulatory role of SREBP1 on milk fat synthesis is very likely, but has not yet been demonstrated in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). To explore the regulatory function of SREBP1 on de novo fatty acids and triacylglycerol synthesis in GMEC, we overexpressed the mature form of SREBP1 (active NH2-terminal fragment) in GMEC using a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-nSREBP1), with Ad-GFP (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as control, and infected the GMEC for 48 h. In infected cells, we assessed the expression of 20 genes related to milk fat synthesis using real time-quantitative PCR, the protein abundance of SREBP1 and FASN by Western blot, the production of triacylglycerol, and the fatty acid profile. Expression of SREBF1 was modest in mammary compared with the other tissues in dairy goats but its expression increased approximately 30-fold from pregnancy to lactation. The overexpression of the mature form of SREBP1 was confirmed by >200-fold higher expression of SREBF1 in Ad-nSREBP1 compared with Ad-GFP. We observed no changes in amount of the precursor form of SREBP1 protein but a >10-fold increase of the mature form of SREBP1 protein with Ad-nSREBP1. Compared with Ad-GFP cells (control), Ad-nSREBP1 cells had a significant increase in expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid activation (ACSL1), transport (FABP3), desaturation (SCD1), de novo synthesis of fatty acids (ACSS2, ACLY, IDH1, ACACA, FASN, and ELOVL6), and transcriptional factors (NR1H3 and PPARG). We observed a >10-fold increase in expression of INSIG1 but SCAP was downregulated by Ad-nSREBP1. Among genes related to

  16. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Developing Seeds Is Influenced by the Expression of a Cytosolic Pyrophosphatase in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Knut; Stecca, Kevin L.; Ewell-Hicks, Kim; Allen, Stephen M.; Everard, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a dominant low-seed-oil mutant (lo15571) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) generated by enhancer tagging. Compositional analysis of developing siliques and mature seeds indicated reduced conversion of photoassimilates to oil. Immunoblot analysis revealed increased levels of At1g01050 protein in developing siliques of lo15571. At1g01050 encodes a soluble, cytosolic pyrophosphatase and is one of five closely related genes that share predicted cytosolic localization and at least 70% amino acid sequence identity. Expression of At1g01050 using a seed-preferred promoter recreated most features of the lo15571 seed phenotype, including low seed oil content and increased levels of transient starch and soluble sugars in developing siliques. Seed-preferred RNA interference-mediated silencing of At1g01050 and At3g53620, a second cytosolic pyrophosphatase gene that shows expression during seed filling, led to a heritable oil increase of 1% to 4%, mostly at the expense of seed storage protein. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the rate of mobilization of sucrose, for precursor supply of seed storage lipid biosynthesis by cytosolic glycolysis, is strongly influenced by the expression of endogenous pyrophosphatase enzymes. This emphasizes the central role of pyrophosphate-dependent reactions supporting cytosolic glycolysis during seed maturation when ATP supply is low, presumably due to hypoxic conditions. This route is the major route providing precursors for seed oil biosynthesis. ATP-dependent reactions at the entry point of glycolysis in the cytosol or plastid cannot fully compensate for the loss of oil content observed in transgenic events with increased expression of cytosolic pyrophosphatase enzyme in the cytosol. These findings shed new light on the dynamic properties of cytosolic pyrophosphate pools in developing seed and their influence on carbon partitioning during seed filling. Finally, our work uniquely demonstrates that

  18. Transcriptional response of skeletal muscle to a low-protein gestation diet in porcine offspring accumulates in growth- and cell cycle-regulating pathways.

    PubMed

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2012-08-17

    Inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation represents an environmental factor that affects physiological signaling pathways with long-term consequences for growth, function, and structure of various tissues. Hypothesizing that the offspring's transcriptome is persistently altered by maternal diets, we used a porcine model to monitor the longitudinal expression changes in muscle to identify pathways relevant to fetal initiation of postnatal growth and development. German Landrace gilts were fed isoenergetic gestational diets containing 6.5% (LP) or 12.1% protein. The longissimus dorsi samples were collected from offspring at 94 days postconception (dpc) and 1, 28, and 188 days postnatum (dpn) for expression profiling. At 94 dpc, 1 dpn, and 28 dpn relatively few transcripts (<130) showed an altered abundance between the dietary groups. In fact, at 94 dpc genes of G2/M checkpoint regulation and mitotic roles of Polo-like kinases showed lowered transcript abundance in LP. At 188 dpn 677 transcripts were altered including those related to oxidative phosphorylation, citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism (higher abundance in LP) and cell cycle regulation (lower abundance in LP). Correspondingly, transcriptional alterations during pre and postnatal development differed considerably among dietary groups, particularly for genes related to cell cycle regulation (G1/S and G2/M checkpoint regulation; cyclines), growth factor signaling (GH, IGF1, mTOR, RAN, VEGF, INSR), lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. In skeletal muscle, fetal programming related to maternal LP diets disturbed gene expression in growth-related pathways into adulthood. Diet-dependent gene expression may hamper proper development, thereby affecting signaling pathways related to energy utilization.

  19. Increased Expression of PcG Protein YY1 Negatively Regulates B Cell Development while Allowing Accumulation of Myeloid Cells and LT-HSC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuan; Jones, Morgan; Jiang, Jie; Zaprazna, Kristina; Yu, Duonan; Pear, Warren; Maillard, Ivan; Atchison, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Ying Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional Polycomb Group (PcG) transcription factor that binds to multiple enhancer binding sites in the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci and plays vital roles in early B cell development. PcG proteins have important functions in hematopoietic stem cell renewal and YY1 is the only mammalian PcG protein with DNA binding specificity. Conditional knock-out of YY1 in the mouse B cell lineage results in arrest at the pro-B cell stage, and dosage effects have been observed at various YY1 expression levels. To investigate the impact of elevated YY1 expression on hematopoetic development, we utilized a mouse in vivo bone marrow reconstitution system. We found that mouse bone marrow cells expressing elevated levels of YY1 exhibited a selective disadvantage as they progressed from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to pro-B, pre-B, immature B and re-circulating B cell stages, but no disadvantage of YY1 over-expression was observed in myeloid lineage cells. Furthermore, mouse bone marrow cells expressing elevated levels of YY1 displayed enrichment for cells with surface markers characteristic of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). YY1 expression induced apoptosis in mouse B cell lines in vitro, and resulted in down-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-xl and NFκB2, while no impact was observed in a mouse myeloid line. B cell apoptosis and LT-HSC enrichment induced by YY1 suggest that novel strategies to induce YY1 expression could have beneficial effects in the treatment of B lineage malignancies while preserving normal HSCs. PMID:22292011

  20. Inactivation of the inhA-Encoded Fatty Acid Synthase II (FASII) Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Induces Accumulation of the FASI End Products and Cell Lysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Weisbrod, Torin R.; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Kuo, Mack; Sacchettini, James C.; Jacobs, William R.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of action of isoniazid (INH), a first-line antituberculosis drug, is complex, as mutations in at least five different genes (katG, inhA, ahpC, kasA, and ndh) have been found to correlate with isoniazid resistance. Despite this complexity, a preponderance of evidence implicates inhA, which codes for an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of the fatty acid synthase II (FASII), as the primary target of INH. However, INH treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the accumulation of hexacosanoic acid (C26:0), a result unexpected for the blocking of an enoyl-reductase. To test whether inactivation of InhA is identical to INH treatment of mycobacteria, we isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation in the inhA gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis that rendered InhA inactive at 42°C. Thermal inactivation of InhA in M. smegmatis resulted in the inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis, a decrease in hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) and a concomitant increase of tetracosanoic acid (C24:0) in a manner equivalent to that seen in INH-treated cells. Similarly, INH treatment of Mycobacterium bovis BCG caused an inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis, a decrease in C16:0, and a concomitant accumulation of C26:0. Moreover, the InhA-inactivated cells, like INH-treated cells, underwent a drastic morphological change, leading to cell lysis. These data show that InhA inactivation, alone, is sufficient to induce the accumulation of saturated fatty acids, cell wall alterations, and cell lysis and are consistent with InhA being a primary target of INH. PMID:10869086

  1. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  2. Long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids accumulating in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiencies uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Anelise M; Amaral, Alexandre U; Busanello, Estela N B; Grings, Mateus; Castilho, Roger F; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common clinical feature of some inherited disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation including mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and isolated long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies. Since individuals affected by these disorders present tissue accumulation of various fatty acids, including long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, in the present study we investigated the effect of 3-hydroxydecanoic (3 HDCA), 3-hydroxydodecanoic (3 HDDA), 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3 HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3 HPA) acids on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, estimated by oximetry, NAD(P)H content, hydrogen peroxide production, membrane potential (ΔΨ) and swelling in rat heart mitochondrial preparations. We observed that 3 HTA and 3 HPA increased resting respiration and diminished the respiratory control and ADP/O ratios using glutamate/malate or succinate as substrates. Furthermore, 3 HDDA, 3 HTA and 3 HPA decreased ΔΨ, the matrix NAD(P)H pool and hydrogen peroxide production. These data indicate that these fatty acids behave as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We also verified that 3 HTA-induced uncoupling-effect was not mediated by the adenine nucleotide translocator and that this fatty acid induced the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in calcium-loaded organelles since cyclosporin A prevented the reduction of mitochondrial ΔΨ and swelling provoked by 3 HTA. The present data indicate that major 3-hydroxylated fatty acids accumulating in MTP and LCHAD deficiencies behave as strong uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation potentially impairing heart energy homeostasis.

  3. The fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation by modulation of liver adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and lipogenic gene expression in high-fat diet-fed obese mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tetsuo; Nishida, Miyako; Saito, Masafumi; Tanabe, Akari; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Yuan, Shi-Hua; Ikekawa, Nobuo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for most metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (Goka) root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of diabetes and other conditions; however, little is known about the effects of Goka fruit (GF). Goka fruit is rich in anthocyanin, which has beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that GF can improve obesity-associated insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GF improves insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. High-fat diet mice treated with GF (500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 12 weeks showed an improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced plasma insulin and liver lipid accumulation. Moreover, GF administration to HFD mice resulted in down-regulation of fatty acid synthase expression and up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression in the liver. Notably, AMPK phosphorylation in the liver increased after GF administration. In summary, GF supplementation improved obesity-associated insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation through modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism-associated gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging evidence of brain abnormalities in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boddaert, N; Salvador, A; Chandesris, M O; Lemaître, H; Grévent, D; Gauthier, C; Naggara, O; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Moura, D S; Munsch, F; Jaafari, N; Zilbovicius, M; Lortholary, O; Gaillard, R; Hermine, O

    2017-08-08

    Mastocytosis is a rare disease in which chronic symptoms are related to mast cell accumulation and activation. Patients can display depression-anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms may be associated with tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release or both. The objective of this study is to perform morphological or functional brain analyses in mastocytosis to identify brain changes associated with this mast cell disorder. We performed a prospective and monocentric comparative study to evaluate the link between subjective psycho-cognitive complaints, psychiatric evaluation and objective medical data using magnetic resonance imaging with morphological and perfusion sequences (arterial spin-labeled perfusion) in 39 patients with mastocytosis compared with 33 healthy controls. In the test cohort of 39 mastocytosis patients with psycho-cognitive complaints, we found that 49% of them had morphological brain abnormalities, mainly abnormal punctuated white matter abnormalities (WMA). WMA were equally frequent in cutaneous mastocytosis patients and indolent forms of systemic mastocytosis patients (42% and 41% of patients with WMA, respectively). Patients with WMA showed increased perfusion in the putamen compared with patients without WMA and with healthy controls. Putamen perfusion was also negatively correlated with depression subscores. This study demonstrates, for we believe the first time, a high prevalence of morphological and functional abnormalities in the brains of mastocytosis patients with neuropsychiatric complaints. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism underpinning this association and to ascertain its specificity.

  5. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal value is less than 100 milligrams ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may be due to: A ...

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Protein Repair l-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase1 Is Involved in Both Seed Longevity and Germination Vigor in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Ogé, Laurent; Bourdais, Gildas; Bove, Jérôme; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Granier, Fabienne; Boutin, Jean-Pierre; Job, Dominique; Jullien, Marc; Grappin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The formation of abnormal amino acid residues is a major source of spontaneous age-related protein damage in cells. The protein l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) combats protein misfolding resulting from l-isoaspartyl formation by catalyzing the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues to their normal l-aspartyl forms. In this way, the PIMT repair enzyme system contributes to longevity and survival in bacterial and animal kingdoms. Despite the discovery of PIMT activity in plants two decades ago, the role of this enzyme during plant stress adaptation and in seed longevity remains undefined. In this work, we have isolated Arabidopsis thaliana lines exhibiting altered expression of PIMT1, one of the two genes encoding the PIMT enzyme in Arabidopsis. PIMT1 overaccumulation reduced the accumulation of l-isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins and increased both seed longevity and germination vigor. Conversely, reduced PIMT1 accumulation was associated with an increase in the accumulation of l-isoaspartyl residues in the proteome of freshly harvested dry mature seeds, thus leading to heightened sensitivity to aging treatments and loss of seed vigor under stressful germination conditions. These data implicate PIMT1 as a major endogenous factor that limits abnormal l-isoaspartyl accumulation in seed proteins, thereby improving seed traits such as longevity and vigor. The PIMT repair pathway likely works in concert with other anti-aging pathways to actively eliminate deleterious protein products, thus enabling successful seedling establishment and strengthening plant proliferation in natural environments. PMID:19011119

  8. Loss of PTB or Negative Regulation of Notch mRNA Reveals Distinct Zones of Notch and Actin Protein Accumulation in Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Cedric S.; Guo, Heng; Chaudhry, Kanita A.; Thali, Markus J.; Yin, Jerry C.; Clason, Todd; Wesley, Umadevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB) protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1) the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2) PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3) the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions. PMID:21750738

  9. The effects of branched-chain amino acid granules on the accumulation of tissue triglycerides and uncoupling proteins in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Mie; Masaki, Takayuki; Nishimura, Junko; Seike, Masataka; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated the involvement of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on obesity and related metabolic disorder. We investigated the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on obesity and on glucose/fat homeostasis in mice fed on a high-fat (45%) diet. BCAA was dissolved in 0.5% methylcellulose and added to the drinking water (BCAA-treated group). A high-fat diet was provided for 6 weeks and BCAA was given for 2 weeks. The BCAA-treated group gained almost 7% less body weight and had less epididymal adipose tissue (WAT) mass than the control group (p<0.05). BCAA supplementation also reduced the hepatic and skeletal muscle triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p<0.05). The hepatic levels of PPAR-alpha and uncoupling protein (UCP) 2, and the level of PPAR-alpha and UCP3 in the skeletal muscle were greater in the BCAA-treated group than in the control mice (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that the liver and muscle TG concentration are less in BCAA-treated group. BCAA affects PPAR-alpha and UCP expression in muscle and liver tissue.

  10. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  11. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  12. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract to absorb proteins ( protein-losing enteropathy ) Malnutrition Kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome Scarring of the ... may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone marrow ...

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  14. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  15. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer layer of the tooth. ... Infections Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the ...

  17. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  18. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  19. A lysosomal lair for a pathogenic protein pair.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2011-07-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. Although many of the causes of PD remain unclear, a consistent finding is the abnormal accumulation of the protein α-synuclein. In a recent issue of Cell, Mazzuli et al. provide a molecular explanation for the unexpected link between PD and Gaucher's disease, a glycolipid lysosomal storage disorder caused by loss of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA). They report a reciprocal connection between loss of GBA activity and the accumulation of α-synuclein in lysosomes that establishes a bidirectional positive feedback loop with pathogenic consequences. Understanding how lysosomes are implicated in PD may reveal new therapeutic targets for treating this disease.

  20. Unfolding story of inclusion-body myositis and myopathies: role of misfolded proteins, amyloid-beta, cholesterol, and aging.

    PubMed

    Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King

    2003-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis and hereditary inclusion-body myopathies are progressive muscle diseases leading to severe disability. We briefly summarize their clinical pictures and pathologic diagnostic criteria and discuss the latest advances in illuminating their pathogenic mechanism(s). We emphasize how different etiologies might lead to the strikingly similar pathology and possibly similar pathogenic cascade. On the basis of our research, several processes seem to be important in relation to the still speculative pathogenesis, including (a) increased transcription and accumulation of amyloid-beta precursor protein and accumulation of its proteolytic fragment amyloid-beta; (b) abnormal accumulation of components related to lipid metabolism, for example, cholesterol, accumulation of which is possibly owing to its abnormal trafficking; (c) oxidative stress; (d) accumulations of other Alzheimer's disease-related proteins; and (e) a milieu of muscle cellular aging in which these changes occur. We discuss a potentially very important role of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins as a possible mechanism in the formations of the inclusion bodies and other abnormalities.

  1. Protective role of RAD50 on chromatin bridges during abnormal cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Heurich, Bianca; Wieland, Britta; Lavin, Martin F; Schindler, Detlev; Dörk, Thilo

    2014-03-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation is required for preserving genomic integrity. Failure of this process may entail chromatin bridges preventing normal cytokinesis. To test whether RAD50, a protein normally involved in DNA double-strand break repair, is involved in abnormal cytokinesis and formation of chromatin bridges, we used immunocytochemical and protein interaction assays. RAD50 localizes to chromatin bridges during aberrant cytokinesis and subsequent stages of the cell cycle, either decorating the entire bridge or focally accumulating at the midbody zone. Ionizing radiation led to an ∼4-fold increase in the rate of chromatin bridges in an ataxia telangiectatica mutated (ATM)-dependent manner in human RAD50-proficient fibroblasts but not in RAD50-deficient cells. Cells with a RAD50-positive chromatin bridge were able to continue cell cycling and to progress through S phase (44%), whereas RAD50 knockdown caused a deficiency in chromatin bridges as well as an ∼4-fold prolonged duration of mitosis. RAD50 colocalized and directly interacted with Aurora B kinase and phospho-histone H3, and Aurora B kinase inhibition led to a deficiency in RAD50-positive bridges. Based on these observations, we propose that RAD50 is a crucial factor for the stabilization and shielding of chromatin bridges. Our study provides evidence for a hitherto unknown role of RAD50 in abnormal cytokinesis.

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  4. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  5. Abnormal structural luteolysis in ovaries of the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM): expression of Fas ligand/Fas-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules in luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Minako; Manabe, Noboru; Komatsu, Kohji; Shimabe, Munetake; Miyamoto, Hajime

    2003-12-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse-prone (SAMP) mice with a shortened life span show accelerated changes in many of the signs of aging and a shorter reproductive life span than SAM-resistant (SAMR) controls. We previously showed that functional regression (progesterone dissimilation) occurs in abnormally accumulated luteal bodies (aaLBs) of SAMP mice, but structural regression of luteal cells in aaLB is inhibited. A deficiency of luteal cell apoptosis causes the abnormal accumulation of LBs in SAMP ovaries. In the present study, to show the abnormality of Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-mediated apoptosis signal transducing factors in the aaLBs of the SAMP ovaries, we assessed the changes in the expression of FasL, Fas, caspase-8 and caspase-3 mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in the expression and localization of FasL, Fas and activated caspase-3 proteins by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, during the estrus cycle/luteolysis. These mRNAs and proteins were expressed in normal LBs of both SAMP and SAMR ovaries, but not at all or only in trace amounts in aaLBs of SAMP, indicating that structural regression is inhibited by blockage of the expression of these transducing factors in luteal cells of aaLBs in SAMP mice.

  6. Overexpression of a Medicago truncatula stress-associated protein gene (MtSAP1) leads to nitric oxide accumulation and confers osmotic and salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Aurélie; Planchet, Elisabeth; Cerveau, Delphine; Gimeno-Gilles, Christine; Verdu, Isabelle; Limami, Anis M; Lelièvre, Eric

    2012-08-01

    The impact of Medicago truncatula stress-associated protein gene (MtSAP1) overexpression has been investigated in Nicotiana tabacum transgenic seedlings. Under optimal conditions, transgenic lines overexpressing MtSAP1 revealed better plant development and higher chlorophyll content as compared to wild type seedlings. Interestingly, transgenic lines showed a stronger accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule involved in growth and development processes. This NO production seemed to be partially nitrate reductase dependent. Due to the fact that NO has been also reported to play a role in tolerance acquisition of plants to abiotic stresses, the responses of MtSAP1 overexpressors to osmotic and salt stress have been studied. Compared to the wild type, transgenic lines were less affected in their growth and development. Moreover, NO content in MtSAP1 overexpressors was always higher than that detected in wild seedlings under stress conditions. It seems that this better tolerance induced by MtSAP1 overexpression could be associated with this higher NO production that would enable seedlings to reach a high protection level to prepare them to cope with abiotic stresses.

  7. Regulation of TG accumulation and lipid droplet morphology by the novel TLDP1 in Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Sakiyama, Ryo; Iimi, Yuya; Sekine, Satomi; Abe, Eriko; Nomura, Kazuko H; Nomura, Kazuya; Ishibashi, Yohei; Okino, Nozomu; Hayashi, Masahiro; Ito, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    Thraustochytrids are marine single-cell protists that produce large amounts of PUFAs, such as DHA. They accumulate PUFAs in lipid droplets (LDs), mainly as constituent(s) of triacylglycerol (TG). We identified a novel protein in the LD fraction of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b using 2D-difference gel electrophoresis. The protein clustered with orthologs of thraustochytrids; however, the cluster was evolutionally different from known PAT family proteins or plant LD protein; thus, we named it thraustochytrid-specific LD protein 1 (TLDP1). TLDP1 surrounded LDs when expressed as a GFP-tagged form. Disruption of the tldp1 gene decreased the content of TG and number of LDs per cell; however, irregular and unusually large LDs were generated in tldp1 -deficient mutants. Although the level of TG synthesis was unchanged by the disruption of tldp1 , the level of TG degradation was higher in tldp1 -deficient mutants than in the WT. These phenotypic abnormalities in tldp1 -deficient mutants were restored by the expression of tldp1 These results indicate that TLDP1 is a thraustochytrid-specific LD protein and regulates the TG accumulation and LD morphology in A. limacinum F26-b. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  9. SET oncoprotein accumulation regulates transcription through DNA demethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Tannous, Maryna A; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andreia M

    2017-04-18

    Epigenetic modifications are essential in the control of normal cellular processes and cancer development. DNA methylation and histone acetylation are major epigenetic modifications involved in gene transcription and abnormal events driving the oncogenic process. SET protein accumulates in many cancer types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); SET is a member of the INHAT complex that inhibits gene transcription associating with histones and preventing their acetylation. We explored how SET protein accumulation impacts on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. DNA methylation profile of 24 tumour suppressors evidenced that SET accumulation decreased DNA methylation in association with loss of 5-methylcytidine, formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and increased TET1 levels, indicating an active DNA demethylation mechanism. However, the expression of some suppressor genes was lowered in cells with high SET levels, suggesting that loss of methylation is not the main mechanism modulating gene expression. SET accumulation also downregulated the expression of 32 genes of a panel of 84 transcription factors, and SET directly interacted with chromatin at the promoter of the downregulated genes, decreasing histone acetylation. Gene expression analysis after cell treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) and Trichostatin A (TSA) revealed that histone acetylation reversed transcription repression promoted by SET. These results suggest a new function for SET in the regulation of chromatin dynamics. In addition, TSA diminished both SET protein levels and SET capability to bind to gene promoter, suggesting that administration of epigenetic modifier agents could be efficient to reverse SET phenotype in cancer.

  10. Protein degradation pathways in Parkinson's disease: curse or blessing.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Wahlster, Lara; McLean, Pamela J

    2012-08-01

    Protein misfolding, aggregation and deposition are common disease mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of damaged or abnormally modified proteins may lead to perturbed cellular function and eventually to cell death. Thus, neurons rely on elaborated pathways of protein quality control and removal to maintain intracellular protein homeostasis. Molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) are critical pathways that mediate the refolding or removal of abnormal proteins. The successive failure of these protein degradation pathways, as a cause or consequence of early pathological alterations in vulnerable neurons at risk, may present a key step in the pathological cascade that leads to spreading neurodegeneration. A growing number of studies in disease models and patients have implicated dysfunction of the UPS and ALP in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Deciphering the exact mechanism by which the different proteolytic systems contribute to the elimination of pathogenic proteins, like α-synuclein, is therefore of paramount importance. We herein review the role of protein degradation pathways in Parkinson's disease and elaborate on the different contributions of the UPS and the ALP to the clearance of altered proteins. We examine the interplay between different degradation pathways and provide a model for the role of the UPS and ALP in the evolution and progression of α-synuclein pathology. With regards to exciting recent studies we also discuss the putative potential of using protein degradation pathways as novel therapeutic targets in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Partial Tmem106b reduction does not correct abnormalities due to progranulin haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Zhou, Xiaolai; Rademakers, Rosa; Roberson, Erik D

    2018-06-22

    Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that localizes to lysosomes and is critical for proper lysosomal function. Heterozygous GRN mutation carriers develop FTD with TDP-43 pathology and exhibit signs of lysosomal dysfunction in the brain, with increased levels of lysosomal proteins and lipofuscin accumulation. Homozygous GRN mutation carriers develop neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), an earlier-onset lysosomal storage disorder caused by severe lysosomal dysfunction. Multiple genome-wide association studies have shown that risk of FTD in GRN mutation carriers is modified by polymorphisms in TMEM106B, which encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. Risk alleles of TMEM106B may increase TMEM106B levels through a variety of mechanisms. Brains from FTD patients with GRN mutations exhibit increased TMEM106B expression, and protective TMEM106B polymorphisms are associated with decreased TMEM106B expression. Together, these data raise the possibility that reduction of TMEM106B levels may protect against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency. We crossed Tmem106b +/- mice with Grn +/- mice, which model the progranulin haploinsufficiency of GRN mutation carriers and develop age-dependent social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities in the brain. We tested whether partial Tmem106b reduction could normalize the social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice. Partial reduction of Tmem106b levels did not correct the social deficits of Grn +/- mice. Tmem106b reduction also failed to normalize most lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice, except for β-glucuronidase activity, which was suppressed by Tmem106b reduction and increased by progranulin insufficiency. These data do not support the hypothesis that Tmem106b reduction protects against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency, but do show that Tmem106b reduction normalizes some

  12. Amyloid and intracellular accumulation of BRI2.

    PubMed

    Garringer, Holly J; Sammeta, Neeraja; Oblak, Adrian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    Familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD) are caused by mutations in the BRI 2 gene. These diseases are characterized clinically by progressive dementia and ataxia and neuropathologically by amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. Herein, we investigate BRI 2 protein accumulation in FBD, FDD, Alzheimer disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. In FBD and FDD, we observed reduced processing of the mutant BRI 2 pro-protein, which was found accumulating intracellularly in the Golgi of neurons and glial cells. In addition, we observed an accumulation of a mature form of BRI 2 protein in dystrophic neurites, surrounding amyloid cores. Accumulation of BRI 2 was also observed in dystrophic neurites of Alzheimer disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease cases. Although it remains to be determined whether intracellular accumulation of BRI 2 may lead to cell damage in these degenerative diseases, our study provides new insights into the role of mutant BRI 2 in the pathogenesis of FBD and FDD and implicates BRI 2 as a potential indicator of neuritic damage in diseases characterized by cerebral amyloid deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amyloid and intracellular accumulation of BRI2

    PubMed Central

    Garringer, Holly J.; Sammeta, Neeraja; Oblak, Adrian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD) are caused by mutations in the BRI2 gene. These diseases are characterized clinically by progressive dementia and ataxia and neuropathologically by amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. Herein, we investigate BRI2 protein accumulation in FBD, FDD, Alzheimer disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. In FBD and FDD, we observed reduced processing of the mutant BRI2 pro-protein, which was found accumulating intracellularly in the Golgi of neurons and glial cells. In addition, we observed an accumulation of a mature form of BRI2 protein in dystrophic neurites, surrounding amyloid cores. Accumulation of BRI2 was also observed in dystrophic neurites of Alzheimer disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease cases. Although it remains to be determined whether intracellular accumulation of BRI2 may lead to cell damage in these degenerative diseases, our study provides new insights into the role of mutant BRI2 in the pathogenesis of FBD and FDD and implicates BRI2 as a potential indicator of neuritic damage in diseases characterized by cerebral amyloid deposition. PMID:28131015

  14. Mechanism of Arachidonic Acid Accumulation during Aging in Mortierella alpina: A Large-Scale Label-Free Comparative Proteomics Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Ren, Lujing; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2016-11-30

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid having various beneficial physiological effects on the human body. The aging of Mortierella alpina has long been known to significantly improve ARA yield, but the exact mechanism is still elusive. Herein, multiple approaches including large-scale label-free comparative proteomics were employed to systematically investigate the mechanism mentioned above. Upon ultrastructural observation, abnormal mitochondria were found to aggregate around shrunken lipid droplets. Proteomics analysis revealed a total of 171 proteins with significant alterations of expression during aging. Pathway analysis suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated and stimulated the activation of the malate/pyruvate cycle and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which might provide additional NADPH for ARA synthesis. EC 4.2.1.17-hydratase might be a key player in ARA accumulation during aging. These findings provide a valuable resource for efforts to further improve the ARA content in the oil produced by aging M. alpina.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  16. RX-P873, a Novel Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Accumulates in Human THP-1 Monocytes and Is Active against Intracellular Infections by Gram-Positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-Negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Buyck, Julien M.; Peyrusson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The pyrrolocytosine RX-P873, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic in preclinical development, inhibits protein synthesis at the translation step. The aims of this work were to study RX-P873's ability to accumulate in eukaryotic cells, together with its activity against extracellular and intracellular forms of infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using a pharmacodynamic approach allowing the determination of maximal relative efficacies (Emax values) and bacteriostatic concentrations (Cs values) on the basis of Hill equations of the concentration-response curves. RX-P873's apparent concentration in human THP-1 monocytes was about 6-fold higher than the extracellular one. In broth, MICs ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter (S. aureus) and 2 to 8 mg/liter (P. aeruginosa), with no significant shift in these values against strains resistant to currently used antibiotics being noted. In concentration-dependent experiments, the pharmacodynamic profile of RX-P873 was not influenced by the resistance phenotype of the strains. Emax values (expressed as the decrease in the number of CFU from that in the initial inoculum) against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa reached more than 4 log units and 5 log units in broth, respectively, and 0.7 log unit and 2.7 log units in infected THP-1 cells, respectively, after 24 h. Cs values remained close to the MIC in all cases, making RX-P873 more potent than antibiotics to which the strains were resistant (moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and daptomycin for S. aureus; ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa). Kill curves in broth showed that RX-P873 was more rapidly bactericidal against P. aeruginosa than against S. aureus. Taken together, these data suggest that RX-P873 may constitute a useful alternative for infections involving intracellular bacteria, especially Gram-negative species. PMID:26014952

  17. ARS-Interacting Multi-Functional Protein 1 Induces Proliferation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Accumulation of β-Catenin via Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Activation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seo Yoon; Son, Woo Sung; Park, Min Chul; Kim, Chul Min; Cha, Byung Hyun; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    ARS-Interacting Multi-functional Protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, immune activation, and fibroblast proliferation. In this study, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was isolated as a binding partner of AIMP peptide (amino acids 6–46) in affinity purification using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). AIMP1 peptide induced the proliferation of adult BMMSCs by activating Akt, inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and thereby increasing the level of β-catenin. In addition, AIMP1 peptide induced the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and increased the transcription of c-myc and cyclin D1 by activating the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex. By contrast, transfection of dominant negative TCF abolished the effect of AIMP1. The inhibition of Akt, using LY294002, abolished the accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin induced by AIMP1, leading to a decrease in c-myc and cyclin D1 expression, which decreased the proliferation of BMMSCs. An intraperitoneal injection of AIMP1 peptide into C57/BL6 mice increased the colony formation of fibroblast-like cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that the colony-forming cells were CD29+/CD44+/CD90+/CD105+/CD34−/CD45−, which is characteristic of MSCs. In addition, the fibroblast-like cells differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that AIMP1 peptide promotes the proliferation of BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin/TCF complex via FGFR2-mediated activation of Akt, which leads to an increase in MSCs in peripheral blood. PMID:23672191

  18. The Trypanosoma cruzi immunosuppressive factor (TIF) targets a lymphocyte activation event subsequent to increased intracellular calcium ion concentration and translocation of protein kinase C but previous to cyclin D2 and cdk4 mRNA accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, F; Majumder, S; Paredes, P; Tanner, M K; Sztein, M B

    1998-04-01

    Many immunosuppressive effects of Trypanosoma cruzi can be reproduced in vitro by a preparation consisting of molecules spontaneously released by this protozoan (termed trypanosomal immunosuppressive factor (TIF)). In this work, we attempted to establish whether TIF-induced inhibition of lymphoproliferation results from preventing lymphocyte activation or impairing a post-activation process. Although [3H]thymidine uptake and expression of CD25 by normal human T lymphocytes stimulated with a phorbol ester were markedly reduced by T. cruzi or TIF, translocation of cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) to the cell membrane was not affected. Lymphoproliferation induced by ionomycin was also inhibited by T. cruzi or TIF but the typical elevation of intracellular calcium ions [Ca2+]i caused by this calcium ionophore was not altered. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced with anti-CD3 antibody was also unaffected by TIF. TIF did not preclude lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin from accumulating normal mRNA levels of NFAT1 (also known as NFATp) and NFATc. NFAT1 and NFATc are components of the NFAT complex that controls transcription of genes coding for several cytokines and whose translocation to the nucleus is dependent upon PKC activation and increased [Ca2+]i. In contrast, the mRNA levels of cyclin D2 and cdk4, which form a holoenzyme complex known to regulate cell progression through the G1 phase, were markedly reduced by TIF. These results indicated that TIF did not inhibit lymphocyte activation leading to early secondary signaling but curtailed a mechanism controlling cell progression through G1 and necessary for reaching S phase.

  19. ARS-interacting multi-functional protein 1 induces proliferation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by accumulation of β-catenin via fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-mediated activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Yoon; Son, Woo Sung; Park, Min Chul; Kim, Chul Min; Cha, Byung Hyun; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lee, Soo-Hong; Park, Sang Gyu

    2013-10-01

    ARS-Interacting Multi-functional Protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, immune activation, and fibroblast proliferation. In this study, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was isolated as a binding partner of AIMP peptide (amino acids 6-46) in affinity purification using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). AIMP1 peptide induced the proliferation of adult BMMSCs by activating Akt, inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and thereby increasing the level of β-catenin. In addition, AIMP1 peptide induced the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and increased the transcription of c-myc and cyclin D1 by activating the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex. By contrast, transfection of dominant negative TCF abolished the effect of AIMP1. The inhibition of Akt, using LY294002, abolished the accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin induced by AIMP1, leading to a decrease in c-myc and cyclin D1 expression, which decreased the proliferation of BMMSCs. An intraperitoneal injection of AIMP1 peptide into C57/BL6 mice increased the colony formation of fibroblast-like cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that the colony-forming cells were CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD90(+)/CD105(+)/CD34(-)/CD45(-), which is characteristic of MSCs. In addition, the fibroblast-like cells differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that AIMP1 peptide promotes the proliferation of BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin/TCF complex via FGFR2-mediated activation of Akt, which leads to an increase in MSCs in peripheral blood.

  20. JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 Regulates the Nuclear Accumulation of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7, Influencing the RNA Processing of FLOWERING LOCUS C Antisense Transcripts and Flowering Time in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Shujuan; Xing, Lijing; Xu, Yunyuan; Chong, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Lectins selectively recognize sugars or glycans for defense in living cells, but less is known about their roles in the development process and the functional network with other factors. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 (AtJAC1) functions in flowering time control. Loss of function of AtJAC1 leads to precocious flowering, whereas overexpression of AtJAC1 causes delayed flowering. AtJAC1 influences flowering through regulation of the key flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Genetic analysis revealed that AtJAC1’s function is mostly dependent on GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7 (GRP7), an upstream regulator of FLC. Biochemical and cell biological data indicated that AtJAC1 interacted physically with GRP7 specifically in the cytoplasm. AtJAC1 influences the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GRP7, with predominant nuclear localization of GRP7 when AtJAC1 function is lost but retention of GRP7 in the cytoplasm when AtJAC1 is overexpressed. A temporal inducible assay suggested that AtJAC1’s regulation of flowering could be compromised by the nuclear accumulation of GRP7. In addition, GRP7 binds to the antisense precursor messenger RNA of FLC through a conserved RNA motif. Loss of GRP7 function leads to the elevation of total FLC antisense transcripts and reduced proximal-distal polyadenylation ratio, as well as histone methylation changes in the FLC gene body region and increased total functional sense FLC transcript. Attenuating the direct binding of GRP7 with competing artificial RNAs leads to changes of FLC antisense precursor messenger RNA processing and flowering transition. Taken together, our study indicates that AtJAC1 coordinates with GRP7 in shaping plant development through the regulation of RNA processing in Arabidopsis. PMID:26392261

  1. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  2. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page What research is being ...

  3. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  4. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  5. Accumulation of BSA in Packed-bed Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Samantha; Hu, Chuntian; Hartman, Ryan

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimers and Parkinsons are two diseases that are associated with protein deposition in the brain, causing loss of either cognitive or muscle functioning. Protein deposition diseases are considered progressive diseases since the continual aggregation of protein causes the patient's symptoms to slowly worsen over time. There are currently no known means of treatment for protein deposition diseases. Our goal is to understand the potential for packed-bed microfluidics to study protein accumulation. Measurement of the resistance to flow through micro-scale packed-beds is critical to understanding the process of protein accumulation. Aggregation in bulk is fundamentally different from accumulation on surfaces. Our study attempts to distinguish between either mechanism. The results from our experiments involving protein injection through a microfluidic system will be presented and discussed. Funding received by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  6. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  7. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive