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Sample records for abnormal regional ventricular

  1. Deletion of ETS-1, a gene in the Jacobsen syndrome critical region, causes ventricular septal defects and abnormal ventricular morphology in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Maoqing; Coldren, Chris; Liang, Xingqun; Mattina, Teresa; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Benson, D. Woodrow; Ivy, Dunbar; Perryman, M.B.; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Grossfeld, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects comprise the most common form of major birth defects, affecting 0.7% of all newborn infants. Jacobsen syndrome (11q-) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by deletions in distal 11q. We have previously determined that a wide spectrum of the most common congenital heart defects occur in 11q-, including an unprecedented high frequency of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified an ∼7 Mb ‘cardiac critical region’ in distal 11q that contains a putative causative gene(s) for congenital heart disease. In this study, we utilized chromosomal microarray mapping to characterize three patients with 11q- and congenital heart defects that carry interstitial deletions overlapping the 7 Mb cardiac critical region. We propose that this 1.2 Mb region of overlap harbors a gene(s) that causes at least a subset of the congenital heart defects that occur in 11q-. We demonstrate that one gene in this region, ETS-1 (a member of the ETS family of transcription factors), is expressed in the endocardium and neural crest during early mouse heart development. Gene-targeted deletion of ETS-1 in mice in a C57/B6 background causes, with high penetrance, large membranous ventricular septal defects and a bifid cardiac apex, and less frequently a non-apex-forming left ventricle (one of the hallmarks of HLHS). Our results implicate an important role for the ETS-1 transcription factor in mammalian heart development and should provide important insights into some of the most common forms of congenital heart disease. PMID:19942620

  2. Insulin resistance and subclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function in patients with aortic valve sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kunita, Eiji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2014-04-27

    Insulin resistance, as a key mediator of metabolic syndrome, is thought to be associated with pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and altered left ventricular (LV) function and structure. However, in patients with aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), the association between insulin resistance and subclinical impairment of LV function is not fully elucidated. We studied 57 patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 22 women) with asymptomatic AVS but normal LV ejection fraction in echocardiography. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and concomitant coronary artery disease were excluded. They were divided into the insulin-resistant group (AVS+IR; N = 28) and no insulin-resistant group (AVS-IR; N = 29) according to the median value of homeostatic model assessment index. Computed tomography scans were also performed to measure the aortic valve calcium score and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. In addition, age- and sex- adjusted 28 control subjects were recruited for the comparison. There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction or mass index among the groups. The AVS+IR group had a higher aortic valve calcium score (median 94 versus 21, P = 0.022) and a larger VAT area (113 ± 42 cm2 versus 77 ± 38 cm2, P = 0.001) than the AVS-IR group. Notably, LV global longitudinal strain, strain rate (SR), and early diastolic SR were significantly lower in the AVS+IR group than in the AVS-IR group and in control subjects (strain: -16.2 ± 1.6% versus -17.2 ± 1.2% and -18.9 ± 0.8%; SR: -1.18 ± 0.26 s(-1) versus -1.32 ± 0.21 s(-1) and -1.52 ± 0.08 s(-1); early diastolic SR: -1.09 ± 0.23 s(-1) versus -1.23 ± 0.18 s(-1) and -1.35 ± 0.12 s(-1); P < 0.05 for all comparison), whereas circumferential function were not

  3. Insulin resistance and subclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function in patients with aortic valve sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance, as a key mediator of metabolic syndrome, is thought to be associated with pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and altered left ventricular (LV) function and structure. However, in patients with aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), the association between insulin resistance and subclinical impairment of LV function is not fully elucidated. Methods We studied 57 patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 22 women) with asymptomatic AVS but normal LV ejection fraction in echocardiography. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and concomitant coronary artery disease were excluded. They were divided into the insulin-resistant group (AVS+IR; N = 28) and no insulin-resistant group (AVS-IR; N = 29) according to the median value of homeostatic model assessment index. Computed tomography scans were also performed to measure the aortic valve calcium score and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. In addition, age- and sex- adjusted 28 control subjects were recruited for the comparison. Results There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction or mass index among the groups. The AVS+IR group had a higher aortic valve calcium score (median 94 versus 21, P = 0.022) and a larger VAT area (113 ± 42 cm2 versus 77 ± 38 cm2, P = 0.001) than the AVS-IR group. Notably, LV global longitudinal strain, strain rate (SR), and early diastolic SR were significantly lower in the AVS+IR group than in the AVS-IR group and in control subjects (strain: -16.2 ± 1.6% versus -17.2 ± 1.2% and -18.9 ± 0.8%; SR: -1.18 ± 0.26 s-1 versus -1.32 ± 0.21 s-1 and -1.52 ± 0.08 s-1; early diastolic SR: -1.09 ± 0.23 s-1 versus -1.23 ± 0.18 s-1 and -1.35 ± 0.12 s-1; P < 0.05 for all comparison), whereas

  4. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex andmore » then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.« less

  5. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  6. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Martini, Bortolo; Trevisi, Nicola; Martini, Nicolò; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches.

  7. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Bortolo; Trevisi, Nicola; Martini, Nicolò; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches. PMID:26509086

  8. Does quantitative left ventricular regional wall motion change after fibrous tissue resection in endomyocardial fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fabio; Sirvente, Raquel; Nastari, Luciano; Rosa, Leonardo Vieira; Ferreira, Cristiano A; Pena, José Luiz Barros; Picard, Michael H; Mady, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We compared left ventricular regional wall motion, the global left ventricular ejection fraction, and the New York Heart Association functional class pre- and postoperatively. Endomyocardial fibrosis is characterized by fibrous tissue deposition in the endomyocardium of the apex and/or inflow tract of one or both ventricles. Although left ventricular global systolic function is preserved, patients exhibit wall motion abnormalities in the apical and inferoapical regions. Fibrous tissue resection in New York Heart Association FC III and IV endomyocardial fibrosis patients has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. We prospectively studied 30 patients (20 female, 30+/-10 years) before and 5+/-8 months after surgery. The left ventricular ejection fraction was determined using the area-length method. Regional left ventricular motion was measured by the centerline method. Five left ventricular segments were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Abnormality was expressed in units of standard deviation from the mean motion in a normal reference population. Left ventricular wall motion in the five regions did not differ between pre- and postoperative measurements. Additionally, the left ventricular ejection fraction did not change after surgery (0.45+/-0.13% x 0.43+/-0.12% pre- and postoperatively, respectively). The New York Heart Association functional class improved to class I in 40% and class II in 43% of patients postoperatively (p<0.05). Although endomyocardial fibrosis patients have improved clinical symptoms after surgery, the global left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion in these patients do not change. This finding suggests that other explanations, such as improvements in diastolic function, may be operational.

  9. Left ventricular function abnormalities as a manifestation of silent myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C R; Conti, C R; Pepine, C J

    1986-11-01

    A large body of evidence exists indicating that left ventricular dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with severe coronary artery disease and represents silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Such dysfunction probably occurs early in the time course of every ischemic episode in patients with coronary artery disease whether symptoms are eventually manifested or not. The pathophysiology of silent versus symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemia appears to be identical. Silent ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction can be documented during spontaneous or stress-induced perturbations in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. It also may be detected by nitroglycerin-induced improvement in ventricular function or by salutary changes in wall motion following revascularization. Silent left ventricular dysfunction is a very early occurrence during ischemia and precedes electrocardiographic abnormalities. In this light, its existence should always be kept in mind when dealing with patients with ischemic heart disease. It can be hypothesized that because silent ischemia appears to be identical to ischemia with symptoms in a pathophysiologic sense, prognosis and treatment in both cases should be the same.

  10. Studying ventricular abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment with hyperbolic Ricci flow and tensor-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Thompson, Paul M; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDYING VENTRICULAR ABNORMALITIES IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT WITH HYPERBOLIC RICCI FLOW AND TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Caselli, Richard J.; Wang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. PMID:25285374

  12. Multivariate Tensor-based Morphometry on Surfaces: Application to Mapping Ventricular Abnormalities in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F.; Becker, James T.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Tamburo, Robert J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics - these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain. PMID:19900560

  13. Regional and global right ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with congenitally corrected transposition.

    PubMed

    Tulevski, Igor I; Zijta, Frank M; Smeijers, Anika S; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; van der Wall, Ernst E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2004-04-01

    Patients with congenitally corrected transposition are at risk of right ventricular dysfunction and failure. With this in mind, we examined 13 patients with congenitally corrected transposition, 7 not having undergone surgery, and 6 after physiological repair, comparing them with 6 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, at rest and during dobutamine stress, in order to determine regional and global right ventricular response to stress. At rest, the patients had significantly decreased overall wall motion compared to their healthy peers (7.2 +/- 0.5, versus 9.8 +/- 0.4 mm). During infusion of dobutamine, overall wall motion increased to 12.8 +/- 0.4 mm in the healthy subjects, versus 8.8 +/- 1.0 mm in patients. At the regional level, significant differences in mural motion were found between patients and controls in the anterior (9.5 +/- 1.1, versus 13.2 +/- 0.6 mm), posterior (10.2 +/- 1.6, versus 13.2 +/- 0.8 mm), and septal segments (5.0 +/- 0.8, versus 11.2 +/- 0.6 mm). At rest, overall mural thickening in patients was similar to that of controls, but significantly less in patients during stress. During dobutamine stress, patients showed significantly less regional wall thickening than controls, particularly in the septal (2.7 +/- 0.6, versus 6.0 +/- 0.4 mm, respectively) and in the anterior segments (4.2 +/- 0.6, versus 7.8 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively). Right ventricular ejection fraction strongly correlated with mural motion and thickening, both at rest and during stress. Abnormal regional function in the systemic morphologically right ventricle may occur in patients with congenitally corrected transposition, which strongly correlates with right ventricular ejection fraction. Our findings support the hypothesis that, in patients with congenitally corrected transposition, ischemia of the right ventricular myocardium contributes to the development of right ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Association of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Gyu; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities (NSSTTA) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and LV geometry on echocardiography. A cross-sectional study comprised of 74,976 Koreans who underwent ECG and echocardiography as part of a comprehensive health examination between March 2011 and December 2014. ECG was coded using Minnesota Code criteria. The frequencies of NSSTTA, impaired LV relaxation, and echocardiographic LVH were 1,139 (1.5%), 21,118 (28.2%), and 1,687 (2.3%) patients, respectively. The presence of NSSTTA was positively associated with the prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH on echocardiography. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% CIs) comparing patients with NSSTTA to control patients was 1.55 (1.33-1.80) for impaired LV relaxation and 3.15 (2.51-3.96) for echocardiographic LVH. The association between NSSTTA and impaired LV relaxation was stronger in the intermediate to high cardiovascular disease-risk group than in the low-risk group according to Framingham Risk Score stratification (P for interaction = 0.02). NSSTTA were associated with increased prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH, suggesting NSSTTA as an early indicator of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and geometric abnormalities.

  15. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems.

    PubMed

    Erol, Cengiz; Koplay, Mustafa; Olcay, Ayhan; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Ozbek, Seda; Seker, Mehmet; Paksoy, Yahya

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P=0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feature tracking CMR reveals abnormal strain in preclinical arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy: a multisoftware feasibility and clinical implementation study.

    PubMed

    Bourfiss, Mimount; Vigneault, Davis M; Aliyari Ghasebeh, Mounes; Murray, Brittney; James, Cynthia A; Tichnell, Crystal; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kamel, Ihab R; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Bluemke, David A; Te Riele, Anneline S J M

    2017-09-01

    Regional right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is the hallmark of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), but is currently only qualitatively evaluated in the clinical setting. Feature Tracking Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (FT-CMR) is a novel quantitative method that uses cine CMR to calculate strain values. However, most prior FT-CMR studies in ARVD/C have focused on global RV strain using different software methods, complicating implementation of FT-CMR in clinical practice. We aimed to assess the clinical value of global and regional strain using FT-CMR in ARVD/C and to determine differences between commercially available FT-CMR software packages. We analyzed cine CMR images of 110 subjects (39 overt ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype+], 40 preclinical ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype-] and 31 control) for global and regional (subtricuspid, anterior, apical) RV strain in the horizontal longitudinal axis using four FT-CMR software methods (Multimodality Tissue Tracking, TomTec, Medis and Circle Cardiovascular Imaging). Intersoftware agreement was assessed using Bland Altman plots. For global strain, all methods showed reduced strain in overt ARVD/C patients compared to control subjects (p < 0.041), whereas none distinguished preclinical from control subjects (p > 0.275). For regional strain, overt ARVD/C patients showed reduced strain compared to control subjects in all segments which reached statistical significance in the subtricuspid region for all software methods (p < 0.037), in the anterior wall for two methods (p < 0.005) and in the apex for one method (p = 0.012). Preclinical subjects showed abnormal subtricuspid strain compared to control subjects using one of the software methods (p = 0.009). Agreement between software methods for absolute strain values was low (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.373). Despite large intersoftware variability of FT-CMR derived strain values, all four software methods distinguished

  17. INCIDENCE OF ABNORMAL POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH UNEXPLAINED CARDIOMYOPATHY AND VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Roderick; Bauer, Brenton; Schelbert, Heinrich; Lynch, Joseph; Auerbach, Martin; Gupta, Pawan; Schiepers, Christiaan; Chan, Samantha; Ferris, Julie; Barrio, Martin; Ajijola, Olujimi; Bradfield, Jason; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of myocardial inflammation in patients with unexplained cardiomyopathy referred for ventricular arrhythmias (VA) is unknown. Objective To report fasting PET scan findings in consecutive patients referred with unexplained cardiomyopathy and VA. Methods 18-FDG PET/CT scans with a >16 hour fasting protocol were prospectively ordered for patients referred for VA and unexplained cardiomyopathy (EF<55%). Patients with focal myocardial FDG uptake were labeled as arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy (AIC) and classified into four groups based on the presence of lymph node uptake (AIC+) and perfusion abnormalities (early vs late stage). Results Over a 3-year period, 103 PET scan were performed with 49% (AIC+=17, AIC=33) exhibiting focal FDG uptake. The mean age was 52±12 years with an EF of 36±16%. Patients with AIC were more likely to have a history of pacemaker (32% vs 6%, p=0.002) compared to those with normal PET. When biopsy was performed, histologic diagnosis revealed non-granulomatous inflammation in 6 patients and sarcoidosis in 18 patients. 90% of patients with AIC/AIC+ were prescribed immunosuppressive therapy and 58% underwent ablation. Correlation between areas of perfusion abnormalities and FDG uptake with electro-anatomic mapping was observed in 79% patients and MRI findings matched in only 33%. Conclusions Nearly 50% of patients referred with unexplained cardiomyopathy and VA demonstrate ongoing focal myocardial inflammation on FDG PET. These data suggests that a significant proportion of patients labeled “idiopathic” may have occult arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which may benefit from early detection and immunosuppressive medical therapy. PMID:26272522

  18. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes reveal abnormal TGFβ signaling in left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kodo, Kazuki; Ong, Sang-Ging; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Hirono, Keiichi; InanlooRahatloo, Kolsoum; Ebert, Antje D.; Shukla, Praveen; Abilez, Oscar J.; Churko, Jared M.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Jung, Gwanghyun; Ichida, Fukiko; Wu, Sean M.; Snyder, Michael P.; Bernstein, Daniel; Wu, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is the third most prevalent cardiomyopathy in children and its pathogenesis has been associated with the developmental defect of the embryonic myocardium. We show that patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) generated from LVNC patients carrying a mutation in the cardiac transcription factor TBX20 recapitulate a key aspect of the pathological phenotype at the single-cell level and was associated with perturbed transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. LVNC iPSC-CMs have decreased proliferative capacity due to abnormal activation of TGFβ signaling. TBX20 regulates the expression of TGFβ signaling modifiers including a known genetic cause of LVNC, PRDM16, and genome editing of PRDM16 caused proliferation defects in iPSC-CMs. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling and genome correction of the TBX20 mutation were sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype. Our study demonstrates that iPSC-CMs are a useful tool for the exploration of pathological mechanisms underlying poorly understood cardiomyopathies including LVNC. PMID:27642787

  19. Subclinical and clinical correlates of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in the community.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Danias, Peter G; Blease, Susan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S; Albert, Mark; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Yeon, Susan B

    2011-03-15

    The prevalence and clinical correlates of left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), associated with morbidity and mortality, have not been well-characterized in the population. Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (n = 1,794, 844 men, age 65 ± 9 years) underwent cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for evaluation of LV function. A subset (n = 1,009, 460 men) underwent cardiac multidetector computed tomography for analysis of coronary artery calcium. The presence of coronary heart disease and heart failure (CHD-HF) were assessed in relation to the presence of WMAs. WMAs were present in 117 participants (6.5%) and were associated with male gender, elevated hemoglobin A1c, LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, and lower LV ejection fraction. Of the 1,637 participants without CHD-HF, 68 (4.2%) had WMAs. In this group, WMAs were associated with obesity, hypertension, and Framingham coronary heart disease risk score in the age- and gender-adjusted analyses and were associated with male gender and hypertension on multivariate analysis. Most subjects with WMAs were in the greatest coronary artery calcium groups. The presence of coronary artery calcium greater than the seventy-fifth percentile and Agatston score >100 were associated with a greater than twofold risk of WMAs in the age- and gender-adjusted analysis but were no longer significant when additionally adjusted for CHD-HF. Previous Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 29% of the 117 participants with WMAs. In conclusion, in the present longitudinally followed free-living population, 4.2% of the participants without CHD-HF had WMAs. WMAs were associated with the clinical parameters associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Aggressive risk factor modification may be prudent for subjects with WMAs, particularly those free of clinical CHD-HF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unique Abnormalities in Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain in Systemic Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Monica; Chung, Shang-En; Ton, Von Khue; Tedford, Ryan J; Hummers, Laura K; Wigley, Fredrick M; Abraham, Theodore P; Shah, Ami A

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma [SSc]) adversely affects long-term prognosis, often remaining undetectable despite close clinical examination and 2-dimensional echocardiographic monitoring. Speckle-derived strain of the right ventricle (RV) was utilized to detect occult abnormalities in regional and global contractility in SSc patients. A total of 138 SSc patients with technically adequate echocardiograms was studied and compared with 40 age- and sex-matched healthy non-SSc controls. Standard assessment of RV chamber function included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change. RV longitudinal systolic speckle-derived strain was assessed in the basal, mid, and apical free wall. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was not different between groups (P=0.307). Although fractional area change was lower in SSc patients than in controls (mean, 48.9 versus 55; P=0.002), the mean fractional area change was still within the normal range (>35). In contrast, RV longitudinal systolic speckle-derived strain measures were significantly different between groups, both globally (-20.4% versus -17.7%; P=0.005) and regionally: they were decreased in the apex (-8.5% versus -17.1%; P<0.0001) and mid segments (-12.4% versus -20.9%; P<0.0001), and increased in the base (-32.2% versus -23.3%; P=0.0001) for the SSc group. The regional difference in the base compared with the apex was significantly greater for SSc than for controls (P<0.0001 for interaction). The differences observed in regional strain between SSc and control were unchanged after adjusting for RV systolic pressure. Speckle-derived strain reveals a heterogenous pattern of regional heart strain in SSc that is not detected by conventional measures of function, suggestive of occult RV myocardial disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Temporal Fourier analysis applied to equilibrium radionuclide cineangiography. Importance in the study of global and regional left ventricular wall motion.

    PubMed

    Cardot, J C; Berthout, P; Verdenet, J; Bidet, A; Faivre, R; Bassand, J P; Bidet, R; Maurat, J P

    1982-01-01

    Regional and global left ventricular wall motion was assessed in 120 patients using radionuclide cineangiography (RCA) and contrast angiography. Functional imaging procedures based on a temporal Fourier analysis of dynamic image sequences were applied to the study of cardiac contractility. Two images were constructed by taking the phase and amplitude values of the first harmonic in the Fourier transform for each pixel. These two images aided in determining the perimeter of the left ventricle to calculate the global ejection fraction. Regional left ventricular wall motion was studied by analyzing the phase value and by examining the distribution histogram of these values. The accuracy of global ejection fraction calculation was improved by the Fourier technique. This technique increased the sensitivity of RCA for determining segmental abnormalities especially in the left anterior oblique view (LAO).

  2. Mitral valve prolapse and electrolyte abnormality: a dangerous combination for ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Ali Raza; Murugesan, Vagishwari; Baslaib, Fahad Omar; Rafiq, Muhammad Anwer

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman with a history of bileaflet mitral valve prolapse and moderate mitral regurgitation presented to our emergency with untractable polymorphic wide complex tachycardia and unstable haemodynamics. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, return of spontaneous circulation was achieved 30 min later. Her post-resuscitation ECG showed a prolonged QT interval which progressively normalised over the same day. Her laboratory investigations revealed hypocalcaemia while other electrolytes were within normal limits. A diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia secondary to structural heart disease further precipitated by hypocalcaemia was made. Further hospital stay did not reveal a recurrence of prolonged QT interval or other arrhythmias except for an episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. However, the patient suffered diffuse hypoxic brain encephalopathy secondary to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:24827670

  3. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Matsuda, H; Hashimoto, T; Kunihiro, T; Nishikawa, M; Uema, T; Sasaki, M

    2000-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of autism have shown abnormalities in the limbic system and cerebellar circuits and additional sites. These findings are not, however, specific or consistent enough to build up a coherent theory of the origin and nature of the brain abnormality in autistic patients. Twenty-three children with infantile autism and 26 non-autistic controls matched for IQ and age were examined using brain-perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer. In autistic subjects, we assessed the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom profiles. Images were anatomically normalized, and voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed. Decreases in rCBF in autistic patients compared with the control group were identified in the bilateral insula, superior temporal gyri and left prefrontal cortices. Analysis of the correlations between syndrome scores and rCBF revealed that each syndrome was associated with a specific pattern of perfusion in the limbic system and the medial prefrontal cortex. The results confirmed the associations of (i) impairments in communication and social interaction that are thought to be related to deficits in the theory of mind (ToM) with altered perfusion in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus, and (ii) the obsessive desire for sameness with altered perfusion in the right medial temporal lobe. The perfusion abnormalities seem to be related to the cognitive dysfunction observed in autism, such as deficits in ToM, abnormal responses to sensory stimuli, and the obsessive desire for sameness. The perfusion patterns suggest possible locations of abnormalities of brain function underlying abnormal behaviour patterns in autistic individuals.

  4. PLEKHM2 mutation leads to abnormal localization of lysosomes, impaired autophagy flux and associates with recessive dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Emad; Levitas, Aviva; Singh, Sonia R.; Braiman, Alex; Ofir, Rivka; Etzion, Sharon; Sheffield, Val C.; Etzion, Yoram; Carrier, Lucie; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations, mostly segregating with a dominant mode of inheritance, are important causes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disease characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions, impaired cardiac function, heart failure and high risk of death. Another myocardial abnormality often linked to gene mutations is left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) characterized by a typical diffuse spongy appearance of the left ventricle. Here, we describe a large Bedouin family presenting with a severe recessive DCM and LVNC. Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a single gene variant that segregated as expected and was neither reported in databases nor in Bedouin population controls. The PLEKHM2 cDNA2156_2157delAG variant causes the frameshift p.Lys645AlafsTer12 and/or the skipping of exon 11 that results in deletion of 30 highly conserved amino acids. PLEKHM2 is known to interact with several Rabs and with kinesin-1, affecting endosomal trafficking. Accordingly, patients' primary fibroblasts exhibited abnormal subcellular distribution of endosomes marked by Rab5, Rab7 and Rab9, as well as the Golgi apparatus. In addition, lysosomes appeared to be concentrated in the perinuclear region, and autophagy flux was impaired. Transfection of wild-type PLEKHM2 cDNA into patient's fibroblasts corrected the subcellular distribution of the lysosomes, supporting the causal effect of PLEKHM2 mutation. PLEKHM2 joins LAMP-2 and BAG3 as a disease gene altering autophagy resulting in an isolated cardiac phenotype. The association of PLEKHM2 mutation with DCM and LVNC supports the importance of autophagy for normal cardiac function. PMID:26464484

  5. PLEKHM2 mutation leads to abnormal localization of lysosomes, impaired autophagy flux and associates with recessive dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Emad; Levitas, Aviva; Singh, Sonia R; Braiman, Alex; Ofir, Rivka; Etzion, Sharon; Sheffield, Val C; Etzion, Yoram; Carrier, Lucie; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-12-20

    Gene mutations, mostly segregating with a dominant mode of inheritance, are important causes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disease characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions, impaired cardiac function, heart failure and high risk of death. Another myocardial abnormality often linked to gene mutations is left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) characterized by a typical diffuse spongy appearance of the left ventricle. Here, we describe a large Bedouin family presenting with a severe recessive DCM and LVNC. Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a single gene variant that segregated as expected and was neither reported in databases nor in Bedouin population controls. The PLEKHM2 cDNA2156_2157delAG variant causes the frameshift p.Lys645AlafsTer12 and/or the skipping of exon 11 that results in deletion of 30 highly conserved amino acids. PLEKHM2 is known to interact with several Rabs and with kinesin-1, affecting endosomal trafficking. Accordingly, patients' primary fibroblasts exhibited abnormal subcellular distribution of endosomes marked by Rab5, Rab7 and Rab9, as well as the Golgi apparatus. In addition, lysosomes appeared to be concentrated in the perinuclear region, and autophagy flux was impaired. Transfection of wild-type PLEKHM2 cDNA into patient's fibroblasts corrected the subcellular distribution of the lysosomes, supporting the causal effect of PLEKHM2 mutation. PLEKHM2 joins LAMP-2 and BAG3 as a disease gene altering autophagy resulting in an isolated cardiac phenotype. The association of PLEKHM2 mutation with DCM and LVNC supports the importance of autophagy for normal cardiac function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Right ventricular outflow tract high-density endocardial unipolar voltage mapping in patients with Brugada syndrome: evidence for electroanatomical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Letsas, Konstantinos P; Efremidis, Michael; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Georgopoulos, Stamatis; Karamichalakis, Nikolaos; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Valkanas, Kosmas; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Liu, Tong; Sideris, Antonios

    2017-05-02

    Epicardial structural abnormalities at the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) may provide the arrhythmia substrate in Brugada syndrome (BrS). Electroanatomical endocardial unipolar voltage mapping is an emerging tool that accurately identifies epicardial abnormalities in different clinical settings. This study investigated whether endocardial unipolar voltage mapping of the RVOT detects electroanatomical abnormalities in patients with BrS. Ten asymptomatic patients (8 males, 34.5 ± 11.2 years) with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern of BrS and negative late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-c-MRI) underwent high-density endocardial electroanatomical mapping (>800 points). Using a cut-off of 1 mV and 4 mV for normal bipolar and unipolar voltage, respectively, derived from 20 control patients without structural heart disease established by LGE-c-MRI, the extend of low-voltage areas within the RVOT was estimated using a specific calculation software. The mean RVOT area presenting low-voltage bipolar signals in BrS patients was 3.4 ± 1.7 cm2 (range 1.5-7 cm2). A significantly greater area of abnormal unipolar signals was identified (12.6 ± 4.6 cm2 [range 7-22 cm2], P: 0.001). Both bipolar and unipolar electroanatomical abnormalities were mainly located at the free wall of the RVOT. The mean RVOT activation time was significantly prolonged in BrS patients compared to control population (86.4 ± 16.5 vs. 63.4 ± 9.7 ms, P < 0.001). Isochronal mapping demonstrated lines of conduction slowing within the RVOT in 8/10 BrS patients. Wide areas of endocardial unipolar voltage abnormalities that possibly reflect epicardial structural abnormalities are identified at the RVOT of BrS patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Profound bioenergetic abnormalities in peri-infarct myocardial regions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaohong; Lee, Joseph; Mansoor, Abdul; Liu, Jingbo; Zeng, Lepeng; Swingen, Cory; Zhang, Ge; Feygin, Julia; Ochiai, Koichi; Bransford, Toni L; From, Arthur H L; Bache, Robert J; Zhang, Jianyi

    2006-08-01

    Regions of myocardial infarct (MI) are surrounded by a border zone (BZ) of normally perfused but dysfunctional myocardium. Although systolic dysfunction has been attributed to elevated wall stress in this region, there is evidence that intrinsic abnormalities of contractile performance exist in BZ myocardium. This study examined whether decreases of high-energy phosphates (HEP) and mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase (mtATPase) subunits typical of failing myocardium exist in BZ myocardium of compensated postinfarct remodeled hearts. Eight pigs were studied 6 wk after MI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) distal to the second diagonal. Animals developed compensated LV remodeling with a decrease of ejection fraction from 54.6 +/- 5.4% to 31 +/- 2.1% (MRI) 5 wk after LAD occlusion. The remote zone (RZ) myocardium demonstrated modest decreases of ATP and mtATPase components. In contrast, BZ myocardium demonstrated profound abnormalities with ATP levels decreased to 42% of normal, and phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio ((31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy) decreased from 2.06 +/- 0.19 in normal hearts to 1.07 +/- 0.10, with decreases in alpha-, beta-, OSCP, and IF(1) subunits of mtATPase, especially in the subendocardium. The reduction of myocardial creatine kinase isoform protein expression was also more severe in the BZ relative to the RZ myocardium. These abnormalities were independent of a change in mitochondrial content because the mitochondrial citrate synthase protein level was not different between the BZ and RZ. This regional heterogeneity of ATP content and expression of key enzymes in ATP production suggests that energetic insufficiency in the peri-infarct region may contribute to the transition from compensated LV remodeling to congestive heart failure.

  8. Abnormal regulation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system is associated with right ventricular dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Mario; Tocci, Giuliano; Giammarioli, Benedetta; Befani, Alberto; Ciavarella, Giuseppino Massimo; Ferrucci, Andrea; Paneni, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is a major predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Inadequate suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) after postural manoeuvres favours alterations of left ventricular (LV) function. The effects of RAAS dysregulation on RV performance remain elusive. The present study investigated RV function in hypertensive patients with or without altered RAAS activation. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were measured in 104 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients after both supine and upright positioning to assess dynamic changes of RAAS induced by antigravitational stress. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiographic evaluation of the right ventricle including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed. Patients were divided as follows: (1) normal PRA and PAC (N group [n = 58]), (2) suppressible RAAS after supine positioning (SR group [n = 24]), and (3), nonsuppressible RAAS (NSR group [n = 22]). RVD was identified by the TDI-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) calculated with a multisegmental approach. Patients in the NSR group had reduced indices of RV function compared with patients in the N and SR groups. MPI of the right ventricle as well as prevalence of RVD were also significantly higher in the NSR group. Regression models showed that inadequate RAAS suppression was independently associated with RVD, regardless of blood pressure values and LV dysfunction (LVD). Patients without supine normalization of RAAS display a significant impairment of RV function. Our findings suggest that a dynamic RAAS evaluation may help to identify hypertensive patients at higher risk of RVD. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ranolazine improves abnormal repolarization and contraction in left ventricular myocytes of dogs with heart failure by inhibiting late sodium current

    PubMed Central

    Undrovinas, Albertas I.; Belardinelli, Luiz; Undrovinas, Nidas A.; Sabbah, Hani N.

    2005-01-01

    Background Ventricular repolarization and contractile function are frequently abnormal in ventricular myocytes from human failing hearts as well as canine hearts with experimentally induced heart failure (HF). These abnormalities have been attributed to dysfunction involving various steps of the excitation-contraction coupling process, leading to impaired intracellular sodium and calcium homeostasis. We previously reported that the slow inactivating component of the Na+ current (late INa) is augmented in myocytes from failing hearts, and this appears to play a significant role in abnormal ventricular myocytes repolarization and function. We tested the effect of ranolazine, a novel drug being developed to treat angina, on 1) action potential duration (APD), 2) peak transient and late INa (INaT and INaL respectively), 3) early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and 4) twitch contraction (TC) including aftercontractions and contracture. Methods: Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricle of normal dogs and of dogs with chronic HF caused by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. INaT and INaL were recorded using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. APs were recorded using the β-escin perforated patch-clamp configuration at frequencies of 0.25 and 0.5 Hz. TCs were recorded using an edge movement detector at stimulation frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 Hz. Results Ranolazine significantly (p < 0.05) and reversibly shortened the APD of myocytes stimulated at either 0.5 or 0.25 Hz in a concentration-dependent manner. At a stimulation frequency of 0.5 Hz, 5, 10 and 20 μM ranolazine shortened the APD90 (APD measured at 90% repolarization) from 516 ± 51 to 304 ± 22, 212 ± 34 and 160 ± 11 ms, respectively, and markedly decreased beat-to-beat variability of APD90, EADs and dispersion of APDs. Ranolazine preferentially blocked INaL relative to INaT in a state-dependent manner; with a ~ 38-fold greater potency against INaL to produce tonic block

  10. Reversion of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and abnormal stress test: by catheter ablation, in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome from Para-Hisian Kent bundle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is typically reserved for patients who experience ventricular pre-excitation and symptoms that are related to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, such as chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness, palpitations, or syncope. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at our outpatient department because of exercise intolerance. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 pansystolic murmur over the left lower sternal border. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm at a rate of 76 beats/min, with a significant delta wave. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed abnormal left ventricular systolic function. The results of a thallium stress test were also abnormal. Coronary artery disease was suspected; however, coronary angiography yielded normal results. Electrophysiologic study revealed a para-Hisian Kent bundle and a dual atrioventricular nodal pathway. After radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed, the patient's left ventricular function improved and her symptoms disappeared. In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony can yield abnormal findings on echocardiography and thallium scanning--even in persons who have no cardiovascular risk factors. Physicians who are armed with this knowledge can avoid performing coronary angiography unnecessarily. Catheter ablation can reverse the dyssynchrony of the ventricle and improve the patient's symptoms.

  11. Abnormalities in arterial-ventricular coupling in older healthy persons are attenuated by sodium nitroprusside

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Paul D.; Nussbacher, Amit; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schulman, Steven P.; Becker, Lewis C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L.; Najjar, Samer S.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling between arterial elastance (EA; net afterload) and left ventricular elastance (ELV; pump performance), known as EA/ELV, is a key determinant of cardiovascular performance and shifts during exercise due to a greater increase in ELV versus EA. This normal exercise-induced reduction in EA/ELV decreases with advancing age. We hypothesized that sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can acutely ameliorate the age-associated deficits in EA/ELV. At rest and during graded exercise to exhaustion, EA was characterized as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and ELV as end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume. Resting EA/ELV did not differ between old (70 ± 8 yr, n = 15) and young (30 ± 5 yr, n = 17) subjects because of a tandem increase in EA and ELV in older subjects. During peak exercise, a blunted increase in ELV in old (7.8 ± 3.1 mmHg/ml) versus young (11.4 ± 6.5 mmHg/ml) subjects blunted the normal exercise-induced decline in EA/ELV in old (0.25 ± 0.11) versus young (0.16 ± 0.05) subjects. SNP administration to older subjects lowered resting EA/ELV by 31% via a reduction in EA (10%) and an increase in ELV (47%) and lowered peak exercise EA/ELV (36%) via an increase in ELV (68%) without a change in EA. Importantly, SNP attenuated the age-associated deficits in EA/ELV and ELV during exercise, and at peak exercise EA/ELV in older subjects on drug administration did not differ from young subjects without drug administration. In conclusion, some age-associated deficiencies in EA/ELV, EA, and ELV, in older subjects can be acutely abolished by SNP infusion. This is relevant to common conditions in older subjects associated with a significant impairment of exercise performance such as frailty or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PMID:21378146

  12. Abnormalities in arterial-ventricular coupling in older healthy persons are attenuated by sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Paul D; Nussbacher, Amit; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schulman, Steven P; Becker, Lewis C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2011-05-01

    The coupling between arterial elastance (E(A); net afterload) and left ventricular elastance (E(LV); pump performance), known as E(A)/E(LV), is a key determinant of cardiovascular performance and shifts during exercise due to a greater increase in E(LV) versus E(A). This normal exercise-induced reduction in E(A)/E(LV) decreases with advancing age. We hypothesized that sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can acutely ameliorate the age-associated deficits in E(A)/E(LV). At rest and during graded exercise to exhaustion, E(A) was characterized as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and E(LV) as end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume. Resting E(A)/E(LV) did not differ between old (70 ± 8 yr, n = 15) and young (30 ± 5 yr, n = 17) subjects because of a tandem increase in E(A) and E(LV) in older subjects. During peak exercise, a blunted increase in E(LV) in old (7.8 ± 3.1 mmHg/ml) versus young (11.4 ± 6.5 mmHg/ml) subjects blunted the normal exercise-induced decline in E(A)/E(LV) in old (0.25 ± 0.11) versus young (0.16 ± 0.05) subjects. SNP administration to older subjects lowered resting E(A)/E(LV) by 31% via a reduction in E(A) (10%) and an increase in E(LV) (47%) and lowered peak exercise E(A)/E(LV) (36%) via an increase in E(LV) (68%) without a change in E(A). Importantly, SNP attenuated the age-associated deficits in E(A)/E(LV) and E(LV) during exercise, and at peak exercise E(A)/E(LV) in older subjects on drug administration did not differ from young subjects without drug administration. In conclusion, some age-associated deficiencies in E(A)/E(LV), E(A), and E(LV), in older subjects can be acutely abolished by SNP infusion. This is relevant to common conditions in older subjects associated with a significant impairment of exercise performance such as frailty or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

  13. Detecting Regional Myocardial Abnormalities in Patients With Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome With the Use of ECG-Gated Cardiac MDCT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial dyskinesia caused by the accessory pathway and related reversible heart failure have been well documented in echocardiographic studies of pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, the long-term effects of dyskinesia on the myocardium of adult patients have not been studied in depth. The goal of the present study was to evaluate regional myocardial abnormalities on cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. Of 74 patients with WPW syndrome who underwent cardiac CT from January 2006 through December 2013, 58 patients (mean [± SD] age, 52.2 ± 12.7 years), 36 (62.1%) of whom were men, were included in the study after the presence of combined cardiac disease was excluded. Two observers blindly evaluated myocardial thickness and attenuation on cardiac CT scans. On the basis of CT findings, patients were classified as having either normal or abnormal findings. We compared the two groups for other clinical findings, including observations from ECG, echocardiography, and electrophysiologic study. Of the 58 patients studied, 16 patients (27.6%) were found to have myocardial abnormalities (i.e., abnormal wall thinning with or without low attenuation). All abnormal findings corresponded with the location of the accessory pathway. Patients with abnormal findings had statistically significantly decreased left ventricular function, compared with patients with normal findings (p < 0.001). The frequency of regional wall motion abnormality was statistically significantly higher in patients with abnormal findings (p = 0.043). However, echocardiography documented structurally normal hearts in all patients. A relatively high frequency (27.6%) of regional myocardial abnormalities was observed on the cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. These abnormal findings might reflect the long-term effects of dyskinesia, suggesting irreversible myocardial injury that ultimately causes left ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M; Willun, Steffen; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I 2 statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. • CT helps to assess patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). • MRI is the reference standard for evaluation of left ventricular function. • CT provides accurate assessment of global left ventricular function.

  15. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  16. Right precordial-directed electrocardiographical markers identify arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the absence of conventional depolarization or repolarization abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Daniel; Svensson, Anneli; Carlson, Jonas; Graw, Sharon; Sharma, Nandita; Brun, Francesca; Spezzacatene, Anita; Mestroni, Luisa; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2017-10-13

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) carries a risk of sudden death. We aimed to assess whether vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters directed toward the right heart and a measured angle of the S-wave would help differentiate ARVD/C with otherwise normal electrocardiograms from controls. Task Force 2010 definite ARVD/C criteria were met for all patients. Those who did not fulfill Task Force depolarization or repolarization criteria (-ECG) were compared with age and gender-matched control subjects. Electrocardiogram measures of a 3-dimentional spatial QRS-T angle, a right-precordial-directed orthogonal QRS-T (RPD) angle, a root mean square of the right sided depolarizing forces (RtRMS-QRS), QRS duration (QRSd) and the corrected QT interval (QTc), and a measured angle including the upslope and downslope of the S-wave (S-wave angle) were assessed. Definite ARVD/C was present in 155 patients by 2010 Task Force criteria (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). -ECG ARVD/C patients (66 patients) were compared to 66 control patients (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). All parameters tested except the QRSd and QTc significantly differentiated -ECG ARVD/C from control patients (p < 0.004 to p < 0.001). The RPD angle and RtRMS-QRS best differentiated the groups. Combined, the 2 novel criteria gave 81.8% sensitivity, 90.9% specificity and odds ratio of 45.0 (95% confidence interval 15.8 to 128.2). ARVD/C disease process may lead to development of subtle ECG abnormalities that can be distinguishable using right-sided VCG or measured angle markers better than the spatial QRS-T angle, the QRSd or QTc, in the absence of Taskforce ECG criteria.

  17. Familial multiple ventricular extrasystoles, short stature, craniofacial abnormalities and digital hypoplasia: a further case of Stoll syndrome?

    PubMed

    Mercer, Catherine L; Keeton, Barry; Dennis, Nicolas R

    2008-04-01

    We report two brothers, their mother and a maternal cousin who had a distinctive facial phenotype, mild brachydactyly and prominence of the interphalangeal joints. One brother and the mother also had multiple ventricular extrasystoles. Six other relatives in four generations were probably affected on the basis of history and family photographs. We also report a further individual from a different family with a similar facial phenotype, Pierre-Robin sequence, tapering fingers and multiple ventricular extrasystoles. These families have some similarities to those reported by Stoll et al. in a single family, showing dominant inheritance. Our patients would seem to have the same or a related condition.

  18. A robust real-time abnormal region detection framework from capsule endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanfen; Liu, Xu; Li, Huiping

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to detect abnormal regions from capsule endoscopy images. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a recent technology where a capsule with an embedded camera is swallowed by the patient to visualize the gastrointestinal tract. One challenge is one procedure of diagnosis will send out over 50,000 images, making physicians' reviewing process expensive. Physicians' reviewing process involves in identifying images containing abnormal regions (tumor, bleeding, etc) from this large number of image sequence. In this paper we construct a novel framework for robust and real-time abnormal region detection from large amount of capsule endoscopy images. The detected potential abnormal regions can be labeled out automatically to let physicians review further, therefore, reduce the overall reviewing process. In this paper we construct an abnormal region detection framework with the following advantages: 1) Trainable. Users can define and label any type of abnormal region they want to find; The abnormal regions, such as tumor, bleeding, etc., can be pre-defined and labeled using the graphical user interface tool we provided. 2) Efficient. Due to the large number of image data, the detection speed is very important. Our system can detect very efficiently at different scales due to the integral image features we used; 3) Robust. After feature selection we use a cascade of classifiers to further enforce the detection accuracy.

  19. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments.

  20. Analysis of Regional Left Ventricular Strain in Patients with Chagas Disease and Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Victor Augusto M; Alves, Gabriel F; Hadlich, Marcelo; Azevedo, Clerio F; Pereira, Iane M; Santos, Carla Renata F; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel A A; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique C; Cunha, Ademir B; Xavier, Sergio S; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas heart disease has a high socioeconomic burden, and any strategy to detect early myocardial damage is welcome. Speckle-tracking echocardiography assesses global and segmental left ventricular (LV) systolic function, yielding values of two-dimensional strain (ε). The aim of this study was to determine if patients with chronic Chagas disease and normal LV ejection fractions present abnormalities in global and segmental LV ε. In this prospective study, patients with Chagas disease with no evidence of cardiac involvement (group I; n = 83) or at stage A of the cardiac form (i.e., with changes limited to the electrocardiogram) (group A; n = 42) and 43 control subjects (group C) underwent evaluation of global and segmental LV ε by speckle-tracking echocardiography. A subset of randomly selected patients in group A underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and repeated echocardiography 3.5 ± 0.8 years after the first evaluation. Mean age, chamber dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were similar among the groups. Global longitudinal (group C, -19 ± 2%; group I, -19 ± 2%; group A, -19 ± 2%), circumferential (group C, -19 ± 3%; group I, -20 ± 3%; group A, -19 ± 3%), and radial (group C, 46 ± 10%; group I, 45 ± 13%; group A, 42 ± 14%) LV ε were similar among the groups. Segmental longitudinal, circumferential, and radial LV ε were similar across the studied groups. Seven of 14 patients had areas of fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with fibrosis had lower global longitudinal (-15 ± 2% vs -18 ± 2%, P = .004), circumferential (-14 ± 2% vs -19 ± 2%, P = .002), and radial LV ε (36 ± 13% vs 54 ± 12%, P = .02) than those without cardiac fibrosis despite similar LV ejection fractions. Patients with fibrosis had lower radial LV ε in the basal inferoseptal wall than patients without cardiac fibrosis (27 ± 17% vs 60 ± 15%, P = .04). Patients with chronic Chagas disease and normal

  1. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis <50%) and thirty gender- and age-matched patients (control group) without coronary artery stenosis according to the coronary angiogram results were prospectively enrolled. All the patients had no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality in two-dimensional echocardiography at rest and exercise stress. There was no significant difference in the 16 segmental systolic peak AS at rest between two groups. After exercise stress, the peak systolic AS rest-stress at mid anterior wall (-7.00%±10.90% vs 2.80%±23.69%) and mid anterolateral wall (-4.40%±18.81% vs 8.80%±19.16%) were decreased, while increased at basal inferolateral wall (14.00%±19.27% vs -5.60%±15.94%) in case group compared with control group (P<.05). In patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, the area strain was decreased at involved segments, while compensatory increased at noninvolved segments after exercise stress. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ventricular dilation and electrical dyssynchrony synergistically increase regional mechanical nonuniformity but not mechanical dyssynchrony: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kerckhoffs, Roy C P; Omens, Jeffrey H; McCulloch, Andrew D; Mulligan, Lawrence J

    2010-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) in combination with mechanical dyssynchrony is associated with a high mortality rate. To quantify contractile dysfunction in patients with HF, investigators have proposed several indices of mechanical dyssynchrony, including percentile range of time to peak shortening (WTpeak), circumferential uniformity ratio estimate (CURE), and internal stretch fraction (ISF). The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity of these indices to 4 major abnormalities responsible for cardiac dysfunction in dyssynchronous HF: dilation, negative inotropy, negative lusitropy, and dyssynchronous activation. All combinations of these 4 major abnormalities were included in 3D computational models of ventricular electromechanics. Compared with a nonfailing heart model, ventricles were dilated, inotropy was reduced, twitch duration was prolonged, and activation sequence was changed from normal to left bundle branch block. In the nonfailing heart, CURE, ISF, and WTpeak were 0.97+/-0.004, 0.010+/-0.002, and 78+/-1 milliseconds, respectively. With dilation alone, CURE decreased 2.0+/-0.07%, ISF increased 58+/-47%, and WTpeak increased 31+/-3%. With dyssynchronous activation alone, CURE decreased 15+/-0.6%, ISF increased 14-fold (+/-3), and WTpeak increased 121+/-4%. With the combination of dilation and dyssynchronous activation, CURE decreased 23+/-0.8%, ISF increased 20-fold (+/-5), and WTpeak increased 147+/-5%. Dilation and left bundle branch block combined synergistically decreased regional cardiac function. CURE and ISF were sensitive to this combination, but WTpeak was not. CURE and ISF also reflected the relative nonuniform distribution of regional work better than WTpeak. These findings might explain why CURE and ISF are better predictors of reverse remodeling in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  3. Could quantitative longitudinal peak systolic strain help in the detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in our daily echocardiographic practice?

    PubMed

    Benyounes, Nadia; Lang, Sylvie; Gout, Olivier; Ancédy, Yann; Etienney, Arnaud; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-10-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is the most commonly used tool for the detection of left ventricular wall motion (LVWM) abnormalities using "naked eye evaluation". This subjective and operator-dependent technique requires a high level of clinical training and experience. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), which is less operator-dependent, has been proposed for this purpose. However, the role of on-line segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) values in the prediction of LVWM has not been fully evaluated. To test segmental LPSS for predicting LVWM abnormalities in routine echocardiography laboratory practice. LVWM was evaluated by an experienced cardiologist, during routine practice, in 620 patients; segmental LPSS values were then calculated. In this work, reflecting real life, 99.6% of segments were successfully tracked. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) segmental LPSS values for normal basal (n=3409), mid (n=3468) and apical (n=3466) segments were -16.7% (-16.9% to -16.5%), -18.2% (-18.3% to -18.0%) and -21.1% (-21.3% to -20.9%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for hypokinetic basal (n=114), mid (n=116) and apical (n=90) segments were -7.7% (-9.0% to -6.3%), -10.1% (-11.1% to -9.0%) and -9.3% (-10.5% to -8.1%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for akinetic basal (n=128), mid (n=95) and apical (n=91) segments were -6.6% (-8.0% to -5.1%), -6.1% (-7.7% to -4.6%) and -4.2% (-5.4% to -3.0%), respectively. LPSS allowed the differentiation between normal and abnormal segments at basal, mid and apical levels. An LPSS value≥-12% detected abnormal segmental motion with a sensitivity of 78% for basal, 70% for mid and 82% for apical segments. Segmental LPSS values may help to differentiate between normal and abnormal left ventricular segments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Delayed recovery of left ventricular function after antithyroid treatment. Further evidence for reversible abnormalities of contractility in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Forfar, J C; Matthews, D M; Toft, A D

    1984-01-01

    Sequential measurements of systolic time intervals, left ventricular dimensions, and the derived indices of contractility were undertaken at rest and during isometric exercise in 15 hyperthyroid patients before, during, and after antithyroid treatment. At rest hyperthyroidism was characterised by a shortened pre-ejection period and increased velocity of circumferential shortening of the left ventricle. During isometric exercise, however, the pre-ejection period increased significantly beyond that predicted for normal subjects, and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening fell by 30%. In contrast, both the pre-ejection period and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening were unchanged during exercise after a stable euthyroid state had been achieved for at least three months. Comparison between exercise responses and thyroid status during antithyroid treatment showed that a biochemical euthyroid state may be achieved many weeks before normalisation of contractile response to exercise. These findings support the hypothesis of reversible depression of left ventricular function in hyperthyroidism. Responses at rest principally reflect the peripheral actions of thyroid hormone excess. PMID:6743439

  5. Association of left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities with aortic and brachial blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients: the SAFAR study.

    PubMed

    Chi, C; Yu, S-K; Auckle, R; Argyris, A A; Nasothimiou, E; Tountas, C; Aissopou, E; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Zhang, Y; Protogerou, A D

    2017-10-01

    Both brachial blood pressure (BP) level and its variability (BPV) significantly associate with left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Recent studies indicate that aortic BP is superior to brachial BP in the association with LV abnormalities. However, it remains unknown whether aortic BPV better associate with LV structural and functional abnormalities. We therefore aimed to investigate and compare aortic versus brachial BPV, in terms of the identification of LV abnormalities. Two hundred and three participants who underwent echocardiography were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour aortic and brachial ambulatory BP was measured simultaneously by a validated BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Stolberg, Germany) and BPV was calculated with validated formulae. LV mass and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) were evaluated by echocardiography. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy (LVH) and LVDD increased significantly with BPV indices (P⩽0.04) in trend tests. After adjustment to potential confounders, only aortic average real variability (ARV), but not brachial ARV or weighted s.d. (wSD, neither aortic nor brachial) significantly associated with LV mass index (P=0.02). Similar results were observed in logistic regression. After adjustment, only aortic ARV significantly associated with LVH (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.28 (1.08, 4.82)). As for LVDD, neither the brachial nor the aortic 24-hour wSD, but the aortic and brachial ARV, associated with LVDD significantly, with OR=2.28 (95% CI: (1.03, 5.02)) and OR=2.36 (95% CI: (1.10, 5.05)), respectively. In summary, aortic BPV, especially aortic ARV, seems to be superior to brachial BPV in the association of LV structural and functional abnormalities.

  6. Mechanisms of pro-arrhythmic abnormalities in ventricular repolarisation and anti-arrhythmic therapies in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Passini, Elisa; Mincholé, Ana; Coppini, Raffaele; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Rodriguez, Blanca; Severi, Stefano; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cause of sudden arrhythmic death, but the understanding of its pro-arrhythmic mechanisms and an effective pharmacological treatment are lacking. HCM electrophysiological remodelling includes both increased inward and reduced outward currents, but their role in promoting repolarisation abnormalities remains unknown. The goal of this study is to identify key ionic mechanisms driving repolarisation abnormalities in human HCM, and to evaluate anti-arrhythmic effects of single and multichannel inward current blocks. Experimental ionic current, action potential (AP) and Ca(2+)-transient (CaT) recordings were used to construct populations of human non-diseased and HCM AP models (n=9118), accounting for inter-subject variability. Simulations were conducted for several degrees of selective and combined inward current block. Simulated HCM cardiomyocytes exhibited prolonged AP and CaT, diastolic Ca(2+) overload and decreased CaT amplitude, in agreement with experiments. Repolarisation abnormalities in HCM models were consistently driven by L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) re-activation, and ICaL block was the most effective intervention to normalise repolarisation and diastolic Ca(2+), but compromised CaT amplitude. Late Na(+) current (INaL) block partially abolished repolarisation abnormalities, with small impact on CaT. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (INCX) block effectively restored repolarisation and CaT amplitude, but increased Ca(2+) overload. Multichannel block increased efficacy in normalising repolarisation, AP biomarkers and CaT amplitude compared to selective block. Experimentally-calibrated populations of human AP models identify ICaL re-activation as the key mechanism for repolarisation abnormalities in HCM, and combined INCX, INaL and ICaL block as effective anti-arrhythmic therapies also able to partially reverse the HCM electrophysiological phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Genotype on Structural Atrial Abnormalities and Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bourfiss, Mimount; Te Riele, Anneline S J M; Mast, Thomas P; Cramer, Maarten J; VAN DER Heijden, Jeroen F; VAN Veen, Toon A B; Loh, Peter; Dooijes, Dennis; Hauer, Richard N W; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2016-12-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is associated with desmosomal mutations. Although desmosomal disruption affects both ventricles and atria, little is known about atrial involvement in ARVD/C. To describe the extent and clinical significance of structural atrial involvement and atrial arrhythmias (AA) in ARVD/C stratified by genotype. We included 71 patients who met ARVD/C Task Force Criteria and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and molecular genetic analysis. Indexed atrial end-diastolic volume and area-length-ejection-fraction (ALEF) were evaluated on CMR and compared to controls with idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia (n = 40). The primary outcome was occurrence of AA (atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter) during follow-up, recorded by 12-lead ECG, Holter monitoring or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. Patients harbored a desmosomal plakophilin-2 (PKP2) (n = 37) or nondesmosomal phospholamban (PLN) (n = 14) mutation. In 20 subjects, no pathogenic mutation was identified. Compared to controls, right atrial (RA) volumes were reduced in PKP2 (P = 0.002) and comparable in PLN (P = 0.441) mutation carriers. In patients with no mutation identified, RA (P = 0.011) and left atrial (P = 0.034) volumes were increased. Bi-atrial ALEF showed no significant difference between the groups. AA were experienced by 27% of patients and occurred equally among PKP2 (30%) and no mutation identified patients (30%), but less among PLN mutation carriers (14%). Genotype influences atrial volume and occurrence of AA in ARVD/C. While the incidence of AA is similar in PKP2 mutation carriers and patients with no mutation identified, PKP2 mutation carriers have significantly smaller atria. This suggests a different arrhythmogenic mechanism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gated blood pool tomography for the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in comparison to planar techniques and echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Canclini, S; Terzi, A; Rossini, P; Vignati, A; La Canna, G; Magri, G C; Pizzocaro, C; Giubbini, R

    2001-01-01

    Multigated radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) is a simple and reliable tool for the assessment of global systolic and diastolic function and in several studies it is still considered a standard for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction. However the evaluation of regional wall motion by MUGA is critical due to two-dimensional imaging and its clinical use is progressively declining in favor of echocardiography. Tomographic MUGA (T-MUGA) is not widely adopted in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare T-MUGA to planar MUGA (P-MUGA) for the assessment of global ejection fraction and to transthoracic echocardiography for the evaluation of regional wall motion. A 16-segment model was adopted for the comparison with echo regional wall motion. For each one of the 16 segments the normal range of T-MUGA ejection fraction was quantified and a normal data file was defined; the average value -2.5 SD was used as the lower threshold to identify abnormal segments. In addition, amplitude images from Fourier analysis were quantified and considered abnormal according to three different thresholds (25, 50 and 75% of the maximum). In a study group of 33 consecutive patients the ejection fraction values of T-MUGA highly correlated with those of P-MUGA (r = 0.93). The regional ejection fraction (according to the normal database) and the amplitude analysis (50% threshold) allowed for the correct identification of 203/226 and 167/226 asynergic segments by echocardiography, and of 269/302 and 244/302 normal segments, respectively. Therefore sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy to detect regional wall motion abnormalities were 90, 89, 89% and 74, 81, 79% for regional ejection fraction and amplitude analysis, respectively. T-MUGA is a reliable tool for regional wall motion evaluation, well correlated with echocardiography, less subjective and able to provide quantitative data.

  9. Frequency of Inverted Electrocardiographic T Waves (Cerebral T Waves) in Patients With Acute Strokes and Their Relation to Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jeremy; Mor-Avi, Victor; Ardelt, Agnieszka; Lang, Roberto M

    2018-01-01

    Transient, symmetric, and deep inverted electrocardiogram (ECG) T waves in the setting of stroke, commonly referred to as cerebral T waves, are rare, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that cerebral T waves are associated with transient cardiac dysfunction. This retrospective study included 800 patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. ECGs were examined for cerebral T waves, defined as T-wave inversion of ≥5 mm depth in ≥4 contiguous precordial leads. Echocardiograms of those meeting these criteria were examined for the presence of left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities. Follow-up evaluation included both ECG and echocardiogram. Of the 800 patients, 17 had cerebral T waves on ECG (2.1%). All 17 patients had ischemic strokes, of which 11 were in the middle cerebral artery distribution (65%), and 2 were cerebellar (12%), whereas the remaining 4 involved other locations. Follow-up ECG showed resolution of the T-wave changes in all 17 patients. Of these patients, 14 (82%) had normal wall motion, and 3 had transient wall motion abnormalities (18%). Two of these patients had Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy with apical ballooning, and the third had globally reduced LV function. Coronary angiography showed no significant disease to explain the LV dysfunction. In summary, in our cohort of patients with acute stroke, cerebral T waves were rare and occurred only in ischemic stroke. Eighteen percent of patients with cerebral T waves had significant transient wall motion abnormalities. Patients with stroke with cerebral T waves, especially in those with ischemic strokes, should be assessed for cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced pulmonary vasodilator reserve and abnormal right ventricular: pulmonary artery coupling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads J; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Kane, Garvan C; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Olson, Thomas P; Fetterly, Kenneth; Borlaug, Barry A

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are common in patients with advanced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), yet their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We sought to examine RV-pulmonary artery (PA) functional reserve responses and RV-PA coupling at rest and during β-adrenergic stimulation in subjects with earlier stage HFpEF. In a prospective trial, subjects with HFpEF (n=39) and controls (n=18) underwent comprehensive invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic assessment using high fidelity micromanometer catheters, echocardiography, and expired gas analysis at rest and during dobutamine infusion. HFpEF subjects displayed similar RV structure but significantly impaired RV systolic (lower RV dP/dtmax/IP and s') and diastolic function (higher RV τ) coupled with more severe pulmonary vascular disease, manifest by higher PA pressures, higher PA resistance, and lower PA compliance compared with controls. Dobutamine infusion caused greater pulmonary vasodilation in HFpEF compared with controls, with enhanced reductions in PA resistance, greater increase in PA compliance, and a more negative slope in the PA pressure-flow relationship when compared with controls (all P<0.001). RV-PA coupling analysis revealed that dobutamine improved RV ejection in HFpEF subjects through afterload reduction alone, rather than through enhanced contractility, indicating RV systolic reserve dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension in early stage HFpEF is related to partially reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction coupled with RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction, even in the absence of RV structural remodeling. Pulmonary vascular tone is more favorably responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation in HFpEF than controls, suggesting a potential role for β-agonists in the treatment of patients with HFpEF and pulmonary hypertension. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01418248. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Dynamic radionuclide determination of regional left ventricular wall motion using a new digital imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, P.; Kirch, D.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 men with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease comparative studies of left ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion were made with radionuclide data obtained from the image intensifier camera computer system and with contrast cineventriculography. The radionuclide data was digitized and the images corresponding to left ventricular end-diastole and end-systole were identified from the left ventricular time-activity curve. The left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic images were subtracted to form a silhouette difference image which described wall motion of the anterior and inferior left ventricular segments. The image intensifier camera allows manipulation of dynamically acquired radionuclide data because of the high count rate and consequently improved resolution of the left ventricular image.

  12. Abnormalities at chromosome region 3p12-14 characterize clear cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carroll, P R; Murty, V V; Reuter, V; Jhanwar, S; Fair, W R; Whitmore, W F; Chaganti, R S

    1987-06-01

    In an effort to determine whether or not any characteristic chromosomal abnormalities exist in renal cancer, cytogenetic findings were correlated with tumor histology in nine cases of renal adenocarcinoma. Metaphase preparations adequate for analysis were obtained from cultures harvested between day 3 and day 21. Model chromosome number was diploid in three cases, hypodiploid in three, and hyperdiploid in the remaining three. One clear cell adenocarcinoma failed to reveal any chromosomal abnormality. Two tumors, a tubular/papillary carcinoma and an acinar/papillary carcinoma, showed the clonal abnormalities del(1)(p2l),+2,+7,+8,+12,+13,+16,+17,-21 and t(2;10)(q14-21;q26),+7q,+11q,-18, respectively. Interestingly, five of six clear cell tumors studied had clonal abnormalities affecting the short arm of chromosome #3 in the 3p12-21 region, and in the remaining case, of 15 karyotyped metaphases suitable for interpretation, one showed a deletion in 3p. These data indicate that clear cell carcinoma of the kidney may be associated with a nonrandom chromosomal abnormality involving the 3p12-14 region.

  13. Presence of reduced regional left ventricular function even in the absence of left ventricular wall scar tissue in the long term after repair of an anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Nordmeyer, Sarah; Schmitt, Boris; Nasseri, Boris; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Kuehne, Titus; Berger, Felix; Nordmeyer, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    We sought to assess left ventricular regional function in patients with and without left ventricular wall scar tissue in the long term after repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. A total of 20 patients aged 12.8±7.4 years were assessed 10 (0.5-17) years after the repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery; of them, 10 (50%) patients showed left ventricular wall scar tissue on current cardiac MRI. Left ventricular regional function was assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in 10 patients with scar tissue and 10 patients without scar tissue and in 10 age-matched controls. In patients with scar tissue, MRI-derived left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly reduced compared with that in patients without scar tissue (51 versus 61%, p<0.05), and echocardiography-derived longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in five of six left ventricular areas compared with that in healthy controls (average relative reduction, 46%; p<0.05). In patients without scar tissue, longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in two of six left ventricular areas (average relative reduction, 23%; p<0.05) and circumferential strain was reduced in one of six left ventricular areas (relative reduction, 56%; p<0.05) compared with that in healthy controls. Regional left ventricular function is reduced even in patients without left ventricular wall scar tissue late after successful repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. This highlights the need for meticulous lifelong follow-up in all patients with a repaired anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

  14. Left ventricular lead placement in the latest activated region guided by coronary venous electroanatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masih Mafi; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) lead placement in the latest activated region is an important determinant of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated the feasibility of coronary venous electroanatomic mapping (EAM) to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region. Twenty-five consecutive CRT candidates with left bundle-branch block underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM using EnSite NavX. A guidewire was used to map the coronary veins during intrinsic activation, and to test for phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). The latest activated region, defined as the region with an electrical delay >75% of total QRS duration, was located anterolaterally in 18 (basal, n = 10; mid, n = 8) and inferolaterally in 6 (basal, n = 3; mid, n = 3). In one patient, identification of the latest activated region was impeded by limited coronary venous anatomy. In patients with >1 target vein (n = 12), the anatomically targeted inferolateral vein was rarely the vein with maximal electrical delay (n = 3). A concordant LV lead position was achieved in 18 of 25 patients. In six patients, this was hampered by PNS (n = 4), lead instability (n = 1), and coronary vein stenosis (n = 1). Coronary venous EAM can be used intraprocedurally to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region free of PNS. This approach especially contributes to optimization of LV lead electrical delay in patients with multiple target veins. Conventional anatomical LV lead placement strategy does not target the vein with maximal electrical delay in many of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Abnormal Circulation Changes in the Winter Stratosphere, Detected Through Variations of D Region Ionospheric Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamorena, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to detect stratospheric warmings using ionospheric absorption records obtained by an Absorption Meter (method A3) is introduced. The activity of the stratospheric circulation and the D region ionospheric absorption as well as other atmospheric parameters during the winter anomaly experience an abnormal variation. A simultaneity was found in the beginning of abnormal variation in the mentioned parameters, using the absorption records for detecting the initiation of the stratospheric warming. Results of this scientific experience of forecasting in the El Arenosillo Range, are presented.

  16. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Is Associated With Further Left Ventricular Abnormalities in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 3-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Wenyan; Xia, Jizhu

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to detect left ventricular (LV) structure and function abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) using 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Eighty patients with type 2 diabetes and a normal LV ejection fraction (≥55%), including 40 with coexistent NAFL, and 40 age- and sex-matched control participants were recruited. Conventional echocardiography and 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography were performed, and global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, global area strain, and global radial strain values were measured. Significant differences in 2-dimensional LV functional patterns were found among the 3 groups (P = .031), and LV hypertrophy was the most prevalent in patients with diabetes and NAFL. The patients with diabetes only had significantly lower global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and global radial strain than the controls (all P < .05). The patients with diabetes and NAFL had severely lower global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, global area strain, and global radial strain than the controls (all P < .001), and they also had severely lower global longitudinal strain, global area strain, and global radial strain than the patients with diabetes only (all P < 0.001). The hemoglobin A 1c level and NAFL were independently associated with strain values in all patients with diabetes. The strain values in multiple directions (≥2 of global longitudinal, global circumferential, global area, and global radial strain) decreased significantly in the patients with diabetes and moderate and severe NAFL compared to those with mild NAFL (all P < .05). Nonalcoholic fatty liver could aggravate LV hypertrophy and dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The combined application of conventional and 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography could detect these asymptomatic

  17. Speckle tracking echocardiography to assess regional ventricular function in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Saccheri, María Cristina; Cianciulli, Tomás Francisco; Morita, Luis Alberto; Méndez, Ricardo José; Beck, Martín Alejandro; Guerra, Juan Enrique; Cozzarin, Alberto; Puente, Luciana Jimena; Balletti, Lorena Romina; Lax, Jorge Alberto

    2017-04-26

    To explore regional systolic strain of midwall and endocardial segments using speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We prospectively assessed 20 patients (mean age 53 ± 16 years, range: 18-81 years, 10 were male), with apical HCM. We measured global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) in the midwall and endocardium of the left ventricle. The diastolic thickness of the 4 apical segments was 16.25 ± 2.75 mm. All patients had a normal global systolic function with a fractional shortening of 50% ± 8%. In spite of supernormal left ventricular (LV) systolic function, midwall GLPSS was decreased in all patients, more in the apical (-7.3% ± -8.8%) than in basal segments (-15.5% ± -6.93%), while endocardial GLPPS was significantly greater and reached normal values (apical: -22.8% ± -7.8%, basal: -17.9% ± -7.5%). This study shows that two-dimensional strain was decreased mainly confined to the mesocardium, while endocardium myocardial deformation was preserved in HCM and allowed to identify subclinical LV dysfunction. This transmural heterogeneity in systolic strain had not been previously described in HCM and could be explained by the distribution of myofibrillar disarray in deep myocardial areas. The clinical application of this novel finding may help further understanding of the pathophysiology of HCM.

  18. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Li, Feng; Tie, Chang-Le; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder patients experiencing a depressive episode (BD-dep) without an observed history of mania are often misdiagnosed and are consequently treated as having unipolar depression (UD), leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. An essential solution to this problem is to identify objective biological markers that distinguish BD-dep and UD patients at an early stage. However, studies directly comparing the brain dysfunctions associated with BD-dep and UD are rare. More importantly, the specificity of the differences in brain activity between these mental disorders has not been examined. With whole-brain regional homogeneity analysis and region-of-interest (ROI) based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we aimed to compare the resting-state brain activity of BD-dep and UD patients. Furthermore, we examined the specific differences and whether these differences were attributed to the brain abnormality caused by BD-dep, UD, or both. Twenty-one bipolar and 21 unipolar depressed patients, as well as 26 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and educational levels, participated in the study. We compared the differences in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the BD-dep and UD groups and further identified their pathophysiological abnormality. In the brain regions showing a difference between the BD-dep and UD groups, we further conducted receptive operation characteristic (ROC) analyses to confirm the effectiveness of the identified difference in classifying the patients. We observed ReHo differences between the BD-dep and UD groups in the right ventrolateral middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal anterior insular, right ventral anterior insular, right cerebellum posterior gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum anterior gyrus. Further ROI comparisons and ROC analysis on these ROIs showed that the right parahippocampal gyrus reflected abnormality specific to the BD-dep group, while the right

  19. Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation Level Predicts 30-Day Mortality Rate After Left Ventricular Assist Device Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Soutik; Trivedi, Jaimin; Chen, James; Rogers, Michael P; Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S; Kong, Maiying; Huang, Jiapeng

    2018-06-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) surgery is complex, high risk, and expensive. The authors' hypothesis is baseline regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) might be a predictor of postoperative clinical outcomes. Retrospective review of 210 consecutive continuous flow LVAD patients between 2008 and 2014. The primary measure is 30-day mortality rate and secondary measures include modified major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE), length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to examine if a binary outcome variable, such as 30-day mortality and MACE, is associated with rSO 2 at baseline. Log-linear model was used to examine whether LOS or ICU stay hours is associated with rSO 2 at baseline. Single institution, academic hospital. Patients who received LVAD surgery ​at Jewish Hospital, Louisville, KY. All patients received LVAD surgery. Cerebral oximetry monitoring was used in both the preoperative and intraoperative periods. The authors found that higher rSO 2 at baseline is associated with lower 30-day mortality with an odds ratio of 0.94 and 95% confidence interval (0.888, 0.995) for every 1% increase of rSO 2 . For secondary outcomes, baseline rSO 2 was not significantly associated with MACE, requirement for postoperative renal failure/dialysis, reoperation for bleeding, and LOS or ICU hours. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation levels at baseline are significantly associated with 30-day mortality after LVAD surgeries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional acidosis locally inhibits but remotely stimulates Ca2+ waves in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kerrie L.; Moorhouse, Emma L.; Bortolozzi, Mario; Richards, Mark A.; Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes are potentially arrhythmogenic. A powerful controller of Ca2+ waves is the cytoplasmic H+ concentration ([H+]i), which fluctuates spatially and temporally in conditions such as myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. H+-control of Ca2+ waves is poorly understood. We have therefore investigated how [H+]i co-ordinates their initiation and frequency. Methods and results Spontaneous Ca2+ waves were imaged (fluo-3) in rat isolated ventricular myocytes, subjected to modest Ca2+-overload. Whole-cell intracellular acidosis (induced by acetate-superfusion) stimulated wave frequency. Pharmacologically blocking sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchange (NHE1) prevented this stimulation, unveiling inhibition by H+. Acidosis also increased Ca2+ wave velocity. Restricting acidosis to one end of a myocyte, using a microfluidic device, inhibited Ca2+ waves in the acidic zone (consistent with ryanodine receptor inhibition), but stimulated wave emergence elsewhere in the cell. This remote stimulation was absent when NHE1 was selectively inhibited in the acidic zone. Remote stimulation depended on a locally evoked, NHE1-driven rise of [Na+]i that spread rapidly downstream. Conclusion Acidosis influences Ca2+ waves via inhibitory Hi+ and stimulatory Nai+ signals (the latter facilitating intracellular Ca2+-loading through modulation of sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity). During spatial [H+]i-heterogeneity, Hi+-inhibition dominates in acidic regions, while rapid Nai+ diffusion stimulates waves in downstream, non-acidic regions. Local acidosis thus simultaneously inhibits and stimulates arrhythmogenic Ca2+-signalling in the same myocyte. If the principle of remote H+-stimulation of Ca2+ waves also applies in multicellular myocardium, it raises the possibility of electrical disturbances being driven remotely by adjacent ischaemic areas, which are known to be intensely acidic. PMID:28339694

  1. Regional acidosis locally inhibits but remotely stimulates Ca2+ waves in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kerrie L; Moorhouse, Emma L; Bortolozzi, Mario; Richards, Mark A; Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes are potentially arrhythmogenic. A powerful controller of Ca2+ waves is the cytoplasmic H+ concentration ([H+]i), which fluctuates spatially and temporally in conditions such as myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. H+-control of Ca2+ waves is poorly understood. We have therefore investigated how [H+]i co-ordinates their initiation and frequency. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves were imaged (fluo-3) in rat isolated ventricular myocytes, subjected to modest Ca2+-overload. Whole-cell intracellular acidosis (induced by acetate-superfusion) stimulated wave frequency. Pharmacologically blocking sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchange (NHE1) prevented this stimulation, unveiling inhibition by H+. Acidosis also increased Ca2+ wave velocity. Restricting acidosis to one end of a myocyte, using a microfluidic device, inhibited Ca2+ waves in the acidic zone (consistent with ryanodine receptor inhibition), but stimulated wave emergence elsewhere in the cell. This remote stimulation was absent when NHE1 was selectively inhibited in the acidic zone. Remote stimulation depended on a locally evoked, NHE1-driven rise of [Na+]i that spread rapidly downstream. Acidosis influences Ca2+ waves via inhibitory Hi+ and stimulatory Nai+ signals (the latter facilitating intracellular Ca2+-loading through modulation of sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity). During spatial [H+]i-heterogeneity, Hi+-inhibition dominates in acidic regions, while rapid Nai+ diffusion stimulates waves in downstream, non-acidic regions. Local acidosis thus simultaneously inhibits and stimulates arrhythmogenic Ca2+-signalling in the same myocyte. If the principle of remote H+-stimulation of Ca2+ waves also applies in multicellular myocardium, it raises the possibility of electrical disturbances being driven remotely by adjacent ischaemic areas, which are known to be intensely acidic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Tachycardia-dependent augmentation of "notched J waves" in a general patient population without ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest: not a repolarization but a depolarization abnormality?

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Sato, Masahito; Kitazawa, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Takatsuki, Seiji; Oda, Eiji; Okabe, Masaaki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    J waves can be observed in individuals of the general population, but electrocardiographic characteristics are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the J-wave dynamicity in a general patient population. The responses of J waves (>0.1 mV above the isoelectric line in 2 contiguous leads) to varying RR intervals were analyzed. Patients with aborted sudden cardiac death, documented ventricular fibrillation, or a family history of sudden cardiac death were excluded. The J-wave amplitude was measured at baseline, in beats with short RR intervals in conducted atrial premature beats (APBs) or atrial stimulation during the electrophysiology study, and in the beats next to APBs with prolonged RR intervals. Mainly notched J waves were identified in 94 of 701 (24.5%) general patients (13.4%), and APBs were present in 23 of 94 (24.5%) patients. The mean baseline amplitude of J waves was 0.20 ± 0.06 mV at the baseline RR interval of 853 ± 152 ms, 0.25 ± 0.11 mV at the RR interval in the conducted APB of 545 ± 133 ms (P = .0018), and 0.19 ± 0.08 mV at the RR interval of 1146 ± 314 ms (P = .3102). The clinical characteristics were not different between patients with and without tachycardia-dependent augmentation of J waves. Augmentation of J waves was confirmed by the electrophysiology study: 0.28 ± 0.12 mV vs 0.42 ± 0.11 mV at baseline and in the beats of atrial stimulation, respectively (P = .0001). However, no bradycardia-dependent augmentation (>0.05 mV) was observed. Such tachycardia-dependent augmentation can represent depolarization abnormality rather than repolarization abnormality. J waves in a general patient population were augmented at shorter RR intervals, but not at prolonged RR intervals. Mechanistically, conduction delay is most likely responsible for this. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural abnormalities and altered regional brain activity in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Hua; Han, Yongliang; Sah, Shambhu Kumar; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    To assess the changes of the structural and functional abnormalities in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) by using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI), voxel based morphology (VBM) and diffusion tensor tractography. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of 22 patients with MS-SSCI and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education were compared by using RS-fMRI. We also compared the volume, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient of the brain regions in baseline brain activity by using VBM and diffusion tensor imaging. The relationships between the expanded disability states scale (EDSS) scores, changed parameters of structure and function were further explored. (1) Compared with HCs, the ALFF of the bilateral hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus in MS-SSCI decreased significantly. However, patients exhibited increased ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus ( two-sample t-test, after AlphaSim correction, p < 0.01, voxel size > 40). The volume of right middle frontal gyrus reduced significantly (p < 0.01). The FA and ADC of right hippocampus, the FA of left hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus were significantly different. (2) A significant correlation between EDSS scores and ALFF was noted only in the left posterior cingulate gyrus. Our results detected structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI and functional parameters were associated with clinical abnormalities. Multimodal imaging plays an important role in detecting structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI. Advances in knowledge: This is the first time to apply RS-fMRI, VBM and diffusion tensor tractography to study the structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI, and to explore its correlation with EDSS score.

  4. Abnormal vessel of the ear associated with congenital arteriovenous malformation in the postauricular region.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shilpi Gupta; Dixit, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Variations in the branching pattern of the common, external, and internal carotid arteries can present as arteriovenous malformations, and their basis can be explained embryologically. Our case was a rare variation presenting as a congenital, very gradually increasing bluish painless swelling at the region of the left lobule of the ear arising from an abnormal vessel (from the postauricular artery) which was explored under general anesthesia through a postauricular curved incision. The abnormal vessel and other feeding vessels were ligated and a sclerosing agent injected. Anomalies of pharyngeal arch arteries like our case can be found resulting from the persistence of channels that normally disappear, and prior knowledge of these anomalies is essential before surgeries like mastoidectomy to prevent alarming hemorrhage.

  5. Wnt/β-catenin signaling directs the regional expansion of first and second heart field-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Buikema, Jan Willem; Mady, Ahmed S.; Mittal, Nikhil V.; Atmanli, Ayhan; Caron, Leslie; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Domian, Ibrahim J.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, cardiac development proceeds from the formation of the linear heart tube, through complex looping and septation, all the while increasing in mass to provide the oxygen delivery demands of embryonic growth. The developing heart must orchestrate regional differences in cardiomyocyte proliferation to control cardiac morphogenesis. During ventricular wall formation, the compact myocardium proliferates more vigorously than the trabecular myocardium, but the mechanisms controlling such regional differences among cardiomyocyte populations are not understood. Control of definitive cardiomyocyte proliferation is of great importance for application to regenerative cell-based therapies. We have used murine and human pluripotent stem cell systems to demonstrate that, during in vitro cellular differentiation, early ventricular cardiac myocytes display a robust proliferative response to β-catenin-mediated signaling and conversely accelerate differentiation in response to inhibition of this pathway. Using gain- and loss-of-function murine genetic models, we show that β-catenin controls ventricular myocyte proliferation during development and the perinatal period. We further demonstrate that the differential activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway accounts for the observed differences in the proliferation rates of the compact versus the trabecular myocardium during normal cardiac development. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic explanation for the differences in localized proliferation rates of cardiac myocytes and point to a practical method for the generation of the large numbers of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes necessary for clinical applications. PMID:24026118

  6. Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    PubMed

    Walton, K D; Dubois, M; Llinás, R R

    2010-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic disease that presents a continuing challenge in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent studies of neuropathic pain, in both animals and patients, have established a direct relationship between abnormal thalamic rhythmicity related to Thalamo-cortical Dysrhythmia (TCD) and the occurrence of central pain. Here, this relationship has been examined using magneto-encephalographic (MEG) imaging in CRPS Type I, characterized by the absence of nerve lesions. The study addresses spontaneous MEG activity from 13 awake, adult patients (2 men, 11 women; age 15-62), with CRPS Type I of one extremity (duration range: 3months to 10years) and from 13 control subjects. All CRPS I patients demonstrated peaks in power spectrum in the delta (<4Hz) and/or theta (4-9Hz) frequency ranges resulting in a characteristically increased spectral power in those ranges when compared to control subjects. The localization of such abnormal activity, implemented using independent component analysis (ICA) of the sensor data, showed delta and/or theta range activity localized to the somatosensory cortex corresponding to the pain localization, and to orbitofrontal-temporal cortices related to the affective pain perception. Indeed, CRPS Type I patients presented abnormal brain activity typical of TCD, which has both diagnostic value indicating a central origin for this ailment and a potential treatment interest involving pharmacological and electrical stimulation therapies. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tumor or abnormality identification from magnetic resonance images using statistical region fusion based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Badri Narayan; Thangaraj, Veerakumar; Sankaralingam, Esakkirajan; Ghosh, Ashish

    2016-11-01

    In this article, a statistical fusion based segmentation technique is proposed to identify different abnormality in magnetic resonance images (MRI). The proposed scheme follows seed selection, region growing-merging and fusion of multiple image segments. In this process initially, an image is divided into a number of blocks and for each block we compute the phase component of the Fourier transform. The phase component of each block reflects the gray level variation among the block but contains a large correlation among them. Hence a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique is adhered to generate a singular value of each block. Then a thresholding procedure is applied on these singular values to identify edgy and smooth regions and some seed points are selected for segmentation. By considering each seed point we perform a binary segmentation of the complete MRI and hence with all seed points we get an equal number of binary images. A parcel based statistical fusion process is used to fuse all the binary images into multiple segments. Effectiveness of the proposed scheme is tested on identifying different abnormalities: prostatic carcinoma detection, tuberculous granulomas identification and intracranial neoplasm or brain tumor detection. The proposed technique is established by comparing its results against seven state-of-the-art techniques with six performance evaluation measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marked regional left ventricular heterogeneity in hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy patients: a losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiographic substudy.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Robert W W; Doyle, Mark; Young, Alistair A; Devereux, Richard B; Kortright, Eduardo; Perry, Gilbert; Bella, Jonathan N; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David; Pohost, Gerald M; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2008-08-01

    Concentric hypertensive left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is presumed to be a symmetrical process. Using MRI-derived intramyocardial strain, we sought to determine whether segmental deformation was also symmetrical, as suggested by echocardiography. High echocardiographic LV relative wall thickness in hypertensive LV hypertrophy allows preserved endocardial excursion despite depressed LV midwall shortening (MWS). Depressed MWS is an adverse prognostic indicator, but whether this is related to global or regional myocardial depression is unknown. We prospectively compared MWS derived from linear echocardiographic dimensions with MR strain(in) in septal and posterior locations in 27 subjects with ECG LV hypertrophy in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study. Although MRI-derived mass was higher in patients than in normal control subjects (124.0+/-38.6 versus 60.5+/-13.2g/m(2); P<0.001), fractional shortening (30+/-5% versus 33+/-3%) and end-systolic stress (175+/-22 versus 146+/-28 g/cm(2)) did not differ between groups. However, mean MR(in) was decreased in patients versus normal control subjects (13.9+/-6.8% versus 22.4+/-3.5%), as was echo MWS (13.4+/-2.8% versus 18.2+/-1.4%; both P<0.001). For patients versus normal control subjects, posterior wall(in) was not different (17.8+/-7.1% versus 21.6+/-4.0%), whereas septal(in) was markedly depressed (10.1+/-6.6% versus 23.2+/-3.4%; P<0.001). Although global MWS by echocardiography or MRI is depressed in hypertensive LV hypertrophy, MRI tissue tagging demonstrates substantial regional intramyocardial strain(in) heterogeneity, with most severely depressed strain patterns in the septum. Although posterior wall 2D principal strain was inversely related to radius of curvature, septal strain was not, suggesting that factors other than afterload are responsible for pronounced myocardial strain heterogeneity in concentric hypertrophy.

  9. Regional grey matter volume abnormalities in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mood disturbances and regional cerebral metabolic abnormalities in recently abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    London, Edythe D; Simon, Sara L; Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Lichtman, Aaron M; Bramen, Jennifer; Shinn, Ann K; Miotto, Karen; Learn, Jennifer; Dong, Yun; Matochik, John A; Kurian, Varughese; Newton, Thomas; Woods, Roger; Rawson, Richard; Ling, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Mood disturbances in methamphetamine (MA) abusers likely influence drug use, but the neurobiological bases for these problems are poorly understood. To assess regional brain function and its possible relationships with negative affect in newly abstinent MA abusers. Two groups were compared by measures of mood and cerebral glucose metabolism ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) during performance of a vigilance task. Participants were recruited from the general community to a research center. Seventeen abstaining (4-7 days) MA abusers (6 women) were compared with 18 control subjects (8 women). Self-reports of depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured, as were global and relative glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal, cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and insular cortices and the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum. Abusers of MA provided higher self-ratings of depression and anxiety than control subjects and differed significantly in relative regional glucose metabolism: lower in the anterior cingulate and insula and higher in the lateral orbitofrontal area, middle and posterior cingulate, amygdala, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In MA abusers, self-reports of depressive symptoms covaried positively with relative glucose metabolism in limbic regions (eg, perigenual anterior cingulate gyrus and amygdala) and ratings of state and trait anxiety covaried negatively with relative activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and left insula. Trait anxiety also covaried negatively with relative activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and positively with amygdala activity. Abusers of MA have abnormalities in brain regions implicated in mood disorders. Relationships between relative glucose metabolism in limbic and paralimbic regions and self-reports of depression and anxiety in MA abusers suggest that these regions are involved in affective dysregulation and may be an important target of intervention for MA dependence.

  11. Evaluation of global and regional right ventricular systolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension using a novel speckle tracking method.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti L; Zoghbi, William A

    2006-09-01

    This study sought to demonstrate that a novel speckle-tracking method can be used to assess right ventricular (RV) global and regional systolic function. Fifty-eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (11 men; mean age 53 +/- 14 years) and 19 age-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic images in apical planes were analyzed by conventional manual tracing for volumes and ejection fractions and by novel software (Axius Velocity Vector Imaging). Myocardial velocity, strain rate, and strain were determined at the basal, mid, and apical segments of the RV free wall and ventricular septum by Velocity Vector Imaging. RV volumes and ejection fractions obtained with manual tracing correlated strongly with the same indexes obtained by the Velocity Vector Imaging method in all subjects (r = 0.95 to 0.98, p < 0.001 for all). Peak systolic myocardial velocities, strain rate, and strain were significantly impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension compared with controls and were most altered in patients with the most severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure and a Doppler index of pulmonary vascular resistance were independent predictors of RV strain (r = -0.61 and r = -0.65, respectively, p < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, the new automated Velocity Vector Imaging method provides simultaneous quantitation of global and regional RV function that is angle independent and can be applied retrospectively to already stored digital images.

  12. Abnormally banded chromosomal regions in doxorubicin-resistant B16-BL6 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Slovak, M L; Hoeltge, G A; Ganapathi, R

    1986-08-01

    B16-BL6 murine melanoma cells were selected for cytogenetic evaluation during the stepwise development of increasing resistance in vitro to the antitumor antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX). Karyotypic studies demonstrated extensive heteroploidy with both numerical and structural abnormalities which were not present in the parental DOX-sensitive B16-BL6 cells. Trypsin-Giemsa banding revealed the presence of several marker chromosomes containing abnormally banding regions (ABRs) in the 44-fold B16-BL6 DOX-resistant subline. These ABRs appeared to be more homogeneously staining at the higher DOX concentrations. Length measurements (ABR index) in seven banded metaphases indicated a direct correlation with increasing DOX concentration. When the DOX-resistant cells were grown in drug-free medium for 1 yr, the drug-resistant phenotype gradually declined in parallel with the level of resistance and the ABR index. DOX-induced cytogenetic damage examined by sister chromatid exchange methodology in parental B16-BL6 cells indicated a linear sister chromatid exchange:DOX dose-response relationship. However, after continuous treatment of parental B16-BL6 cells with DOX (0.01 microgram/ml) for 30 days, sister chromatid exchange scores were found to return to base-line values. The B16-BL6 resistant cells demonstrated a cross-resistant phenotype with N-trifluoroacetyladriamycin-14-valerate, actinomycin D, and the Vinca alkaloids but not with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. The results suggest that ABR-containing chromosomes in DOX-resistant sublines may represent cytogenetic alterations of specific amplified genes involved in the expression of DOX resistance. Further studies are required to identify and define the possible gene products and to correlate their relationship to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin.

  13. Injectable Microsphere Gel Progressively Improves Global Ventricular Function, Regional Contractile Strain, and Mitral Regurgitation after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Jeremy R; Kondo, Norihiro; Witschey, Walter RT; Takebe, Manabu; Aoki, Chikashi; Burdick, Jason A.; Spinale, Francis G; Gorman, Joseph H; Pilla, James J; Gorman, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Background There is continued need for therapies which reverse or abate the remodeling process following myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we evaluate the longitudinal effects of calcium hydroxyapatite microsphere gel on regional strain, global ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation (MR) in a porcine MI model. Methods Twenty five Yorkshire swine were enrolled. Five were dedicated weight-matched controls. Twenty underwent posterolateral infarction by direct ligation of the circumflex artery and its branches. Infarcted animals were randomly divided into four groups: one week treatment, one week control, four week treatment, and four week control. Following infarction, animals received either twenty 150μl calcium hydroxyapatite gel or saline injections within the infarct. At their respective timepoints, echocardiograms, cardiac MRI, and tissue were collected for evaluation of MR, regional and global left ventricular function, wall thickness, and collagen content. Results Global and regional LV function were depressed in all infarcted subjects at one week compared to healthy controls. By four weeks post-infarction, global function had significantly improved in the calcium hydroxyapatite group compared to infarcted controls (EF 48.5±1.9% vs. 38.0±1.7%, p<0.01). Similarly, regional borderzone radial contractile strain (16.3±1.5% vs. 11.2±1.5%, p=0.04), MR grade (0.4±0.2 vs. 1.2±0.2, p=0.04), and infarct thickness (7.8±0.5mm vs. 4.5±0.2mm, p<0.01) were improved at this timepoint in the treatment group compared to infarct controls. Conclusions Calcium hydroxyapatite injection following MI progressively improves global LV function, borderzone function, and mitral regurgitation. Using novel biomaterials to augment infarct material properties is viable alternative in the current management of heart failure. PMID:25524397

  14. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hurford, W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.

    1985-05-01

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-(p-(iodophenyl))-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM)more » to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction.« less

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow and abnormal eating behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Etsuro

    2013-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder and is generally regarded as a genetic model of obesity. Individuals with PWS exhibit behavioral symptoms including temper tantrums, rigid thinking, and compulsive behavior. The most striking feature of PWS is abnormal eating behavior, including hyperphagia, intense preoccupation with food, and incessant food seeking. To explore brain regions associated with the behavioral symptoms of PWS, we investigated differences in resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between individuals with PWS and healthy controls. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationship between rCBF and altered eating behavior in PWS individuals. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched controls underwent resting-state single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). The rCBF data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using SPM5 software. The results demonstrated that compared with controls, individuals with PWS had significantly lower rCBF in the right thalamus, left insular cortex, bilateral lingual gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. They had significantly higher rCBF in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior frontal gyrus (anterior and posterior clusters), and bilateral angular gyrus. Additionally, rCBF in the left insula, which was significantly lower in PWS individuals, was negatively correlated with the eating behavior severity score. These results suggest that specific brain regions, particularly the left insula, may be partly responsible for the behavioral symptoms in PWS. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Hypertension on Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Regional Myocardial Work at Rest and during Isometric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; D’hooge, Jan; Kloch-Badelek, Malgorzata; Sakiewicz, Wojciech; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand better the mechanism of left ventricular (LV) remodeling related to hypertension, it is important to evaluate LV function in relation to the changes in loading conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in conventional ventricular-arterial coupling indexes, LV strain, and a new index reflecting regional myocardial work assessed noninvasively at rest and during isometric exercise in a random sample including participants with normal blood pressure and those with hypertension. Methods A total of 148 participants (53.4% women; mean age, 52.0 years; 39.2% with hypertension) underwent simultaneous echocardiographic and arterial data acquisition at rest and during increased afterload (handgrip exercise). End-systolic pressure was determined from the carotid pulse wave. Arterial elastance (Ea) and LV elastance (Ees) were calculated as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume. Doppler tissue imaging and two-dimensional speckle tracking were used to derive LV longitudinal strain. Regional myocardial work (ejection work density [EWD]) was the area of the pressure-strain loop during ejection. Results At rest, with adjustments applied, Ees (3.06 vs 3.71 mmHg/mL,P = .0003), Ea/Ees (0.54 vs 0.47,P=.002) and EWD (670 vs 802 Pa/m2, P = .0001) differed significantly between participants with normal blood pressure and those with hypertension. During handgrip exercise, Ea and Ea/Ees significantly increased (P < .0001) in both groups. Doppler tissue imaging and two-dimensional LV strain decreased in participants with hypertension (P ≤ .008). Only in subjects with normal blood pressure EWD significantly increased (+14.7%, P = .0009). Conclusions Although patients with hypertension compared with those with normal blood pressure have increased LV systolic stiffness and regional myocardial work to match arterial load at rest, they might have diminished cardiac reserve to increase myocardial performance

  17. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro

    2005-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  18. Abnormal pressure study in the Malay and Penyu Basins: A regional understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Kader, M.S.; Leslie, W.

    1994-07-01

    A majority of wells drilled in the Malay and Penyu basins were terminated due to abnormal pressure. Blowouts and the subsequent loss of technical data have always been a concern during drilling operations. This study employs data from 94 exploratory wells spread throughout the Malay and Penyu basins. The postdrill abnormal pressure predictive method used is pressure vs. depth plots of data obtained from Repeat Formation tester (RFT) readings. The study results indicate that abnormal pressure occurs in a progressively older stratigraphic unit toward the basin margins. The margins of the Malay and the entire Penyu basins tend to bemore » normally pressured. The onset of abnormal pressure appears to be abrupt in the northern portion and more gradual in the southern part of the Malay Basin. Abnormal pressure in the Malay Basin is found to be neither depth dependent nor age related. Many factors can cause the abnormal formation pressures. In some areas, a combination of factors prevails. Rapid deposition of the middle to late Miocene siliciclastic sediments appears to be a dominant cause particularly in the center of the Malay Basin. A low sand:shale ratio coupled with a high geothermal gradient is also found to be a local cause near the axis of the basin. This phenomenon is crucial to the understanding of hydrocarbon migration and will enable the planning of safe and efficient drilling campaigns.« less

  19. Differential right ventricular regional function and the effect of pulmonary hypertension: three-dimensional echo study.

    PubMed

    Calcutteea, Avin; Chung, Robin; Lindqvist, Per; Hodson, Margaret; Henein, Michael Y

    2011-06-01

    The right ventricle is multicompartmental in orientation. To assess the normal differential function of the right ventricular (RV) inflow, apical and outflow compartments, also their inter-relations and the response to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). 45 people were studied--16 controls and 29 patients with left-sided heart failure, 15 without (group 1) and 14 with (group 2) secondary PAH, using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D echocardiography in addition to conventional Doppler techniques. There was a strong correlation between RV inlet diameter (2D) and end-diastolic volume (3D) (r=0.69, p<0.001) and between tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV ejection fraction (3D) (r=0.71, p<0.001). In controls and patients, the apical ejection fraction was less than the inflow and outflow (controls: p<0.01 and p<0.01, group 1: p<0.05 and p<0.01 and group 2: p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Ejection fraction was reduced in patients (inflow: p<0.001 for both, apical: p<0.01 for both and outflow tract: p<0.05 for both). In controls, the inflow compartment reached the minimum volume 20 ms before the outflow and apex but in group 2 it was simultaneous. Isovolumic contraction and relaxation times were prolonged in patients (Group 1: p=0.02 and p<0.01 and Group 2: p=0.01 for both). Peak RV ejection time correlated with the rate of outflow volume fall in controls but with the apex in group 2 (r=0.6, p<0.05). The right ventricle has distinct features for the inflow, apical and outflow tract compartments, with different extent of contribution to the overall systolic function. In PAH, the right ventricle becomes one dyssynchronous compartment, which itself may have perpetual effect on overall cardiac dysfunction.

  20. Mesh-free based variational level set evolution for breast region segmentation and abnormality detection using mammograms.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Kanchan L; Bajpai, Manish K; Khanna, Pritee; Giakos, George

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of abnormal region is a crucial task in computer-aided detection system using mammograms. In this work, an automatic abnormality detection algorithm using mammographic images is proposed. In the preprocessing step, partial differential equation-based variational level set method is used for breast region extraction. The evolution of the level set method is done by applying mesh-free-based radial basis function (RBF). The limitation of mesh-based approach is removed by using mesh-free-based RBF method. The evolution of variational level set function is also done by mesh-based finite difference method for comparison purpose. Unsharp masking and median filtering is used for mammogram enhancement. Suspicious abnormal regions are segmented by applying fuzzy c-means clustering. Texture features are extracted from the segmented suspicious regions by computing local binary pattern and dominated rotated local binary pattern (DRLBP). Finally, suspicious regions are classified as normal or abnormal regions by means of support vector machine with linear, multilayer perceptron, radial basis, and polynomial kernel function. The algorithm is validated on 322 sample mammograms of mammographic image analysis society (MIAS) and 500 mammograms from digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) datasets. Proficiency of the algorithm is quantified by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.96%, 95.01%, and 94.48%, respectively, are obtained on MIAS dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Whereas, the highest 92.31% sensitivity, 98.45% specificity, and 96.21% accuracy are achieved on DDSM dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Computer-based assessment of right ventricular regional ejection fraction in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, S.-K.; Wong, S. T.; Tan, M. L.; Su, Y.; Zhong, L.; Tan, Ru-San

    2015-03-01

    After surgical repair for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), most patients experience long-term complications as the right ventricle (RV) undergoes progressive remodeling that eventually affect heart functions. Thus, post-repair surgery is required to prevent further deterioration of RV functions that may result in malignant ventricular arrhythmias and mortality. The timing of such post-repair surgery therefore depends crucially on the quantitative assessment of the RV functions. Current clinical indices for such functional assessment measure global properties such as RV volumes and ejection fraction. However, these indices are less than ideal as regional variations and anomalies are obscured. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a quantitative method to assess RV regional function using regional ejection fraction (REF) based on a 13-segment model, and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of REF in discriminating 6 repaired TOF patients and 6 normal control based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We observed that the REF for the individual segments in the patient group is significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05 using a 2-tail student t-test). In addition, we also observed that the aggregated REF at the basal, mid-cavity and apical regions for the patient group is significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.001 using a 2-tail student t-test). The results suggest that REF could potentially be used as a quantitative index for assessing RV regional functions. The computational time per data set is approximately 60 seconds, which demonstrates our method's clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  2. Abnormal regional homogeneity and its correlations with personality in first-episode, treatment-naive somatization disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Su, Qinji; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Yao, Dapeng; Dai, Yi; Long, Liling; Yu, Miaoyu; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-08-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the default mode network (DMN) and their correlations with personality have been found in somatization disorder (SD). However, no study is conducted to identify regional neural activity and its correlations with personality in SD. In this study, regional homogeneity (ReHo) was applied to explore whether abnormal regional neural activity is present in patients with SD and its correlations with personality measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Twenty-five first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD and 28 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in the whole study. During the scanning, all subjects were instructed to lie still with their eyes closed and remain awake. A ReHo approach was employed to analyze the data. The SD group had a significantly increased ReHo in the left angular gyrus (AG) compared to healthy controls. The increased ReHo positively correlated to the neuroticism scores of EPQ (EPQ-N). No other correlations were detected between the ReHo values and other related factors, such as symptom severity and education level. Our results suggest that abnormal regional neural activity of the DMN may play a key role in SD with clinical implications and emphasize the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiological process of SD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional TNFα mapping in the brain reveals the striatum as a neuroinflammatory target after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Janata, Andreas; Magnet, Ingrid A.M.; Uray, Thomas; Stezoski, Jason P.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Drabek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) triggers neuroinflammation that could play a role in a delayed neuronal death. In our previously established rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA characterized by extensive neuronal death, we tested the hypothesis that individual brain regions have specific neuroinflammatory responses, as reflected by regional brain tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and other cytokines. In a prospective study, rats were randomized to 6 min (CA6), 8 min (CA8) or 10 min (CA10) of VF CA, or sham group. Cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were evaluated for TNFα and interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon gamma at 3 h, 6 h or 14 d after CA by ELISA and Luminex. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the cell source of TNFα. CA resulted in a selective TNFα response with significant regional and temporal differences. At 3 h after CA, TNFα-levels increased in all regions depending on the duration of the insult. The most pronounced increase was observed in striatum that showed 20-fold increase in CA10 vs. sham, and 3-fold increase vs. CA6 or CA8 group, respectively (p < 0.01). TNFα levels in striatum decreased between 3 h and 6 h, but increased in other regions between 3 h and 14 d. TNFα levels remained twofold higher in CA6 vs. shams across brain regions at 14 d (p < 0.01). In contrast to pronounced TNFα response, other cytokines showed only a minimal increase in CA6 and CA8 groups vs. sham in all brain regions with the exception that IL-1β increased twofold in cerebellum and striatum (p < 0.01). TNFα colocalized with neurons. In conclusion, CA produced a duration-dependent acute TNFα response, with dramatic increase in the striatum where TNFα colocalized with neurons. Increased TNFα levels persist for at least two weeks. This TNFα surge contrasts the lack of an acute increase in other cytokines in brain after CA. Given that striatum is a selectively vulnerable brain region, our data

  4. Regional TNFα mapping in the brain reveals the striatum as a neuroinflammatory target after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Janata, Andreas; Magnet, Ingrid A M; Uray, Thomas; Stezoski, Jason P; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Tisherman, Samuel A; Kochanek, Patrick M; Drabek, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) triggers neuroinflammation that could play a role in a delayed neuronal death. In our previously established rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA characterized by extensive neuronal death, we tested the hypothesis that individual brain regions have specific neuroinflammatory responses, as reflected by regional brain tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and other cytokines. In a prospective study, rats were randomized to 6min (CA6), 8min (CA8) or 10min (CA10) of VF CA, or sham group. Cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were evaluated for TNFα and interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon gamma at 3h, 6h or 14 d after CA by ELISA and Luminex. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the cell source of TNFα. CA resulted in a selective TNFα response with significant regional and temporal differences. At 3h after CA, TNFα-levels increased in all regions depending on the duration of the insult. The most pronounced increase was observed in striatum that showed 20-fold increase in CA10 vs. sham, and 3-fold increase vs. CA6 or CA8 group, respectively (p<0.01). TNFα levels in striatum decreased between 3h and 6h, but increased in other regions between 3h and 14 d. TNFα levels remained twofold higher in CA6 vs. shams across brain regions at 14 d (p<0.01). In contrast to pronounced TNFα response, other cytokines showed only a minimal increase in CA6 and CA8 groups vs. sham in all brain regions with the exception that IL-1β increased twofold in cerebellum and striatum (p<0.01). TNFα colocalized with neurons. In conclusion, CA produced a duration-dependent acute TNFα response, with dramatic increase in the striatum where TNFα colocalized with neurons. Increased TNFα levels persist for at least two weeks. This TNFα surge contrasts the lack of an acute increase in other cytokines in brain after CA. Given that striatum is a selectively vulnerable brain region, our data suggest possible

  5. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography and 2D echocardiography: a comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Bin Rapaee; Liew, Chee Khoon; Chin, Sze Piaw; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Seyfarth, M Tobias; Chan, Wei Ling; Fong, Yean Yip; Ang, Choon Kiat; Lin, Naing; Liew, Houng Bang; Sim, Kui Hian

    2008-01-01

    To compare the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT), 2D echocardiography (2DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Thirty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 56.5+/-9.7 years) referred for evaluation of coronary artery using 64-slice MSCT also underwent 2DE and CMR within 48h. The global left ventricular function which include left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVdV) and left ventricular end systolic volume (LVsV) were determine using the three modalities. Regional wall motion (RWM) was assessed visually in all three modalities. The CMR served as the gold standard for the comparison between 64-slice MSCT with CMR and 2DE with CMR. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots and kappa-statistics. The 64-slice MSCT agreed well with CMR for assessment of LVEF (r=0.92; p<0.0001), LVdV (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and LVsV (r=0.98; p<0.0001). In comparison with 64-slice MSCT, 2DE showed moderate correlation with CMR for the assessment of LVEF (r=0.84; p<0.0001), LVdV (r=0.83; p<0.0001) and LVsV (r=0.80; p<0.0001). However in RWM analysis, 2DE showed better accuracy than 64-slice MSCT (94.3% versus 82.4%) and closer agreement (kappa=0.89 versus 0.63) with CMR. 64-Slice MSCT correlates strongly with CMR in global LV function however in regional LV function 2DE showed better agreement with CMR than 64-slice MSCT.

  6. Computer-based assessment of left ventricular regional ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, S.-K.; Su, Y.; Tan, R. S.; Zhong, L.

    2014-03-01

    After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle (LV) undergoes progressive remodeling which adversely affects heart function and may lead to development of heart failure. There is an escalating need to accurately depict the LV remodeling process for disease surveillance and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Current practice of using ejection fraction to quantitate LV function is less than ideal as it obscures regional variation and anomaly. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a quantitative method to assess LV regional ejection fraction (REF) using a 16-segment method, and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of REF in discriminating 10 patients 1-3 months after MI and 9 normal control (sex- and agematched) based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR scans were also acquired for the MI patients to assess scar extent. We observed that the REF at the basal, mid-cavity and apical regions for the patient group is significantly lower as compared to the control group (P < 0.001 using a 2-tail student t-test). In addition, we correlated the patient REF over these regions with their corresponding LGE score in terms of 4 categories - High LGE, Low LGE, Border and Remote. We observed that the median REF decreases with increasing severity of infarction. The results suggest that REF could potentially be used as a discriminator for MI and employed to measure myocardium homogeneity with respect to degree of infarction. The computational performance per data sample took approximately 25 sec, which demonstrates its clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  7. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: Part 2—Morphomechanical Abnormalities, Gene Reexpression, and Gender Effects on Ventricular Hypertrophy and Its Reversibility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In part 1, we considered cytomolecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), hemodynamics, and adaptive feedbacks controlling pathological left ventricular hypertrophy provoked by ensuing aortic valvular stenosis (AVS). In part 2, we survey diverse signal transduction pathways that precede cellular/molecular mechanisms controlling hypertrophic gene expression by activation of specific transcription factors that induce sarcomere replication in-parallel. Such signaling pathways represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention and prevention of decompensation/failure. Hypertrophy provoking signals, in the form of dynamic stresses and ligand/effector molecules that bind to specific receptors to initiate the hypertrophy, are transcribed across the sarcolemma by several second messengers. They comprise intricate feedback mechanisms involving gene network cascades, specific signaling molecules encompassing G protein-coupled receptors and mechanotransducers, and myocardial stresses. Future multidisciplinary studies will characterize the adaptive/maladaptive nature of the AVS-induced hypertrophy, its gender- and individual patient-dependent peculiarities, and its response to surgical/medical interventions. They will herald more effective, precision medicine treatments. PMID:27184804

  8. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in Prader-Willi syndrome: A 18F-FDG PET study under sedation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Eun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sungdo David; Paik, Kyung Hoon; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, An Hee; Kwon, Eun Kyung; Choe, Yon Ho

    2006-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the nonexpression of paternal genes in the PWS region of chromosome 15q11-13 and is the most common cause of human syndromic obesity. We investigated regional brain metabolic impairment in children with PWS by 18F-FDG PET. Sixteen children with PWS (9 males, 7 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.2 +/- 1.1 y) and 7 healthy children (4 males, 3 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.0 +/- 1.7 y) underwent brain 18F-FDG PET in the resting state. The images of PWS children were compared using statistical parametric mapping analysis with those of healthy children in a voxelwise manner. Group comparison showed that children with PWS had decreased glucose metabolism in the right superior temporal gyrus and left cerebellar vermis, regions that are associated with taste perception/food reward and cognitive and emotional function, respectively. Metabolism was increased in the right orbitofrontal, bilateral middle frontal, right inferior frontal, left superior frontal, and bilateral anterior cingulate gyri, right temporal pole, and left uncus, regions that are involved in cognitive functions related to eating or obsessive-compulsive behavior. Interestingly, no significant metabolic abnormality was found in the hypothalamus, the brain region believed to be most involved in energy intake and expenditure. This study describes the neural substrate underlying the abnormal eating behavior and psychobehavioral problems of PWS.

  9. Abnormal left ventricular longitudinal functional reserve in patients with diabetes mellitus: implication for detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction using exercise tissue Doppler echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jong‐Won; Lee, Hyun‐Chul; Kang, Eun‐Seok; Ahn, Chul‐Min; Kim, Jin‐Mi; Ahn, Jeong‐Ah; Lee, Se‐Wha; Choi, Eui‐Young; Rim, Se‐Joong; Oh, Jae K; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Background Sublinical myocardial dysfunction occurs in a significant number of patients with type 2 diabetes. Assessment of ventricular long‐axis function by measuring mitral annular velocities using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is thought to provide a more sensitive index of systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesised that augmentation of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal contraction and relaxation during exercise would be blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Mitral annular systolic (S′) and early diastolic (E′) velocities were measured at rest and during supine bicycle exercise (25 W, 3 min increments) in 53 patients (27 male, mean age 53±14 years) with type 2 diabetes and 53 subjects with age and gender‐matched control. None had echocardiographic evidence of resting or inducible myocardial ischaemia. Results There were no significant differences in mitral inflow velocities at rest between the two groups. E′ and S′ at rest were also similar between the groups. However, S′ (7.1±1.3 vs 8.3±1.8 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.0021; 8.1±1.5 vs 9.1±2.0 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.026) and E′ (8.5±2.3 vs 9.9±3.1 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.054; 9.1±2.1 vs 10.9±2.5 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.0093) during exercise were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Longitudinal systolic and diastolic function reserve indices were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with that of controls (systolic index, 0.6±0.70 vs 1.2±1.5 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.029; 1.2±1.2 vs 2.1±1.6 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.009; diastolic index, 1.9±1.2 vs 2.5±2.2 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.07; 2.3±1.3 vs 3.2±2.2 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.031). Conclusion In conclusion, unlike resting mitral inflow and annular velocities, changes of systolic and diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus during exercise were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with the

  10. Abnormal end-tidal PO(2) and PCO(2) at the anaerobic threshold correlate well with impaired exercise gas exchange in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroto; Koike, Akira; Hoshimoto-Iwamoto, Masayo; Nagayama, Osamu; Sakurada, Koji; Suzuki, Takeya; Tsuneoka, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Wasserman, Karlman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the end-tidal O(2) pressure (PETO(2)) to end-tidal CO(2) pressure (PETCO(2)) in cardiac patients during rest and during 2 states of exercise: at anaerobic threshold (AT) and at peak. The purpose was to see which metabolic state, PETO(2) or PETCO(2), best correlated with exercise limitation. Thirty-eight patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <40% underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). PETO(2) and PETCO(2) were measured during CPX, along with peak O(2) uptake (VO(2)), AT, slope of the increase in ventilation (VE) relative to the increase in CO(2) output (VCO(2)) (VE vs. VCO(2) slope), and the ratio of the increase in VO(2) to the increase in work rate (ΔVO(2)/ΔWR). Both PETO(2) and PETCO(2) measured at AT were best correlated with peakVO(2), AT, ΔVO(2)/ΔWR and VE vs. VCO(2) slope. PETO(2) at AT correlated with reduced peak VO(2) (r=-0.60), reduced AT (r=-0.52), reduced ΔVO(2)/ΔWR (r=-0.55) and increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope (r=0.74). PETCO(2) at AT correlated with reduced peak VO(2) (r=0.67), reduced AT (r=0.61), reduced ΔVO(2)/ΔWR (r=0.58) and increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope (r=-0.80). PETCO(2) and PETO(2) at AT correlated with peak VO(2), AT and ΔVO(2)/ΔWR, but best correlated with increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope. PETO(2) and PETCO(2) at AT can be used as a prime index of impaired cardiopulmonary function during exercise in patients with LV failure.

  11. Systolic ventricular filling.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    involved in this action. This contraction occurs during the last part of classical systole and the first part of diastole. Therefore, the most important part of ventricular diastole (i.e. the rapid filling phase), in which it receives >70% of the stroke volume, belongs to the active muscular contraction of the ascendent segment. We hope that these facts will give rise to new understanding of the principal mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal diastolic heart function.

  12. Abnormal high-energy phosphate molecule metabolism during regional brain activation in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Using Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Intravenous Ventriculography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Cynthia H.

    Healthy portions of the left ventricle (LV) can often compensate for regional dysfunction, thereby masking regional disease when global indices of LV function are employed. Thus, quantitation of regional function provides a more useful method of assessing LV function, especially in diseases that have regional effects such as coronary artery disease. This dissertation studied the ability of a phase -matched dual-energy digital subtraction angiography (DE -DSA) technique to quantitate changes in regional LV systolic volume. The potential benefits and a theoretical description of the DE imaging technique are detailed. A correlated noise reduction algorithm is also presented which raises the signal-to-noise ratio of DE images by a factor of 2 -4. Ten open-chest dogs were instrumented with transmural ultrasonic crystals to assess regional LV function in terms of systolic normalized-wall-thickening rate (NWTR) and percent-systolic-thickening (PST). A pneumatic occluder was placed on the left-anterior-descending (LAD) coronary artery to temporarily reduce myocardial blood flow, thereby changing regional LV function in the LAD bed. DE-DSA intravenous left ventriculograms were obtained at control and four levels of graded myocardial ischemia, as determined by reductions in PST. Phase-matched images displaying changes in systolic contractile function were created by subtracting an end-systolic (ES) control image from ES images acquired at each level of myocardial ischemia. The resulting wall-motion difference signal (WMD), which represents a change in regional systolic volume between the control and ischemic states, was quantitated by videodensitometry and compared with changes in NWTR and PST. Regression analysis of 56 data points from 10 animals shows a linear relationship between WMD and both NWTR and PST: WMD = -2.46 NWTR + 13.9, r = 0.64, p < 0.001; WMD = -2.11 PST + 18.4, r = 0.54, p < 0.001. Thus, changes in regional ES LV volume between rest and ischemic states, as

  14. Regional Cerebral Abnormalities Measured by Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Pediatric Patients During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Jenks, Christopher; Potter, Donald; Miles, Darryl; Raman, Lakshmi

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of advanced cardiorespiratory support provided to critically ill patients with severe respiratory or cardiovascular failure. While children undergoing ECMO therapy have significant risk for neurological morbidity, currently there is a lack of reliable bedside tool to detect the neurologic events for patients on ECMO. This study assessed the feasibility of frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of intracranial complications during ECMO therapy. The frequency-domain NIRS device measured the absorption coefficient (µa) and reduced scattering coefficient (µs') at six cranial positions from seven pediatric patients (0-16 years) during ECMO support and five healthy controls (2-14 years). Regional abnormalities in both absorption and scattering were identified among ECMO patients. A main finding in this study is that the abnormalities in scattering appear to be associated with lower-than-normal µs' values in regional areas of the brain. Because light scattering originates from the intracellular structures (such as nuclei and mitochondria), a reduction in scattering primarily reflects loss or decreased density of the brain matter. The results from this study indicate a potential to use the frequency-domain NIRS as a safe and complementary technology for detection of intracranial complications during ECMO therapy.

  15. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Regional pressure and temperature variations across the injured human brain: comparisons between paired intraparenchymal and ventricular measurements.

    PubMed

    Childs, Charmaine; Shen, Liang

    2015-06-23

    Intraparenchymal, multimodality sensors are commonly used in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The 'gold standard', based on accuracy, reliability and cost for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is within the cerebral ventricle (external strain gauge). There are no standards yet for intracerebral temperature monitoring and little is known of temperature differences between brain tissue and ventricle. The aim of the study therefore was to determine pressure and temperature differences at intraparenchymal and ventricular sites during five days of continuous neuromonitoring. Patients with severe TBI requiring emergency surgery. patients who required ICP monitoring were eligible for recruitment. Two intracerebral probe types were used: a) intraventricular, dual parameter sensor (measuring pressure, temperature) with inbuilt catheter for CSF drainage: b) multiparameter intraparenchymal sensor measuring pressure, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. All sensors were inserted during surgery and under aseptic conditions. Seventeen patients, 12 undergoing neurosurgery (decompressive craniectomy n = 8, craniotomy n = 4) aged 21-78 years were studied. Agreement of measures for 9540 brain tissue-ventricular temperature 'pairs' and 10,291 brain tissue-ventricular pressure 'pairs' were determined using mixed model to compare mean temperature and pressure for longitudinal data. There was no significant overall difference for mean temperature (p = 0.92) or mean pressure readings (p = 0.379) between tissue and ventricular sites. With 95.8 % of paired temperature readings within 2SD (-0.4 to 0.4 °C) differences in temperature between brain tissue and ventricle were clinically insignificant. For pressure, 93.5 % of readings pairs fell within the 2SD range (-9.4756 to 7.8112 mmHg). However, for individual patients, agreement for mean tissue-ventricular pressure differences was poor on occasions. There is good overall agreement between paired

  17. Vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Michiel J.

    1998-03-01

    One of the factors that favors the development of ventricular fibrillation is an increase in the dispersion of refractoriness. Experiments will be described in which an increase in dispersion in the recovery of excitability was determined during brief episodes of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity, known to increase the risk of fibrillation. Whereas in the normal heart ventricular fibrillation can be induced by a strong electrical shock, a premature stimulus of moderate intensity only induces fibrillation in the presence of regional ischemia, which greatly increases the dispersion of refractoriness. One factor that is of importance for the transition of reentrant ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation during acute regional ischemia is the subendocardial Purkinje system. After selective destruction of the Purkinje network by lugol, reentrant tachycardias still develop in the ischemic region, but they do not degenerate into fibrillation. Finally, attempts were made to determine the minimal mass of thin ventricular myocardium required to sustain fibrillation induced by burst pacing. This was done by freezing of subendocardial and midmural layers. The rim of surviving epicardial muscle had to be larger than 20 g. Extracellular electrograms during fibrillation in both the intact and the "frozen" left ventricle were indistinguishable, but activation patterns were markedly different. In the intact ventricle epicardial activation was compatible with multiple wavelet reentry, in the "frozen" heart a single, or at most two wandering reentrant waves were seen.

  18. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  19. Brain abnormalities in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory regions in adolescents with single ventricle heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Roy, Bhaswati; Gupta, Ritika; Singh, Sadhana; Woo, Mary A; Halnon, Nancy J; Lewis, Alan B; Kumar, Rajesh

    2018-06-01

    Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3.0-Tesla MRI, as well as anxiety (Beck anxiety inventory [BAI]), depressive symptoms (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]), and cognition (wide range assessment of memory and learning 2 [WRAML2] and Montreal cognitive assessment [MoCA]) data were collected from 20 SVHD (age: 15.8 ± 1.1 years, male/female: 11/9) and 36 controls (age: 16.0 ± 1.1 years, male/female: 19/17). Whole-brain T2-relaxation maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, smoothed, and compared between groups and sexes (analysis of covariance; covariates: age, sex; p < 0.001). SVHD subjects showed significantly increased BAI and PHQ-9 and reduced MoCA and WRAML2 scores over controls. Several brain regions in SVHD showed increased T2-relaxation values (chronic injury), including the cingulate, and insula, hippocampus/para-hippocampal gyrus, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, frontal white matter, corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellar areas. Decreased T2-relaxation values (acute injury) emerged in a few regions, including the prefrontal and cerebellar cortices in SVHD over controls. In addition, male SVHD showed more brain changes over female SVHD. Adolescents with SVHD showed significant brain injury with variable male-female differences in areas that control cognition, anxiety, and depression, which may contribute to functional deficits found in the condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ventricular tachycardia

    MedlinePlus

    ... called ablation ) may be done. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be used. It is a device ... V tach; Tachycardia - ventricular Patient Instructions Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Images Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator References Garan H. ...

  1. Regional white matter abnormalities in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hailong; Hu, Maorong; Eyler, Lisa T; Jin, Hua; Wang, Juan; Ou, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaofeng; He, Zhong; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-03-01

    Shared neuropathological features between schizophrenia patients and their siblings may represent intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia and can be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. This study aimed to discover regional white matter abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and their unaffected siblings compared to healthy subjects in the Chinese Han population using optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM). A total of 51 drug-naive, FES patients, 45 of their unaffected siblings and 59 healthy comparisons were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). FES patients exhibited significant regional white matter deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left joint of external capsule and internal capsule compared with healthy subjects (corrected FDR, p<0.005). The sibling group also showed significant white matter deficits in these two regions compared with the healthy comparison group (uncorrected, p<0.001). White matter deficits with a less stringent threshold for significance in the left cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle frontal gyrus, left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate and right internal capsule were observed in patients compared to their siblings. Our findings extend those from previous VBM analyses showing that FES patients and their unaffected siblings may share white matter deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left joint of external capsule and internal capsule. These regional white matter deficits may be related to genetic factors related to schizophrenia susceptibility. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  3. Impaired global myocardial flow dynamics despite normal left ventricular function and regional perfusion in chronic kidney disease: a quantitative analysis of clinical 82Rb PET/CT studies.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Higuchi, Takahiro; Bravo, Paco E; Chien, David; Lautamäki, Riikka; Merrill, Jennifer; Nekolla, Stephan G; Bengel, Frank M

    2012-06-01

    Impaired global myocardial flow reserve (MFR) may be associated with increased risk for cardiac events and coronary artery disease progression. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate the effect of CKD on the myocardial microcirculation in patients referred for clinical (82)Rb PET/CT, who had normal left ventricular (LV) function and no flow-limiting coronary artery disease. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was available for 230 patients who had undergone rest and pharmacologic stress (82)Rb PET/CT for suspected coronary artery disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). After patients with hemodialysis, a renal transplant, abnormal regional perfusion (summed stress score > 4), or reduced LV function (LV ejection fraction < 45%) were excluded, 40 CKD patients remained. Those were compared with a control group without CKD, which was matched for age, sex, coronary risk factors, and systemic hemodynamics (n = 42). List-mode acquisition of PET enabled quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MFR using a previously validated retention model with correction for (82)Rb extraction. Rest MBF was normalized to rate-pressure product. Mean eGFR in the CKD group was reduced (44 ± 14 vs. 99 ± 28 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001), and creatinine was significantly elevated, compared with controls (1.9 ± 1.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 mg/dL; P < 0.0001). MFR was significantly reduced in CKD (2.2 ± 1.0 vs. 3.0 ± 1.2 for controls; P = 0.027). This reduction was mainly due to increased rest MBF (1.1 ± 0.4 in CKD vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 mL/min/g in controls; P = 0.007). Stress myocardial flow was comparable between both groups (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 mL/min/g; P = 0.08). Overall, MFR was significantly correlated with eGFR (r = 0.41; P = 0.0005). Stress MBF did not correlate with eGFR (r = 0.002; P = 0.45), but rest MBF showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.49; P < 0.0001). Rest MBF was

  4. The characteristics of abnormal wintertime pollution events in the Jing-Jin-Ji region and its relationships with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Xu, Xiangde; Zheng, Jun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yinjun; Cai, Wenyue

    2018-06-01

    Despite the implementation of strict air pollution control measures in recent years, severe haze events were still encountered in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region during the winter 2016. In this work, seasonal differences in correlations between air pollution and geographic terrain, atmospheric dynamical and thermal structures, and PBL height over the Jing-Jin-Ji region in history and recent years were investigated and a comprehensive model of atmospheric factors affecting winter air pollution formation was proposed. We found that the distribution of PM 2.5 concentration closely correlated with the topography feature of China and the difference in haze pollution intensity between winter and other seasons was the most significant in the Jing-Jin-Ji region. The "semi-enclosed" terrain along with the enhanced winter "downdraft" strongly inhibited the diffusion and convection of air pollutants in this region. Meanwhile, seasonal variations of the vertical thermal structure over the Jing-Jin-Ji region, i.e., the anomalous pattern of "upper warming and bottom cooling" structure in the middle troposphere, and the "weak wind zone" were more distinct in winter 2016 than historical record, providing an important precondition for the frequent occurrence of thermal inversion layers and severe pollution episodes in the lower troposphere. In addition, abnormally low PBL heights occurred in the Jing-Jin-Ji region during severe pollutant episodes in winter 2016, with mean postmeridian PBL height in December of only 869.4 m, the minimum value since 2013. PM 2.5 concentration was not only closely related to PBL height but also the "warm cover" structure in the middle troposphere. The stronger the structure was, the lower the PBL height became, and severer the pollution event was encountered, accompanying water vapor accumulation and intensification of the thermal inversion layer in the lower troposphere. All above observations revealed the mutual feedback

  5. Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: Regional Abnormalities and Response to Airway Clearance Therapy Using Pulmonary Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Svenningsen, Sarah; Guo, Fumin; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy. Fifteen participants with non-CF bronchiectasis and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers provided written informed consent to an ethics board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol and underwent spirometry, plethysmography, computed tomography (CT), and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI. Bronchiectasis patients also completed a Six-Minute Walk Test, the St. George's Respiratory questionnaire, and Patient Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ), and returned for a follow-up visit after 3 weeks of daily oscillatory positive expiratory pressure use. CT evidence of bronchiectasis was qualitatively reported by lobe, and MRI ventilation defect percent (VDP) was measured for the entire lung and individual lobes. CT evidence of bronchiectasis and abnormal VDP (14 ± 7%) was observed for all bronchiectasis patients and no healthy volunteers. There was CT evidence of bronchiectasis in all lobes for 3 patients and in 3 ± 1 lobes (range = 1-4) for 12 patients. VDP in lobes with CT evidence of bronchiectasis (19 ± 12%) was significantly higher than in lobes without CT evidence of bronchiectasis (8 ± 5%, P = .001). For patients, VDP in lung lobes with (P < .0001) and without CT evidence of bronchiectasis (P = .006) was higher than in healthy volunteers (3 ± 1%). For all patients, mean PEQ-ease-bringing-up-sputum (P = .048) and PEQ-patient-global-assessment (P = .01) were significantly improved post-oscillatory positive expiratory

  6. Detection of premature ventricular contractions on a ventricular electrocardiogram for patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Min; Lee, Jin Hong; Choi, Seong Wook

    2014-12-01

    The ventricular electrocardiogram (v-ECG) was developed for long-term monitoring of heartbeats in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and does not normally have the functionality necessary to detect additional heart irregularities that can progress to critical arrhythmias. Although the v-ECG has the benefits of physiological optimization and counterpulsation control, when abnormal heartbeats occur, the v-ECG does not show the distinct abnormal waveform that enables easy detection of an abnormal heartbeat among normal heartbeats on the conventional ECG. In this study, the v-ECGs of normal and abnormal heartbeats are compared with each other with respect to peak-to-peak voltage, area, and maximal slopes, and a new method to detect abnormal heartbeats is suggested. In a series of animal experiments with three porcine models (Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-40 kg), a v-ECG and conventional ECG were taken simultaneously during LVAD perfusion. Clinical experts found 104 abnormal heartbeats from the saved conventional ECG data and confirmed that the other 3159 heartbeats were normal. Almost all of the abnormal heartbeats were premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and there was short-term tachycardia for 3 s. A personal computer was used to automatically detect abnormal heartbeats with the v-ECG according to the new method, and its results were compared with the clinicians' results. The new method found abnormal heartbeats with 90% accuracy, and less than 15% of the total PVCs were missed. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Abnormal regional homogeneity as a potential imaging biomarker for adolescent-onset schizophrenia: A resting-state fMRI study and support vector machine analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Luxian; Wu, Renrong; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-02-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities have been reported in the brain of patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS). The brain regional functional synchronization in patients with AOS remains unclear. We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans in 48 drug-naive patients with AOS and 31 healthy controls by using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement that reflects brain local functional connectivity or synchronization and indicates regional integration of information processing. Then, receiver operating characteristic curves and support vector machines were used to evaluate the effect of abnormal regional homogeneity in differentiating patients from controls. Patients with AOS showed significantly increased ReHo values in the bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and significantly decreased ReHo values in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), right precentral lobule, right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left paracentral lobule when compared with controls. A combination of the ReHo values in bilateral superior MPFC, left STG, and right IPL was able to discriminate patients from controls with the sensitivity of 88.24%, specificity of 91.89%, and accuracy of 90.14%. The brain regional functional synchronization abnormalities exist in drug-naive patients with AOS. A combination of ReHo values in these abnormal regions might serve as potential imaging biomarker to identify patients with AOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of combined versus selective adrenergic blockade on left ventricular and systemic hemodynamics, myocardial substrate preference, and regional perfusion in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros A; Poornima, Indu; Parikh, Pratik; Magovern, Megan; Shen, You-Tang; Shannon, Richard P

    2006-05-02

    Given that adverse effects of chronic sympathetic activation are mediated by all three adrenergic receptor subtypes (beta1, beta2, alpha1), we examined the effects of standard doses of carvedilol and metoprolol succinate (metoprolol controlled release/extended release [CR/XL]) on hemodynamics, myocardial metabolism, and regional organ perfusion. Both beta1 selective and combined adrenergic blockade reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure. Whether there are advantages of one class over the other remains controversial, even in the wake of the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET). Similarly, the mechanistic basis for the relative differences is incompletely understood. Thirty-three conscious, chronically instrumented dogs with pacing-induced (240 min(-1) for 4 weeks) dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were randomized to carvedilol (25 mg twice daily, Coreg, Glaxo Smith Kline, Research Triangle, North Carolina) or metoprolol succinate (100 mg qd, Toprol XL, Astra Zeneca, Wilmington, Delaware). Left ventricular and systemic hemodynamics, myocardial substrate uptake, and norepinephrine spillover were measured before and after three days of treatment. Regional (renal, hepatic, skeletal muscle) blood flows were measured using neutron-activated microspheres. Both agents had comparable heart rate effects. However, carvedilol-treated dogs showed significantly greater increases in stroke volume and cardiac output and decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Carvedilol increased renal, hepatic, and skeletal muscle blood flow. Carvedilol increased myocardial glucose uptake and suppressed norepinephrine and glucagon. Carvedilol antagonized the response to exogenous norepinephrine to a greater extent than metoprolol CR/XL. At doses inducing comparable heart rate reductions, short-term treatment with carvedilol had superior hemodynamic and metabolic effects compared with metoprolol CR/XL. These data suggest important

  9. Right ventricular pressure response to exercise in adults with isolated ventricular septal defect closed in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moller, Thomas; Lindberg, Harald; Lund, May Brit; Holmstrom, Henrik; Dohlen, Gaute; Thaulow, Erik

    2018-06-01

    We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score -0.4, 95% CI -2.8-0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.

  10. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Noninvasive assessment of T-wave abnormalities on precordial electrocardiograms in middle-aged professional bicyclists

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Kambara, H.; Chen, C.H.

    Six middle-aged, active, professional bicyclists with T-wave abnormalities on precordial ECGs were studied noninvasively. Twenty-five aged-matched bicyclists without T-wave abnormalities served as the control subjects. Increased voltage of SV1 + RV5 was demonstrated in all subjects. A 5-year follow-up study revealed that these abnormalities of T-wave inversion became more pronounced with age, except in one case. VCGs showed enlargement of anterior QRS loop and discordant T loop, in all cases. On echocardiography, thickness of both the interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall, and left ventricular mass were significantly increased compared with the control group. 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy atmore » rest and during exercise revealed no regional perfusion defects of the tracer in either case. We conclude that: (1) T-wave abnormalities of precordial ECGs in six middle-aged athletes were progressive in nature; and (2) these electrocardiographic abnormalities seem to be related to left ventricular hypertrophy induced by steady and strenuous training rather than to coronary artery disease.« less

  12. Patterns of cervical cytological abnormalities according to the Human Development Index in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho-França, José De Ribamar; Chein, Maria Bethânia Da Costa; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2016-08-12

    Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality rates between regions arise due to differences in socioeconomic conditions and in human development factors. The major purpose of this study was to measure the role of the Human Development Index (HDI) in the pattern of cervical cytological abnormalities (CCAs). This was an analytical sectional study involving a review of secondary cervical cytology data collected from women living in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, in 2007-2012 and collected from the Cervical Cancer Information System (Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero - SISCOLO). The cervical screening results were classified according to the Brazilian Classification of Cervical Reporting (Nomenclatura Brasileira para Laudos Cervicais), an adaptation of the Bethesda System. The Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) was used, which is an adaptation of the global HDI. The association between CCAs and MHDI was evaluated using the chi-squared test and odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The significance level used for all tests was 5 %. We analysed 1,363,689 examinations of women living in the state of Maranhão. CCAs were identified in 2.0 % of smears in municipalities with high MHDI, 2.2 % in those with medium or low MHDI and 4.1 % in those with very low MHDI. In addition, potentially malignant changes and suspected cervical cancer (HSIL+) were 40.0 % more frequent (0.3 %) in municipalities with medium or low MHDI and 3.6 times more frequent (0.8 %) in municipalities with very low MHDI compared to those with high MHDI (0.2 %). The association between MHDI and the occurrence of CCAs and HSIL+ shows that more developed areas with more effective health services have a lower prevalence of these lesions. To control cervical cancer, it is necessary to reduce social inequality and improve the availability of health services.

  13. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    PubMed

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT < 45%. Dysfunctional segments were further analyzed by viability (transmural extent of infarction (TEI) ≤50%.). All outcomes were stratified for randomization treatment. In the dysfunctional segments in the CTO territory recovery of SWT was better after CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI < 50%) (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 22%, p = 0.02). Furthermore in the CTO territory, recovery of SWT was significantly better in the dysfunctional segments in patients with Rentrop grade 2-3 collaterals compared to grade 0-1 collaterals to the CTO (16 ± 26% versus 11 ± 24%, p = 0.04). CTO PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  14. Genome-wide association identifies a deletion in the 3’ untranslated region of Striatin in a canine model of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a familial cardiac disease characterized by rapid ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. It is most frequently inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete and age-related penetrance and variable clinical expression. Th...

  15. Arrhythmogenic substrate at the interventricular septum as a target site for radiofrequency catheter ablation of recurrent ventricular tachycardia in left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Havranek, Stepan; Palecek, Tomas; Kovarnik, Tomas; Vitkova, Ivana; Psenicka, Miroslav; Linhart, Ales; Wichterle, Dan

    2015-03-10

    Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (LDAC) is a rare condition characterised by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium of the left ventricle (LV) in combination with ventricular arrhythmias of LV origin. A thirty-five-year-old male was referred for evaluation of recurrent sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) of 200 bpm and right bundle branch block (RBBB) morphology. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed late gadolinium enhancement distributed circumferentially in the epicardial layer of the LV free wall myocardium including the rightward portion of the interventricular septum (IVS). The clinical RBBB VT was reproduced during the EP study. Ablation at an LV septum site with absence of abnormal electrograms and a suboptimum pacemap rendered the VT of clinical morphology noninducible. Three other VTs, all of left bundle branch block (LBBB) pattern, were induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The regions corresponding to abnormal electrograms were identified and ablated at the mid-to-apical RV septum and the anteroseptal portion of the right ventricular outflow tract. No abnormalities were found at the RV free wall including the inferolateral peritricuspid annulus region. Histological examination confirmed the presence of abnormal fibrous and adipose tissue with myocyte reduction in endomyocardial samples taken from both the left and right aspects of the IVS. LDAC rarely manifests with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this case, several VTs of both RBBB and LBBB morphology were amenable to endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  16. Different regions of latest electrical activation during left bundle-branch block and right ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients determined by coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Mafi Rad, Masih; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Current targeted left ventricular (LV) lead placement strategy is directed at the latest activated region during intrinsic activation. However, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is most commonly applied by simultaneous LV and right ventricular (RV) pacing without contribution from intrinsic conduction. Therefore, targeting the LV lead to the latest activated region during RV pacing might be more appropriate. We investigated the difference in LV electrical activation sequence between left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and RV apex (RVA) pacing using coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping (EAM). Twenty consecutive CRT candidates with LBBB underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM during intrinsic activation and RVA pacing using EnSite NavX. Left ventricular lead placement was aimed at the latest activated region during LBBB according to current recommendations. In all patients, LBBB was associated with a circumferential LV activation pattern, whereas RVA pacing resulted in activation from the apex of the heart to the base. In 10 of 20 patients, RVA pacing shifted the latest activated region relative to LBBB. In 18 of 20 patients, the LV lead was successfully positioned in the latest activated region during LBBB. For the whole study population, LV lead electrical delay, expressed as percentage of QRS duration, was significantly shorter during RVA pacing than during LBBB (72 ± 13 vs. 82 ± 5%, P = 0.035). Right ventricular apex pacing alters LV electrical activation pattern in CRT patients with LBBB, and shifts the latest activated region in a significant proportion of these patients. These findings warrant reconsideration of the current practice of LV lead targeting for CRT. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormality in face scanning by children with autism spectrum disorder is limited to the eye region: Evidence from multi-method analyses of eye tracking data

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Fan, Yuebo; Quinn, Paul C.; Feng, Cong; Huang, Dan; Li, Jiao; Mao, Guoquan; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy regarding whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TD) show different eye movement patterns when processing faces. We investigated ASD and age- and IQ-matched TD children's scanning of faces using a novel multi-method approach. We found that ASD children spent less time looking at the whole face generally. After controlling for this difference, ASD children's fixations of the other face parts, except for the eye region, and their scanning paths between face parts were comparable either to the age-matched or IQ-matched TD groups. In contrast, in the eye region, ASD children's scanning differed significantly from that of both TD groups: (a) ASD children fixated significantly less on the right eye (from the observer's view); (b) ASD children's fixations were more biased towards the left eye region; and (c) ASD children fixated below the left eye, whereas TD children fixated on the pupil region of the eye. Thus, ASD children do not have a general abnormality in face scanning. Rather, their abnormality is limited to the eye region, likely due to their strong tendency to avoid eye contact. PMID:23929830

  19. Molecular analysis of abnormal hemoglobins in beta chain in Aegean region of Turkey and first reports of hemoglobin Andrew-Minneapolis and Hb Hinsdale from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aykut, Ayça; Onay, Hüseyin; Durmaz, Asude; Karaca, Emin; Vergin, Canan; Aydınok, Yeşim; Özkınay, Ferda

    2015-07-01

    The Agean is one of the regions in Turkey where thalassemias and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) are prevalent. Combined heterozygosity of thalassemia mutations with a variety of structural Hb variants lead to an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes which is of importance for prenatal diagnosis. One hundred and seventeen patients and carriers diagnosed by hemoglobin electrophoresis (HPLC), at risk for abnormal hemoglobinopathies were screened for mutational analysis of the beta-globin gene. The full coding the 5' UTR, and the 3' UTR sequences of beta-globin gene (GenBank accession no. U01317) were amplified and sequenced. In this study, a total of 118 (12.24%) structural Hb variant alleles were identified in 1341 mutated beta-chain alleles in Medical Genetics Department of Ege University between January 2006 and November 2013. Here, we report the mutation spectrum of abnormal Hbs associated with the beta-globin gene in Aegean region of Turkey. In the present study, the Hb Hinsdale and Hb Andrew-Minneapolis variants are demonstrated for the first time in the Turkish population.

  20. Automated Description of Regional Left Ventricular Motion in Patients With Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Quantitative Study Using Heart Deformation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Leng; Lin, Kai; Collins, Jeremy; Markl, Michael; Carr, James C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis can automatically quantify regional myocardial motion patterns in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. Eleven patients with cardiac amyloidosis and 11 healthy control subjects were recruited to undergo cardiac MRI. Cine images were analyzed using heart deformation analysis and feature tracking. Heart deformation analysis-derived myocardial motion indexes in radial and circumferential directions, including radial and circumferential displacement, radial and circumferential velocity, radial and circumferential strain, and radial and circumferential strain rate, were compared between the two groups. The heart deformation analysis tool required a shorter mean (± SD) processing time than did the feature-tracking tool (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 5.1 ± 1.2 minutes). Patients with cardiac amyloidosis had lower peak radial displacement (4.32 ± 1.37 vs 5.62 ± 1.19 mm), radial velocity (25.50 ± 7.70 vs 33.41 ± 5.43 mm/s), radial strain (23.32% ± 10.24% vs 31.21% ± 8.71%), circumferential strain (-13.44% ± 4.21% vs -17.84% ± 2.84%), radial strain rate (1.14 ± 0.46 vs 1.58 ± 0.41 s -1 ), and circumferential strain rate (-0.78 ± 0.22 vs -1.08 ± 0.20 s -1 ) than did healthy control subjects. Heart deformation analysis-derived indexes correlated with feature tracking-derived indexes (r = 0.411 and 0.552). Heart deformation analysis is able to automatically quantify regional myocardial motion in patients with cardiac amyloidosis without the need for operator interaction.

  1. Abnormal neural activity of brain regions in treatment-resistant and treatment-sensitive major depressive disorder: a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-bin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jin-dong; Gao, Keming; Xue, Zhi-min; Xu, Xi-jia; Wu, Ren-rong; Tan, Chang-lian; Sun, Xue-li; Liu, Zhe-ning; Chen, Hua-fu; Zhao, Jing-ping

    2012-10-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and those with treatment-sensitive depression (TSD) responded to antidepressants differently. Previous studies have commonly shown that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. In the present study, we used a coherence-based ReHo (Cohe-ReHo) approach to test the hypothesis that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. Twenty-three patients with TRD, 22 with TSD, and 19 healthy subjects (HS) matched with gender, age, and education level participated in the study. ANOVA analysis revealed widespread differences in Cohe-ReHo values among the three groups in different brain regions which included bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum, left inferior temporal gyrus, left occipital cortex, and both sides of fusiform gyrus. Compared to HS, lower Cohe-ReHo values were observed in TRD group in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left cerebellum; in contrast, in TSD group, lower Cohe-ReHo values were mainly found in bilateral superior frontal gyrus. Compared to TSD group, TRD group had lower Cohe-ReHo in bilateral cerebellum and higher Cohe-ReHo in left fusiform gyrus. There was a negative correlation between Cohe-ReHo values of the left fusiform gyrus and illness duration in the pooled patients (r = 0.480, p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of cerebellar Cohe-ReHo values differentiating TRD from TSD were 83% and 86%, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, both TRD and TSD patients shared the majority of brain regions with abnormal neural activity. However, the lower Cohe-ReHo values in the cerebellum might be as a marker to differentiate TRD from TSD with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential Notch activation regulates ventricular chamber development

    PubMed Central

    D'Amato, Gaetano; Luxán, Guillermo; del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo; Martínez-Poveda, Beatriz; Torroja, Carlos; Walter, Wencke; Bochter, Matthew S.; Benedito, Rui; Cole, Susan; Martinez, Fernando; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; de la Pompa, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular chambers are essential for the rhythmic contraction and relaxation occurring in every heartbeat throughout life. Congenital abnormalities in ventricular chamber formation cause severe human heart defects. How the early trabecular meshwork of myocardial fibres forms and subsequently develops into mature chambers is poorly understood. We show that Notch signalling first connects chamber endocardium and myocardium to sustain trabeculation, and later coordinates ventricular patterning and compaction with coronary vessel development to generate the mature chamber, through a temporal sequence of ligand signalling determined by the glycosyltransferase manic fringe (MFng). Early endocardial expression of MFng promotes Dll4–Notch1 signalling, which induces trabeculation in the developing ventricle. Ventricular maturation and compaction require MFng and Dll4 downregulation in the endocardium, which allows myocardial Jag1 and Jag2 signalling to Notch1 in this tissue. Perturbation of this signalling equilibrium severely disrupts heart chamber formation. Our results open a new research avenue into the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. PMID:26641715

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.

  5. Abnormal neural activity as a potential biomarker for drug-naive first-episode adolescent-onset schizophrenia with coherence regional homogeneity and support vector machine analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Luxian; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-02-01

    Patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) hold the same but severe form of symptoms with adult-onset schizophrenia, and with worse outcome and poor treatment response to antipsychotics. Several dominant brain regions of schizophrenia patients show significantly abnormal structural and functional connectivity during resting-state scans. However, coherence regional homogeneity (Cohe-ReHo) in drug-naive first-episode patients with AOS remains unclear. A total of 48 drug-naive first-episode AOS outpatients and 31 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans. Cohe-ReHo and support vector machine analyses were used to analyze the data. Compared with the healthy controls, the AOS group showed significantly decreased Cohe-ReHo values distributed over brain regions, including the left postcentral gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left paracentral lobule, right precentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral precuneus. No region with increased Cohe-ReHo values was observed in the AOS group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the right IPL was correlated with fluency (r=-0.324, p=0.030). However, the correlation was not significant after the Bonferroni correction at p<0.0083 (0.05/6). A combination of the Cohe-ReHo values in the bilateral precuneus and right IPL discriminated the patients from controls with the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.67%, 87.10%, and 89.87%, respectively. Our findings suggested that the AOS patients exhibited diminished Cohe-ReHo values in some regions within the DMN network and sensorimotor network. The abnormalities in particular brain regions (bilateral precuneus and right IPL) may serve as potential biomarkers for AOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HPV genotypes and associated cervical cytological abnormalities in women from the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the specific HPV genotype distribution in screen-detected lesions. HPV Genotype is helpful for separating HPV-positive women at greater risk of cancer from those who can regress spontaneously and for preventing cervical cancer at early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the high-risk HPV genotype distribution among cervical cytology abnormality in Pearl River Delta Region, Southern China Methods 5585 HPV-infected women were screened from 77069 women in Pearl River Delta Region. Information was obtained from 3226 screened subjects through questionnaires and personal interviews. Exfoliated cervical cells were collected by doctors for HPV test with MassARRAY (Sequenom, Sandiego, CA) technique based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The ThinPrep cytology test was performed to screen for cervical cancer. Unconditional logistic was used to determine the most common HPV carcinogenic types. Results Of the 3226 HPV-positive samples tested, 1744 (54.1%) with normal cervical cytology, 1482 (45.9%) with abnormal cytology. The five most common HPV types in this study were HPV16 (20.2%), HPV52 (17.1%), HPV58 (13.2%), HPV18 (9.5%), HPV6 (7.6%). Overall, HPV16 (OR = 10.5, 95% CI: 3.7 ~ 29.6), HPV33 (OR = 9.1, 95% CI: 2.8 ~ 29.2), HPV58 (OR = 6.3, 95% CI: 2.1 ~ 18.6), HPV31 (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3 ~ 15.5), multiple genotype infection (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7 ~ 14.7), especially HPV16 and HPV33, increased the risk of cytology abnormalities. Conclusions HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV58, and multiple HPV genotype infection increased the risk of cytology abnormalities in Pearl River Delta Region and might be useful for the screening, preventing, treating, and monitoring of pre-cancer lesions in southern China. PMID:25016305

  7. Electrical and Structural Substrate of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Determined Using Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging and Late Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christopher M; Srinivasan, Neil T; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Orini, Michele; Jenkins, Sharon; Pantazis, Antonis; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Lambiase, Pier D; Rudy, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a significant cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Improved noninvasive assessment of ARVC and better understanding of the disease substrate are important for improving patient outcomes. We studied 20 genotyped ARVC patients with a broad spectrum of disease using electrocardiographic imaging (a method for noninvasive cardiac electrophysiology mapping) and advanced late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance scar imaging. Compared with 20 healthy controls, ARVC patients had longer ventricular activation duration (median, 52 versus 42 ms; P =0.007) and prolonged mean epicardial activation-recovery intervals (a surrogate for local action potential duration; median, 275 versus 241 ms; P =0.014). In these patients, we observed abnormal and varied epicardial activation breakthrough locations and regions of nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms. Nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms were present in the early concealed phase of ARVC. Electrophysiological abnormalities colocalized with late gadolinium enhancement scar, indicating a relationship with structural disease. Premature ventricular contractions were common in ARVC patients with variable initiation sites in both ventricles. Premature ventricular contraction rate increased with exercise, and within anatomic segments, it correlated with prolonged repolarization, electric markers of scar, and late gadolinium enhancement (all P <0.001). Electrocardiographic imaging reveals electrophysiological substrate properties that differ in ARVC patients compared with healthy controls. A novel mechanistic finding is the presence of repolarization abnormalities in regions where ventricular ectopy originates. The results suggest a potential role for electrocardiographic imaging and late gadolinium enhancement in early diagnosis and noninvasive follow-up of ARVC patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Intervendor Differences in the Accuracy of Detecting Regional Functional Abnormalities: A Report From the EACVI-ASE Strain Standardization Task Force.

    PubMed

    Mirea, Oana; Pagourelias, Efstathios D; Duchenne, Jurgen; Bogaert, Jan; Thomas, James D; Badano, Luigi P; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of vendor-specific and independent strain analysis tools to detect regional myocardial function abnormality in a clinical setting. Speckle tracking echocardiography has been considered a promising tool for the quantitative assessment of regional myocardial function. However, the potential differences among speckle tracking software with regard to their accuracy in identifying regional abnormality has not been studied extensively. Sixty-three subjects (5 healthy volunteers and 58 patients) were examined with 7 different ultrasound machines during 5 days. All patients had experienced a previous myocardial infarction, which was characterized by cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement. Segmental peak systolic (PS), end-systolic (ES) and post-systolic strain (PSS) measurements were obtained with 6 vendor-specific software tools and 2 independent strain analysis tools. Strain parameters were compared between fully scarred and scar-free segments. Receiver-operating characteristic curves testing the ability of strain parameters and derived indexes to discriminate between these segments were compared among vendors. The average strain values calculated for normal segments ranged from -15.1% to -20.7% for PS, -14.9% to -20.6% for ES, and -16.1% to -21.4% for PSS. Significantly lower values of strain (p < 0.05) were found in segments with transmural scar by all vendors, with values ranging from -7.4% to -11.1% for PS, -7.7% to -10.8% for ES, and -10.5% to -14.3% for PSS. Accuracy in identifying transmural scar ranged from acceptable to excellent (area under the curve 0.74 to 0.83 for PS and ES and 0.70 to 0.78 for PSS). Significant differences were found among vendors (p < 0.05). All vendors had a significantly lower accuracy to detect scars in the basal segments compared with scars in the apex (p < 0.05). The accuracy of identifying regional abnormality differs significantly among

  9. [Evaluation of left ventricular perfusion and regional wall motion in myocardial infarction: using 201Tl myocardial SPECT and 99mTc-HSAD multigated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Nanjyo, S

    1994-09-01

    In order to evaluate left ventricular regional wall motion and regional myocardial perfusion, 99mTc-HSAD multigated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (cardiac pool SPECT) and 201Tl myocardial SPECT (Tl) were performed on 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 6 patients had treated with only thrombolysis in group I and 6 patients had treated with thrombolysis and selective PTCA in group II, 17 patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) in group III and 5 normal volunteers (controls). The relationship between left ventricular regional wall motion and regional myocardial perfusion was estimated. The relationship between % length shortening (%LS) by cardiac pool SPECT and %Tl uptake (%TU) was good (r = 0.820) in group III. The value for %TU in the segments of akinesia was low (35%) and in the those of severe hypokinesia was higher (48%). In all phases, two groups showed significant relationships between %LS and %TU in group I and II. The %TU was unchanged in the akinetic segment, the %LS changed 30% in group I and the %LS changed to 49% in group II. If the %TU is more than 50% (AMI) or 40% (OMI), we would observe viable muscle. The combination of Tl and cardiac pool SPECT are useful for evaluating myocardial viability in the patients with AMI.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  11. Heart monitoring using left ventricle impedance and ventricular electrocardiography in left ventricular assist device patients.

    PubMed

    Her, Keun; Ahn, Chi Bum; Park, Sung Min; Choi, Seong Wook

    2015-03-21

    Patients who develop critical arrhythmia during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) perfusion have a low survival rate. For diagnosis of unexpected heart abnormalities, new heart-monitoring methods are required for patients supported by LVAD perfusion. Ventricular electrocardiography using electrodes implanted in the ventricle to detect heart contractions is unsuitable if the heart is abnormal. Left ventricular impedance (LVI) is useful for monitoring heart movement but does not show abnormal action potential in the heart muscle. To detect detailed abnormal heart conditions, we obtained ventricular electrocardiograms (v-ECGs) and LVI simultaneously in porcine models connected to LVADs. In the porcine models, electrodes were set on the heart apex and ascending aorta for real-time measurements of v-ECGs and LVI. As the carrier current frequency of the LVI was adjusted to 30 kHz, it was easily derived from the original v-ECG signal by using a high-pass filter (cutoff: 10 kHz). In addition, v-ECGs with a frequency band of 0.1 - 120 Hz were easily derived using a low-pass filter. Simultaneous v-ECG and LVI data were compared to detect heart volume changes during the Q-T period when the heart contracted. A new real-time algorithm for comparison of v-ECGs and LVI determined whether the porcine heartbeats were normal or abnormal. Several abnormal heartbeats were detected using the LVADs operating in asynchronous mode, most of which were premature ventricle contractions (PVCs). To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the results obtained were compared to normal ECG data and cardiac output measured simultaneously using commercial devices. The new method provided more accurate detection of abnormal heart movements. This method can be used for various heart diseases, even those in which the cardiac output is heavily affected by LVAD operation.

  12. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in monozygotic twin sisters, and persistent left superior vena cava in one complicating implantation of ICD.

    PubMed

    Astarcıoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Yaymacı, Mehmet; Şen, Taner; Kilit, Celal; Amasyalı, Basri

    2015-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized histologically by fibro-fatty replacement of heart muscle, and clinically by ventricular arrhythmias and right ventricular dysfunction. This report presents monozygotic twins with ARVC, suggesting a genetic abnormality as the most probable cause.

  13. Brain regions with abnormal network properties in severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut phenotype: Multivariate analysis of task-free fMRI.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Archer, John S; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-11-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and the similar but less tightly defined Lennox-Gastaut phenotype, describe patients with severe epilepsy, generalized epileptic discharges, and variable intellectual disability. Our previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormal diffuse association network activity underlies the epileptic discharges of this clinical phenotype. Herein we use a data-driven multivariate approach to determine the spatial changes in local and global networks of patients with severe epilepsy of the Lennox-Gastaut phenotype. We studied 9 adult patients and 14 controls. In 20 min of task-free blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data, two metrics of functional connectivity were studied: Regional homogeneity or local connectivity, a measure of concordance between each voxel to a focal cluster of adjacent voxels; and eigenvector centrality, a global connectivity estimate designed to detect important neural hubs. Multivariate pattern analysis of these data in a machine-learning framework was used to identify spatial features that classified disease subjects. Multivariate pattern analysis was 95.7% accurate in classifying subjects for both local and global connectivity measures (22/23 subjects correctly classified). Maximal discriminating features were the following: increased local connectivity in frontoinsular and intraparietal areas; increased global connectivity in posterior association areas; decreased local connectivity in sensory (visual and auditory) and medial frontal cortices; and decreased global connectivity in the cingulate cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and pons. Using a data-driven analysis method in task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show increased connectivity in critical areas of association cortex and decreased connectivity in primary cortex. This supports previous findings of a critical role for these association cortical regions as a final common pathway in generating the Lennox

  14. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  15. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  16. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin: Influence of post-stress acquisition time, regional radiotracer uptake, and wall motion abnormalities on the clinical result.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Casagranda, Mirta; Tagliavia, Irene D'Aragona; Marzullo, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that early (15', T1) post-stress myocardial imaging with Tetrofosmin could be more accurate than standard acquisitions (45', T2) in identifying coronary artery disease. To clarify this phenomenon, 120 subjects (age 61 +/- 10 years) with both T1 and T2 scans were divided into Group 1 (53/120 pts) with more ischemia at T1 vs T2 imaging (T1-T2SDS > or = 3); Group 2 (67/120 pts) with similar results (T1-T2SDS < or = 2). Myocardial areas were categorized as control nonischemic, ischemic, and scarred on the basis of perfusion/contraction properties and coronary anatomy. In each area, regional myocardial count statistic and semiquantitative wall motion/thickening values were obtained. Analysis of T1 and T2 post-stress myocardial counts demonstrated a significant Tetrofosmin wash-out rate that was higher in Group 1 control nonischemic regions (15 +/- 8% vs 13.6 +/- 9.6%, P < .02), significantly lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (7 +/- 10% vs 12.2 +/- 9.5%, P < .0001), and comparable between scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). Delta post-stress wall thickening (T1-T2) was lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (-4.5 +/- 9.15% vs -1.90 +/- 7.0%, P < .001) and comparable in both control nonischemic and scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). The clinical result of Tetrofosmin gated-SPECT can be influenced by the post-stress acquisition time because of ischemic-induced regional wall thickening abnormalities and the existence of a differential radiotracer myocardial wash-out.

  17. Correlations between ventricular enlargement and gray and white matter volumes of cortex, thalamus, striatum, and internal capsule in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horga, Guillermo; Bernacer, Javier; Dusi, Nicola; Entis, Jonathan; Chu, Kingwai; Hazlett, Erin A; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Kemether, Eileen; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2011-10-01

    Ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent abnormal structural brain findings in schizophrenia and has been used to infer brain shrinkage. However, whether ventricular enlargement is related to local overlying cortex and/or adjacent subcortical structures or whether it is related to brain volume change globally has not been assessed. We systematically assessed interrelations of ventricular volumes with gray and white matter volumes of 40 Brodmann areas (BAs), the thalamus and its medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar, the internal capsule, caudate and putamen. We acquired structural MRI ( patients with schizophrenia (n = 64) and healthy controls (n = 56)) and diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) (untreated schizophrenia n = 19, controls n = 32). Volumes were assessed by manual tracing of central structures and a semi-automated parcellation of BAs. Patients with schizophrenia had increased ventricular size associated with decreased cortical gray matter volumes widely across the brain; a similar but less pronounced pattern was seen in normal controls; local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with temporal lobe volume) were not appreciably higher than non-local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with prefrontal volume). White matter regions adjacent to the ventricles similarly did not reveal strong regional relationships. FA and center of mass of the anterior limb of the internal capsule also appeared differentially influenced by ventricular volume but findings were similarly not regional. Taken together, these findings indicate that ventricular enlargement is globally interrelated with gray matter volume diminution but not directly correlated with volume loss in the immediately adjacent caudate, putamen, or internal capsule.

  18. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  19. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  1. Left ventricular morphology and diastolic function in uraemia: echocardiographic evidence of a specific cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, L.; Vescovo, G.; Levedianos, G.; Zannini, L.; Nordio, M.; Lorenzi, S.; Caturelli, G.; Ambrosio, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities in uraemic patients are determined by high blood pressure or if they are an expression of a specific cardiomyopathy. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--City general hospital in Italy. SUBJECTS--35 uraemic patients receiving haemodialysis (17 men, 18 women; mean age 60.3 (11.2); mean duration of dialysis 52 months) were selected from the 64 patients in Venice who were receiving dialysis; subjects with diabetes, haemochromatosis, valvar dysfunction, regional dyskinesias, and pericarditis were excluded. 19 control normotensive subjects (6 men and 13 women), matched for age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Echocardiographic measurements of left atrium, left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volume, aortic root diameter, posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, left ventricle mass index, and ejection fraction in controls and in patients according to whether they were normotensive (five men, eight women) or hypertensive (12 men, 10 women) on 48 hour ambulatory monitoring; left ventricular diastolic function by Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS--Mean systolic and diastolic pressures, daytime systolic and diastolic pressures, and night time systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in the normotensive patients. The normotensive patients had similar blood pressures to the controls. Left ventricular mass correlated significantly with the mean diastolic pressure and mean night time systolic and diastolic pressures. Parathyroid hormone concentrations were similar in the two groups of patients. Diastolic relaxation was impaired to the same degree in the two groups of patients. Parameters of diastolic function showed no relation to left ventricular mass, which was significantly higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive patients. CONCLUSIONS--Uraemia is likely to induce specific changes in the relaxation properties of the

  2. Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Li, Qiao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Ren, Xin; Huang, Kai-Sen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Chi; Huang, De-Jia; Chen, Mao

    2015-03-01

    Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction. Consecutive patients diagnosed with angina pectoris whose ejection fraction was normal were recruited from 2008 to 2012. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was determined when the ratio of actual left ventricular mass to the predicted one exceeded 150%. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Clinical outcomes between the inappropriate and appropriate left ventricular mass group were compared before and after propensity matching. Of the total of 1515 participants, 18.3% had inappropriate left ventricular mass. Patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass had a higher composite event rate compared with those with appropriate left ventricular mass (11.2 vs. 6.6%, P=0.010). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that inappropriate left ventricular mass was an independent risk factor for adverse events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.45; P=0.035). The worse outcome in patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass was further validated in a propensity matching cohort and patients with the traditional definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

  3. Thallium myocardial perfusion scans for the assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with cystic fibrosis. A comparison with other noninvasive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Newth, C.J.; Corey, M.L.; Fowler, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy in 32 patients with cystic fibrosis was studied using thallium 201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion scans, and compared with other noninvasive techniques including electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, and M-mode echocardiography. The patients (mean age, 17.3 yr; range, 7 to 33) had a wide range of clinical and pulmonary abnormalities (mean Shwachman-Kulczycki score, 66.6). In the total study group, TI-201 scans, like the vectorcardiograms and the M-mode echocardiograms, gave a surprisingly high proportion of positive predictions for right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) (44%). The correlations with all other noninvasive methods were uniformly poor, so caution must be exercised inmore » using this technique to predict early RVH in order to follow the natural history of cor pulmonale in cystic fibrosis. At the time of the study, 6 patients had clinical evidence of right ventricular failure, and in this disease setting must have had RVH. In 3 patients, RVH was confirmed at autopsy, and it was successfully predicted by TI-201 scans in 5 of the 6 patients. The false negative scan may have been due to regional myocardial ischemia secondary to severe right ventricular failure. In contrast, the vectorcardiogram, using Fowler's new criteria, made a successful prediction of RVH in all 6 patients, and the electro cardiogram in only 3. Although the M-mode echocardiogram was abnormal in all patients, it would have predicted RVH (with increased right ventricular anterior wall thickness) in only 1 patient. We concluded that TI-201 myocardial perfusion cans are good at confirming RVH in cases with established right ventricular failure, but have no advantage over vectorcardiographic assessments, which are logistically easier to perform and carry no radiation risks.« less

  4. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  5. A semi-automated region of interest detection method in the scintigraphic glomerular filtration rate determination for patients with abnormal low renal function.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cancan; Zheng, Xiujuan; Han, Yuan; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Kewei; Huang, Qiu

    2013-11-01

    This work presents a novel semi-automated renal region-of-interest (ROI) determination method that is user friendly, time saving, and yet provides a robust glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation highly consistent with the reference method. We reviewed data from 57 patients who underwent (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy and were diagnosed with abnormal renal function. The renal and background ROIs were delineated by the proposed multi-step, semi-automated method, which integrates temporal/morphologic information via visual inspection and computer-aided calculations. The total GFR was estimated using the proposed method (sGFR) performed by 2 junior clinicians (A and B) with 1 and 3 years of experience, respectively (sGFR_a, sGFR_b), and compared with the reference total GFR (rGFR) estimated by a senior clinician with 20 years of experience who manually delineated the kidney and background ROIs. All GFR calculations herein were conducted using the Gates method. Data from 10 patients with unilateral or non-functioning kidneys were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining patients, sGFR correlated well with rGFR (r(s/rGFR_a) = 0.957, P < 0.001 and r(s/rGFR_b) = 0.951, P < 0.001) and sGFR_a correlated well with sGFR_b (r(a/b) = 0.997, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Bland-Altman plots for sGFR_a and sGFR_b confirm the high reproducibility of the proposed method between different operators. Finally, the proposed procedure is almost 3 times faster than the routinely used procedure in clinical practice. The results suggest that this method is easy to use, highly reproducible, and accurate in measuring the GFR of patients with low renal function. The method is being further extended to a fully automated procedure.

  6. Intercostal muscle twitching: An unusual manifestation of extracardiac stimulation related to right ventricular outflow tract pacing

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    The present case report describes a patient who underwent successful dual-chamber pacemaker implantation with active ventricular lead fixation at a high septal region in the right ventricular outflow tract. Unexpectedly, stimulation at a high output in the right ventricular outflow tract caused an unusual extracardiac stimulation, specifically, intercostal muscle twitching. PMID:17703261

  7. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  8. Radionuclide evaluation of left-ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Arreaza, N.; Puigbo, J.J.; Acquatella, H. Casal, H.

    1983-07-01

    Left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormalities of regional wall motion (WMA) were studied by means of radionuclide ventriculography in 41 patients prospectively diagnosed as having chronic Chagas' disease. Thirteen patients were asymptomatic (ASY), 16 were arrhythmic (ARR), and 12 had congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean LVEF was normal in ASY but markedly depressed in CHF. Regional WMAs were minimal in ASY and their severity increased in ARR. Most CHFs (75%) had diffuse hypokinesia of the left ventricle. Seven patients had a distinct apical aneurysm. Correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography data was good in 17 patients. Selective coronary arteriography showedmore » normal arteries in all patients. Therefore, chronic Chagas' heart disease joins ischemic heart disease as a cause of regional WMA.« less

  9. [Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function using gated SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Toba, M; Kumita, S I; Mizumura, S; Cho, K; Kijima, T; Takahama, K; Kumazaki, T

    1996-04-01

    Development of 3 head SPECT system and 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enable us to evaluate left ventricular systolic function on the basis of once gated SPECT routine. This study was focused on assessment of left ventricular diastolic function using 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data. Twenty nine patients with ischemic heart diseases underwent 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT and 99mTc-HSAD ventriculographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function within 1 month. Region of interests (ROI), simultaneously calculating counts per pixel within ROI, were placed over whole myocardium of 16 serial phasic images reconstructed from gated SPECT data, following selection of the central slice within short axial images. Then, 29 patients were classified into 3 patterns of phase count curve (normal, mixed, and delayed relaxation = diastolic dysfunction). Moreover, 1/3 Count Decreasing Fraction (1/3 CDF) was calculated on the same concept as 1/3 FF. The curve pattern showed significant differences between normal and abnormal group divided on the basis of established indices such as 1/3 FF and PFR, and 1/3 CDF has correlations with 1/3 FF (r = 0.61) and PFR (r = 0.58). We concluded that the new parameters drawn from 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data might be feasible for evaluation of diastolic function.

  10. Minimally invasive surgical implantation of left ventricular epicardial leads for ventricular resynchronization using video-assisted thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Angel L; García-Bengochea, José B; Ledo, Ramiro; Vega, Marino; Amaro, Antonio; Alvarez, Julián; Rubio, José; Sierra, Juan; Sánchez, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization via left ventricular or biventricular pacing is an option for selected patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and widened QRS complex. Stimulation through a coronary vein is the technique of choice for left ventricular pacing, but this approach results in a failure rate of approximately 8%. We describe our initial experience with minimally invasive surgical implantation of left ventricular epicardial leads using video-assisted thoracoscopy. A total of 14 patients with congestive heart failure, NYHA functional class 3.2 (0.6) and mean ejection fraction 22.9 (6.8)% were included in this study. Left bundle branch block, QRS complex >140 ms and abnormal septal motion were observed in all cases. Epicardial leads were implanted on the left ventricular free wall under general anesthesia using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Lead implantation was successful in 13 patients. Conversion to a small thoracotomy was necessary in one patient. All patients were extubated in the operating room. None of the patients died during their hospital stay. Follow-up showed reversal of ventricular asynchrony and significant improvement in ejection fraction and functional class. Minimally invasive surgery for ventricular resynchronization using video-assisted thoracoscopy in selected patients is a safe procedure that makes it possible to choose the best site for lead implantation and provides adequate short- and medium-term stimulation.

  11. Tbx20 Transcription Factor Is a Downstream Mediator for Bone Morphogenetic Protein-10 in Regulating Cardiac Ventricular Wall Development and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Yong; Yong, Weidong; Zhu, Wuqiang; Liu, Yunlong; Wagner, Gregory R.; Payne, R. Mark; Field, Loren J.; Xin, Hongbo; Cai, Chen-Leng; Shou, Weinian

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) belongs to the TGFβ-superfamily. Previously, we had demonstrated that BMP10 is a key regulator for ventricular chamber formation, growth, and maturation. Ablation of BMP10 leads to hypoplastic ventricular wall formation, and elevated levels of BMP10 are associated with abnormal ventricular trabeculation/compaction and wall maturation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which BMP10 regulates ventricle wall growth and maturation is still largely unknown. In this study, we sought to identify the specific transcriptional network that is potentially mediated by BMP10. We analyzed and compared the gene expression profiles between α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-BMP10 transgenic hearts and nontransgenic littermate controls using Affymetrix mouse exon arrays. T-box 20 (Tbx20), a cardiac transcription factor, was significantly up-regulated in αMHC-BMP10 transgenic hearts, which was validated by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Ablation of BMP10 reduced Tbx20 expression specifically in the BMP10-expressing region of the developing ventricle. In vitro promoter analysis demonstrated that BMP10 was able to induce Tbx20 promoter activity through a conserved Smad binding site in the Tbx20 promoter proximal region. Furthermore, overexpression of Tbx20 in myocardium led to dilated cardiomyopathy that exhibited ventricular hypertrabeculation and an abnormal muscular septum, which phenocopied genetically modified mice with elevated BMP10 levels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the BMP10-Tbx20 signaling cascade is important for ventricular wall development and maturation. PMID:21890625

  12. Characterization of Regional Left Ventricular Function in Nonhuman Primates Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers: A Test-Retest Repeatability and Inter-Subject Variability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Smita; Klimas, Michael; Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Manigbas, Elaine; Liang, Ai-Leng; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Chin, Chih-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF). Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs), that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV) systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC) imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR) ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR) ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain-rate, diastolic E

  13. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Yu Rim; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Do Jung; Kim, Hyohyun; Shin, Hong Ju; Htut, Aung Thein; Park, Han Ki

    2015-12-01

    A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  14. Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Violent Individuals with and without a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Del Bene, Victor A; Foxe, John J; Ross, Lars A; Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Several structural brain abnormalities have been associated with aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about shared and distinct abnormalities underlying aggression in these subjects and non-psychotic violent individuals. We applied a region-of-interest volumetric analysis of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus bilaterally, as well as whole brain and ventricular volumes to investigate violent (n = 37) and non-violent chronic patients (n = 26) with schizophrenia, non-psychotic violent (n = 24) as well as healthy control subjects (n = 24). Shared and distinct volumetric abnormalities were probed by analysis of variance with the factors violence (non-violent versus violent) and diagnosis (non-psychotic versus psychotic), adjusted for substance abuse, age, academic achievement and negative psychotic symptoms. Patients showed elevated vCSF volume, smaller left hippocampus and smaller left thalamus volumes. This was particularly the case for non-violent individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Furthermore, patients had reduction in right thalamus size. With regard to left amygdala, we found an interaction between violence and diagnosis. More specifically, we report a double dissociation with smaller amygdala size linked to violence in non-psychotic individuals, while for psychotic patients smaller size was linked to non-violence. Importantly, the double dissociation appeared to be mostly driven by substance abuse. Overall, we found widespread morphometric abnormalities in subcortical regions in schizophrenia. No evidence for shared volumetric abnormalities in individuals with a history of violence was found. Finally, left amygdala abnormalities in non-psychotic violent individuals were largely accounted for by substance abuse. This might be an indication that the association between amygdala reduction and violence is mediated by substance abuse. Our results indicate the importance of structural abnormalities in aggressive individuals.

  15. Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Combellas, I; Puigbo, J J; Acquatella, H; Tortoledo, F; Gomez, J R

    1985-01-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's disease, simultaneous echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded in 20 asymptomatic patients with positive Chagas's serology and no signs of heart disease (group 1), 12 with Chagas's heart disease and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia but no heart failure (group 2), 20 normal subjects (group 3), and 12 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (group 4). The recordings were digitised to determine left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and the rate and duration of left ventricular cavity dimension increase and wall thinning. In groups 1 and 2 (a) aortic valve closure (A2) and mitral valve opening were significantly delayed relative to minimum dimension and were associated with prolonged isovolumic relaxation, (b) left ventricular cavity size was abnormally increased during isovolumic relaxation and abnormally reduced during isovolumic contraction, and (c) peak rate of posterior wall thinning and dimension increase were significantly reduced and duration of posterior wall thinning was significantly prolonged; both of these abnormalities occurred at the onset of diastolic filling. These abnormalities were more pronounced in group 2 and were accompanied by an increase in the height of the apexcardiogram "a" wave, an indication of pronounced atrial systole secondary to end diastolic filling impairment due to reduced left ventricular distensibility. Group 4, which had an established pattern of diastolic abnormalities, showed changes similar to those in group 2; however, the delay in aortic valve closure (A2) and in mitral valve opening and the degree of dimension change were greater in the latter group. Thus early isovolumic relaxation and left ventricular abnormalities were pronounced in the patients with Chagas's heart disease and may precede systolic compromise, which may become apparent in later stages of the disease. The digitised method is valuable in the early detection of

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  18. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P < .01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.96; P = .02), and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P < .01) were independently associated with 30-day mortality, after adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic crossclamping time. Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was

  19. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using implantable ventricular assist devices in the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. In the period of 1994 to 1997, 38,702 individuals in Ontario had a first hospital admission for heart failure. Despite reported improvement in survival, the five-year mortality rate for heart failure is about 50%. For patients with end-stage heart failure that does not respond to medical therapy, surgical treatment or traditional circulatory assist devices, heart transplantation (in appropriate patients) is the only treatment that provides significant patient benefit. Heart Transplant in Ontario With a shortage in the supply of donor hearts, patients are waiting longer for a heart transplant and may die before a donor heart is available. From 1999 to 2003, 55 to 74 people received a heart transplant in Ontario each year. Another 12 to 21 people died while waiting for a suitable donor heart. Of these, 1 to 5 deaths occurred in people under 18 years old. The rate-limiting factor in heart transplant is the supply of donor hearts. Without an increase in available donor hearts, attempts at prolonging the life of some patients on the transplant wait list could have a harmful effect on other patients that are being pushed down the waiting list (knock on effect). LVAD Technology Ventricular assist devices [VADs] have been developed to provide circulatory assistance to patients with end-stage heart failure. These are small pumps that usually assist the damaged left ventricle [LVADs] and may be situated within the body (intracorporeal] or outside the body [extracorporeal). Some of these devices were designed for use in the right ventricle [RVAD] or both

  20. Ventricular arrhythmias in the absence of structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, Eric N; Padanilam, Benzy J; Joshi, Sandeep; Fogel, Richard I

    2012-05-15

    Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in structurally normal hearts can be broadly considered under non-life-threatening monomorphic and life-threatening polymorphic rhythms. Monomorphic VA is classified on the basis of site of origin in the heart, and the most common areas are the ventricular outflow tracts and left ventricular fascicles. The morphology of the QRS complexes on electrocardiogram is an excellent tool to identify the site of origin of the rhythm. Although these arrhythmias are common and generally carry an excellent prognosis, rare sudden death events have been reported. Very frequent ventricular ectopy may also result in a cardiomyopathy in a minority of patients. Suppression of VA may be achieved using calcium-channel blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, and class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs. Radiofrequency ablation has emerged as an excellent option to eliminate these arrhythmias, although certain foci including aortic cusps and epicardium may be technically challenging. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is rare and generally occurs in patients with genetic ion channel disorders including long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic VT, and short QT syndrome. Unlike monomorphic VT, these arrhythmic syndromes are associated with sudden death. While the cardiac gross morphology is normal, suggesting a structurally normal heart, abnormalities exist at the molecular level and predispose them to arrhythmias. Another fascinating area, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and early repolarization syndrome, are undergoing research for a genetic basis. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intervendor consistency and reproducibility of left ventricular 2D global and regional strain with two different high-end ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Kenji; Yamada, Akira; Ischenko, Matthew; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Hudaverdi, Mahala; Speranza, Vicki; Harten, Mary; Benjamin, Anthony; Hamilton-Craig, Christian R; Platts, David G; Burstow, Darryl J; Scalia, Gregory M; Chan, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess intervendor agreement of global (GLS) and regional longitudinal strain by vendor-specific software after EACVI/ASE Industry Task Force Standardization Initiatives for Deformation Imaging. Fifty-five patients underwent prospective dataset acquisitions on the same day by the same operator using two commercially available cardiac ultrasound systems (GE Vivid E9 and Philips iE33). GLS and regional peak longitudinal strain were analyzed offline using corresponding vendor-specific software (EchoPAC BT13 and QLAB version 10.3). Absolute mean GLS measurements were similar between the two vendors (GE -17.5 ± 5.2% vs. Philips -18.9 ± 5.1%, P = 0.15). There was excellent intervendor correlation of GLS by the same observer [r = 0.94, P < 0.0001; bias -1.3%, 95% CI limits of agreement (LOA) -4.8 to 2.2%). Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by coronary artery territories distribution were: LAD: r = 0.85, P < 0.0001; bias 0.5%, LOA -5.3 to 6.4%; RCA: r = 0.88, P < 0.0001; bias -2.4%, LOA -8.6 to 3.7%; LCX: r = 0.76, P < 0.0001; bias -5.3%, LOA -10.6 to 2.0%. Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by LV levels were: basal: r = 0.86, P < 0.0001; bias -3.6%, LOA -9.9 to 2.0%; mid: r = 0.90, P < 0.0001; bias -2.6%, LOA -7.8 to 2.6%; apical: r = 0.74; P < 0.0001; bias -1.3%, LOA -9.4 to 6.8%. Intervendor agreement in GLS and regional strain measurements have significantly improved after the EACVI/ASE Task Force Strain Standardization Initiatives. However, significant wide LOA still exist, especially for regional strain measurements, which remains relevant when considering vendor-specific software for serial measurements. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. LV mechanical dispersion as a predictor of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with advanced systolic heart failure : A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Banasik, G; Segiet, O; Elwart, M; Szulik, M; Lenarczyk, R; Kalarus, Z; Kukulski, T

    2016-11-01

    Myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony induced by the presence of postinfarction scar and/or conduction abnormalities in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of < 35 % may be associated with a greater propensity toward inducing serious ventricular arrhythmia [(ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF)] and sudden cardiac death. The assessment of regional myocardial function using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) allows for noninvasive analysis of regional mechanical dysfunction (LV mechanical dispersion). The aim of this study was to evaluate the TDE-based mechanical dispersion as a potential echocardiographic predictor of VT/VF. The study group consisted of 47 consecutive ambulatory patients with implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) devices who were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 29) comprised patients with recorded episodes of VT/VF, in whom baseline TDE data were available, and group 2 (n = 18) comprised patients without registered VT/VF in the device memory within 4 years after implantation. LV mechanical dispersion was defined as the standard deviation of the time measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the peak longitudinal strain in apical four-chamber and two-chamber views. A retrospective quantitative assessment of LV regional deformation was based on the color tissue velocity recordings. The average time to event after implantation was 345 days. Patients with electrical events demonstrated greater mechanical dispersion: 99.14 ± 33.60 vs. 72.98 ± 19.70, p=0.002. During the 4-year follow-up, patients with documented VT/VF were characterized by significantly higher LV mechanical dispersion as compared with patients without electrical events. Measurement of LV mechanical dispersion might be helpful in determining the risk of sudden cardiac death.

  3. Atlas-Based Ventricular Shape Analysis for Understanding Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Genevieve; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Gilbert, Kathleen; Perry, James C; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marsden, Alison; Young, Alistair A; Omens, Jeffrey H; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2016-12-01

    Congenital heart disease is associated with abnormal ventricular shape that can affect wall mechanics and may be predictive of long-term adverse outcomes. Atlas-based parametric shape analysis was used to analyze ventricular geometries of eight adolescent or adult single-ventricle CHD patients with tricuspid atresia and Fontans. These patients were compared with an "atlas" of non-congenital asymptomatic volunteers, resulting in a set of z-scores which quantify deviations from the control population distribution on a patient-by-patient basis. We examined the potential of these scores to: (1) quantify abnormalities of ventricular geometry in single ventricle physiologies relative to the normal population; (2) comprehensively quantify wall motion in CHD patients; and (3) identify possible relationships between ventricular shape and wall motion that may reflect underlying functional defects or remodeling in CHD patients. CHD ventricular geometries at end-diastole and end-systole were individually compared with statistical shape properties of an asymptomatic population from the Cardiac Atlas Project. Shape analysis-derived model properties, and myocardial wall motions between end-diastole and end-systole, were compared with physician observations of clinical functional parameters. Relationships between altered shape and altered function were evaluated via correlations between atlas-based shape and wall motion scores. Atlas-based shape analysis identified a diverse set of specific quantifiable abnormalities in ventricular geometry or myocardial wall motion in all subjects. Moreover, this initial cohort displayed significant relationships between specific shape abnormalities such as increased ventricular sphericity and functional defects in myocardial deformation, such as decreased long-axis wall motion. These findings suggest that atlas-based ventricular shape analysis may be a useful new tool in the management of patients with CHD who are at risk of impaired ventricular

  4. A left ventricular epicardial to right ventricular endocardial dominant frequency gradient exists in human ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jose Luis; Shah, Bindi K; Greenberg, Richard M; Deger, Florin Titus; Gerstenfeld, Edward P

    2010-10-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing implant of a biventricular ICD, the local dominant frequency during early induced ventricular fibrillation would be higher at an epicardial left ventricular position compared to an endocardial right ventricular position. Patients undergoing implant of a biventricular ICD were studied. During ventricular fibrillation induction, bipolar electrograms were recorded from leads at an epicardial left ventricular position and an endocardial right ventricular position. Overlapping 2-s fast Fourier transforms were obtained for 6 s of ventricular fibrillation. The dominant frequency and organizational index were compared. Thirty-four patients (20 men, age 64 ± 11 years) underwent 57 inductions of ventricular fibrillation. Eighteen patients had non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and 16 had ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The dominant frequency was higher at a lateral epicardial left ventricular position than an apical endocardial right ventricular position in 18 patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (LV epicardial 5.34 ± 0.37 Hz, RV endocardial 5.09 ± 0.41 Hz, p < 0.001), but not in 16 patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (LV epicardial 4.99 ± 0.57 Hz, RV epicardial 4.87 ± 0.65 Hz, p = 0.094). In patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, there is a dominant frequency gradient during early ventricular fibrillation induced at ICD testing from the lateral left ventricular epicardium to the apical right ventricular endocardium.

  5. Models of ventricular structure and function reviewed for clinical cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, Paul P; Niederer, Peter; Sanchez-Quintana, Damian; Murillo, Margarita; Smerup, Morten

    2013-04-01

    The architectural arrangement of cardiomyocytes aggregated together within the ventricular walls remains controversial. Two models currently attract clinical attention, with neither model standing rigorous anatomical scrutiny. The first is based on the notion that ventricular mass can be unraveled consistently to produce a unique myocardial band. The second model was initially based on the notion that cardiomyocytes were bundled together in uniform fashion, with fibrous shelves interposed in transmural fashion. This concept was subsequently modified to accept the fact that the fibrous matrix supporting the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls does not form transmural sheets. Current observations demonstrate that not all cardiomyocytes are aggregated together in tangential fashion. A significant netting component is aligned in obliquely intruding and transversal fashion. The interaction between the tangential and transversal chains of cardiomyocytes with the fibrous matrix produces antagonistic forces, with both unloading and auxotonic forces necessary to explain normal and abnormal cardiodynamics. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.

  6. Coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LDB3 mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shengshuai; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Lin; Wang, Min; Liu, Chengyun

    2017-08-19

    The coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and abnormal cardiac trabeculation with gene mutation has not been reported previously. Here, we report a case of coexisting congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LIM domain binding 3 gene mutation. A 30-year-old Asian man showed paroxysmal sinus tachycardia and Q waves in an electrocardiogram health check. There were no specific findings in physical examinations and serological tests. A coronary-computed tomography angiography check showed normal coronary artery and no coronary stenosis. Both left ventricle contrast echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance showed rare patterns of a combination of an apical aneurysm-like out-pouching structure with a wide connection to the left ventricle and prominent left ventricular trabecular meshwork. High-throughput sequencing examinations showed a novel mutation in the LDB3 gene (c.C793>T; p.Arg265Cys). Our finding indicates that the phenotypic expression of two heart conditions, congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation, although rare, can occur simultaneously with LDB3 gene mutation. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation may share the same genetic background.

  7. Tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography for the assessment of left and right systolic ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, D; Sharma, R; Elliott, P; Veyrat, C

    2003-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TDE), strain, and strain rate echocardiography are emerging real time ultrasound techniques that provide a measure of wall motion. They offer an objective means to quantify global and regional left and right ventricular function and to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of conventional echocardiography studies. Radial and longitudinal ventricular function can be assessed by the analysis of myocardial wall velocity and displacement indices, or by the analysis of wall deformation using the rate of deformation of a myocardial segment (strain rate) and its deformation over time (strain). A quick and easy assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction is obtained by mitral annular velocity measurement during a routine study, especially in patients with poor endocardial definition or abnormal septal motion. Strain rate and strain are less affected by passive myocardial motion and tend to be uniform throughout the left ventricle in normal subjects. This paper reviews the underlying principles of TDE, strain, and strain rate echocardiography and discusses currently available quantification tools and clinical applications. PMID:14594870

  8. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  9. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from themore » mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation. © 2013.

  12. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4%more » (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.« less

  13. [Evaluation of echocardiography for determining left ventricular function].

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Zhu, W; Xu, J

    1994-02-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by echocardiography and gate blood pool (GBP) in 33 patients including those with coronary heart disease, acute and old myocardiac infarction, cardiomyopathy or mitral prolapse. Fourteen of the 33 had segmental wall motion abnormalities and 19 had non-segmental wall motion abnormalities. The results of comparing echocardiography and GBP showed that the former could substitute for other invasive and expensive examinations to determine LVEF (r = 0.804-0.964 in the 5 echocardiography methods used). Mod-Simpsons method of cross-sectioned echocardiography was the most accurate echocardiographic method (r = 0.964, sensitivity 90.9%) in all patients. The Teich method of M-mode echocardiography was useful in patients who had non-segmental wall motion abnormalities only (r = 0.957, sensitivity 94.7%) but not in patients who had segmental wall motion abnormalities (r = 0.703, sensitivity 42.9%).

  14. Quantification of regional nonuniformity and paradoxical intramural mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by high frame rate ultrasound myocardial strain mapping.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Partho P; Mehta, Vimal; Arora, Ramesh; Mohan, Jagdish C; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2005-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that linear mapping of regional myocardial strain comprehensively assesses variations in regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by disorganized myocardial architecture that results in spatial and temporal nonuniformity of regional function. Left ventricular deformation was quantified in 20 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and compared with 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Abnormalities in subendocardial strain ranged from reduced longitudinal shortening to paradoxical systolic lengthening and delayed regional longitudinal contractions that were often located in small subsegmental areas. These variations were underestimated significantly by arbitrary measurements compared with linear mapping, in which a region of interest was moved across the longitudinal length of left ventricle (difference of peak and least strain, 10.7% +/- 5.1% vs 17% +/- 5.5%; P < .001). Echocardiographic assessment of variations in regional strain requires careful mapping and may be inappropriately assessed if left ventricular segments are sampled at arbitrary focal locations.

  15. Risk Stratification in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Hugh; Corrado, Domenico; Marcus, Frank

    2017-11-21

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although structural abnormalities of the right ventricle predominate, it is well recognized that left ventricular involvement is common, particularly in advanced disease, and that left-dominant forms occur. The pathological characteristic of ARVC is myocyte loss with fibrofatty replacement. Since the first detailed clinical description of the disorder in 1982, significant advances have been made in understanding this disease. Once the diagnosis of ARVC is established, the single most important clinical decision is whether a particular patient's sudden cardiac death risk is sufficient to justify placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The importance of this decision reflects the fact that ARVC is a common cause of sudden death in young people and that sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. This decision is particularly important because these are often young patients who are expected to live for many years. Although an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator can save lives in individuals with this disease, it is also well recognized that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is associated with both short- and long-term complications. Decisions about the placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator are based on an estimate of a patient's risk of sudden cardiac death, as well as their preferences and values. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature that concerns risk stratification in patients with ARVC and to place this literature in the framework of the 3 authors' considerable lifetime experiences in caring for patients with ARVC. The most important parameters to consider when determining arrhythmic risk include electric instability, including the frequency of premature ventricular contractions and

  16. Abnormalities in emotion processing within cortical and subcortical regions in criminal psychopaths: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using pictures with emotional content.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jürgen L; Sommer, Monika; Wagner, Verena; Lange, Kirsten; Taschler, Heidrun; Röder, Christian H; Schuierer, Gerhardt; Klein, Helmfried E; Hajak, Göran

    2003-07-15

    Neurobiology of psychopathy is important for our understanding of current neuropsychiatric questions. Despite a growing interest in biological research in psychopathy, its neural underpinning remains obscure. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the influence of affective contents on brain activation in psychopaths. Series containing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System were shown to six male psychopaths and six male control subjects while 100 whole-brain echo-planar-imaging measurements were acquired. Differences in brain activation were evaluated using BrainVoyager software 4.6. In psychopaths, increased activation through negative contents was found right-sided in prefrontal regions and amygdala. Activation was reduced right-sided in the subgenual cingulate and the temporal gyrus, and left-sided in the dorsal cingulate and the parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation through positive contents was found left-sided in the orbitofrontal regions. Activation was reduced in right medial frontal and medial temporal regions. These findings underline the hypotheses that psychopathy is neurobiologically reflected by dysregulation and disturbed functional connectivity of emotion-related brain regions. These findings may be interpreted within a framework including prefrontal regions that provide top-down control to and regulate bottom-up signals from limbic areas. Because of the small sample size, the results of this study have to be regarded as preliminary.

  17. Triggers of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia differ among patients with varying etiologies of left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Jonathan; Hanon, Sam; Shapiro, Michael; Evans, Steven J; Schweitzer, Paul

    2006-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the initiation of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) have not been fully elucidated. The extent to which reentry, abnormal automaticity, and triggered activity play a role in VT differs depending on the etiology of left ventricular dysfunction. By analyzing electrograms from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), we sought to determine whether there were differences in VT initiation patterns between patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We analyzed ICD electrograms in patients with ejection fractions < 40% who had sustained VT over a 27-month period. The trigger for VT onset was classified as a ventricular premature beat (VPB), supraventricular tachycardia, or of "sudden onset." The baseline cycle length, VT cycle length, coupling interval, and prematurity ratio were recorded for each event. The prematurity ratio was calculated as the coupling interval of the VT initiator divided by the baseline cycle length. Sixty-three VT events in 14 patients met the inclusion criteria. A VPB initiated the VT in 58 episodes (92%), 1 episode (2%) was initiated by a supraventricular tachycardia, and 4 episodes (6%) were sudden onset. The prematurity ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (0.751 +/- 0.068) as compared to patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (0.604 +/- 0.139). VPBs initiated most sustained VT episodes. A significantly higher prematurity ratio was observed in the ischemic heart disease group. This may represent different mechanisms of VT initiation in patients with ischemic versus nonischemic heart disease.

  18. Intrinsic brain abnormalities in young healthy adults with childhood trauma: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang

    2017-06-01

    Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Intra-regional brain activity was evaluated by regional homogeneity method and compared between groups. Areas with altered regional homogeneity were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Statistical analyses were performed by setting current depression and anxiety as covariates. Adults with childhood trauma showed decreased regional homogeneity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus and insula, and the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as increased regional homogeneity in the right cerebellum and left middle temporal gyrus. Regional homogeneity values in the left middle temporal gyrus, right insula and right cerebellum were correlated with childhood trauma severity. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited altered default mode network, cerebellum-default mode network and insula-default mode network connectivity when the left middle temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and right insula were selected as seed area, respectively. The present outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with disturbed intrinsic brain function, especially the default mode network, in adults even without psychiatric diagnoses, which may mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders in later life.

  19. Innervation of Ventricular and Periventricular Brain Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Leak, Rehana K.; Moore, Robert Y.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is divided into two broad categories on the basis of the distance over which neurotransmitters travel. Wiring transmission is the release of transmitter into synaptic clefts in close apposition to receptors. Volume transmission is the release of transmitters or modulators over varying distances before interacting with receptors. One case of volume transmission over potentially long distances involves release into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF contains neuroactive substances that affect brain function and range in size from small molecule transmitters to peptides and large proteins. CSF-contacting neurons are a well-known and universal feature of non-mammalian vertebrates, but only supra- and subependymal serotonergic plexuses are a commonly studied feature in mammals. The origin of most other neuroactive substances in CSF is unknown. In order to determine which brain regions communicate with CSF, we describe the distribution of retrograde neuronal labeling in the rat brain following ventricular injection of Cholera toxin, β subunit (CTβ), a tracer frequently used in brain circuit analysis. Within 15 to 30 minutes following intraventricular injection, there is only diffuse, non-specific staining adjacent to the ventricular surface. Within 2 to 10 days, however, there is extensive labeling of neuronal perikarya in specific nuclear groups in the telencephalon, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem, many at a considerable distance from the ventricles. These observations support the view that ventricular CSF is a significant channel for volume transmission and identifies those brain regions most likely to be involved in this process. PMID:22575559

  20. In vivo quantification of intraventricular flow during left ventricular assist device support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Vi; Wong, Kin; Del Alamo, Juan; Aguilo, Pablo M. L.; May-Newman, Karen; Department of Bioengineering, San Diego State University Collaboration; Department of Mechanical; Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego Collaboration; Mechanical Assist Device Program, Sharp Memorial Hospital Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are mechanical pumps that are surgically connected to the left ventricle (LV) and aorta to increase aortic flow and end-organ perfusion. Clinical studies have demonstrated that LVADs improve patient health and quality of life and significantly reduce the mortality of cardiac failure. However, In the presence of left ventricular assisted devices (LVAD), abnormal flow patterns and stagnation regions are often linked to thrombosis. The aim of our study is to evaluate the flow patterns in the left ventricle of the LVAD-assisted heart, with a focus on alterations in vortex development and blood stasis. To this aim, we applied color Doppler echocardiography to measure 2D, time resolved velocity fields in patients before and after implantation of LVADs. In agreement with our previous in vitro studies (Wong et al., Journal of Biomechanics 47, 2014), LVAD implantation resulted in decreased flow velocities and increased blood residence time near the outflow tract. The variation of residence time changes with LVAD operational speed was characterized for each patient.

  1. A large left ventricular thrombus.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-06-26

    The discovery of a left ventricular mass obliges the clinician to perform a differential diagnosis including tumour or lipoma versus thrombus and its assessment presents important clinical implications. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been associated with left ventricular thrombosis which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality as a site for peripheral emboli. There are some studies on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy showing altered hemostasis and platelet behavior despite sinus rhythm. An increased incidence of thromboembolism is also well recognized in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction complicating history of myocardial infarction. Clinical dilemmas in treating left ventricular thrombus have been described too. We present a case of a large mobile left ventricular thrombus in a 71-year-old Italian man with dilated cardiomyopathy and history of myocardial infarction.

  2. Do we overestimate left ventricular ejection fraction by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with left bundle branch block?

    PubMed

    Cabuk, Ali K; Cabuk, Gizem; Sayin, Ahmet; Karamanlioglu, Murat; Kilicaslan, Barış; Ekmekci, Cenk; Solmaz, Hatice; Aslanturk, Omer F; Ozdogan, Oner

    2018-02-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) causes a dyssynchronized contraction of left ventricle. This is a kind of regional wall-motion abnormality and measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography could be less reliable in this particular condition. Our aim was to evaluate the role of dyssynchrony index (SDI), measured by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, in assessment of LVEF and left ventricular volumes accurately in patients with LBBB. In this case-control study, we included 52 of 64 enrolled participants (twelve participants with poor image quality were excluded) with LBBB and normal LVEF or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular volumes were assessed by 2D (modified Simpson's rule) and 3D (four beats full volume analysis) echocardiography and the impact of SDI on results were evaluated. In patients with SDI ≥6%, LVEF measurements were significantly different (46.00% [29.50-52.50] vs 37.60% [24.70-45.15], P < .001) between 2D and 3D echocardiography, respectively. In patients with SDI < 6%, there were no significant differences between two modalities in terms of LVEF measurements (54.50% [49.00-59.00] vs 54.25% [40.00-58.25], P = .193). LV diastolic volumes were not significantly different while systolic volumes were underestimated by 2D echocardiography, and this finding was more pronounced when SDI ≥ 6%. In patients with LBBB and high SDI (≥6%), LVEF values were overestimated and systolic volumes were underestimated by 2D echocardiography compared to 3D echocardiography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proactive Semantic Interference is Associated with Total and Regional Abnormal Amyloid Load in Non-Demented Community-Dwelling Elders: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, David A; Greig, Maria T; Curiel, Rosie; Rodriguez, Rosemarie; Wicklund, Meredith; Barker, Warren W; Hidalgo, Jacqueline; Rosado, Marian; Duara, Ranjan

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between susceptibility to proactive semantic interference (PSI) and retroactive semantic interference (RSI) and brain amyloid load in non-demented elders. 27 participants (11 cognitively normal [CN] with subjective memory complaints, 8 CN without memory complaints, and 8 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) underwent complete neurological and neuropsychological evaluations. Participants also received the Semantic Interference Test (SIT) and AV-45 amyloid PET imaging. High levels of association were present between total amyloid load, regional amyloid levels, and the PSI measure (in the entire sample and a subsample excluding MCI subjects). RSI and other memory measures showed much weaker associations or no associations with total and regional amyloid load. No associations between amyloid levels and non-memory performance were observed. In non-demented individuals, vulnerability to PSI was highly associated with total and regional beta-amyloid load and may be an early cognitive marker of brain pathology. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum are rare cardiac malformations described in 809 cases since the first description in 1816, being associated with other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4th embryonic week. In an experimental study, targeted knockdown of cardiac troponin T in the chick was performed at day 3, after the heart tube has formed. Morpholino treatment of gene TNNT2 at this stage led to the development of left ventricular diverticula (LVD) in the primitive left ventricular wall. Diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysms (LVA)/LVD can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most of LVA and LVD are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, congestive heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography) visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications, options include surgical resection (especially in symptomatic patients), anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardias, and occasionally combined with class I- or III-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac death occurs usually in childhood, is significantly more frequent in LVA patients and caused by congestive heart failure in most of the cases, whereas patients diagnosed with LVD died more frequently from rupture of the LVD. PMID:29581714

  5. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity.

    PubMed

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum are rare cardiac malformations described in 809 cases since the first description in 1816, being associated with other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4 th embryonic week. In an experimental study, targeted knockdown of cardiac troponin T in the chick was performed at day 3, after the heart tube has formed. Morpholino treatment of gene TNNT2 at this stage led to the development of left ventricular diverticula (LVD) in the primitive left ventricular wall. Diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysms (LVA)/LVD can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most of LVA and LVD are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, congestive heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography) visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications, options include surgical resection (especially in symptomatic patients), anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardias, and occasionally combined with class I- or III-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac death occurs usually in childhood, is significantly more frequent in LVA patients and caused by congestive heart failure in most of the cases, whereas patients diagnosed with LVD died more frequently from rupture of the LVD.

  6. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease.

  7. Mutation-linked defective interdomain interactions within ryanodine receptor cause aberrant Ca²⁺release leading to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Suetomi, Takeshi; Yano, Masafumi; Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Masakazu; Hino, Akihiro; Ono, Makoto; Xu, Xiaojuan; Tateishi, Hiroki; Okuda, Shinichi; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2011-08-09

    The molecular mechanism by which catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is induced by single amino acid mutations within the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated mutation-induced conformational defects of RyR2 using a knockin mouse model expressing the human catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-associated RyR2 mutant (S2246L; serine to leucine mutation at the residue 2246). All knockin mice we examined produced ventricular tachycardia after exercise on a treadmill. cAMP-dependent increase in the frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks was more pronounced in saponin-permeabilized knockin cardiomyocytes than in wild-type cardiomyocytes. Site-directed fluorescent labeling and quartz microbalance assays of the specific binding of DP2246 (a peptide corresponding to the 2232 to 2266 region: the 2246 domain) showed that DP2246 binds with the K201-binding sequence of RyR2 (1741 to 2270). Introduction of S2246L mutation into the DP2246 increased the affinity of peptide binding. Fluorescence quench assays of interdomain interactions within RyR2 showed that tight interaction of the 2246 domain/K201-binding domain is coupled with domain unzipping of the N-terminal (1 to 600)/central (2000 to 2500) domain pair in an allosteric manner. Dantrolene corrected the mutation-caused domain unzipping of the domain switch and stopped the exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia. The catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-linked mutation of RyR2, S2246L, causes an abnormally tight local subdomain-subdomain interaction within the central domain involving the mutation site, which induces defective interaction between the N-terminal and central domains. This results in an erroneous activation of Ca²⁺ channel in a diastolic state reflecting on the increased Ca²⁺ spark frequency, which then leads to lethal arrhythmia.

  8. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hajime

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kgmore » for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene

  9. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of left ventricular function with nonimaging probes.

    PubMed

    Wexler, J P; Blaufox, M D

    1979-10-01

    Portable nonimaging probes have been developed that can evaluate left ventricular function using radionuclide techniques. Two modes of data acquisition are possible with these probe systems, first-pass and gated. Precordial radiocardiograms obtained after a bolus injection can be used to determine cardiac output, pulmonary transit time, pulmonary blood volume, left ventricle ejection fraction, and left-to-right shunts. Gated techniques can be used to determine left ventricular ejection fraction and sytolic time intervals. Probe-determined indices of left ventricular function agree excellently with comparable measurements determined by conventional camera-computer methods as well as by invasive techniques. These have begun to be used in a preliminary manner in a variety of clinical problems associated with left ventricular dysfunction. This review discusses the types of probe systems available, the methods used in positioning them, and details the specifics of their data acquisition and processing capacity. The major criticisms of probe methods are that they are nonimaging and that they measure global rather than regional left ventricular function. In spite of these criticisms, probe systems, because of their portability, high sensitivity, and relatively low cost are useful supplements to conventional camera-computer systems for the measurement of parameters of left ventricular performance using radionuclide techniques.

  11. Characterization of the Left-Sided Substrate in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Berte, Benjamin; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Pillois, Xavier; Sacher, Frédéric; Mahida, Saagar; Wielandts, Jean-Yves; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Frontera, Antonio; Al Jefairi, Nora; Derval, Nicolas; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    The correlates of left ventricular (LV) substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are largely unknown. Thirty-two patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (47±14 years; 6 women) were included. RV and LV dysplasia were defined from multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Arrhythmias were characterized as right-sided or left-sided on 12-lead ECG recordings at baseline and during isoproterenol testing. In 14 patients, the imaging substrate was compared with voltage mapping and local abnormal ventricular activity. Imaging abnormalities were found in 32 (100%) and 21 (66%) patients on the RV and LV, respectively, intramyocardial fat on multidetector computed tomography being the most sensitive feature. LV involvement related to none of the Task Force criteria. Right-sided arrhythmias were more frequent than left-sided arrhythmias (P=0.003) although the latter were more frequent in case of LV involvement (P=0.02). The agreement between low voltage and fat on multidetector computed tomography was high on the RV when using either endocardial unipolar or epicardial bipolar data (κ=0.82 and κ=0.78, respectively) but lower on the LV (κ=0.54 for epicardial bipolar). LV local abnormal ventricular activity was found in all patients with LV involvement, and none of the others. The density of local abnormal ventricular activity within fat areas was similar between the RV and LV (P=0.57). LV substrate is frequent in arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, but poorly identified by current diagnostic strategies. Left-sided arrhythmias are more frequent in case of LV involvement. LV fat hosts the same density of local abnormal ventricular activity as RV fat, but is less efficiently detected by voltage mapping. These results support the need for alternative diagnostic strategies to identify LV dysplasia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Epilepsy is associated with ventricular alterations following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study. Children between 1 month and 21 years of age were included if they were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with primary diagnosis of convulsive status epilepticus and had 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) within 24 hours of admission. Children with heart disease, ion channelopathy, or on vasoactive medications were excluded. Age-matched control subjects had no history of seizures or epilepsy. The primary outcome was ventricular abnormalities represented by ST segment changes, abnormal T wave, QRS axis deviation, and corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The secondary outcomes included QT/RR relationship, beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, ECG interval measurement between groups, and clinical factors associated with ECG abnormalities. Of 317 eligible children, 59 met the inclusion criteria. History of epilepsy was present in 31 children (epileptic) and absent in 28 children (non-epileptic). Compared with the control subjects (n = 31), the status epilepticus groups were more likely to have an abnormal ECG with overall odds ratio of 3.8 and 7.0 for the non-epileptic and the epileptic groups respectively. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with epilepsy exhibited impaired dependence and adaptation of the QT interval on heart rate. Beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, a marker of ventricular repolarization instability, was increased in children with epilepsy. Convulsive status epilepticus can adversely affect ventricular electrical properties and stability in children

  13. Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Infants and Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in the Absence of Tachyarrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are rarely attributable to sustained or incessant tachyarrhythmias in infants and children with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, several recent reports suggested that significant LV dysfunction may develop in WPW syndrome in the absence of tachyarrhythmias. It is assumed that an asynchronous ventricular activation over the accessory pathway, especially right-sided, induces septal wall motion abnormalities, ventricular remodeling and ventricular dysfunction. The prognosis of DCM associated with asymptomatic WPW is excellent. Loss of ventricular pre-excitation results in mechanical resynchronization and reverse remodeling where LV function recovers completely. The reversible nature of LV dysfunction after loss of ventricular pre-excitation supports the causal relationship between LV dysfunction and ventricular pre-excitation. This review summarizes recent clinical and electrophysiological evidence for development of LV dysfunction or DCM in asymptomatic WPW syndrome, and discusses the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:23323117

  14. Arrhythmias in left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Christina Y; Kim, Jeffrey J

    2015-06-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a newly recognized form of cardiomyopathy that has been associated with heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and sudden death. Both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias are now well described as prominent clinical components of LVNC. Throughout the spectrum of age, these arrhythmias have been associated with prognosis and outcome, and their clinical management is therefore an important aspect of patient care. The risk of sudden death seems to be associated with ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction, and the presence of arrhythmias. Proposed management strategies shown to have efficacy include antiarrhythmic therapy, ablation techniques, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction of the human cerebral ventricular system from MRI: inclusion of anatomical knowledge and clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    The human cerebral ventricular system is a complex structure that is essential for the well being and changes in which reflect disease. It is clinically imperative that the ventricular system be studied in details. For this reason computer assisted algorithms are essential to be developed. We have developed a novel (patent pending) and robust anatomical knowledge-driven algorithm for automatic extraction of the cerebral ventricular system from MRI. The algorithm is not only unique in its image processing aspect but also incorporates knowledge of neuroanatomy, radiological properties, and variability of the ventricular system. The ventricular system is divided into six 3D regions based on the anatomy and its variability. Within each ventricular region a 2D region of interest (ROI) is defined and is then further subdivided into sub-regions. Various strict conditions that detect and prevent leakage into the extra-ventricular space are specified for each sub-region based on anatomical knowledge. Each ROI is processed to calculate its local statistics, local intensity ranges of cerebrospinal fluid and grey and white matters, set a seed point within the ROI, grow region directionally in 3D, check anti-leakage conditions and correct growing if leakage occurs and connects all unconnected regions grown by relaxing growing conditions. The algorithm was tested qualitatively and quantitatively on normal and pathological MRI cases and worked well. In this paper we discuss in more detail inclusion of anatomical knowledge in the algorithm and usefulness of our approach from clinical perspective.

  16. Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: a voxel-based analysis study.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Shahrukh; Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-04-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. © The Author(s), 2014.

  17. Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: A voxel-based analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-01-01

    Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Methods: A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. Results: MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. PMID:25145689

  18. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort.

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin S C; Valcour, Victor G; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  19. Pneumatic Distension of Ventricular Mural Architecture Validated Histologically.

    PubMed

    Burg, M C; Lunkenheimer, P; Niederer, P; Brune, C; Redmann, K; Smerup, M; Spiegel, U; Becker, F; Maintz, D; Heindel, W; Anderson, R H

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. Methods: We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Results: Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Conclusion: Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion. Key Points: • Pneumographic computed tomography reveals an organized structure of the ventricular walls.• Aggregated cardiomyocytes form a structured continuum, with marked regional heterogeneity

  20. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  1. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: ...

  2. Abnormal branching and regression of the notochord and its relationship to foregut abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vleesch Dubois, V N; Quan Qi, B; Beasley, S W; Williams, A

    2002-04-01

    An abnormally positioned notochord has been reported in embryos that develop foregut abnormalities, vertebral defects and other abnormalities of the VATER association. This study examines the patterns of regression of the abnormal notochord in the rat model of the VATER association and investigates the relationship between developmental abnormalities of the notochord and those of the vertebra and foregut. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin on gestational days 6 - 9 inclusive. Rats were sacrificed between days 14 and 20 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned and stained and examined serially. The location and appearance of the degenerating notochord and its relationship to regional structural defects were analysed. All 26 embryos exposed to adriamycin developed foregut abnormalities and had an abnormal notochord. The notochord disappeared by a process of apoptotic degeneration that lagged behind that of the normal embryo: the notochord persisted in the abnormal embryo beyond day 17, whereas in the normal rat it had already disappeared. Similarly, formation of the nucleus pulposus was delayed. Vertebral abnormalities occurred when the notochord was ventrally-positioned. The notochord disappears during day 16 in the normal embryo whereas abnormal branches of the notochord persist until day 19 in the adriamycin-treated embryo. Degeneration of the notochord is dominated by apoptosis. An excessively ventrally-placed notochord is closely associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column, especially hemivertebrae.

  3. Left ventricular function in Friedreich's ataxia. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, M G; Olukotun, A Y; Tajik, A J; Lovett, J L; Giuliani, E R

    1980-01-01

    Left ventricular function was assessed in seven patients with Friedreich's ataxia using computer-assisted analysis of the left ventricular echocardiograms and compared with those of 45 normal children matched for age and sex. The left ventricle in Friedreich's ataxia was symmetrically hypertrophied, cavity dimension was normal or small, and septal motion and peak velocity of circumferential shortening were normal in all patients. In diastole the duration of rapid filling was normal, peak rate of increase in left ventricular dimension was reduced in two patients, mitral valve opening was delayed with respect to minimum cavity dimension in seven, and there were significantly greater than normal increases in left ventricular dimension during the isovolumic period to mitral valve opening in seven, indicating abnormal and incoordinate relaxation. Peak rates of posterior wall systolic thickening and diastolic thinning were reduced in four and six patients, respectively, whereas peak rates of septal systolic thickening and diastolic thinning were reduced in one and four, respectively, suggesting a disproportionately greater impairment of the posterior wall than of septal function. The absence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and mid-systolic closure of the aortic valve, the presence of normal septal motion, and the greater reduction in posterior wall than in septal dynamics are inconsistent with previous ideas that the heart disease of Friedreich's ataxia is identical to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Computer-assisted analysis of echocardiograms permits recognition of heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia before the onset of cardiac symptoms or development of clinical signs of heart disease. Images PMID:7426188

  4. Right Ventricular Myocardial Ischemia with Arrhythmia in an Asphyxiated Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant and neonatal myocardial infarction (MI) has been described in association with congenital heart disease, coronary artery abnormalities, myocarditis, and tumors. MI in the perinatal period in a structurally normal heart and with ventricular arrhythmia as a presenting feature has not been thoroughly described. Published case reports describe treatment methods extrapolated from adult MI. However, due to the rare occurrence, the most appropriate acute treatment for both MI and ventricular arrhythmia in newborn infants remains unknown. Case A male term infant with perinatal asphyxia and need for extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation at birth had ventricular tachyarrhythmia and ST-elevations on electrocardiogram. Four hours after birth, he died from cardiogenic failure. A thrombus at the right coronary artery was found on autopsy. Conclusion MI in the perinatal period in a structurally normal heart is very rare and mortality is high. Although acute treatments extrapolated from adult MI has been described to result in favorable outcomes in newborn infants, guidelines are lacking on how to manage acute MI and associated ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27280062

  5. Scar Homogenization Versus Limited-Substrate Ablation in Patients With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Gökoğlan, Yalçın; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Gianni, Carola; Santangeli, Pasquale; Trivedi, Chintan; Güneş, Mahmut F; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Horton, Rodney; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Sanchez, Javier E; Beheiry, Salwa; Hongo, Richard; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Reddy, Madhu; Schweikert, Robert A; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Tondo, Claudio; Burkhardt, J David; Themistoclakis, Sakis; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Scar homogenization improves long-term ventricular arrhythmia-free survival compared with standard limited-substrate ablation in patients with post-infarction ventricular tachycardia (VT). Whether such benefit extends to patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and scar-related VT is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of an endoepicardial scar homogenization approach compared with standard ablation in this population. Consecutive patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 93), scar-related VTs, and evidence of low-voltage regions on the basis of pre-defined criteria on electroanatomic mapping (i.e., bipolar voltage <1.5 mV) underwent either standard VT ablation (group 1 [n = 57]) or endoepicardial ablation of all abnormal potentials within the electroanatomic scar (group 2 [n = 36]). Acute procedural success was defined as noninducibility of any VT at the end of the procedure; long-term success was defined as freedom from any ventricular arrhythmia at follow-up. Acute procedural success rates were 69.4% and 42.1% after scar homogenization and standard ablation, respectively (p = 0.01). During a mean follow-up period of 14 ± 2 months, single-procedure success rates were 63.9% after scar homogenization and 38.6% after standard ablation (p = 0.031). After multivariate analysis, scar homogenization and left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of long-term success. During follow-up, the rehospitalization rate was significantly lower in the scar homogenization group (p = 0.035). In patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy, scar-related VT, and evidence of low-voltage regions on electroanatomic mapping, endoepicardial homogenization of the scar significantly increased freedom from any recurrent ventricular arrhythmia compared with a standard limited-substrate ablation. However, the success rate with this approach appeared to be lower than previously reported with ischemic cardiomyopathy, presumably

  6. Ventricular assist devices in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, A; Netz, H

    2001-01-01

    The implantation of a mechanical circulatory device for end-stage ventricular failure is a possible therapeutic approach in adult and pediatric cardiac surgery and cardiology. The aim of this article is to present mechanical circulatory assist devices used in infants and children with special emphasis on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Berlin Heart assist device, centrifugal pump and Medos assist device. The success of long-term support with implantable ventricular assist devices in adults and children has led to their increasing use as a bridge to transplantation in patients with otherwise non-treatable left ventricular failure, by transforming a terminal phase heart condition into a treatable cardiopathy. Such therapy allows rehabilitation of patients before elective cardiac transplantation (by removing contraindications to transplantation mainly represented by organ impairment) or acting as a bridge to recovery of the native left ventricular function (depending on underlying cardiac disease). Treatment may also involve permanent device implantation when cardiac transplantation is contraindicated. Indications for the implantation of assisted circulation include all states of cardiac failure that are reversible within a variable period of time or that require heart transplantation. This article will address the current status of ventricular assist devices by examining historical aspects of its development, current technical issues and clinical features of pediatric ventricular assist devices, including indications and contraindications for support. PMID:22368605

  7. Prevention of ventricular arrhythmia and calcium dysregulation in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mouse model carrying calsequestrin-2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Alcalai, Ronny; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Arad, Michael; Planer, David; Konno, Tetsuo; Wang, Libin; Seidman, Jon G; Seidman, Christine E; Berul, Charles I

    2011-03-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca(2+) overload and increased Ca(2+) leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT. CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca(2+) -channel inhibitors, β-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg(2+) . Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca(2+) transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca(2+) overload, increased systolic Ca(2+) amplitude, and prevented Ca(2+) oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes. Ca(2+) channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca(2+) buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prevention of Ventricular Arrhythmia and Calcium Dysregulation in a Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Mouse Model Carrying Calsequestrin-2 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Alcalai, Ronny; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Arad, Michael; Planer, David; Konno, Tetsuo; Wang, Libin; Seidman, Jon G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Berul, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca2+ overload and increased Ca2+ leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT. Method and results CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca2+-channel inhibitors, β-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg2+. Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca2+ transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca2+ content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca2+ overload, increased systolic Ca2+ amplitude, and prevented Ca2+ oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes. Conclusions Ca2+ channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca2+ content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca2+ buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT. PMID:20807279

  9. Effects of Obesity on Cardiovascular Hemodynamics, Cardiac Morphology, and Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Martin A; Omran, Jad; Bostick, Brian P

    2016-12-01

    Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy). In normotensive obese patients, cardiac involvement is commonly characterized by elevated cardiac output, low peripheral vascular resistance, and increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure. Sleep-disordered breathing may lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension and, in association with left heart failure, may contribute to elevation of right heart pressures. These alterations, in association with various neurohormonal and metabolic abnormalities, may produce LV hypertrophy; impaired LV diastolic function; and less commonly, LV systolic dysfunction. Many of these alterations are reversible with substantial voluntary weight loss.

  10. Usefulness of ventricular endocardial electric reconstruction from body surface potential maps to noninvasively localize ventricular ectopic activity in patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.

  11. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  12. Vortex Formation Time is Not an Index of Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Little, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The diastolic intraventricular ring vortex formation and pinch-off process may provide clinically useful insights into diastolic function in health and disease. The vortex ring formation time (FT) concept, based on hydrodynamic experiments dealing with unconfined (large tank) flow, has attracted considerable attention and popularity. Dynamic conditions evolving within the very confined space of a filling, expansible ventricular chamber with relaxing and rebounding viscoelastic muscular boundaries, diverge from unconfined (large tank) flow and encompass rebounding walls’ suction and myocardial relaxation. Indeed, clinical/physiological findings seeking validation in vivo failed to support the notion that FT is an index of normal/abnormal diastolic ventricular function. Therefore, FT as originally proposed cannot and should not be utilized as such an index. Evidently, physiologically accurate models accounting for coupled hydrodynamic and (patho)physiological myocardial wall interactions with the intraventricular flow are still needed to enhance our understanding and yield diastolic function indices useful and reliable in the clinical setting. PMID:25609509

  13. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Klein, L S; Shih, H T; Hackett, F K; Zipes, D P; Miles, W M

    1992-05-01

    Radiofrequency energy has been used safely and successfully to eliminate accessory pathways in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and the substrate for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. However, this form of ablation has had only limited success in eliminating ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. In contrast, direct-current catheter ablation has been used successfully to eliminate ventricular tachycardia in patients with and without structural heart disease. The purpose of this study was to test whether radiofrequency energy can safely and effectively ablate ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease. Sixteen patients (nine women and seven men; mean age, 38 years; range, 18-55 years) without structural heart disease who had ventricular tachycardia underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation to eliminate the ventricular tachycardia. Two patients presented with syncope, nine with presyncope, and five with palpitations only. Mean duration of symptoms was 6.7 years (range, 0.5-20 years). Radiofrequency catheter ablation successfully eliminated ventricular tachycardia in 15 of 16 patients (94%). Sites of ventricular tachycardia origin included the high right ventricular outflow tract (12 patients), the right ventricular septum near the tricuspid valve (three patients), and the left ventricular septum (one patient). The only ablation failure was in a patient whose ventricular tachycardia arose from a region near the His bundle. An accurate pace map, early local endocardial activation, and firm catheter contact with endocardium were associated with successful ablation. Radiofrequency ablation did not cause arrhythmias, produced minimal cardiac enzyme rise, and resulted in no detectable change in cardiac function by Doppler echocardiography. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease is effective and safe and may be considered as

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Abnormal stress echocardiography findings in cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin C; Askew, J Wells; Dispenzieri, Angela; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Klarich, Kyle W; Anavekar, Nandan S; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Grogan, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis is characterized by myocardial interstitial deposition but can also cause obstructive deposits in the coronary microvasculature. We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent stress echocardiography within 1 year prior to the histologic diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Only patients with cardiac amyloidosis and no known obstructive coronary disease were included. Stress echocardiograms (13 exercise; 7 dobutamine) were performed for evaluation of dyspnea and/or chest pain. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) occurred in 11 patients (55%), 4 of whom had normal left ventricular wall thickness. Coronary angiogram was performed in 9 of 11 patients and demonstrated no or mild epicardial coronary artery disease. Seven (54%) patients had an abnormal exercise blood pressure which occurred with similar likelihood between those with and without stress-induced WMAs. Stress-induced WMAs and abnormal exercise blood pressure may occur in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis despite the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. This finding should raise the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis even in the absence of significant myocardial thickening.

  16. Late Presentation of Recurrent Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia following Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair due to Epicardial Injury.

    PubMed

    South, Harry L; Osoro, Moses; Overly, Tjuan

    2014-01-01

    We report a 73-year-old male with late onset monomorphic ventricular tachycardia following mitral valve repair (MVR). Typically, injury to epicardial arteries following mitral valve repair/replacement presents immediately as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, worsening ECG changes, increasing cardiac biomarkers, or new wall motion abnormalities. Our case illustrates a "late complication" of a distorted circumflex artery following mitral valve repair and the importance of early diagnostic angiography and percutaneous intervention.

  17. 83. Ventricular Enlargement and Progressive Reduction in Cortical Gray Matter Are Linked in Prodromal Youth Who Develop Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoonho; Haut, Kristen; He, George; Van Erp, Theo; McEwen, Sarah; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie; Cadenhead, Kristin; Cornblatt, Barbara; Mathalon, Daniel; McGlashan, Thomas; Perkins, Diana; Seidman, Larry; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine; Woods, Scott; Cannon, Tyrone

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In a recent prospective longitudinal neuroimaging study, clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals who later developed full-blown psychosis showed an accelerated rate of gray matter thinning in superior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and expansion of the ventricular system after applying a stringent correction for multiple comparisons. Although cortical and subcortical volume loss and enlarged ventricles are well characterized structural brain abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia, no prior study has evaluated whether these progressive changes of neuroanatomical indicators are linked in time prior to onset of psychosis. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the changes in cortical gray matter thickness and ventricular volume using the longitudinal neuroimaging data from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS) at the whole-brain level. Methods: MRI structural data were acquired at baseline and 12-month follow-up, and follow-up scans for those who developed fully psychotic symptoms were assessed at the point of conversion. In total, 37 CHR cases who converted to psychosis, 230 CHR cases who did not convert (nonconverters), and 132 healthy comparison subjects had usable baseline and second time point scans. Imaging measures were first transformed to annualized rates of percent change (ARCH) in each cortical vertex. Interval is the time between BL and FU scans in years. Relationships between ARCH of total ventricle volume and ARCH of cortical gray matter values were tested vertex-wise using the general linear model. Among the subjects with BL and 12-FU data available, 125 CHR cases and 66 controls were followed to an additional third time point for a 24-month MRI assessment. For the purpose of testing the replicability of our main hypotheses, neuroanatomical ARCH measures between the 12 and 24 month follow-ups were also computed with a parallel set of statistical tests as described earlier. Results: The

  18. Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy: a morbid association of ventricular arrhythmias and unexplained infero-lateral T-wave inversion.

    PubMed

    Protonotarios, Alexandros; Patrianakos, Alexandros; Spanoudaki, Elpida; Kochiadakis, Georgios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanouel; Vardas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is a subtype of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy characterized by early predominant left ventricular involvement. Α 34-year-old man presented with palpitations and a history of frequent ventricular extrasystoles of both LBBB and RBBB configuration. Cardiac workup revealed repolarization abnormalities at infero-lateral leads in the absence of diagnostic structural/functional alterations or obstructive coronary artery disease. Six months later he died suddenly. Histopathology was diagnostic for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy affecting predominantly the left ventricle at subepicardial/midwall myocardial layers. Thus, ventricular arrhythmias accompanied by unexplained infero-lateral T-wave inversion should warn of a possible morbid association underlying left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzhu; Yang, Jian; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Xin; Li, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed. It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. PMID:27992373

  20. Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography and Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Natalie A; Patel, Ravi; Zimmerman, Josh; Ma, Jianing; Stoddard, Greg; Selzman, Craig; Morrissey, Candice K

    2018-02-15

    To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation. Transesophageal echocardiographic images before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed to quantify RV function using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain, and RV free wall strain. A chart review was performed to determine which patients subsequently developed RV failure (right ventricular assist device placement or prolonged inotrope requirement ≥14 days). Nineteen patients (19%) subsequently developed RV failure. Postbypass FAC was the only measure of RV function that distinguished between the RV failure and non-RV failure groups (21.2% v 26.5%; p = 0.04). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of an abnormal RV FAC (<35%) for RV failure after LVAD implantation were 84%, 20%, and 0.52, respectively. No other intraoperative measure of RV function was associated with subsequent RV failure. RV failure increased ventilator time, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Intraoperative measures of RV function such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and RV strain were not associated with RV failure after LVAD implantation. Decreased postbypass FAC was significantly associated with RV failure but showed poor discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural history of echocardiographic abnormalities in mucopolysaccharidosis III.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Carolyn M; Truxal, Kristen V; McBride, Kim L; Kovalchin, John P; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III, Sanfilippo Syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. MPS I and II patients often develop cardiac involvement leading to early mortality, however there are limited data in MPS III. The objective of this study is to describe cardiac abnormalities in a large group of MPS III patients followed in a longitudinal natural history study designed to determine outcome measures for gene transfer trials. A single center study of MPS III patients who were enrolled in the Nationwide Children's Hospital natural history study in 2014. Two cardiologists reviewed all patient echocardiograms for anatomic, valvular, and functional abnormalities. Valve abnormalities were defined as abnormal morphology, trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) with abnormal morphology or at least mild MR, and any aortic regurgitation (AR). Abnormal left ventricular (LV) function was defined as ejection fraction < 50%. Group comparisons were assessed using two-sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. Twenty-five patients, 15 Type A and 10 Type B MPS III, underwent 45 echocardiograms. Fifteen patients (60%) demonstrated an abnormal echocardiographic finding with age at first abnormal echocardiogram within the study being 6.8 ± 2.8 years. Left-sided valve abnormalities were common over time: 7 mitral valve thickening, 2 mitral valve prolapse, 16 MR (8 mild, 8 trivial), 3 aortic valve thickening, and 9 AR (7 mild, 2 trivial). Two patients had asymmetric LV septal hypertrophy. No valvular stenosis or ventricular function abnormalities were noted. Incidental findings included: mild aortic root dilation (2), bicommissural aortic valve (1), and mild tricuspid regurgitation (3). Individuals with Sanfilippo A and B demonstrate a natural history of cardiac involvement with valvular abnormalities most common. In short-term follow up, patients demonstrated only

  2. Ventricular Tacyhcardia in A Patient with A Previous History of Endocarditis and Ankylosan Spondylitis: A Challenging Case.

    PubMed

    Koza, Yavuzer; Taş, Muhammed Hakan; Şimşek, Ziya; Gündoğdu, Fuat

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac conduction defects are commonly observed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, infective endocarditis, and aortic valve replacement. Each of these clinical situations can also present with ventricular tacyhcardia by different mechanisms. Here we report the case of a 53-year-old man with a medical history of untreated ankylosing spondylitis and aortic valve replacement who presented with ventricular tachycardia and underwent successful catheter ablation. Most ventricular tachycardia episodes were intermittent and drug resistant, which could have been caused by abnormal automaticity rather than re-entry.

  3. Non-Compact Cardiomyopathy or Ventricular Non-Compact Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular myocardial non-compaction has been recognized and defined as a genetic cardiomyopathy by American Heart Association since 2006. The argument on the nomenclature and pathogenesis of this kind of ventricular myocardial non-compaction characterized by regional ventricular wall thickening and deep trabecular recesses often complicated with chronic heart failure, arrhythmia and thromboembolism and usually overlap the genetics and phenotypes of other kind of genetic or mixed cardiomyopathy still exist. The proper classification and correct nomenclature of the non-compact ventricles will contribute to the precisely and completely understanding of etiology and its related patho-physiological mechanism for a better risk stratification and more personalized therapy of the disease individually. All of the genetic heterogeneity and phenotypical overlap and the variety in histopathological, electromechanical and clinical presentation indicates that some of the cardiomyopathies might just be the different consequence of myocardial development variations related to gene mutation and phenotype of one or group genes induced by the interacted and disturbed process of gene modulation at different links of gene function expression and some other etiologies. This review aims to establish a new concept of "ventricular non-compaction syndrome" based on the demonstration of the current findings of etiology, epidemiology, histopathology and echocardiography related to the disorder of ventricular myocardial compaction and myocardial electromechanical function development. PMID:25580189

  4. Long-Term Outcome With Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Pasquale; Zado, Erica S; Supple, Gregory E; Haqqani, Haris M; Garcia, Fermin C; Tschabrunn, Cory M; Callans, David J; Lin, David; Dixit, Sanjay; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Riley, Michael P; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2015-12-01

    Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy improves short-term VT-free survival. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes of VT control and need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy after endocardial (ENDO) and adjuvant epicardial (EPI) substrate modification in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We examined 62 consecutive patients with Task Force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy referred for VT ablation with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Catheter ablation was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal substrate for unmappable VT. Adjuvant EPI ablation was performed when recurrent VT or persistent inducibility after ENDO-only ablation. Endocardial plus adjuvant EPI ablation was performed in 39 (63%) patients, including 13 who crossed over to ENDO-EPI after VT recurrence during follow-up, after ENDO-only ablation. Before ablation, 54 of 62 patients failed a mean of 2.4 antiarrhythmic drugs, including amiodarone in 29 (47%) patients. During follow-up of 56±44 months after the last ablation, VT-free survival was 71% with only a single VT episode in additional 9 patients (15%). At last follow-up, 39 (64%) patients were only on β-blockers or no treatment, 21 were on class 1 or 3 antiarrhythmic drugs (11 for atrial arrhythmias), and 2 were on amiodarone as a bridge to heart transplantation. The long-term outcome after ENDO and adjuvant EPI substrate ablation of VT in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is good. Most patients have complete VT control without amiodarone therapy and limited need for antiarrhythmic drugs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Anatomy of the ventricular septal defect in outflow tract defects: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Mostefa-Kara, Meriem; Bonnet, Damien; Belli, Emre; Fadel, Elie; Houyel, Lucile

    2015-03-01

    The study objective was to analyze the anatomy of the ventricular septal defect found in various phenotypes of outflow tract defects. We reviewed 277 heart specimens with isolated outlet ventricular septal defect without subpulmonary stenosis (isolated outlet ventricular septal defect, 19); tetralogy of Fallot (71); tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (51); common arterial trunk (54); double outlet right ventricle (65) with subaortic, doubly committed, or subpulmonary ventricular septal defect; and interrupted aortic arch type B (17). Special attention was paid to the rims of the ventricular septal defect viewed from the right ventricular side and the relationships between the tricuspid and aortic valves. The ventricular septal defect was always located in the outlet of the right ventricle, between the 2 limbs of the septal band. There was a fibrous continuity between the tricuspid and aortic valves in 74% of specimens with isolated outlet ventricular septal defect, 66% of specimens with tetralogy of Fallot, 39% of specimens with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, 4.6% of specimens with double outlet right ventricle, 1.8% of specimens with common arterial trunk, and zero of specimens with interrupted aortic arch type B (P < .005). When present, this continuity always involved the anterior tricuspid leaflet. The ventricular septal defect in outflow tract defects is always an outlet ventricular septal defect, cradled between the 2 limbs of the septal band. However, there are some differences regarding the posteroinferior and superior rims of the ventricular septal defect. These differences suggest an anatomic continuum from the isolated outlet ventricular septal defect to the interrupted aortic arch type B rather than distinct physiologic phenotypes, related to various degrees of abnormal rotation of the outflow tract during heart development: minimal in isolated outlet ventricular septal defect; incomplete in tetralogy of Fallot, tetralogy of Fallot

  6. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ARVC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ( ARVC ) is a form of heart ...

  8. Electrocardiogram abnormalities and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1). Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  9. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4–10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0–4.1). Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities. PMID:23074563

  10. Detection of ventricular fibrillation with a ventricular monopolar catheter electrode.

    PubMed

    Voelz, M B; Wessale, J L; Geddes, L A; Patel, U H

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the use of right ventricular impedance (RVZ) sensing with a monopolar electrode to identify the cessation of pumping with the onset of ventricular fibrillation. RVZ, ECG (lead II), and femoral artery pressure were monitored in seven anesthetized dogs. An impedance recorder (10-kHz, 100-microA peak-to-peak current) was used to measure RVZ between a monopolar, catheter-mounted electrode placed in the right ventricle and an indifferent electrode (8.5-cm diameter plate) sutured to the right chest wall. The catheter electrode was either 0.4 cm or 1.2 cm long and had a surface area of 0.50 cm2 or 1.50 cm2, respectively. A monopolar electrode was positioned at the apex of the right ventricle or midway between the apex and the tricuspid valve. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulsatile cardiac-induced impedance change was measured prior to and throughout an episode of ventricular fibrillation lasting up to 1 minute. On the average, the amplitude of the pulsatile RVZ signal after 10 seconds of fibrillation decreased by 79% of the prefibrillation amplitude. The 1.2-cm electrode located at the middle of the ventricle showed the largest reduction in pulsatile impedance, the amplitude being very small at 10 seconds. It is concluded that sensing RVZ by a monopolar electrode located on a catheter in the mid-ventricle can provide the mechanical information needed to identify the onset of ventricular fibrillation.

  11. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X(2) test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max. interval was found in 33% of patients, indiabetic group

  12. Evaluation of left ventricular scar identification from contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Lehmann, H. I.; Johnson, S. B.; Packer, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Patients with ventricular arrhythmias typically exhibit myocardial scarring, which is believed to be an important anatomic substrate for reentrant circuits, thereby making these regions a key target in catheter ablation therapy. In ablation therapy, a catheter is guided into the left ventricle and radiofrequency energy is delivered into the tissue to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low bipolar voltage regions are typically localized during the procedure through point-by-point construction of an electroanatomic map by sampling the endocardial surface with the ablation catheter and are used as a surrogate for myocardial scar. This process is time consuming, requires significant skill, and has the potential to miss low voltage sites. This has led to efforts to quantify myocardial scar preoperatively using delayed, contrast-enhanced MRI. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of left ventricular scar identification from delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. Myocardial infarcts were created in three canines followed by a delayed, contrast enhanced MRI scan and electroanatomic mapping. The left ventricle and myocardial scar is segmented from preoperative MRI images and sampled points from the procedural electroanatomical map are registered to the segmented endocardial surface. Sampled points with low bipolar voltage points visually align with the segmented scar regions. This work demonstrates the potential utility of using preoperative delayed, enhanced MRI to identify myocardial scarring for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy.

  13. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  15. Acute impairment of regional myocardial glucose uptake in the apical ballooning (takotsubo) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Murphy, Joseph; Prasad, Abhiram; Wright, R Scott; Lerman, Amir; Rihal, Charanjit S; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya

    2006-01-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is a poorly understood clinical entity characterized by acute, transient systolic dysfunction of the left ventricular (LV) apex in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease and commonly associated with acute emotional stress. We report abnormal regional myocardial perfusion and glucose uptake in 4 consecutive ABS patients studied using positron emission tomography with 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose within 72 hours of presentation with ABS. All patients were postmenopausal females, 3 of whom had a major recent life stress event. Coronary angiography revealed no or minimal obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. All patients exhibited reduced glucose uptake in the mid-LV and apical myocardial segments, which was out of proportion to perfusion abnormalities in half of the cases. In all 4 patients, affected regions subsequently recovered regional LV systolic function within 6 weeks.

  16. Acute Heart Failure Triggered by Coronary Spasm With Transient Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yusuke; Sakakura, Kenichi; Ibe, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Nanae; Wada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideo; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2017-04-06

    Coronary spasm is abnormal contraction of an epicardial coronary artery resulting in myocardial ischemia. Coronary spasm induces not only depressed myocardial contractility, but also incomplete myocardial relaxation, which leads to elevated ventricular filling pressure. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had repeated acute heart failure caused by coronary spasm. Acetylcholine provocation test with simultaneous right heart catheterization was useful for the diagnosis of elevated ventricular filling pressure as well as coronary artery spasm. We should add coronary spasm to a differential diagnosis for repeated acute heart failure.

  17. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    PubMed

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  18. Relationship between central and peripheral atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction in a community population.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Murabito, Joanne M; Oyama, Noriko; Danias, Peter G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Yeon, Susan B

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relationships between resting left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), aortic plaque, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a community cohort. A total of 1726 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (806 males, 65 ± 9 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance with quantification of aortic plaque volume and assessment of regional left ventricular systolic function. Claudication, lower extremity revascularization, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were recorded at the most contemporaneous examination visit. WMAs were associated with greater aortic plaque burden, decreased ABI, and claudication in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (all p < 0.001), which were not significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, both the presence (p < 0.001) and volume of aortic plaque were associated with decreased ABI (p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, an ABI ≤ 0.9 or prior revascularization was associated with a threefold odds of aortic plaque (p = 0.0083). Plaque volume significantly increased with decreasing ABI in multivariable-adjusted analyses (p < 0.0001). In this free-living population, associations of WMAs with aortic plaque burden and clinical measures of PAD were attenuated after adjustment for coronary heart disease risk factors. Aortic plaque volume and ABI remained strongly negatively correlated after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the association between coronary heart disease and non-coronary atherosclerosis is explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic atherosclerosis and PAD remain strongly associated after multivariable adjustment, suggesting shared mechanisms beyond those captured by traditional risk factors.

  19. Flecainide-induced proarrhythmia is attributed to abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness in perfused guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2012-11-01

    Flecainide is nonselective Na(+) channel blocker which may also inhibit I(Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier. This study was designed to explore if proarrhythmic responses to flecainide noted in cardiac patients may be partly attributed to abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness. Monophasic action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Flecainide was found to prolong ventricular repolarization, with effect being greater at the left ventricular compared with the right ventricular epicardium. This change translated to reversal of the normal right ventricular-to-left ventricular transepicardial APD difference determined before drug infusion. An inverse correlation between local epicardial APD and corresponding activation time values seen at baseline was eliminated in flecainide-treated hearts, indicating the activation-to-repolarization uncoupling. Over transmural plane, flecainide produced a greater ERP lengthening at endocardium than epicardium, thus markedly increasing ERP dispersion across ventricular wall. Spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 45% of heart preparations upon flecainide infusion. In conclusion, in nonischemic guinea-pig heart, flecainide-induced proarrhythmia may be partly attributed to abnormal spatial gradients in repolarization and refractoriness and impaired transepicardial activation-to-repolarization coupling.

  20. [Meningoencephalitis and ventricular arrhythmia caused by yersiniosis].

    PubMed

    Pehlke, J R; Geipel, U; von Müller, L; Spiegel, J

    2012-09-01

    We report on a 19-year-old patient without any immunodeficiency and without a history of significant diseases in whom two seizure attacks as symptoms of meningoencephalitis occurred after he had suffered from abdominal symptoms for a week. Later, we could observe frequent polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles. A massive production of anti-Yersinia IgM, IgG and IgA as a sign of an acute infection could be found, although we were not able to detect the microbe itself with culturing methods. After targetted antibiotic treatment, the patient fully recovered within two weeks and could be discharged from hospital without clinical abnormalities and an almost normalised cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid. Possible ways of infection are mice which the patient kept as pets and his work in the sewer system. The present case reminds us to think of uncommon infectious agents even in young patients without a predisposition but unusual symptoms and/or potentially relevant anamnestic data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; P<0.0001) and mid (-17.5 [-15.5 to -19.0]% versus -21.1 [-19.1 to -23.0]%; P<0.0001) septal strain. Basal global circumferential strain was reduced (-18.7 [-15.7 to -22.1]% versus -20.6 [-19.0 to -22.5]%; P=0.0098), as were septal and free-wall segments. Mid circumferential strain was reduced within the free-wall. Strain rates were reduced in similar patterns. Basal septum LS, the combined average LS of basal and mid interventricular septal segments, correlated strongly with degree of PH (r=0.66; P<0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.60; P<0.0001), and right ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; P<0.0001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Diagnosis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Progress and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Ad W G J; Semsarian, Christopher; Puranik, Rajesh; Sy, Raymond W

    2018-04-04

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the right ventricle. With a prevalence in the range of 1:5000 to 1:2000 persons, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and in athletes. Although early detection and treatment is important, the diagnosis of ARVC remains challenging. There is no single pathognomonic diagnostic finding in ARVC; rather, current international task force criteria specify diagnostic major and minor criteria in six categories: right ventricular imaging (including echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), histology, repolarisation abnormalities, depolarisation and conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and family history (including genetic testing). Combining findings from differing diagnostic modalities can establish a "definite", "borderline" or "possible" diagnosis of ARVC. However, there are limitations inherent in the current task force criteria, including the lack of specificity for ARVC; future iterations may be improved, for example, by enhanced imaging protocols able to detect subtle changes in the structure and function of the right ventricle, incorporation of electro-anatomical data, response to adrenergic challenge, and validated criteria for interpreting genetic variants. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging during untreated ventricular fibrillation reveals prompt right ventricular overdistention without left ventricular volume loss.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert A; Sorrell, Vincent L; Kern, Karl B; Hilwig, Ronald W; Altbach, Maria I; Hayes, Melinda M; Bates, Kathryn A; Ewy, Gordon A

    2005-03-08

    Most out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) is prolonged (>5 minutes), and defibrillation from prolonged VF typically results in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Recent visual epicardial observations in an open-chest, open-pericardium model of swine VF indicate that blood flows from the high-pressure arterial system to the lower-pressure venous system during untreated VF, thereby overdistending the right ventricle and apparently decreasing left ventricular size. Therefore, inadequate left ventricular stroke volume after defibrillation from prolonged VF has been postulated as a major contributor to the development of pulseless rhythms. Ventricular dimensions were determined by MRI for 30 minutes of untreated VF in a closed-chest, closed-pericardium model in 6 swine. Within 1 minute of untreated VF, mean right ventricular volume increased by 29% but did not increase thereafter. During the first 5 minutes of untreated VF, mean left ventricular volume increased by 34%. Between 20 and 30 minutes of VF, stone heart occurred as manifested by dramatic thickening of the myocardium and concomitant substantial decreases in left ventricular volume. In this closed-chest swine model of VF, substantial right ventricular volume changes occurred early and did not result in smaller left ventricular volumes. The changes in ventricular volumes before the late development of stone heart do not explain why defibrillation from brief duration VF (<5 minutes) typically results in a pulsatile rhythm with return of spontaneous circulation, whereas defibrillation from prolonged VF (5 to 15 minutes) does not.

  4. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dofetilide promotes repolarization abnormalities in perfused Guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2012-12-01

    Dofetilide is class III antiarrhythmic agent which prolongs cardiac action potential duration because of selective inhibition of I (Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current. Although clinical studies reported on proarrhythmic risk associated with dofetilide treatment, the contributing electrophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study was designed to determine if dofetilide-induced proarrhythmia may be attributed to abnormalities in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Dofetilide was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, increased the steepness of action potential duration rate adaptation, and amplified transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics. Dofetilide also prolonged the T peak-to-end interval on ECG, and elicited a greater prolongation of endocardial than epicardial ERP, thereby increasing transmural dispersion of refractoriness. At epicardium, dofetilide prolonged action potential duration to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the critical interval for ventricular re-excitation. This change was associated with triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater dofetilide-induced prolonging effect at 90 % than 30 % repolarization. Premature ectopic beats and spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 44 % of dofetilide-treated heart preparations. Proarrhythmic potential of dofetilide in guinea-pig heart is attributed to steepened electrical restitution, increased transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics, amplified transmural dispersion of refractoriness, increased critical interval for ventricular re-excitation, and

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Aerodynamic and acoustic effects of ventricular gap.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fariborz; Karnell, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supraglottic compression is frequently observed in individuals with dysphonia. It is commonly interpreted as an indication of excessive circumlaryngeal muscular tension and ventricular medialization. The purpose of this study was to describe the aerodynamic and acoustic impact of varying ventricular medialization in a canine model. Subglottal air pressure, glottal airflow, electroglottograph, acoustic signals, and high-speed video images were recorded in seven excised canine larynges mounted in vitro for laryngeal vibratory experimentation. The degree of gap between the ventricular folds was adjusted and measured using sutures and weights. Data were recorded during phonation when the ventricular gap was narrow, neutral, and large. Glottal resistance was estimated by measures of subglottal pressure and glottal flow. Glottal resistance increased systematically as ventricular gap became smaller. Wide ventricular gaps were associated with increases in fundamental frequency and decreases in glottal resistance. Sound pressure level did not appear to be impacted by the adjustments in ventricular gap used in this research. Increases in supraglottic compression and associated reduced ventricular width may be observed in a variety of disorders that affect voice quality. Ventricular compression may interact with true vocal fold posture and vibration resulting in predictable changes in aerodynamic, physiological, acoustic, and perceptual measures of phonation. The data from this report supports the theory that narrow ventricular gaps may be associated with disordered phonation. In vitro and in vivo human data are needed to further test this association. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  9. Evaluation of mechanical dyssynchrony and myocardial perfusion using phase analysis of gated SPECT imaging in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Mark A.; Borges-Neto, Salvador; Honeycutt, Emily F.; Shaw, Linda K.; Pagnanelli, Robert; Chen, Ji; Iskandrian, Ami E.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, we examined the relation between myocardial perfusion, degree of electrical dyssynchrony, and degree of SPECT-derived mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Methods and Results We retrospectively examined 125 patients with LV dysfunction and ejection fraction of 35% or lower. Fourier analysis converts regional myocardial counts into a continuous thickening function, allowing resolution of phase of onset of myocardial thickening. The SD of LV phase distribution (phase SD) and histogram bandwidth describe LV phase dispersion as a measure of dyssynchrony. Heart failure (HF) patients with perfusion abnormalities ities have higher degrees of dyssynchrony measured by median phase SD (45.5° vs 27.7°, P < .0001) and bandwidth (117.0° vs 73.0°, P = .0006). HF patients with prolonged QRS durations have higher degrees of dyssynchrony measured by median phase SD (54.1° vs 34.7°, P < .0001) and bandwidth (136.5° vs 99.0°, P = .0005). Mild to moderate correlations exist between QRS duration and phase analysis indices of phase SD (r = 0.50) and bandwidth (r = 0.40). Mechanical dyssynchrony (phase SD >43°) was 43.2%. Conclusions HF patients with perfusion abnormalities or prolonged QRS durations QRS durations have higher degrees of mechanical dyssynchrony. Gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging can quantify myocardial function, perfusion, and dyssynchrony and may help in evaluating patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:18761269

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  11. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in an Endurance Athlete Presenting with Ventricular Tachycardia and Normal Right Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Jeffrey S; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Alikhani, Zoubin; Pernetz, Maria A; Kim, Jonathan H

    2017-08-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetically inherited disease that results in fibrofatty replacement of normal cardiac myocytes, has been associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes. Long-term participation in endurance exercise hastens the development of both the arrhythmic and structural arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy phenotypes. We describe the unusual case of a 34-year-old, symptomatic, female endurance athlete who had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the presence of a structurally normal right ventricle. Clinicians should be aware of this infrequent presentation when evaluating athletic patients who have ventricular arrhythmias and normal findings on cardiac imaging studies.

  12. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Detection of ventricular fibrillation from multiple sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, Stephanie A.; Ludeman, Lonnie C.

    1992-07-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is a potentially fatal medical condition in which the flow of blood through the body is terminated due to the lack of an organized electric potential in the heart. Automatic implantable defibrillators are becoming common as a means for helping patients confronted with repeated episodes of ventricular fibrillation. Defibrillators must first accurately detect ventricular fibrillation and then provide an electric shock to the heart to allow a normal sinus rhythm to resume. The detection of ventricular fibrillation by using an array of multiple sensors to distinguish between signals recorded from single (normal sinus rhythm) or multiple (ventricular fibrillation) sources is presented. An idealistic model is presented and the analysis of data generated by this model suggests that the method is promising as a method for accurately and quickly detecting ventricular fibrillation from signals recorded from sensors placed on the epicardium.

  15. Temporal analysis of regional wall motion from cine cardiac MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Didier, Dominique; Chretien, Anne; Rosset, Antoine; Magnin, Isabelle E.; Ligier, Yves

    1996-04-01

    views was calculated and used to identify regions with asynchronous wall motion in patients with coronary artery disease. Results suggest that this technique is more sensitive than global functional parameters such as ejection fraction for the detection of ventricular dysfunction. Color coded parametric display offers a more convenient way for the identification and localization of regional wall motion asynchrony. Data obtained from endocardial wall motion analysis were not significantly different from wall thickening measurements. The innovative approach of evaluating the temporal behavior of regional wall motion anomalies is expected to provide clinically relevant data about subtle alteration that cannot be detected through simple analysis of the extent (amplitude) of wall motion or myocardial thickening. Temporal analysis of regional WM abnormality from cine MRI offers an innovative and promising means for objective quantitative evaluation of subtle regional abnormalities. Color coded parametric maps allowed a better identification and localization of regional WM asynchrony.

  16. Surgical ablation of ventricular tachycardia secondary to congenital ventricular septal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Graffigna, A; Minzioni, G; Ressia, L; Vigano, M

    1994-04-01

    Three patients underwent surgical ablation for ventricular tachycardia resulting from an aneurysm of the membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Two patients had a definite history of cardiac murmur during infancy, and one of them was found at the time of operation to have a left-to-right shunt through the apex of the aneurysm. The earliest ventricular activation sites were located around the neck of the aneurysm and were ablated in 1 patient by encircling the endocardial ventriculotomy and by cryoablation in the remaining 2. After focus resection had been completed, aneurysm resection and ventricular septal reconstruction were performed. All patients were alive and free of ventricular tachycardia and did not need medication as of 61, 66, and 88 months postoperatively. Spontaneous closure of a ventricular septal defect may lead to the formation of an aneurysm in the ventricular septum that may sustain ventricular tachycardias. Such arrhythmias can be effectively treated using electrically guided surgical techniques.

  17. Myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function indices assessed by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Dadpour, Bita; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid R; Afshari, Reza; Dorri-Giv, Masoumeh; Mohajeri, Seyed A R; Ghahremani, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is associated with alterations of cardiac structure and function, although it is less known. In this study, we assessed possible abnormality in myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Fifteen patients with MA abuse, on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) MA dependency determined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, underwent 2-day dipyridamole stress/rest Tc-sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. An average daily dose of MA use was 0.91±1.1 (0.2-4) g. The duration of MA use was 3.4±2.1 (1-7) years. In visual and semiquantitative analyses, all patients had normal gated myocardial perfusion SPECT, with no perfusion defects. In all gated SPECT images, there was no abnormality in left ventricular wall motion and thickening. All summed stress scores and summed rest scores were below 3. Calculated left ventricular functional indices including the end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction were normal. Many cardiac findings because of MA mentioned in previous reports are less likely because of significant epicardial coronary artery stenosis.

  18. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Value of right ventricular mapping in patients with postinfarction ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Miki; Good, Eric; Crawford, Thomas; Chugh, Aman; Pelosi, Frank; Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Oral, Hakan; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Postinfarction ventricular tachycardia (VT) typically involves the left ventricular endocardium. Right ventricular involvement in the arrhythmogenic substrate of postinfarction VT is considered unusual. To assess the role of right ventricular mapping and ablation in patients with prior septal myocardial infarction. From among 37 consecutive patients with recurrent postinfarction VT, 18 patients with evidence of left ventricular septal involvement of myocardial infarction were identified; these patients were the subjects of this report. In these 18 patients, 166 VTs (cycle length 372 ± 117 ms) were induced. Right ventricular voltage mapping was performed in all 18 patients with left ventricular septal myocardial infarction. Right ventricular voltage mapping showed areas of low voltage in 11 patients; pace mapping from these areas revealed matching pace maps for 17 VTs, and radiofrequency ablation from the right ventricular endocardium but not the left ventricular endocardium eliminated 14 of 17 VTs. VTs with critical components in the right ventricle had a left bundle branch block morphology that had similar characteristics as left bundle branch block VTs with critical areas involving the left ventricular septum. Patients with right ventricular VT breakthrough sites had a lower ejection fraction than did patients without VT breaking out on the right ventricular septum (18% ± 5% vs 33% ± 15%; P = .01). Right ventricular mapping and ablation may be necessary in order to eliminate all inducible VTs in patients with postinfarction VT. More than half the patients with septal myocardial infarction have right ventricular septal areas that are critical for postinfarction VT and that cannot be eliminated by left ventricular ablation alone. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Is the epicardial left ventricular lead implantation an alternative approach to percutaneous attempt in patients with Steinert disease? A case report

    PubMed Central

    PAPA, ANDREA ANTONIO; RAGO, ANNA; PETILLO, ROBERTA; D’AMBROSIO, PAOLA; SCUTIFERO, MARIANNA; FEO, MARISA DE; MAIELLO, CIRO; PALLADINO, ALBERTO

    2017-01-01

    Steinert’s disease or Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle and facial weakness, cataracts, cognitive, endocrine and gastrointestinal involvement, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Although mild myocardial dysfunction may be detected in this syndrome with age, overt myocardial dysfunction with heart failure is not frequent. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective treatment to improve morbidity and reduce mortality in patients with DM1 showing intra-ventricular conduction delay and/or congestive heart failure. We report the case of a patient with Steinert disease showing an early onset ventricular dysfunction due to chronic right ventricular apical pacing, in which an epicardial left ventricular lead implantation was performed following the failure of the percutaneous attempt. As no relief in symptoms of heart failure, nor an improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction and reverse remodelling was observed six months later, the patient was addressed to the heart transplantation.

  1. Discrete potentials guided radiofrequency ablation for idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enzhao; Xu, Gang; Liu, Tong; Ye, Lan; Zhang, Qitong; Zhao, Yanshu; Li, Guangping

    2015-03-01

    Discrete potentials (DPs) have been recorded and targeted as the site of ablation of the outflow tract arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of DPs with respect to mapping and ablation for idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Seventeen consecutive patients with idiopathic right or left ventricular outflow tract PVCs/VTs who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation were included. Intracardiac electrograms during the mapping and ablation were analysed. During sinus rhythm, sharp high-frequency DPs that displayed double or multiple components were recorded following or buried in the local ventricular electrograms in all of the 17 patients, peak amplitude 0.51 ± 0.21 mV. The same potential was recorded prior to the local ventricular potential of the PVCs/VTs. Spontaneous reversal of the relationship of the DPs to the local ventricular electrogram during the arrhythmias was noted. The DPs were related to a region of low voltage showed by intracardiac high-density contact mapping. At the sites with DPs, lower unipolar and bipolar ventricular voltage of sinus beats were noted compared with the adjacent regions without DPs (unipolar: 6.1 ± 1.8 vs. 8.3 ± 2.3 mV, P < 0.05; bipolar: 0.62 ± 0.45 vs. 1.03 ± 0.60 mV, P < 0.05). The targeted DPs were still present in 12 patients after successful elimination of the ectopies. Discrete potentials were not present in seven controls. Discrete potentials and related low-voltage regions were common in idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias. Discrete potential- and substrate-guided ablation strategy will help to reduce the recurrence of idiopathic outflow tract arrhythmias. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Relationship Between Central and Peripheral Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Connie W.; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Murabito, Joanne M.; Oyama, Noriko; Danias, Peter G.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.; Yeon, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the relationships between resting left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), aortic plaque, and PAD in a community cohort. 1726 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (806 males, 65±9 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance with quantification of aortic plaque volume and assessment of regional LV systolic function. Claudication, lower extremity revascularization, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were recorded at Examination 7. WMAs were associated with greater aortic plaque burden, decreased ABI, and claudication in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (all p<0.001), which were not significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, both the presence (p<0.001) and volume of aortic plaque were associated with decreased ABI (p<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, ABI≤0.9 or prior revascularization was associated with a three-fold odds of aortic plaque (p=0.0083). Plaque volume significantly increased with decreasing ABI in multivariable-adjusted analyses (p<0.0001). In this free-living population, associations of WMAs with aortic plaque burden and clinical measures of PAD were attenuated after adjustment for coronary heart disease risk factors. Aortic plaque volume and ABI remained strongly negatively correlated after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the association between coronary heart disease and non-coronary atherosclerosis is explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic atherosclerosis and PAD remain strongly associated after multivariable adjustment suggesting shared mechanisms beyond those captured by traditional risk factors. PMID:21708875

  3. Computational model based approach to analysis ventricular arrhythmias: Effects of dysfunction calcium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulothungan, G.; Malathi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Disturbed sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) handling is known to be a major predisposing factor for life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac contractility in ventricular tissue is prominent by Ca2+ channels like voltage dependent Ca2+ channels, sodium-calcium exchanger (Na+-Ca2+x) and sacroplasmicrecticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump and leakage channels. Experimental and clinical possibilities for studying cardiac arrhythmias in human ventricular myocardium are very limited. Therefore, the use of alternative methods such as computer simulations is of great importance. Our aim of this article is to study the impact on action potential (AP) generation and propagation in single ventricular myocyte and ventricular tissue under different dysfunction Ca2+ channels condition. In enhanced activity of Na+-Ca2+x, single myocyte produces AP duration (APD90) and APD50 is significantly smaller (266 ms and 235 ms). Its Na+-Ca2+x current at depolarization is increases 60% from its normal level and repolarization current goes more negative (nonfailing= -0.28 pA/pF and failing= -0.47 pA/pF). Similarly, same enhanced activity of Na+-Ca2+x in 10 mm region of ventricular sheet, raises the plateau potential abruptly, which ultimately affects the diastolic repolarization. Compare with normal ventricular sheet region of 10 mm, 10% of ventricular sheet resting state is reduces and ventricular sheet at time 250 ms is goes to resting state very early. In hypertrophy condition, single myocyte produces APD90 and APD50 is worthy of attention smaller (232 mS and 198 ms). Its sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump current is 75% reduces from its control conditions (0.13 pA/pF). Hypertrophy condition, 50% of ventricular sheet is reduces to minimum plateau potential state, that starts the repolarization process very early and reduces the APD. In a single failing SR Ca2+ channels myocyte, recovery of Ca2+ concentration level in SR reduces upto 15% from its control myocytes. At time 290 ms, 70% of ventricular sheet

  4. Device Management and Flow Optimization on Left Ventricular Assist Device Support.

    PubMed

    Tchoukina, Inna; Smallfield, Melissa C; Shah, Keyur B

    2018-07-01

    The authors discuss principles of continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) operation, basic differences between the axial and centrifugal flow designs and hemodynamic performance, normal LVAD physiology, and device interaction with the heart. Systematic interpretation of LVAD parameters and recognition of abnormal patterns of flow and pulsatility on the device interrogation are necessary for clinical assessment of the patient. Optimization of pump flow using LVAD parameters and echocardiographic and hemodynamics guidance are reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe right ventricular hypertrophy in a patient with extracardiac and intracardiac shunt.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Mohit; Abidov, Aiden

    2018-06-10

    Cardiac MRI is a complementary and confirmatory modality to a clinical echocardiography in diagnosing patients with complex adult congenital heart disease, especially in presence of great vessel abnormalities. We present a unique case of a patient with pulmonary hypertension (PH), severe right ventricular hypertrophy, Gerbode defect, and a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The diagnosis of PDA was not visualized on prior serial echocardiograms and discovered on a comprehensive cardiac MRI/Chest MR angiogram. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ventriculostomy Simulation Using Patient-Specific Ventricular Anatomy, 3D Printing, and Hydrogel Casting.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Justin R; Chen, Tsinsue; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H; Gonzalez, L Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Educational simulators provide a means for students and experts to learn and refine surgical skills. Educators can leverage the strengths of medical simulators to effectively teach complex and high-risk surgical procedures, such as placement of an external ventricular drain. Our objective was to develop a cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum for cerebral lateral ventriculostomy. A cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for placement of an external lateral ventriculostomy. Elastomeric and gel casting techniques were used to achieve realistic brain geometry and material properties. 3D printing technology was leveraged to develop accurate cranial properties and dimensions. An economical, gravity-driven pump was developed to provide normal and abnormal ventricular pressures. A small pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy using a technology acceptance model. An accurate geometric representation of the brain was developed with independent lateral cerebral ventricular chambers. A gravity-driven pump pressurized the ventricular cavities to physiologic values. A qualitative study illustrated that the simulation has potential as an educational tool to train medical professionals in the ventriculostomy procedure. The ventricular simulacrum can improve learning in a medical education environment. Rapid prototyping and multi-material casting techniques can produce patient-derived models for cost-effective and realistic surgical training scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy: A paradigm shift from right to biventricular disease

    PubMed Central

    Saguner, Ardan M; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Duru, Firat

    2014-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy (AVC) is generally referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and constitutes an inherited cardiomyopathy. Affected patients may succumb to sudden cardiac death (SCD), ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and heart failure. Genetic studies have identified causative mutations in genes encoding proteins of the intercalated disk that lead to reduced myocardial electro-mechanical stability. The term arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy is somewhat misleading as biventricular involvement or isolated left ventricular (LV) involvement may be present and thus a broader term such as AVC should be preferred. The diagnosis is established on a point score basis according to the revised 2010 task force criteria utilizing imaging modalities, demonstrating fibrous replacement through biopsy, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias and a positive family history including identification of genetic mutations. Although several risk factors for SCD such as previous cardiac arrest, syncope, documented VTA, severe RV/LV dysfunction and young age at manifestation have been identified, risk stratification still needs improvement, especially in asymptomatic family members. Particularly, the role of genetic testing and environmental factors has to be further elucidated. Therapeutic interventions include restriction from physical exercise, beta-blockers, sotalol, amiodarone, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and catheter ablation. Life-long follow-up is warranted in symptomatic patients, but also asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic mutations. PMID:24772256

  8. Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects and late gadolinium enhancement in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Milks, Michael Wesley; Upadhya, Bharathi; Hall, Michael E; Vasu, Sujethra; Hundley, William Gregory; Stacey, Richard Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of right ventricular (RV) perfusion defects has remained challenging during vasodilator stress perfusion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The significance of RV signal abnormalities during vasodilator stress perfusion and late gadolinium-enhanced CMR is yet uncertain. Among 61 individuals who underwent adenosine CMR stress testing before cardiac catheterization, we assessed the severity of coronary artery stenoses, mortality, the presence of stress and rest perfusion defects, as well as the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects were positively associated with left anterior descending artery and proximal right coronary artery stenoses but were negatively associated with left circumflex artery stenoses. The presence of RVLGE was associated with mortality, but 77% of those with RVLGE also had left ventricular LGE. Proximal right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery stenoses are positively associated, whereas left circumflex artery stenoses are negatively associated with RV stress-induced perfusion defects. Right ventricular LGE was associated with mortality, but further study is needed to determine whether this is independent of left ventricular LGE.

  9. Epinephrine and left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function decrease in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, Abdel J; Solórzano, Moisés I; Gómez, Luisangelly

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of epinephrine over left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function in subjects without structural heart disease. Twenty-seven, 34.6±17.2year-old patients without structural heart disease were included. Intravenous epinephrine (50 to 100ng/kg/min) was infused. Left atrial and ventricular functions were evaluated by means of echocardiography before and during the epinephrine infusion. No complications were observed. Significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. Both left atrial (minimal and maximal) volumes increased but increase in the minimal volume was more pronounced, and the ejection fraction diminished. Left atrial expansion index decreased and the fraction of left ventricular inflow volume resulting from atrial contraction increased. Two patients displayed abnormal left ventricular diastolic function. During epinephrine infusion, E/A and e' decreased, and isovolumetric relaxation time increased. In this group of young adults without structural heart disease, epinephrine infusion was safe, did not produce any complications, and induced a small but significant decrease in left atrial function and left ventricular diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sites of Successful Ventricular Fibrillation Ablation in Bileaflet Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Faisal F; Ackerman, Michael J; McLeod, Christopher J; Kapa, Suraj; Mulpuru, Siva K; Sriram, Chenni S; Cannon, Bryan C; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Noseworthy, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Although the vast majority of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is benign, a small subset of patients, predominantly women, with bileaflet prolapse, complex ventricular ectopy (VE), and abnormal T waves comprise the recently described bileaflet MVP syndrome. We compared findings on electrophysiological study in bileaflet MVP syndrome patients with and without cardiac arrest to identify factors that may predispose to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. Fourteen consecutive bileaflet MVP syndrome patients (n=13 women; median [limits], age at index ablation, 33.8 [21.0-58.7] years; ejection fraction, 60% [45%-67%]; all ≤ moderate mitral regurgitation; n=6 with previous cardiac arrest and implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks for ventricular fibrillation; and n=8 without implantable cardioverter defibrillator although with symptomatic complex VE) were included. The 2 groups had similar baseline echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics. All patients had at least 1 left ventricular papillary or fascicular VE focus. Purkinje origin VE was identified as the ventricular fibrillation trigger in 6 of 6 cardiac arrest patients (4 from papillary muscle) and Purkinje origin of dominant VE was seen in 5 of 8 (3 from papillary muscle) nonarrest patients. Acute success was seen in 17 of 19 procedures, and a ventricular fibrillation storm occurred within 24 hours of ablation in a single patient. Repeat ablation for recurrent symptomatic arrhythmia was performed in 6 patients. At 478 (39-2099) days of follow-up, 2 cardiac arrest patients received appropriate shocks. Symptoms from VE were reduced in 12 of 14. Bileaflet MVP syndrome is characterized by fascicular and papillary muscle VE that triggers ventricular fibrillation. Ablation of clinically dominant VE foci improves symptoms and reduces appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Histopathological Correlates of Global and Segmental Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Experimental Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Cabeza, Jorge Mejia; Salgado, Hélio Cesar; Fazan Júnior, Rubens; Costa, Renata Sesti; da Silva, João Santana; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Marin-Neto, José Antônio; Simões, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-21

    Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in humans is characterized by segmental left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA), mainly in the early stages of disease. This study aimed at investigating the detection of WMA and its correlation with the underlying histopathological changes in a chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy model in hamsters. Female Syrian hamsters (n=34) infected with 3.5×10(4) or 10(5) blood trypomastigote Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) forms and an uninfected control group (n=7) were investigated. After 6 or 10 months after the infection, the animals were submitted to in vivo evaluation of global and segmental left ventricular systolic function by echocardiography, followed by euthanasia and histological analysis for quantitative assessment of fibrosis and inflammation with tissue sampling in locations coinciding with the left ventricular wall segmentation employed at the in vivo echocardiographic evaluation. Ten of the 34 infected animals (29%) showed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (<73%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was more negatively correlated with the intensity of inflammation (r=-0.63; P<0.0001) than with the extent of fibrosis (r=-0.36; P=0.036). Among the 24 animals with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (82.9±5.5%), 8 (33%) showed segmental WMA predominating in the apical, inferior, and posterolateral segments. The segments exhibiting WMA, in comparison to those with normal wall motion, showed a greater extent of fibrosis (9.3±5.7% and 7±6.3%, P<0.0001) and an even greater intensity of inflammation (218.0±111.6 and 124.5±84.8 nuclei/mm², P<0.0001). Isolated WMA with preserved global systolic left ventricular function is frequently found in Syrian hamsters with experimental chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy whose underlying histopathological features are mainly inflammatory. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Effects of Frequent Hemodialysis on Ventricular Volumes and Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Tom; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kliger, Alan S.; Stokes, John B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Daugirdas, John T.; Kotanko, Peter; Larive, Brett; Levin, Nathan W.; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Rocco, Michael; Sanz, Javier; Yang, Phillip C.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher left ventricular volume is associated with death in patients with ESRD. This work investigated the effects of frequent hemodialysis on ventricular volumes and left ventricular remodeling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily trial randomized 245 patients to 12 months of six times per week versus three times per week in-center hemodialysis; the Frequent Hemodialysis Network nocturnal trial randomized 87 patients to 12 months of six times per week nocturnal hemodialysis versus three times per week predominantly home-based hemodialysis. Left and right ventricular end systolic and diastolic volumes, left ventricular mass, and ejection fraction at baseline and end of the study were ascertained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume was used as a surrogate marker of left ventricular remodeling. In each trial, the effect of frequent dialysis on left or right ventricular end diastolic volume was tested between predefined subgroups. Results In the daily trial, frequent hemodialysis resulted in significant reductions in left ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.0% [95% confidence interval, −16.1% to −5.5%]), left ventricular end systolic volume (−14.8% [−22.7% to −6.2%]), right ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.6% [−19.0% to −3.6%]), and a trend for right ventricular end systolic volume (−11.3% [−21.4% to 0.1%]) compared with conventional therapy. The magnitude of reduction in left and right ventricular end diastolic volumes with frequent hemodialysis was accentuated among patients with residual urine output<100 ml/d (P value [interaction]=0.02). In the nocturnal trial, there were no significant changes in left or right ventricular volumes. The frequent dialysis interventions had no substantial effect on the ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume in either

  13. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  14. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  15. Does the study of anaerobic metabolism give quantitative information on left ventricular dysfunction during exercise?

    PubMed

    Opasich, C; Cobelli, F; Riccardi, G; La Rovere, M T; Calsamiglia, G; Specchia, G

    1988-04-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been proposed as an index to assess the functional status of patients with chronic heart failure. The focus of this report was to evaluate in post-myocardial infarction patients the utility of the AT for (a) assessing the severity of exercise-induced left ventricular impairment, (b) determining the responses obtained from different treatments and (c) prescribing exercise training. We found that the AT level was lower in patients with abnormal haemodynamic patterns during exercise. The AT was correlated to different degrees of exercise-induced left ventricular impairment. The nitrate and calcium-antagonist effects have been evaluated in patients with abnormal exercise haemodynamics. The resting and exertional results were in agreement with the vasodilator effects. Moreover, the time from onset of exercise to the appearance of the AT was significantly increased by the treatments. Thus, AT during pharmacological treatments may be a non-invasive useful parameter for assessing their haemodynamic effects. Finally, a 4-week intermittent training programme based on AT level was evaluated in patients with abnormal resting and exertional haemodynamics. The results showed an improvement of the exercise cardiovascular tolerance without negative effects on left ventricular function. Therefore, the AT seems to be useful when prescribing a rational and individualized training programme.

  16. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial deformation by cardiac MRI strain imaging reveals myocardial dysfunction in patients with primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hua-Yan; Shi, Ke; Guo, Ying-Kun

    2018-02-15

    To assess left ventricular myocardial deformation in patients with primary cardiac tumors. MRI was retrospectively performed in 61 patients, including 31 patients with primary cardiac tumors and 30 matched normal controls. Left ventricular strain and function parameters were then assessed by MRI-tissue tracking. Differences between the tumor group and controls, left and right heart tumor groups, left ventricular wall tumor and non-left ventricular wall tumor groups, and tumors with and without LV enlargement groups were assessed. Finally, the correlations among tumor diameter, myocardial strain, and LV function were analyzed. Left ventricular myocardial strain was milder for tumor group than for normal group. Peak circumferential strain (PCS) and its diastolic strain rate, longitudinal strains (PLS) and its diastolic strain rates, and peak radial systolic and diastolic velocities of the right heart tumor group were lower than those of the left heart tumor group (all p<0.050), but the peak radial systolic strain rate of the former was higher than that of the latter (p=0.017). The corresponding strains were lower in the left ventricular wall tumor groups than in the non-left ventricular wall tumor group (p<0.050). Peak radial systolic velocities were generally higher for tumors with LV enlargement than for tumors without LV enlargement (p<0.050). Peak radial strain, PCS, and PLS showed important correlations with the left ventricular ejection fraction (all p<0.050). MRI-tissue tracking is capable of quantitatively assessing left ventricular myocardial strain to reveal sub-clinical abnormalities of myocardial contractile function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical characteristics and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in women with transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Prasad, Abhiram; Barsness, Greg W; Lerman, Amir; Jaffe, Allan S; Murphy, Joseph G; Wright, R Scott; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2004-08-01

    The characteristics of 16 women with transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning syndrome in a United States population are presented. Additionally, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts were evaluated during the acute period. Patients generally presented with anterior ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. All patients had LV apical wall motion abnormalities. An acute emotional or physiologic stressor preceded most cases. TIMI frame counts were abnormal in all patients and often abnormal in all 3 major coronary vessels, suggesting that the diffuse impairment of coronary microcirculatory function may play a role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  19. Left ventricular early diastolic inflow velocity and atrial ventricular plane downward velocity: useful parameters to test diastolic function in clinical practice? Diastolic parameters tested in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Gudmundsson, P; Ericsson, G; Willenheimer, R

    2001-06-01

    To study the clinical value of the colour-M-mode slope of the early diastolic left ventricular filling phase (Vp) and the early diastolic downward M-mode slope of the left atrioventricular plane displacement (EDS), compared with diastolic function assessed by traditional Doppler evaluation. In 65 consecutive patients EDS and Vp were compared with a four-degree traditional diastolic function classification, based on pulsed Doppler assessment of the early to atrial transmitral flow ratio (E/A), the E-wave deceleration time (Edt), and the systolic to diastolic (S/D) pulmonary venous inflow ratio. Vp (P=0.006) and EDS (P=0.045) were related to traditional diastolic function (Kruskal--Wallis analysis). EDS showed a trend brake between the moderate and severe diastolic dysfunction groups by traditional Doppler evaluation. Vp and EDS correlated weakly in simple linear regression analysis (r=0.33). Vp and EDS discriminated poorly between normal and highly abnormal diastolic function. Vp and EDS were significantly related to diastolic function by traditional Doppler evaluation. They were, however, not useful as single parameters of left ventricular diastolic function due to a small difference between normal and highly abnormal values, allowing for little between-measurement variability. Consequently, these methods for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function do not add significantly to traditional Doppler evaluation.

  20. 21 CFR 882.4060 - Ventricular cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4060 Ventricular cannula. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4060 - Ventricular cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4060 Ventricular cannula. (a...

  2. Ventricular-Fold Dynamics in Human Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailly, Lucie; Bernardoni, Nathalie Henrich; Müller, Frank; Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Hess, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample…

  3. Investigation of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation in ventricular septal defect occlusion

    PubMed Central

    LIU, SHU-PING; LI, LI; YAO, KE-CHUN; WANG, NA; WANG, JIAN-CHANG

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the mechanism of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation and the significance of ventricular septal defect occlusion by echocardiography. A total of 43 patients with membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation were observed by echocardiography and the changes in length, area and volume of tricuspid regurgitation prior to and following ventricular septal defect occlusion were measured. There were four different mechanisms of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation. The various indices of tricuspid regurgitation volume were significantly reduced following occlusion. Ventricular septal defect occlusion significantly reduces tricuspid regurgitation volume complicated with membranous ventricular septal defect and echocardiography is an ideal method to detect these changes. PMID:23404058

  4. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is caused by mutation-linked defective conformational regulation of the ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Yano, Masafumi; Suetomi, Takeshi; Ono, Makoto; Xu, Xiaojuan; Tateishi, Hiroki; Oda, Tetsuro; Okuda, Shinichi; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is caused by a single point mutation in a well-defined region of the cardiac type-2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2). However, the underlying mechanism by which a single mutation in such a large molecule produces drastic effects on channel function remains unresolved. Objective Using a knock-in (KI) mouse model with a human CPVT-associated RyR2 mutation (R2474S), we investigated the molecular mechanism by which CPVT is induced by a single point mutation within the RyR2. Methods and Results The R2474S/+ KI mice showed no apparent structural or histological abnormalities in the heart, but they showed clear indications of other abnormalities. Bidirectional or polymorphic VT was induced after exercise on a treadmill. The interaction between the N-terminal (aa 1–600) and central (aa 2000–2500) domains of the RyR2 (an intrinsic mechanism to close Ca2+ channels) was weakened (domain unzipping). Upon protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the RyR2, this domain unzipping further increased, resulting in a significant increase in the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients. cAMP-induced aberrant Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks/waves) occurred at much lower sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content as compared to the wild-type (WT). Addition of a domain-unzipping peptide, DPc10 (aa 2460–2495), to the WT reproduced the aforementioned abnormalities that are characteristic of the R2474S/+ KI mice. Addition of DPc10 to the (cAMP-treated) KI cardiomyocytes produced no further effect. Conclusions A single point mutation within the RyR2 sensitizes the channel to agonists and reduces the threshold of luminal [Ca2+] for activation, primarily mediated by defective inter-domain interaction within the RyR2. PMID:20224043

  5. Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Todd M.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds contribute to increase ventricular afterload, and is generally defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, right ventricular hypertrophy appears to be a common complication of chronic lung disease, and more frequently complicates advanced lung disease. Right ventricular failure is rare, except during acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease or when multiple co-morbidities are present. Treatment is targeted at correcting hypoxia and improving pulmonary gas exchange and mechanics. There are presently no convincing data to support the use of pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies in patients with right ventricular dysfunction secondary to chronic lung disease. PMID:22548815

  6. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  7. Secondary ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia during cardiac arrest and epinephrine dosing.

    PubMed

    Straznitskas, Andrew D; Wong, Sylvia; Kupchik, Nicole; Carlbom, David

    2015-05-01

    Development of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia after an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is associated with significantly increased cardiac arrest mortality. To examine differences in epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest between patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop and patients who did not. Data were collected for 2 groups of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest and an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole: those who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop (cases) and those who did not (controls). Dosing of epinephrine during cardiac arrest and other variables were compared between cases and controls. Of the 215 patients identified with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole, 51 (23.7%) had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop. Throughout the total duration of arrest, including periods of return of spontaneous circulation, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.4 minutes compared with 1 mg every 5 minutes in controls (P= .001). For the total duration of pulselessness, excluding periods of return of spontaneous circulation during the arrest, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.1 minutes versus 1 mg every 4.3 minutes in controls (P= .001). More frequent administration of epinephrine during cardiac arrest is associated with development of secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Right Ventricular Perfusion: Physiology and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Crystal, George J; Pagel, Paul S

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow to the right ventricle differs significantly from that to the left ventricle. The right ventricle develops a lower systolic pressure than the left ventricle, resulting in reduced extravascular compressive forces and myocardial oxygen demand. Right ventricular perfusion has eight major characteristics that distinguish it from left ventricular perfusion: (1) appreciable perfusion throughout the entire cardiac cycle; (2) reduced myocardial oxygen uptake, blood flow, and oxygen extraction; (3) an oxygen extraction reserve that can be recruited to at least partially offset a reduction in coronary blood flow; (4) less effective pressure-flow autoregulation; (5) the ability to downregulate its metabolic demand during coronary hypoperfusion and thereby maintain contractile function and energy stores; (6) a transmurally uniform reduction in myocardial perfusion in the presence of a hemodynamically significant epicardial coronary stenosis; (7) extensive collateral connections from the left coronary circulation; and (8) possible retrograde perfusion from the right ventricular cavity through the Thebesian veins. These differences promote the maintenance of right ventricular oxygen supply-demand balance and provide relative resistance to ischemia-induced contractile dysfunction and infarction, but they may be compromised during acute or chronic increases in right ventricle afterload resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Contractile function of the thin-walled right ventricle is exquisitely sensitive to afterload. Acute increases in pulmonary arterial pressure reduce right ventricular stroke volume and, if sufficiently large and prolonged, result in right ventricular failure. Right ventricular ischemia plays a prominent role in these effects. The risk of right ventricular ischemia is also heightened during chronic elevations in right ventricular afterload because microvascular growth fails to match myocyte hypertrophy and because microvascular

  9. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation ( P =0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the

  10. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Dominguez, Fernando; González-López, Esther; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gomez-Bueno, Manuel; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Millan, Isabel; Segovia, Javier; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a well-known aetiology of atrial arrhythmias but there is little information concerning the prevalence or incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). This study sought to investigate incidence and predictive factors of ventricular arrhythmias in ACM. Retrospective observational study of the clinical characteristics and long-term arrhythmic events in 282 consecutive patients with ACM (94 individuals) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) (188 individuals) evaluated between 1993 and 2011. During a median follow-up of 38months (IQR:12-77), 42 patients died and 79 underwent heart transplantation [31 (33%) with ACM vs 90 (48%) with IDCM; p=0.017]. A total of 37 (13%) patients [18 (19%) ACM vs 20 (11%) IDCM; p=0.048] suffered malignant ventricular arrhythmias. On multivariate analysis, left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 2.4; CI95%: 1.2-5; p=0.015) and alcoholic aetiology (OR 2.3; CI95%: 1.1-4.5; p=0.026) were the only independent predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmic events. A total of 18 (19%) ACM patients experienced 20 malignant ventricular arrhythmic events (4 aborted SCD, 8 SCD and 8 appropriate ICD therapies). At baseline evaluation, the only independent predictor of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in ACM patients was LBBB (OR 11.2; CI95%: 2.6-50; p=0.001). No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during follow-up in ACM patients if left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) had increased or remained ≥40%. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are more frequent in ACM than in IDCM. LBBB identifies ACM patients with increased risk of SCD. No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were found during follow-up in ACM patients when LVEF was ≥40%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  13. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  14. Right ventricular systolic function in hypertensive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oketona, O A; Balogun, M O; Akintomide, A O; Ajayi, O E; Adebayo, R A; Mene-Afejuku, T O; Oketona, O T; Bamikole, O J

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF) is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters. One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls. All study participants gave written informed consent, and had a full physical examination, blood investigations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography. RV systolic function was assessed in all subjects using different methods based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults. This included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV myocardial performance index (MPI), and RV systolic excursion velocity by tissue Doppler (S'). RV systolic dysfunction was found in 53% of subjects with HHF by TAPSE, 56% by RV MPI, and 48% by tissue Doppler systolic excursion S'. RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in subjects with HHF. A high proportion of subjects with HHF were found to have RV systolic functional abnormalities using TAPSE, RV MPI, and RV S'. Prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing LVEF.

  15. Electrocardiographic left ventricular strain pattern: everything old is new again.

    PubMed

    Schocken, Douglas D

    2014-01-01

    Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has many faces with countless features. Beyond the classic measures of LVH, including QRS voltage and duration, the left ventricular (LV) strain pattern is an element whereby characteristic R-ST depression is followed by a concave ST segment that ends in an asymmetrically inverted T wave. The LV strain pattern generally appears in states of increased systemic blood pressure and must be differentiated from similar but not identical ST-T waves indicating ischemia. The LV strain pattern has been found in population studies to be associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Regression of LV strain pattern parallels decline in systemic BP during clinical trials of anti-hypertensive therapies but does not indicate or serve as a surrogate for decrease in LV mass. Newer techniques in data collection and processing may allow the process of strain to be studied in more detail to determine the ways in which electrical remodeling of the left ventricle as characterized by LVH with 'repolarization abnormalities' indicates how CV risk might be managed by using LV strain pattern as an electrocardiographic biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational Analysis of Intra-Ventricular Flow Pattern Under Partial and Full Support of BJUT-II VAD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu

    2017-02-27

    BACKGROUND Partial support, as a novel support mode, has been widely applied in clinical practice and widely studied. However, the precise mechanism of partial support of LVAD in the intra-ventricular flow pattern is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a patient-specific left ventricular geometric model was reconstructed based on CT data. The intra-ventricular flow pattern under 3 simulated conditions - "heart failure", "partial support", and "full support" - were simulated by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The blood flow pattern, wall shear stress (WSS), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT) were calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic effects. RESULTS The results demonstrate that the intra-ventricular flow pattern is significantly changed by the support level of BJUT-II VAD. The intra-ventricular vortex was enhanced under partial support and was eliminated under full support, and the high OSI and RRT regions changed from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. CONCLUSIONS In brief, the support level of the BJUT-II VAD has significant effects on the intra-ventricular flow pattern. The partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can enhance the intra-ventricular vortex, while the distribution of high OSI and RRT moved from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. Hence, the partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can provide more benefit for intra-ventricular flow pattern.

  17. Dyssynchronous Ventricular Activation in Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Risk Factor for Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Udink ten Cate, Floris EA; Wiesner, Nathalie; Trieschmann, Uwe; Khalil, Markus; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2010-01-01

    A subset of children and adults with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although DCM may occur in symptomatic WPW patients with sustained tachyarrhythmias, emerging evidence suggests that significant left ventricular dysfunction may arise in WPW in the absence of incessant tachyarrhythmias. An invariable electrophysiological feature in this non-tachyarrhythmia type of DCM is the presence of a right-sided septal or paraseptal accessory pathway. It is thought that premature ventricular activation over these accessory pathways induces septal wall motion abnormalities and ventricular dyssynchrony. LV dyssynchrony induces cellular and structural ventricular remodelling, which may have detrimental effects on cardiac performance. This review summarizes recent evidence for development of DCM in asymptomatic patients with WPW, discusses its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management and treatment. The prognosis of accessory pathway-induced DCM is excellent. LV dysfunction reverses following catheter ablation of the accessory pathway, suggesting an association between DCM and ventricular preexcitation. Accessory pathway-induced DCM should be suspected in all patients presenting with heart failure and overt ventricular preexcitation, in whom no cause for their DCM can be found. PMID:20552060

  18. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily L; Kulik, Tobias B; Keyrouz, Salah G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Warren, David K

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD) DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 SETTING Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. METHODS We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. RESULTS We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio's definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:574-579.

  19. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily; Kulik, Tobias; Keyrouz, Salah; Zipfel, Gregory; Warren, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD). Design Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 Setting Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary care center. Patients Patients with an EVD. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. Methods We reviewed the charts of patients with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. Results We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 episodes of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture positive episodes and 11 episodes based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were Gram positive commensals (79.2%), however 45% of these had growth of only one colony on one piece of media. About 60% of the ventriculitis episodes by NHSN definition met Honda criteria, about 56% met Gozal criteria and 23% met Citerio’s definition. Honda vs. Gozal had a moderate agreement (Ƙ=0.528, p< 0.05) whereas Honda vs Citerio (Ƙ=0.338, p< 0.05) and Citerio vs Gozal (Ƙ=0.384, p< 0.05) comparisons had only fair agreements. Conclusions Agreement between published VAI definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. PMID:28219470

  20. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.

    1984-01-19

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thalliummore » defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.« less

  1. A history of ventricular neuroendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Decq, Philippe; Schroeder, Henry W S; Fritsch, Michael; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    To describe the history of neuroendoscopy through the history of the major neurosurgeons who worked and published in the field. All relevant data described in publications before 1980 about the history of neuroendoscopy and found through OVID MEDLINE searches and related references are reported. Contributions of 14 neurosurgeons who were pioneers in neuroendoscopy are described in chronologic order: Lespinasse, Dandy, Payr, Mixter, Fay, Grant, Volkmann, Putnam, Dereymacker, Scarff, Feld, Guiot, Fukushima, and Griffith. An historical review of ventricular neuroendoscopy remains by essence incomplete. Medical technical progress proceeds by leaps and bounds, related to the ingenuity of surgeons able to understand rapidly the value of a technical change to improve their surgical procedure. The ability to remain attentive to patients and evolving pathologies as well as the evolution of modern technology is required to make further progress in neuroendoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolving targeted therapies for right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Although right and left ventricular embryological origins, morphology and cardiodynamics differ, the notion of selectively targeted right ventricular therapies remains controversial. This review focuses on both the currently evolving pharmacologic agents targeting right ventricular failure (metabolic modulators, phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors) and future therapeutic approaches including epigenetic modulation by miRNAs, chromatin binding complexes, long non-coding RNAs, genomic editing, adoptive gene transfer and gene therapy, cell regeneration via cell transplantation and cell reprogramming and cardiac tissue engineering. Strategies for adult right ventricular regeneration will require a more holistic approach than strategies for adult left ventricular failure. Instances of right ventricular failure requiring global reconstitution of right ventricular myocardium, attractive approaches include: i) myocardial patches seeded with cardiac fibroblasts reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes in vivo by small molecules, miRNAs or other epigenetic modifiers; and ii) administration of miRNAs, lncRNAs or small molecules by non-viral vector delivery systems targeted to fibroblasts (e.g., episomes) to stimulate in vivo reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. For selected heritable genetic myocardial diseases, genomic editing affords exciting opportunities for allele-specific silencing by site-specific directed silencing, mutagenesis or gene excision. Genomic editing by adoptive gene transfer affords similarly exciting opportunities for restoration of myocardial gene expression.

  3. A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in Semaphorin 3A as a Risk Factor for Human Unexplained Cardiac Arrest with Documented Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yukiko; Chayama, Kazuaki; Ochi, Hidenori; Toshishige, Masaaki; Hayashida, Yasufumi; Miki, Daiki; Hayes, C. Nelson; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tokuyama, Takehito; Oda, Noboru; Suenari, Kazuyoshi; Uchimura-Makita, Yuko; Kajihara, Kenta; Sairaku, Akinori; Motoda, Chikaaki; Fujiwara, Mai; Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Ohkubo, Kimie; Watanabe, Ichiro; Nogami, Akihiko; Hasegawa, Kanae; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto; Aiba, Takeshi; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Arihiro, Koji; Tashiro, Satoshi; Makita, Naomasa; Kihara, Yasuki

    2013-01-01

    Unexplained cardiac arrest (UCA) with documented ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death. Abnormal sympathetic innervations have been shown to be a trigger of ventricular fibrillation. Further, adequate expression of SEMA3A was reported to be critical for normal patterning of cardiac sympathetic innervation. We investigated the relevance of the semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) gene located at chromosome 5 in the etiology of UCA. Eighty-three Japanese patients diagnosed with UCA and 2,958 healthy controls from two different geographic regions in Japan were enrolled. A nonsynonymous polymorphism (I334V, rs138694505A>G) in exon 10 of the SEMA3A gene identified through resequencing was significantly associated with UCA (combined P = 0.0004, OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.67–5.7). Overall, 15.7% of UCA patients carried the risk genotype G, whereas only 5.6% did in controls. In patients with SEMA3A I334V, VF predominantly occurred at rest during the night. They showed sinus bradycardia, and their RR intervals on the 12-lead electrocardiography tended to be longer than those in patients without SEMA3A I334V (1031±111 ms versus 932±182 ms, P = 0.039). Immunofluorescence staining of cardiac biopsy specimens revealed that sympathetic nerves, which are absent in the subendocardial layer in normal hearts, extended to the subendocardial layer only in patients with SEMA3A I334V. Functional analyses revealed that the axon-repelling and axon-collapsing activities of mutant SEMA3A I334V genes were significantly weaker than those of wild-type SEMA3A genes. A high incidence of SEMA3A I334V in UCA patients and inappropriate innervation patterning in their hearts implicate involvement of the SEMA3A gene in the pathogenesis of UCA. PMID:23593010

  4. Patient-specific assessment of left ventricular thrombogenesis risk after acute myocardial infarction: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, L.; Khan, A.; Del Alamo, J. C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Pérez Del Villar, C.; Benito, Y.; Yotti, R.; Barrio, A.; Delgado-Montero, A.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Bermejo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In these patients, the benefits of chronic anticoagulation therapy need to be balanced with its pro-hemorrhagic effects. Blood stasis in the cardiac chambers, a risk factor for LVT, is not addressed in current clinical practice. We recently developed a method to quantitatively assess the blood residence time (RT) inside the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D color-Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV). Using time-resolved blood velocity fields acquired non-invasively, we integrate a modified advection equation to map intraventricular stasis regions. Here, we present how this tool can be used to estimate the risk of LVT in patients with AMI. 73 patients with a first anterior-AMI were studied by echo-CDV and RT analysis within 72h from admission and at a 5-month follow-up. Patients who eventually develop LVT showed early abnormalities of intraventricular RT: the apical region with RT>2s was significantly larger, had a higher RT and a longer wall contact length. Thus, quantitative analysis of intraventricular flow based on echocardiography may provide subclinical markers of LV thrombosis risk to guide clinical decision making.

  5. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  6. Morphometric abnormalities of the lateral ventricles in methamphetamine-dependent subjects☆

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeonseok S.; Lee, Sunho; Yoon, Sujung; Jung, Jiyoung J.; Cho, Han Byul; Kim, Binna N.; Ma, Jiyoung; Ko, Eun; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Ban, Soonhyun; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2017-01-01

    Background The presence of morphometric abnormalities of the lateral ventricles, which can reflect focal or diffuse atrophic changes of nearby brain structures, is not well characterized in methamphetamine dependence. The current study was aimed to examine the size and shape alterations of the lateral ventricles in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methods High-resolution brain structural images were obtained from 37 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 25 demographically matched healthy individuals. Using a combined volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach, the structural variability of the lateral ventricles, with respect to extent and location, was examined. Results Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had an enlarged right lateral ventricle compared with healthy individuals. Morphometric analysis revealed a region-specific pattern of lateral ventricular expansion associated with methamphetamine dependence, which was mainly distributed in the areas adjacent to the ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and thalamus. Conclusions Patterns of shape decomposition in the lateral ventricles may have relevance to the structural vulnerability of the prefrontal-ventral striatal-thalamic circuit to methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23769159

  7. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Left ventricular remodeling in preclinical experimental mitral regurgitation of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Tillson, Michael; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Hathcock, John; Botzman, Logan

    2012-03-01

    Dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation (MR) provide insights into the left ventricular remodeling in preclinical MR. The early preclinical left ventricular (LV) changes after mitral regurgitation represent progressive dysfunctional remodeling, in that no compensatory response returns the functional stroke volume (SV) to normal even as total SV increases. The gradual disease progression leads to mitral annulus stretch and enlargement of the regurgitant orifice, further increasing the regurgitant volume. Remodeling with loss of collagen weave and extracellular matrix (ECM) is accompanied by stretching and hypertrophy of the cross-sectional area and length of the cardiomyocyte. Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes demonstrate dysfunction based on decreased cell shortening and reduced intracellular calcium transients before chamber enlargement or decreases in contractility in the whole heart can be clinically appreciated. The genetic response to increased end-diastolic pressure is down-regulation of genes associated with support of the collagen and ECM and up-regulation of genes associated with matrix remodeling. Experiments have not demonstrated any beneficial effects on remodeling from treatments that decrease afterload via blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Beta-1 receptor blockade and chymase inhibition have altered the progression of the LV remodeling and have supported cardiomyocyte function. The geometry of the LV during the remodeling provides insight into the importance of regional differences in responses to wall stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between hippuric acid and left ventricular hypertrophy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Teng-Hung; Tang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Wang, Chao-Ping; Hung, Wei-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Ching; Tsai, I-Ting; Chung, Fu-Mei; Houng, Jer-Yiing; Lan, Wen-Chun; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2018-05-22

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities in patients with end-stage renal disease. Hippuric acid (HA), a harmful uremic toxin, is known to be elevated in patients with uremia, and serum HA levels are associated with neurological symptoms, metabolic acidosis, and accelerated renal damage associated with chronic kidney disease. However, the pathophysiological role of HA in patients with uremia remains unclear. We investigated the association between serum HA levels and echocardiographic measurements in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Eighty consecutive patients treated at a single HD center (44 males, 36 females; mean age 66 y, mean HD duration 6 y) were included in this study. Comprehensive echocardiography was performed after HD. Blood samples were obtained before HD. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that serum HA levels were positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, left ventricular mass index, end diastolic interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, end systolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and left atrium diameter, and negatively correlated with age. Furthermore, the HD patients with LVH had higher median serum HA levels than those without LVH (34.2 vs. 18.1 μg/ml, p = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that HA was independently associated with LVH even after adjusting for known biomarkers. Moreover, the receiver operator characteristics curve of HA showed that a HA level of >26.9 μg/ml was associated with LVH. HA was significantly associated with LVH. HA could be a novel biomarker of left ventricular overload, which is closely associated with an increased risk of death in HD patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intractable Electrical Storm After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Originating in Abnormal Purkinje Fibers.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Chiho; Tsukada, Toru; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Imai, Akito; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Electrical storm is a rare but critical complication following revascularization in patients with ischemic heart disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who developed drug refractory intractable electrical storm after emergent coronary artery bypass grafting for ischemic cardiomyopathy. The electrical storm was successfully eliminated by percutaneous endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation targeting the abnormal Purkinje-related triggering ventricular premature contractions in a low-voltage zone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [The reasonable use of right ventricular protection strategy in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Yuan, H Y; Liu, X B; Wen, S S; Xu, G; Cui, H J; Zhuang, J; Chen, J M

    2018-06-01

    As a result of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, which is the important and basic step of complex cardiac surgery, the blood flow of right ventricular outflow tract is unobstructed, while pulmonary valve regurgitation and right heart dysfunction could be happened. These problems are often ignored in early days, more and more cases of right heart dysfunction need clinical intervention, which is quite difficult and less effective. How to protect effectively the right ventricular function is the focus. At present main methods to protect the right ventricular function include trying to avoid or reduce length of right ventricular incision, reserving or rebuilding the function of the pulmonary valve, using growth potential material for surgery. The protection of the right ventricular function is a systemic project, it involves many aspects, single measures is difficult to provide complete protection, only the comprehensive use of various protection strategy, can help to improve the long-term prognosis.

  12. Catheter ablation for premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Stevenson, William G; John, Roy M

    2014-09-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VA) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are effective in reducing mortality, but do not prevent arrhythmia recurrence. There is increasing recognition that frequent premature ventricular contractions or repetitive ventricular tachycardia may also lead to new onset ventricular dysfunction or deterioration of ventricular function in patients with pre-existing HF. Suppression of the arrhythmia may lead to recovery of ventricular function. Catheter ablation has emerged as a safe and effective treatment option for reducing arrhythmia recurrence and for suppression of PVCs but its efficacy is governed by the nature of the arrhythmias, the underlying HF substrate and the accessibility of the arrhythmia substrates to ablation.

  13. [Experimental studies on the diffusion of excitation on the right ventricular surface in the dog, during normal and stimulated beats].

    PubMed

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Musso, E; Spaggiari, S; Stilli, D; Taccardi, B

    1982-01-01

    Previous work on the spread of excitation on the dog's ventricular surface enabled us to locate up to 30 breakthrough points (BKTPs) where excitation reaches the ventricular surface. In particular the equipotential contour maps enabled us to detect 3 to 5 BKTPs on the anterior right ventricular surface, near the a-v groove when a large part of ventricular surface was still at rest. With a view to investigating the mechanism underlying the early excitation of these basal regions, we stimulated the heart at several right ventricular BKTPs and in other points located at a distance from the BKTPs. The instantaneous equipotential maps showed that after stimulation most right ventricular BKTPs remained in the same position as observed the normal beats. The early appearance of epicardial wavefronts in the basal region and generally in other areas of the right ventricle was attributed to the rapid propagation of excitation waves through the Purkinje network, probably associated to a short transmural crossing time, due to a local thinness of the ventricular wall.

  14. Maintenance of ventricular fibrillation in heterogeneous ventricle.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Hamenegild J; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2006-01-01

    Although ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the prevalent cause of sudden cardiac death, the mechanisms that underlie VF remain elusive. One possible explanation is that VF is driven by a single robust rotor that is the source of wavefronts that break-up due to functional heterogeneities. Previous 2D computer simulations have proposed that a heterogeneity in background potassium current (IK1) can serve as the substrate for the formation of mother rotor activity. This study incorporates IK1 heterogeneity between the left and right ventricle in a realistic 3D rabbit ventricle model to examine its effects on the organization of VF. Computer simulations show that the IK1 heterogeneity contributes to the initiation and maintenance of VF by providing regions of different refractoriness which serves as sites of wave break and rotor formation. A single rotor that drives the fibrillatory activity in the ventricle is not found in this study. Instead, multiple sites of reentry are recorded throughout the ventricle. Calculation of dominant frequencies for each myocardial node yields no significant difference between the dominant frequency of the LV and the RV. The 3D computer simulations suggest that IK1 spatial heterogeneity alone can not lead to the formation of a stable rotor.

  15. Regional Pericarditis Status Post Cardiac Ablation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Joseph; Eddin, Moneer; Loli, Akil

    2014-01-01

    Context: Regional pericarditis is elusive and difficult to diagnosis. Healthcare providers should be familiar with post-cardiac ablation complications as this procedure is now widespread and frequently performed. The management of regional pericarditis differs greatly from that of acute myocardial infarction. Case report: A 52 year-old male underwent atrial fibrillation ablation and developed severe mid-sternal chest pain the following day with electrocardiographic findings suggestive of acute myocardial infarction, and underwent coronary angiography, a left ventriculogram, and 2D transthoracic echocardiogram, all of which were unremarkable without evidence of obstructive coronary disease, wall motion abnormalities, or pericardial effusions. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with regional pericarditis. After diagnosis, the patient's presenting symptoms resolved with treatment including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and colchicine. Conclusion: This is the first reported case study of regional pericarditis status post cardiac ablation. Electrocardiographic findings were classic for an acute myocardial infarction; however, coronary angiography and left ventriculogram demonstrated no acute coronary occlusion or ventricular wall motion abnormalities. Healthcare professionals must remember that the electrocardiographic findings in pericarditis are not always classic and that pericarditis can occur status post cardiac ablation. PMID:25317395

  16. Regional pericarditis status post cardiac ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Orme, Joseph; Eddin, Moneer; Loli, Akil

    2014-09-01

    Regional pericarditis is elusive and difficult to diagnosis. Healthcare providers should be familiar with post-cardiac ablation complications as this procedure is now widespread and frequently performed. The management of regional pericarditis differs greatly from that of acute myocardial infarction. A 52 year-old male underwent atrial fibrillation ablation and developed severe mid-sternal chest pain the following day with electrocardiographic findings suggestive of acute myocardial infarction, and underwent coronary angiography, a left ventriculogram, and 2D transthoracic echocardiogram, all of which were unremarkable without evidence of obstructive coronary disease, wall motion abnormalities, or pericardial effusions. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with regional pericarditis. After diagnosis, the patient's presenting symptoms resolved with treatment including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and colchicine. This is the first reported case study of regional pericarditis status post cardiac ablation. Electrocardiographic findings were classic for an acute myocardial infarction; however, coronary angiography and left ventriculogram demonstrated no acute coronary occlusion or ventricular wall motion abnormalities. Healthcare professionals must remember that the electrocardiographic findings in pericarditis are not always classic and that pericarditis can occur status post cardiac ablation.

  17. Studies on deflection area vectors of QRS and T and ventricular gradient in right ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1985-04-01

    QRS deflection area vector (Aqrs), T deflection area vector (At) and ventricular gradient (G) in right ventricular hypertrophy were studied in 53 subjects divided on the basis of cardiac catheterization data into four subgroups; normal controls, mild MS group, right ventricular pressure overload group and right ventricular volume overload group. Aqrs, At and G of the four subgroups were calculated using a microcomputer and compared. Aqrs in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted to the right and slightly anteriorly from that in normal control group. At in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted slightly upwards and significantly posteriorly from that in the normal control and mild MS groups. G in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted to the right and significantly posteriorly from that in normal control and mild MS groups. Using multivariative analysis, we developed criteria for diagnosing right ventricular hypertrophy with At: 0.059At(Z) - 0.0145 [At] - 0.2608 less than or equal to 0. Application of this criteria achieved 82.4% (28 of 34) sensitivity in the patients with right ventricular hypertrophy and 90.9% (10 of 11) specificity in the normal control subjects.

  18. Surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients undergoing surgical ventricular restoration: the Karolinska approach.

    PubMed

    Sartipy, Ulrik; Albåge, Anders; Insulander, Per; Lindblom, Dan

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a review on the efficacy of surgical ventricular restoration and direct surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular aneurysm or dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. The procedure includes a non-electrophysiologically guided subtotal endocardiectomy and cryoablation in addition to endoventricular patch plasty of the left ventricle. Coronary artery bypass surgery and mitral valve repair are performed concomitantly as needed. In our experience, this procedure yielded a 90% success rate in terms of freedom from spontaneous ventricular tachycardia, with an early mortality rate of 3.8%. A practical guide to the pre- and postoperative management of these patients is provided.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  20. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  5. An Echocardiographic Study of Left Ventricular Size and Cardiac Function in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study investigated cardiac dimensions and ventricular function in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared with controls. Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index were made. Detailed measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function were made including tissue Doppler imaging. Patients were stratified by body mass index ≤10th percentile (AN ≤ 10th) and >10th percentile (AN > 10th). Ninety-five AN patients and 58 controls were included. AN and AN ≤ 10th groups had reduced LV dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index compared with controls. There were no differences between groups in measures of systolic function. Measures of diastolic tissue Doppler imaging were decreased in AN and AN ≤ 10th. No differences in echocardiographic measurements existed between controls and AN > 10th. Female adolescents with AN have preserved systolic function and abnormalities of diastolic ventricular function. AN ≤ 10th may be a higher risk group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Interstudy reproducibility of dimensional and functional measurements between cine magnetic resonance studies in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Semelka, R C; Tomei, E; Wagner, S; Mayo, J; Caputo, G; O'Sullivan, M; Parmley, W W; Chatterjee, K; Wolfe, C; Higgins, C B

    1990-06-01

    The validity of geometric formulas to derive mass and volumes in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle is problematic. Imaging techniques that are tomographic and therefore inherently three-dimensional should be more reliable and reproducible between studies in such ventricles. Determination of reproducibility between studies is essential to define the limits of an imaging technique for evaluating the response to therapy. Sequential cine magnetic resonance (MR) studies were performed on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 11) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 8) within a short interval in order to assess interstudy reproducibility. Left ventricular mass, volumes, ejection fraction, and end-systolic wall stress were determined by two independent observers. Between studies, left ventricular mass was highly reproducible for hypertrophied and dilated ventricles, with percent variability less than 6%. Ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume showed close reproducibility between studies, with percent variability less than 5% End-systolic volume varied by 4.3% and 4.5% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 8.4% and 7.2% in left ventricular hypertrophy for the two observers. End-systolic wall stress, which is derived from multiple measurements, varied the greatest, with percent variability of 17.2% and 15.7% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 14.8% and 13% in left ventricular hypertrophy, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that mass, volume, and functional measurements are reproducible in morphologically abnormal ventricles.

  7. Cryoablation during left ventricular assist device implantation reduces postoperative ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Daniel P; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; Stone, Matthew L; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bergin, James D; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Kern, John A

    2013-05-01

    The number of patients undergoing implantation of a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD; Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, Calif) is rising. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VA) after placement of the device is common, especially among patients with preoperative VA. We sought to determine whether intraoperative cryoablation in select patients reduces the incidence of postoperative VA. From January 2009 through September 2010, 50 consecutive patients undergoing implantation of the HeartMate II LVAD were examined. Fourteen of these patients had recurrent preoperative VA. Of those patients with recurrent VA, half underwent intraoperative cryoablation (Cryo: n = 7) and half did not (NoCryo: n = 7). Intraoperatively, patients underwent localized epicardial and endocardial cryoablation via LVAD ventriculotomy. Cryothermal lesions were created to connect scar to fixed anatomic borders in the region of clinical VA. Demographics, risk factors, intraoperative features, and outcomes were analyzed to investigate the feasibility of cryoablation. Thirty-day mortality remained low (n = 1, 2%) among all LVAD recipients. There were no differences in risk factors between groups except that preoperative inotropes were less prevalent in Cryo patients (P = .09). Compared with NoCryo, the Cryo group had significantly decreased postoperative resource use and complications (P < .05). Recurrent postoperative VA did not develop in any of the Cryo patients (P = .02). Postoperative VA can be minimized by preoperative risk assessment and intraoperative treatment. Localized cryoablation in select patients offers promising early feasibility when performed during HeartMate II LVAD implantation. Further prospective analysis is required to investigate this novel approach. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between left ventricular mechanics and diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Christopher M; Suever, Jonathan D; Pulenthiran, Arichanah; Mejia-Spiegeler, Abba; Wehner, Gregory J; Jing, Linyuan; Charnigo, Richard J; Fornwalt, Brandon K; Fogel, Mark A

    2017-12-11

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have progressive, adverse biventricular remodeling, leading to abnormal contractile mechanics. Defining the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction, such as diffuse myocardial fibrosis, may provide insights into poor long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) diffuse fibrosis is related to impaired LV mechanics. Patients with TOF were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance in which modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1-mapping and spiral cine Displacement encoding (DENSE) sequences were acquired at three LV short-axis positions. Linear mixed modeling was used to define the association between regional LV mechanics from DENSE based on regional T1-derived diffuse fibrosis measures, such as extracellular volume fraction (ECV). Forty patients (26 ± 11 years) were included. LV ECV was generally within normal range (0.24 ± 0.05). For LV mechanics, peak circumferential strains (-15 ± 3%) and dyssynchrony indices (16 ± 8 ms) were moderately impaired, while peak radial strains (29 ± 8%) were generally normal. After adjusting for patient age, sex, and regional LV differences, ECV was associated with log-adjusted LV dyssynchrony index (β = 0.67) and peak LV radial strain (β = -0.36), but not LV circumferential strain. Moreover, post-contrast T1 was associated with log-adjusted LV diastolic circumferential strain rate (β = 0.37). We observed several moderate associations between measures of fibrosis and impaired mechanics, particularly the LV dyssynchrony index and peak radial strain. Diffuse fibrosis may therefore be a causal factor in some ventricular dysfunction in TOF.

  9. Bradycardia, Syncope, and Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Glancy, D Luke; Helmcke, Frederick R; Hoang, Allen P

    2017-08-15

    A 55-year-old man with syncopal episodes was found to have sinus bradycardia at a rate of 37 beats/min, an episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy. After placement of a dual-chamber cardioverter defibrillator 4 years ago, he has had no further syncopal episodes, and there have been no defibrillator shocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-07-01

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  11. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  12. Early electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive children.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, A L; Zicker, F; Rassi, A; Rassi, A G; Oliveira, R M; Silva, S A; de Andrade, S S; Martelli, C M

    1998-10-01

    As part of a major epidemiologic study on Chagas' disease, we compared the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among 141 school children 7-12 years of age and seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi, and 282 age-, sex-, and school-matched seronegative children in an endemic area in Brazil. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was 11.3% among seropositive children and 3.5% among seronegative children (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-8.4). The prevalence rate of ECG alterations was 10.7% for seropositive males versus 8.9% for seropositive females. Complete right bundle branch block (CRBBB), which is highly suggestive of Chagas' disease cardiopathy, was diagnosed in nine (6.4%) seropositive children and in only one (0.3%) seronegative child (odds ratio = 18.5, 95% CI = 2.3-146.5, attributable fraction = 58.3%). Five incident new cases of CRBBB were diagnosed after a 36-month follow-up of seropositive children who were enrolled in an independent clinical field trial. No case of frequent and/or multifocal ventricular premature beats was found in the cohort of children. The surprisingly high frequency of early ECG abnormalities, which indicates a rapid evolution from infection to disease, suggests the existence of endemic areas with a particular accelerated disease progression that was not described before. Under such conditions, a public health chemotherapy program focusing on the treatment of young seropositive children would be recommended.

  13. Myocardial Viability and Impact of Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction on Outcomes of Patients with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Results of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Thomas A.; Bonow, Robert O.; Arnold, J. Malcolm O.; Oh, Jae K.; Varadarajan, Padmini; Pohost, Gerald M.; Haddad, Haissam; Jones, Robert H.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Asch, Federico M.; Malinowski, Marcin; Barretto, Rodrigo; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Lee, Kerry L.; Panza, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial, surgical ventricular reconstruction plus coronary artery bypass surgery was not associated with a reduction in the rate of death or cardiac hospitalization compared to bypass alone. We hypothesized that the absence of viable myocardium identifies patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who have a greater benefit with coronary artery bypass graft surgery and surgical ventricular reconstruction compared to bypass alone. Methods Myocardial viability was assessed by single photon computed tomography in 267 of the 1,000 patients randomized to bypass or bypass plus surgical ventricular reconstruction in STICH. Myocardial viability was assessed on a per patient basis as well as regionally based on pre-specified criteria. Results At 3 years, there was no difference in mortality or the combined outcome of death or cardiac hospitalization between those with and those without viability, and there was no significant interaction between the type of surgery and global viability status with respect to mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization. Furthermore, there was no difference in mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization between those with and without anterior wall or apical scar, and no significant interaction between the presence of scar in these regions and the type of surgery with respect to mortality. Conclusion In patients with coronary artery disease and severe regional left ventricular dysfunction, assessment of myocardial viability does not identify patients who will derive a mortality benefit from adding surgical ventricular reconstruction to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:25152476

  14. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  15. Maturational Patterns of Systolic Ventricular Deformation Mechanics by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Preterm Infants over the First Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Levy, Philip T; El-Khuffash, Afif; Patel, Meghna D; Breatnach, Colm R; James, Adam T; Sanchez, Aura A; Abuchabe, Cristina; Rogal, Sarah R; Holland, Mark R; McNamara, Patrick J; Jain, Amish; Franklin, Orla; Mertens, Luc; Hamvas, Aaron; Singh, Gautam K

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maturational changes in systolic ventricular strain mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm neonates from birth to 1 year of age and discern the impact of common cardiopulmonary abnormalities on the deformation measures. In a prospective multicenter study of 239 extremely preterm infants (<29 weeks gestation at birth), left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSRs), interventricular septal wall (IVS) GLS and GLSRs, right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal strain and strain rate, and segmental longitudinal strain in the RV free wall, LV free wall, and IVS were serially measured on days 1, 2, and 5 to 7, at 32 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and at 1 year corrected age (CA). Premature infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or had echocardiographic findings of pulmonary hypertension were analyzed separately. In uncomplicated preterm infants (n = 103 [48%]), LV GLS and GLSRs remained unchanged from days 5 to 7 to 1 year CA (P = .60 and P = .59). RV free wall longitudinal strain, RV free wall longitudinal strain rate, and IVS GLS and GLSRs significantly increased over the same time period (P < .01 for all measures). A significant base-to-apex (highest to lowest) segmental longitudinal strain gradient (P < .01) was seen in the RV free wall and a reverse apex-to-base gradient (P < .01) in the LV free wall. In infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (n = 119 [51%]), RV free wall longitudinal strain and IVS GLS were significantly lower (P < .01), LV GLS and GLSRs were similar (P = .56), and IVS segmental longitudinal strain persisted as an RV-dominant base-to-apex gradient from 32 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year CA. This study tracks the maturational patterns of global and regional deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely

  16. Biventricular myocardial strain analysis in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking.

    PubMed

    Heermann, Philipp; Hedderich, Dennis M; Paul, Matthias; Schülke, Christoph; Kroeger, Jan Robert; Baeßler, Bettina; Wichter, Thomas; Maintz, David; Waltenberger, Johannes; Heindel, Walter; Bunck, Alexander C

    2014-10-07

    Fibrofatty degeneration of myocardium in ARVC is associated with wall motion abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) based strain analysis using feature tracking (FT) can serve as a quantifiable measure to confirm global and regional ventricular dysfunction in ARVC patients and support the early detection of ARVC. We enrolled 20 patients with ARVC, 30 with borderline ARVC and 22 subjects with a positive family history but no clinical signs of a manifest ARVC. 10 healthy volunteers (HV) served as controls. 15 ARVC patients received genotyping for Plakophilin-2 mutation (PKP-2), of which 7 were found to be positive. Cine MR datasets of all subjects were assessed for myocardial strain using FT (TomTec Diogenes Software). Global strain and strain rate in radial, circumferential and longitudinal mode were assessed for the right and left ventricle. In addition strain analysis at a segmental level was performed for the right ventricular free wall. RV global longitudinal strain rates in ARVC (-0.68 ± 0.36 sec⁻¹) and borderline ARVC (-0.85 ± 0.36 sec⁻¹) were significantly reduced in comparison with HV (-1.38 ± 0.52 sec⁻¹, p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, in ARVC patients RV global circumferential strain and strain rates at the basal level were significantly reduced compared with HV (strain: -5.1 ± 2.7 vs. -9.2 ± 3.6%; strain rate: -0.31 ± 0.13 sec(-1) vs. -0.61 ± 0.21 sec⁻¹). Even for patients with ARVC or borderline ARVC and normal RV ejection fraction (n=30) global longitudinal strain rate proved to be significantly reduced compared with HV (-0.9 ± 0.3 vs. -1.4 ± 0.5 sec(-1); p < 0.005). In ARVC patients with PKP-2 mutation there was a clear trend towards a more pronounced impairment in RV global longitudinal strain rate. On ROC analysis RV global longitudinal strain rate and circumferential strain rate at the basal level proved to be the best discriminators between ARVC patients and HV (AUC: 0

  17. Acquired tricuspid valve stenosis associated with two ventricular endocardial pacing leads in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Emily; Dulake, Michelle I; Ghaffari, Shadie; Nakamura, Reid K

    2015-01-01

    Acquired tricuspid valve stenosis (TVS) is a rare complication of endocardial pacing lead implantation in humans that has only been described once previously in the veterinary literature in a dog with excessive lead redundancy. A 12 yr old terrier presented with right-sided congestive heart failure 6 mo after implantation of a second ventricular endocardial pacing lead. The second lead was placed due to malfunction of the first lead, which demonstrated abnormally low impedance. Transthoracic echocardiography identified hyperechoic tissue associated with the pacing leads as they crossed the tricuspid valve annulus as well as a stenotic tricuspid inflow pattern via spectral Doppler interrogation. Medical management was ultimately unsuccessful and the dog was euthanized 6 wk after TVS was diagnosed. The authors report the first canine case of acquired TVS associated with two ventricular endocardial pacing leads.

  18. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current I K1 , which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential I K1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that I K1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  19. Remodelling of action potential and intracellular calcium cycling dynamics during subacute myocardial infarction promotes ventricular arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chung-Chuan; Zhou, Shengmei; Hayashi, Hideki; Nihei, Motoki; Liu, Yen-Bin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Yeh, San-Jou; Fishbein, Michael C; Weiss, James N; Lin, Shien-Fong; Wu, Delon; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesize that remodelling of action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) dynamics in the peri-infarct zone contributes to ventricular arrhythmogenesis in the postmyocardial infarction setting. To test this hypothesis, we performed simultaneous optical mapping of Cai and membrane potential (Vm) in the left ventricle in 15 rabbit hearts with myocardial infarction for 1 week. Ventricular premature beats frequently originated from the peri-infarct zone, and 37% showed elevation of Cai prior to Vm depolarization, suggesting reverse excitation–contraction coupling as their aetiology. During electrically induced ventricular fibrillation, the highest dominant frequency was in the peri-infarct zone in 61 of 70 episodes. The site of highest dominant frequency had steeper action potential duration restitution and was more susceptible to pacing-induced Cai alternans than sites remote from infarct. Wavebreaks during ventricular fibrillation tended to occur at sites of persistently elevated Cai. Infusion of propranolol flattened action potential duration restitution, reduced wavebreaks and converted ventricular fibrillation to ventricular tachycardia. We conclude that in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction, the peri-infarct zone exhibits regions with steep action potential duration restitution slope and unstable Cai dynamics. These changes may promote ventricular extrasystoles and increase the incidence of wavebreaks during ventricular fibrillation. Whereas increased tissue heterogeneity after subacute myocardial infarction creates a highly arrhythmogenic substrate, dynamic action potential and Cai cycling remodelling also contribute to the initiation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation in this setting. PMID:17272354

  20. Localisation of atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity in the ventricular myocardium and conduction system of the human fetal and adult heart.

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, J; Anderson, R H; Springall, D; Power, R F; Rose, M; Smith, A; Espejo, R; Khaghani, A; Wallwork, J; Yacoub, M H

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity was found in ventricular and atrial tissues with specific antisera raised to the amino and carboxy terminal regions of the precursor molecule. In 13 developing human hearts (7-24 weeks' gestation) the immunoreactivity was concentrated in the atrial myocardium and ventricular conduction system but it was also detected in the early fetal ventricular myocardium. Immunoreactivity in five normal adults was largely confined to the atrial myocardium although it was also found in the ventricular conduction tissues of hearts removed from 10 patients who were undergoing cardiac transplantation. The ventricular conduction system is an extra-atrial site for the synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide. In the failing heart this synthesis may be further supplemented by expression of the gene in the ventricular myocardium. It is possible that ventricular production of the peptide contributes to the raised circulating concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity found in severe congestive heart disease, particularly in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2973340

  1. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  2. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio L; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S; Salemi, Vera M C; Ianni, Barbara M; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Eduard L

    2013-01-01

    Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors. Several

  3. Difference in propagation of Ca2+ release in atrial and ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaami, Takeo; Ishida, Hideyuki; Seguchi, Hidetaka; Hirota, Yuki; Kadono, Toshie; Genka, Chokoh; Nakazawa, Hiroe; Barry, William H

    2005-04-01

    Intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) was imaged in atrial and ventricular rat myocytes by means of a high-speed Nipkow confocal microscope. Atrial myocytes with an absent t-tubule system on 8-di- ANEPPS staining showed an initial rise in Ca2+ at the periphery of the cell, which propagated to the interior of the cell. Ventricular myocytes showed a uniform rise in [Ca2+]i after electrical stimulation, consistent with a prominent t-tubular network. In atrial myocytes, there was a much shorter time between the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient and the peak contraction as compared to ventricular myocytes. A regional release of Ca2+ induced by an exposure of one end of the myocyte to caffeine with a rapid solution switcher resulted in a uniform propagation of Ca2+ down the length of the cell in atrial myocytes, but we found no propagation in ventricular myocytes. A staining with rhodamine 123 indicated a much greater density of mitochondria in ventricular myocytes than in atrial myocytes. Thus the atrial myocytes display a lack of "local control" of Ca2+ release, with propagation after the Ca2+ release at the periphery induced by stimulation or at one end of the cell induced by exposure to caffeine. Ventricular myocytes showed the presence of local control, as indicated by an absence of the propagation of a local caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient. We suggest that this finding, as well as a reduced delay between the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient and the peak shortening in atrial myocytes, could be due in part to reduced Ca2+ buffering provided by mitochondria in atrial myocytes as opposed to ventricular myocytes.

  4. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. Background: QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. Material and methods: We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X2 test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max

  5. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The effect of acute mechanical left ventricular unloading on ovine tricuspid annular size and geometry.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Brown, Michael; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may alter right ventricular shape and function and lead to tricuspid regurgitation. This in turn has been reported to be a determinant of right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation, but the effect of mechanical left ventricular (LV) unloading on the tricuspid annulus is unknown. The aim of the study was to provide insight into the effect of LVAD support on tricuspid annular geometry and dynamics that may help to optimize LV unloading with the least deleterious effect on the right-sided geometry. In seven open-chest anaesthetized sheep, nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus, with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Left ventricular unloading was achieved by connecting a cannula in the left atrium and the aorta to a continuous-flow pump. The pump was used for 15 min at a full flow of 3.8 ± 0.3 l/min. Epicardial echocardiography was used to assess the degree of tricuspid insufficiency. Haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected before and during full unloading. Tricuspid annular area, and the regional and total perimeter were calculated from crystal coordinates, while 3D annular geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each annular crystal to the least squares plane of all annular crystals. There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed either before or during LV unloading. Right ventricular free wall to septum diameter increased significantly at end-diastole during unloading from 23.6 ± 5.8 to 26.3 ± 6.5 mm (P = 0.009), but the right ventricular volume, tricuspid annular area and total perimeter did not change from baseline. However, the septal part of the annulus significantly decreased its maximal length (38.6 ± 8.1 to 37.9 ± 8.2 mm, P = 0.03). Annular contraction was not altered. The

  7. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare.This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin.Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20 mm.The ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes.

  8. Systematic review: transient left ventricular apical ballooning: a syndrome that mimics ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Kara, Tomas; Prasad, Abhiram; Lerman, Amir; Barsness, Greg W; Wright, R Scott; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2004-12-07

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient wall-motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. In this paper, we review case series that report on patients with the transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome to better characterize patients presenting with the syndrome. We identified 7 case series that reported on at least 5 consecutive patients with the transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. The syndrome more often affects postmenopausal women (82% to 100%) (mean age, 62 to 75 years). Patients commonly present with ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads, chest pain, relatively minor elevation of cardiac enzyme and biomarker levels, and transient apical systolic left ventricular dysfunction despite the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. An episode of emotional or physiologic stress frequently precedes presentation with the syndrome. The in-hospital mortality rate seems to be low, as does the risk for recurrence.

  9. Fabry disease presenting as apical left ventricular hypertrophy in a patient carrying the missense mutation R118C.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Francisca; Botelho, Ana; Mota, Paula; Silva, Joana; Leitão Marques, António

    2014-03-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities of the GLA gene, which encodes the enzyme α-galactosidase A. A deficiency of this enzyme leads to the lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, which may cause left ventricular hypertrophy that is typically concentric and symmetric. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptoms of dyspnea, atypical chest pain and palpitations, in whom a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an apical variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Analysis of specific sarcomeric genetic mutations was negative. The patient underwent a screening protocol for Anderson-Fabry disease, using a dried blood spot test, which was standard at our institution for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The enzymatic activity assay revealed reduced α-galactosidase A enzymatic activity. Molecular analysis identified a missense point mutation in the GLA gene (p.R118C). This case report shows that Anderson-Fabry disease may cause an apical form of left ventricular hypertrophy. The diagnosis was only achieved because of systematic screening, which highlights the importance of screening for Anderson-Fabry disease in patients with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, including those presenting with more unusual patterns, such as apical variants of left ventricular hypertrophy. This case also supports the idea that the missense mutation R118C is indeed a true pathogenic mutation of Anderson-Fabry disease. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation patterns of Purkinje fibers during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in an isolated canine heart model.

    PubMed

    Tabereaux, Paul B; Walcott, Greg P; Rogers, Jack M; Kim, Jong; Dosdall, Derek J; Robertson, Peter G; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2007-09-04

    The roles of Purkinje fibers (PFs) and focal wave fronts, if any, in the maintenance of ventricular fibrillation (VF) are unknown. If PFs are involved in VF maintenance, it should be possible to map wave fronts propagating from PFs into the working ventricular myocardium during VF. If wave fronts ever arise focally during VF, it should be possible to map them appearing de novo. Six canine hearts were isolated, and the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused. The left ventricular cavity was exposed, which allowed direct endocardial mapping of the anterior papillary muscle insertion. Nonperfused VF was induced, and 6 segments of data, each 5 seconds long, were analyzed during 10 minutes of VF. During 36 segments of data that were analyzed, 1018 PF or focal wave fronts of activation were identified. In 534 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from working ventricular myocardium to PF. In 142 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from PF to working ventricular myocardium. In 342 wave fronts, activation was mapped arising focally. More than 1 of these 3 patterns could occur in the same wave front. PFs are highly active throughout the first 10 minutes of VF. In addition to retrograde propagation from the working ventricular myocardium to PFs, antegrade propagation occurs from PFs to working ventricular myocardium, which suggests PFs are important in VF maintenance. Prior plunge needle recordings in dogs indicate activation propagates from the endocardium toward the epicardium after 1 minute of VF, which suggests that focal sites on the endocardium may represent foci and not breakthrough. If so, in addition to reentry, abnormal automaticity or triggered activity may also occur during VF.

  11. The Role of NT-proBNP in the Diagnosis of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    MURESAN, Lucian; PETCU, Ana; MURESAN, Crina; RINZIS, Mirela; GUSETU, Gabriel; POP, Dana; ZDRENGHEA, Dumitru; REDNIC, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with systemic sclerosis, NT-proBNP is a useful diagnostic marker for pulmonary hypertension and ventricular dysfunction, with important prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the NT-proBNP levels and the presence and severity of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with scleroderma. Methods: Forty consecutive patients with a diagnostic of systemic sclerosis according to the EULAR criteria admitted at the Rheumatology Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, from Jan 2014 to Apr 2014 were enrolled. Patients underwent a 12-lead ECG and a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring for ventricular arrhythmias evaluation. Blood sample testing (including NT-proBNP level measurements), echocardiography, spirometry, chest X-ray and, when considered appropriate, high-resolution chest CT were performed. Results: Sixty percent of patients (n=24) had abnormal NT-proBNP serum levels (>125 pg/ml) and 10 patients had >100 PVC/24 h. There was a statistically significant correlation between the NT-proBNP levels and the total number of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) (r=0.445, P=0.006), total number of isolated PVC (r=0,493, P=0.002), total number of ventricular couplets (r=0.379, P=0.021) and the number of PVC morphologies (r=0.501, P=0.002). The presence of an NT-proBNP serum level >287 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 93% in predicting the presence of complex ventricular arrhythmias on 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring. Conclusion: NT-proBNP levels could become a useful ventricular arrhythmia marker for assessing the arrhythmic risk in patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:28845401

  12. Rho-Kinase Inhibition During Early Cardiac Development Causes Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ellawindy, Alia; Satoh, Kimio; Sunamura, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Kota; Minami, Tatsuro; Ikeda, Shohei; Tanaka, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toru; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Miyata, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yuhto; Handoh, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Kenta; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Nakayama, Keiko; Miura, Masahito; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by fibrofatty changes of the right ventricle, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Though ARVC is currently regarded as a disease of the desmosome, desmosomal gene mutations have been identified only in half of ARVC patients, suggesting the involvement of other associated mechanisms. Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the regulation of intracellular transport and organizes cytoskeletal filaments, which supports desmosomal protein complex at the myocardial cell-cell junctions. Here, we explored whether inhibition of Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of ARVC. Using 2 novel mouse models with SM22α- or αMHC-restricted overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase, we show that mice with Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart (SM22α-restricted) spontaneously develop cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, resulting in premature sudden death, phenotypes fulfilling the criteria of ARVC in humans. Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart results in the development of ARVC phenotypes in dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice through 3 mechanisms: (1) reduction of cardiac cell proliferation and ventricular wall thickness, (2) stimulation of the expression of the proadipogenic noncanonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5b, and the major adipogenic transcription factor, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ), and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and (3) development of desmosomal abnormalities. These mechanisms lead to the development of cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, ultimately resulting in sudden premature death in this ARVC mouse model. This study demonstrates a novel crucial role of Rho-kinase inhibition during cardiac development in the pathogenesis of ARVC in mice. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Nonischemic left ventricular scar and cardiac sudden death in the young.

    PubMed

    di Gioia, Cira R T; Giordano, Carla; Cerbelli, Bruna; Pisano, Annalinda; Perli, Elena; De Dominicis, Enrico; Poscolieri, Barbara; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Ciallella, Costantino; Zeppilli, Paolo; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Nonischemic left ventricular scar (NLVS) is a pattern of myocardial injury characterized by midventricular and/or subepicardial gadolinium hyperenhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance, in absence of significant coronary artery disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NLVS in juvenile sudden cardiac death and to ascertain its etiology at autopsy. We examined 281 consecutive cases of sudden death of subjects aged 1 to 35 years. NLVS was defined as a thin, gray rim of subepicardial and/or midmyocardial scar in the left ventricular free wall and/or the septum, in absence of significant stenosis of coronary arteries. NLVS was the most frequent finding (25%) in sudden deaths occurring during sports. Myocardial scar was localized most frequently within the left ventricular posterior wall and affected the subepicardial myocardium, often extending to the midventricular layer. On histology, it consisted of fibrous or fibroadipose tissue. Right ventricular involvement was always present. Patchy lymphocytic infiltrates were frequent. Genetic and molecular analyses clarified the etiology of NLVS in a subset of cases. Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings were available in more than half of subjects. The most frequent abnormality was the presence of low QRS voltages (<0.5 mV) in limb leads. In serial ECG tracings, the decrease in QRS voltages appeared, in some way, progressive. NLVS is the most frequent morphologic substrate of juvenile cardiac sudden death in sports. It can be suspected based on ECG findings. Autopsy study and clinical screening of family members are required to differentiate between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and chronic acquired myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventricular diverticula formation in captive parakeet auklets (Aethia psittacula) secondary to foreign body ingestion.

    PubMed

    Degernes, Laurel A; Wolf, Karen N; Zombeck, Debbie J; MacLean, Robert A; De Voe, Ryan S

    2012-12-01

    A captive parakeet auklet at the North Carolina Zoo evaluated for weight loss, lethargy, and dyspnea had radiographic evidence of a distended, stone-filled ventriculus (bird 1). Multiple stones (n = 76) were removed surgically, but the bird died and a large ventricular diverticulum was diagnosed at necropsy. This bird and seven other parakeet auklets had been transferred 3 yr earlier from a zoo in Ohio. Radiographic investigation revealed that 6 of 7 Ohio birds had stones in their ventriculus (n= 2-26), but only 1 of 7 radiographed North Carolina Zoo auklets had one small stone. Further diagnostic imaging (survey and contrast radiographs, fluoroscopy, CT scans [n = 2]) of six Ohio and two North Carolina birds was conducted to determine if other birds had ventricular abnormalities (birds 2-9). No ventricular diverticula were diagnosed using imaging techniques, although two Ohio birds (birds 6 and 7) required surgical intervention to remove 12-26 stones. A small ventricular diverticulum was identified in bird 6 during surgery. That bird died of unrelated causes 11 mo after surgery, but bird 7 remains clinically normal more than 4 yr later, along with four other auklets with stones (n = 2-15; birds 2-5). It is possible that without surgical intervention, these birds may develop ventricular disease, presumably due to chronic mechanical trauma to the thin-walled ventriculus. It was hypothesized that the Ohio birds ingested stones in their previous exhibit, with a loose stone substrate, and retained them for at least 3 yr. Possible causes for stone ingestion include trituration (for grinding, mixing coarse ingesta), gastric parasite reduction, hunger suppression, accidental ingestion while feeding, or behavioral causes, but the underlying cause in these birds was not determined. Based on these results, parakeet auklets and other alcids should not be housed, or at least fed, on a loose stone substrate.

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of the Fetal Right and Left Ventricular Fractional Area Change Using Speckle Tracking Technology.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Greggory R; Klas, Berthold; Satou, Gary; Sklansky, Mark

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fractional area change (FAC) of the right and left ventricles in normal fetal hearts between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation using speckle-tracking software. The 4-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 200 control fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The FAC was computed from the ventricular areas [((end-diastolic area) - (end-systolic area)/(end-diastolic area)) x 100] for the right and left ventricles and regressed against 7 independent biometric and age variables. The FAC was correlated with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) [((end-diastolic longitudinal length) - (end-systolic longitudinal length) /(end-diastolic longitudinal length)) x 100] obtained from the mid ventricular basal-apical lengths of the right and left ventricular chambers and the transverse fractional shortening (TFS) [((end-diastolic transverse length) - (end-systolic transverse length)/(end-diastolic transverse length)) x 100] from three transverse positions (base, mid, apical) located within each ventricular chamber. To evaluate potential clinical utility, the FAC, LFS, and TFS results were examined in 9 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). Regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between the FAC and the biometric and age independent variables (R 2 = 0.13 - 0.15). The FAC was significantly correlated with the LFS (R 2 =0.18 to 0.28) and TFS (R 2 = 0.13 to 0.33). The 9 fetuses with CHD illustrated the interrelationship between the FAC, LFS, and TFS when identifying abnormal ventricular function. This study reports results from measuring the FAC of the right and left ventricles, and demonstrates a correlation with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) and transverse fractional shortening (TFS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  17. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  18. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in Chagas disease: findings in residents of rural Bolivian communities hyperendemic for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Antonio B; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Clark, Eva H; Samuels, Aaron; Menacho, Silvio; Gomez, Jesus; Bozo Gutierrez, Ricardo W; Crawford, Thomas C; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected and preventable tropical disease that causes significant cardiac morbidity and mortality in Latin America. This study sought to describe cardiac findings among inhabitants of rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco. The cardiac study drew participants from an epidemiologic study in 7 indigenous Guarani communities. All infected participants 10 years or older were asked to undergo a brief physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). A subset had echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiograms were read by 1 or more cardiologists. Of 1,137 residents 10 years or older, 753 (66.2%) had Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Cardiac evaluations were performed for 398 infected participants 10 years or older. Fifty-five participants (13.8%) had 1 or more ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy. The most frequent abnormalities were bundle branch blocks in 42 (11.3%), followed by rhythm disturbances or ventricular ectopy in 13 (3.3%), and atrioventricular blocks (AVB) in 10 participants (2.6%). The prevalence of any abnormality rose from 1.1% among those 10 to 19 years old to 14.2%, 17.3%, and 26.4% among those 20 to 39, 40 to 59, and older than 60 years, respectively. First-degree AVB was seen most frequently in participants 60 years or older, but the 4 patients with third-degree AVB were all under 50 years old. Eighteen and 2 participants had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% to 54% and <40%, respectively. An increasing number of ECG abnormalities was associated with progressively larger left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. We found a high prevalence of ECG abnormalities and substantial evidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Programs to improve access to basic cardiac care (annual ECG, antiarrhythmics, pacemakers) could have an immediate impact on morbidity and mortality in these highly endemic communities. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  19. Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia due to a somatic cell mutation in G protein subunitalphai2.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, B B; Dong, B; Stein, K M; Markowitz, S M; Linden, J; Catanzaro, D F

    1998-01-01

    Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is a generic term that describes the various forms of ventricular arrhythmias that occur in patients without structural heart disease and in the absence of the long QT syndrome. Many of these tachycardias are focal in origin, localize to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), terminate in response to beta blockers, verapamil, vagal maneuvers, and adenosine, and are thought to result from cAMP-mediated triggered activity. DNA was prepared from biopsy samples obtained from myocardial tissue from a patient with adenosine-insensitive idiopathic ventricular tachycardia arising from the RVOT. Genomic sequences of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 were determined after amplification by PCR and subcloning. A point mutation (F200L) in the GTP binding domain of the inhibitory G protein Galphai2 was identified in a biopsy sample from the arrhythmogenic focus. This mutation was shown to increase intracellular cAMP concentration and inhibit suppression of cAMP by adenosine. No mutations were detected in Galphai2 sequences from myocardial tissue sampled from regions remote from the origin of tachycardia, or from peripheral lymphocytes. These findings suggest that somatic cell mutations in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway occurring during myocardial development may be responsible for some forms of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:9637720

  20. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  1. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. Materials and Methods We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a−/−-NP). Results During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a−/−-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Conclusion Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. PMID:29436197

  2. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  3. Ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular dissection, and tricuspid chordae rupture--A rare complication after inferior and right ventricular infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Ying; Dong, Jianzeng; He, Yihua; Liu, Wenxu; Han, Jiancheng

    2015-10-01

    A 76-year-old man under stable hemodynamic condition was admitted to our hospital for delayed percutaneous coronary intervention following a diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. Bedside echocardiography revealed ventricular septal rupture at the basal posteroinferior wall with a large left-to-right shunt. Right ventricular free-wall intramyocardial dissection and tricuspid chordae rupture were noted. Coronary angiography demonstrated occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery, which was treated by balloon angioplasty and stenting. While preparing for surgical repair, the patient's overall cardiac and renal function deteriorated and surgery was contraindicated. The patient died 16 days after discharge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Agatha D.; Leow, Alex D.; Lu, Allen; Reiss, Allan L.; Hall, Scott; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX (age: 14.66+/−1.58SD, 18 females/18 males), and 33 age-matched healthy controls (age: 14.67+/−2.2SD, 17 females/16 males), using high-dimensional elastic image registration. All 69 subjects' 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs were spatially deformed to match a high-resolution single-subject average MRI scan in ICBM space, whose geometry was optimized to produce a minimal deformation target. Maps of the local Jacobian determinant (expansion factor) were computed from the deformation fields. Statistical maps showed increased caudate (10% higher; p=0.001) and lateral ventricle volumes (19% higher; p=0.003), and trend-level parietal and temporal white matter excesses (10% higher locally; p=0.04). In affected females, volume abnormalities correlated with reduction in systemically measured levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP; Spearman's r<−0.5 locally). Decreased FMRP correlated with ventricular expansion (p=0.042; permutation test), and anterior cingulate tissue reductions (p=0.0026; permutation test) supporting theories that FMRP is required for normal dendritic pruning in fronto-striatal-limbic pathways. No sex differences were found; findings were confirmed using traditional volumetric measures in regions of interest. Deficit patterns were replicated using Lie group statistics optimized for tensor-valued data. Investigation of how these anomalies emerge over time will accelerate our understanding of FraX and its treatment. PMID:17161622

  5. Effects of coordinate system choice on measured regional myocardial function in short-axis cine electron-beam tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Judd E.; Rumberger, John A.; Buithieu, Jean; Behrenbeck, Thomas; Breen, Jerome F.; Sheedy, Patrick F., II

    1995-05-01

    Following myocardial infarction, the size of the infarcted region and the systolic functioning of the noninfarcted region are commonly assessed by various cross- sectional imaging techniques. A series of images representing successive phases of the cardiac cycle can be acquired by several imaging modalities including electron beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and echocardiography. For the assessment of patterns of ventricular contraction, images are commonly acquired of ventricular cross-sections normal to the 'long' axis of the heart and parallel to the mitral valve plane. The endocardial and epicardial surfaces of the myocardium are identified. Then the ventricle is divided into sectors and the volumes of blood and myocardium within each sector at multiple phases of the cardiac cycle are measured. Regional function parameters are derived from these measurements. This generally mandates the use of a polar or cylindrical coordinate system. Various algorithms have been used to select the origin of this coordinate system. These include the centroid of the endocardial surface, the epicardial surface, or of a polygon whose vertices lie midway between the epicardial and endocardial surfaces of the myocardium (centerline method). Another algorithm has been developed in our laboratory. This uses the centroid (or center of mass) of the myocardium exclusive of the ventricular cavity. Each of these choices for origin of coordinate system can be derived from the end- diastolic image or from the end-systolic image. Alternately, new coordinate systems can be selected for each phase of the cardiac cycle. These are referred to as 'floating' coordinate systems. A series of computer models have been developed in our laboratory to study the effects of each of these choices on the regional function parameters of normal ventricles and how these choices effect the quantification of regional abnormalities after myocardial infarction. The most sophisticated of these

  6. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  7. Impact of the right ventricular lead position on clinical outcome and on the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with CRT-D.

    PubMed

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Huang, David T; Rosero, Spencer; Tompkins, Christine; Jons, Christian; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Shah, Amil; Merkely, Bela; Solomon, Scott D; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Klein, Helmut U

    2013-12-01

    Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited. To evaluate the impact of different RV lead locations on clinical outcome in CRT-D patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy trial. We investigated 742 of 1089 CRT-D patients (68%) with adjudicated RV lead location enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy trial to evaluate the impact of RV lead location on cardiac events. The primary end point was heart failure or death; secondary end points included ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), or death and VT or VF alone. Eighty-six patients had the RV lead positioned at the RV septal or right ventricular outflow tract region, combined as nonapical RV group, and 656 patients had apical RV lead location. There was no difference in the primary end point in patients with nonapical RV lead location versus those with apical RV lead location (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.80; P = .983). Echocardiographic response to CRT-D was comparable across RV lead location groups (P > .05 for left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left atrial volume percent change). However, nonapical RV lead location was associated with significantly higher risk of VT/VF/death (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.36-4.41; P = .003) and VT/VF alone (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.36-4.65; P = .002), predominantly in the first year after device implantation. Results were consistent in patients with left bundle branch block. In CRT-D patients, there is no benefit of nonapical RV lead location in clinical outcome or echocardiographic response. Moreover, nonapical RV lead location is associated with an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, particularly in the

  8. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  9. [Geographical distribution of left ventricular Tei index based on principal component analysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinhui; Ge, Miao; He, Jinwei; Xue, Ranyin; Yang, Shaofang; Jiang, Jilin

    2014-11-01

    To provide a scientific standard of left ventricular Tei index for healthy people from various region of China, and to lay a reliable foundation for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function. The correlation and principal component analysis were used to explore the left ventricular Tei index, which based on the data of 3 562 samples from 50 regions of China by means of literature retrieval. Th e nine geographical factors were longitude(X₁), latitude(X₂), altitude(X₃), annual sunshine hours (X₄), the annual average temperature (X₅), annual average relative humidity (X₆), annual precipitation (X₇), annual temperature range (X₈) and annual average wind speed (X₉). ArcGIS soft ware was applied to calculate the spatial distribution regularities of left ventricular Tei index. There is a significant correlation between the healthy people's left ventricular Tei index and geographical factors, and the correlation coefficients were -0.107 (r₁), -0.301 (r₂), -0.029 (r₃), -0.277 (r₄), -0.256(r₅), -0.289(r₆), -0.320(r₇), -0.310 (r₈) and -0.117 (r₉), respectively. A linear equation between the Tei index and the geographical factor was obtained by regression analysis based on the three extracting principal components. The geographical distribution tendency chart for healthy people's left Tei index was fitted out by the ArcGIS spatial interpolation analysis. The geographical distribution for left ventricular Tei index in China follows certain pattern. The reference value in North is higher than that in South, while the value in East is higher than that in West.

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  11. Three pledget technique for closure of muscular ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh; Katewa, Ashish

    2012-07-01

    We propose a modification of the simple, horizontal mattress, pledgetted suture technique for closing the small muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) by interposing an oversized third pledget on the left ventricular (LV) aspect of the defect.

  12. Impact of Ancillary Subunits on Ventricular Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.; Xu, Xianghua; Roepke, Torsten K.

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels generate the outward K+ ion currents that constitute the primary force in ventricular repolarization. Kv channels comprise tetramers of pore-forming α subunits and, in probably the majority of cases in vivo, ancillary or β subunits that help define the properties of the Kv current generated. Ancillary subunits can be broadly categorized as cytoplasmic or transmembrane, and can modify Kv channel trafficking, conductance, gating, ion selectivity, regulation and pharmacology. Because of their often profound effects on Kv channel function, studies of the molecular correlates of ventricular repolarization must take into account ancillary subunits as well as α subunits. Cytoplasmic ancillary subunits include the Kvβ subunits, which regulate a range of Kv channels and may link channel gating to redox potential; and the KChIPs, which appear most often associated with Kv4 subfamily channels that generate the ventricular Ito current. Transmembrane ancillary subunits include the MinK-related proteins (MiRPs) encoded by KCNE genes, which modulate members of most Kv α subunit subfamilies; and the putative 12-transmembrane domain KCR1 protein which modulates hERG. In some cases, such as the ventricular IKs channel complex, it is well-established that the KCNQ1 α subunit must co-assemble with the MinK (KCNE1) single transmembrane domain ancillary subunit for recapitulation of the characteristic, unusually slowly-activating IKs current. In other cases it is not so clear-cut, and in particular the roles of the other MinK-related proteins (MiRPs 1–4) in regulating cardiac Kv channels such as KCNQ1 and hERG in vivo are under debate. MiRP1 alters hERG function and pharmacology, and inherited MiRP1 mutations are associated with inherited and acquired arrhythmias, but controversy exists over the native role of MiRP1 in regulating hERG (and therefore ventricular IKr) in vivo. Some ancillary subunits may exhibit varied expression to shape

  13. Right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training for Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction Treated with Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Ugata, Yusuke; Wada, Hiroshi; Sakakura, Kenichi; Ibe, Tatsuro; Ito, Miyuki; Ikeda, Nahoko; Fujita, Hideo; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-27

    Aerobic training based on anaerobic threshold (AT) is well-known to improve cardiac function, exercise capacity, and long-term outcomes of patients with heart failure. Recent reports suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with cardiovascular disease may improve cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. We present a 61-year-old male patient of severe left ventricular dysfunction with left ventricular assisted device (LVAD). Following HIIT for 8 weeks, exercise capacity and muscle strength have improved without worsening left ventricular function. Our case showed the possibility that HIIT was feasible and effective even in patients with LVAD.

  15. Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia Reduces Right Ventricular Systolic Function With Maintained Ventricular-Pulmonary Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wink, Jeroen; de Wilde, Rob B P; Wouters, Patrick F; van Dorp, Eveline L A; Veering, Bernadette Th; Versteegh, Michel I M; Aarts, Leon P H J; Steendijk, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Blockade of cardiac sympathetic fibers by thoracic epidural anesthesia may affect right ventricular function and interfere with the coupling between right ventricular function and right ventricular afterload. Our main objectives were to study the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on right ventricular function and ventricular-pulmonary coupling. In 10 patients scheduled for lung resection, right ventricular function and its response to increased afterload, induced by temporary, unilateral clamping of the pulmonary artery, was tested before and after induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia using combined pressure-conductance catheters. Thoracic epidural anesthesia resulted in a significant decrease in right ventricular contractility (ΔESV 25 : +25.5 mL, P=0.0003; ΔEes: -0.025 mm Hg/mL, P=0.04). Stroke work, dP/dt MAX , and ejection fraction showed a similar decrease in systolic function (all P<0.05). A concomitant decrease in effective arterial elastance (ΔEa: -0.094 mm Hg/mL, P=0.004) yielded unchanged ventricular-pulmonary coupling. Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and mean arterial blood pressure were unchanged. Clamping of the pulmonary artery significantly increased afterload (ΔEa: +0.226 mm Hg/mL, P<0.001). In response, right ventricular contractility increased (ΔESV 25 : -26.6 mL, P=0.0002; ΔEes: +0.034 mm Hg/mL, P=0.008), but ventricular-pulmonary coupling decreased (Δ(Ees/Ea) = -0.153, P<0.0001). None of the measured indices showed significant interactive effects, indicating that the effects of increased afterload were the same before and after thoracic epidural anesthesia. Thoracic epidural anesthesia impairs right ventricular contractility but does not inhibit the native positive inotropic response of the right ventricle to increased afterload. Right ventricular-pulmonary arterial coupling was decreased with increased afterload but not affected by the induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia. URL: http

  16. Capture of activation during ventricular arrhythmia using distributed stimulation.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Jason M; Ramalingam, Sanjiv; Lin, Shien-Fong; Patwardhan, Abhijit R

    2007-04-01

    Results of previous studies suggest that pacing strength stimuli can capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia locally near pacing sites. The existence of spatio-temporal distribution of excitable gap during arrhythmia suggests that multiple and timed stimuli delivered over a region may permit capture over larger areas. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spatially distributed pacing (DP) to capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia. Data were obtained from rabbit hearts which were placed against a lattice of parallel wires through which biphasic pacing stimuli were delivered. Electrical activity was recorded optically. Pacing stimuli were delivered in sequence through the parallel wires starting with the wire closest to the apex and ending with one closest to the base. Inter-stimulus delay was based on conduction velocity. Time-frequency analysis of optical signals was used to determine variability in activation. A decrease in standard deviation of dominant frequencies of activation from a grid of locations that spanned the captured area and a concurrence with paced frequency were used as an index of capture. Results from five animals showed that the average standard deviation decreased from 0.81 Hz during arrhythmia to 0.66 Hz during DP at pacing cycle length of 125 ms (p = 0.03) reflecting decreased spatio-temporal variability in activation during DP. Results of time-frequency analysis during these pacing trials showed agreement between activation and paced frequencies. These results show that spatially distributed and timed stimulation can be used to modify and capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia.

  17. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Ashley M.; Burton, Francis L.; Walker, Nicola L.; Craig, Margaret A.; Cheng, Hongwei; Hancox, Jules C.; Orchard, Clive H.; Smith, Godfrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN). In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode's solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7) increased the time of earliest activation (Tact) from 100.5 ± 7.9 to 166.1 ± 7.2 ms (n = 8) at a pacing cycle length (PCL) of 300 ms (37°C). Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150 ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0 ± 5.2 to 174.9 ± 16.3 ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode's solutions at pH 7.4 (control), 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH) interval, the AVN effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis. PMID:25009505

  18. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Ashley M; Burton, Francis L; Walker, Nicola L; Craig, Margaret A; Cheng, Hongwei; Hancox, Jules C; Orchard, Clive H; Smith, Godfrey L

    2014-01-01

    Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN). In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode's solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7) increased the time of earliest activation (Tact) from 100.5 ± 7.9 to 166.1 ± 7.2 ms (n = 8) at a pacing cycle length (PCL) of 300 ms (37°C). Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150 ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0 ± 5.2 to 174.9 ± 16.3 ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode's solutions at pH 7.4 (control), 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH) interval, the AVN effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis.

  19. Passive Ventricular Mechanics Modelling Using MRI of Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, V.Y.; Lam, H.I.; Ennis, D.B.; Young, A.A.; Nash, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions. PMID:18982680

  20. Passive ventricular mechanics modelling using MRI of structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, V Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, D B; Young, A A; Nash, M P

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions.

  1. Taser X26 discharges in swine: ventricular rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Daniel J; Walter, Robert J; Dennis, Andrew J; Margeta, Bosko; Starr, Frederic; Nagy, Kimberly K; Bokhari, Faran; Wiley, Dorion E; Joseph, Kimberly T; Roberts, Roxanne R

    2008-12-01

    Data from our previous studies indicate that Taser X26 stun devices can acutely alter cardiac function in swine. We hypothesized that most transcardiac discharge vectors would capture ventricular rhythm, but that other vectors, not traversing the heart, would fail to capture the ventricular rhythm. Using an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approved protocol, four Yorkshire pigs (25-36 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg), and then exposed to 10 second discharges from a police-issue Taser X26. For most discharges, the barbed darts were pushed manually into the skin to their full depth (12 mm) and were arranged in either transcardiac (such that a straight line connecting the darts would cross the region of the heart) or non-transcardiac vectors. A total of 11 different vectors and 22 discharge conditions were studied. For each vector, by simply rotating the cartridge 180-degrees in the gun, the primary current-emitting dart was changed and the direction of current flow during the discharge was reversed without physically moving the darts. Echocardiography and electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed before, during, and after all discharges. p values < 0.05 were considered significant. ECGs were unreadable during the discharges because of electrical interference, but echocardiography images clearly demonstrated that ventricular rhythm was captured immediately in 52.5% (31 of 59) of the discharges on the ventral surface of the animal. In each of these cases, capture of the ventricular rhythm with rapid ventricular contractions consistent with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or flutter was seen throughout the discharge. A total of 27 discharges were administered with transcardiac vectors and ventricular capture occurred in 23 of these discharges (85.2% capture rate). A total of 32 non-transcardiac discharges were administered ventrally and capture was seen in only eight of these (25% capture rate). Ventricular fibrillation (VF

  2. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  3. Adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions in right ventricular pressure load: Insights from pediatric pulmonary hypertension versus pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Hui, Wei; Bijnens, Bart H; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Meijboom, Folkert J; Friedberg, Mark K

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload has a vastly different clinical course in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) than in children with pulmonary stenosis (PS). While RV function is well recognized as a key prognostic factor in iPAH, adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions and LV dysfunction are less well characterized and the pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We compared ventricular-ventricular interactions as hypothesized drivers of biventricular dysfunction in pediatric iPAH versus PS Eighteen iPAH, 16 PS patients and 18 age- and size-matched controls were retrospectively studied. Cardiac cycle events were measured by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA with post hoc Dunnet's or ANCOVA including RV systolic pressure (RVSP; iPAH 96.8 ± 25.4 mmHg vs. PS 75.4 ± 18.9 mmHg; P = 0.011) as a covariate. RV-free wall thickening was prolonged in iPAH versus PS, extending beyond pulmonary valve closure (638 ± 76 msec vs. 562 ± 76 msec vs. 473 ± 59 msec controls). LV and RV isovolumetric relaxation were prolonged in iPAH (P < 0.001; LV 102.8 ± 24.1 msec vs. 63.1 ± 13.7 msec; RV 95 [61-165] vs. 28 [0-43]), associated with adverse septal kinetics; characterized by rightward displacement in early systole and leftward displacement in late RV systole (i.e., early LV diastole). Early LV diastolic filling was decreased in iPAH (73 ± 15.9 vs. PS 87.4 ± 14.4 vs. controls 95.8 ± 12.5 cm/sec; P = 0.004). Prolonged RVFW thickening, prolonged RVFW isovolumetric times, and profound septal dyskinesia are associated with interventricular mechanical discoordination and decreased early LV filling in pediatric iPAH much more than PS These adverse mechanics affect systolic and diastolic biventricular efficiency in iPAH and may form the basis for worse clinical outcomes. We used clinically derived data to study the pathophysiology of ventricular-ventricular

  4. Ventricular myoarchitecture in tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quintana, D.; Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the architecture of the muscle fibres of the ventricular walls in congenitally malformed hearts. In this study the gross pattern of myocardial fibres in normal hearts was compared with that in cases of tetralogy of Fallot. METHODS AND RESULTS: After morphological examination nine specimens with tetralogy were dissected to study the ventricular myoarchitecture. Changes were found in the shape of the malformed ventricles. The ventricular walls were arranged in layers in all hearts. Superficial and deep layers were present in both ventricles, with the superficial layer showing a more oblique orientation in the specimens with tetralogy than in normal hearts. Modifications of muscle fibre that were related to the type of malformation were seen in the deep layer. A middle layer was present in the left ventricles of normal hearts and specimens with tetralogy: this showed a horizontal orientation in both groups. In contrast, a middle layer was found in the right ventricle only in specimens showing tetralogy. CONCLUSIONS: The malformed hearts showed modifications in ventricular shape, in the arrangement of muscle in the right ventricle, and in the overall myoarchitecture. These changes could well be the consequence of the same agent (or agents) that caused the structural defect. Images PMID:8868990

  5. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  6. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  7. Left ventricular rotation and torsion in patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yan; Yong, Yong-hong; Yao, Jing; Ji, Ling; Xu, Di

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) rotation has become an important approach for quantifying LV function. In this study, we sought to analyze LV rotation and twist using speckle tracking imaging (STI) in adult patients with isolated ventricular septal defects. Using STI, the peak rotation and time to peak rotation of 6 segments in basal and apical short-axis were measured, respectively, in 32 patients with ventricular septal defect and 30 healthy subjects as controls. The global rotation of the 6 segments in basal and apical and LV twist versus time profile were drawn, the peak rotation and twist of LV were calculated. All the time to peak rotation/twist were expressed as a percentage of end-systole (end-systole = 100%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by biplane Simpson method. In patients group, the peak rotation of posterior, inferior, and postsept wall in basal was higher(P ≤ 0.05) and LV twist was also higher (P ≤ 0.05) than healthy controls. There were no significant differences between 2 groups in the peak rotation of the other 9 segments and left ventricular ejection fraction. Different from the control group, the time to peak rotation of the 6 segments in basal were delayed and the global rotation of the base was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) in ventricular septal defect group. Left ventricular volume overload due to ventricular septal defect has significant effect on LV rotation and twist, and LV rotation and twist may be a new index predicting LV systolic function. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Value of normal electrocardiographic findings in predicting resting left ventricular function in patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, J.H. Jr.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Gibbons, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    Characterization of left ventricular function is important in managing patients with coronary artery disease. Although many methods are available to assess left ventricular function, most are either expensive, invasive, or both. In this study, we examined the ability of normal or near-normal resting electrocardiographic findings to predict resting left ventricular ejection fraction, measured by resting radionuclide angiography, in 874 patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease. A retrospective review was undertaken of 4,410 Mayo Clinic patients who underwent rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for the evaluation of chest pain and known or suspected coronary artery disease; of these,more » 874 patients met the inclusion criteria for the current study. A 15-lead electrocardiogram, which was interpreted by the cardiologist or cardiology trainee working in the laboratory, was obtained at the same evaluation as the radionuclide study. In 590 patients with no previous history of a myocardial infarction and entirely normal resting electrocardiographic results without nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.63 +/- 0.004, and 559 patients (95%) had a normal resting ejection fraction (defined as 0.50 or more). Both nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities (p less than 0.001) and, to a lesser degree, a history of myocardial infarction (p = 0.06) were independent predictors of an abnormal resting ejection fraction. In 185 patients with nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities and no history of myocardial infarction, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.61 +/- 0.009, and 85% had a normal resting ejection fraction.« less

  9. Cavopulmonary Anastomosis in a Patient With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy With Severe Right Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Kothandam, Sivakumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Indrajith, Sujatha Desai; Agarwal, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old lady presented with exertional dyspnea, palpitations, central cyanosis, and oxygen saturations of 80% in room air. Her electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance were diagnostic of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. There was no documented ventricular arrhythmia or syncopal episodes and Holter recordings were repeatedly normal. Cardiac hemodynamics showed right to left shunt through atrial septal defect, low pulmonary blood flow, normal atrial pressures, and minimally elevated right ventricular end-diastolic pressures. Since her presenting symptoms and cyanosis were attributed to reduced pulmonary blood flow, she underwent off-pump cavopulmonary anastomosis between right superior vena cava and right pulmonary artery. As we intended to avoid the adverse effect of extracorporeal circulation on the myocardial function and pulmonary vasculature, we did not attempt to reduce the size of the atrial septal defect. Her postoperative period was uneventful; oxygen saturation improved to 89% with significant improvement in effort tolerance. At 18-month follow-up, there were no ventricular arrhythmias on surveillance. The clinical presentation of this disease may vary from serious arrhythmias warranting defibrillators and electrical ablations at one end to right ventricular pump failure warranting cardiomyoplasty or right ventricular exclusion procedures at the other end. However, when the presentation was unusual with severe cyanosis through a stretched foramen ovale leading to reduced pulmonary blood flows, Glenn shunt served as a good palliation and should be considered as one of the options in such patients.

  10. Use of Cardiac Computed Tomography for Ventricular Volumetry in Late Postoperative Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Jin; Mun, Da Na; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yun, Tae-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for ventricular volumetry. However, the clinical use of cardiac CT requires external validation. Both cardiac CT and MRI were performed prior to pulmonary valve implantation (PVI) in 11 patients (median age, 19 years) who had undergone total correction of tetralogy of Fallot during infancy. The simplified contouring method (MRI) and semiautomatic 3-dimensional region-growing method (CT) were used to measure ventricular volumes. All volumetric indices measured by CT and MRI generally correlated well with each other, except for the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LV-ESVI), which showed the following correlations with the other indices: the right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RV-EDVI) (r=0.88, p<0.001), the right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RV-ESVI) (r=0.84, p=0.001), the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LV-EDVI) (r=0.90, p=0.001), and the LV-ESVI (r=0.55, p=0.079). While the EDVIs measured by CT were significantly larger than those measured by MRI (median RV-EDVI: 197 mL/m 2 vs. 175 mL/m 2 , p=0.008; median LV-EDVI: 94 mL/m 2 vs. 92 mL/m 2 , p=0.026), no significant differences were found for the RV-ESVI or LV-ESVI. The EDVIs measured by cardiac CT were greater than those measured by MRI, whereas the ESVIs measured by CT and MRI were comparable. The volumetric characteristics of these 2 diagnostic modalities should be taken into account when indications for late PVI after tetralogy of Fallot repair are assessed.

  11. Arterial wave reflection and subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell Sv; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2011-03-01

    Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left-ventricular (LV) systolic function in individuals without heart failure is not clear. Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using two-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF less than 50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Mean age of the study population was 68.3 ± 10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (P values from 0.05 to 0.002). In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship.

  12. Hollow mandrin facilitates external ventricular drainage placement.

    PubMed

    Heese, O; Regelsberger, J; Kehler, U; Westphal, M

    2005-07-01

    Placement of ventricular catheters is a routine procedure in neurosurgery. Ventricle puncture is done using a flexible ventricular catheter stabilised by a solid steel mandrin in order to improve stability during brain penetration. A correct catheter placement is confirmed after removing the solid steel mandrin by observation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow out of the flexible catheter. Incorrect placement makes further punctures necessary. The newly developed device allows CSF flow observation during the puncture procedure and in addition precise intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement. The developed mandrin is hollow with a blunt tip. On one side 4-5 small holes with a diameter of 0.8 mm are drilled corresponding exactly with the holes in the ventricular catheter, allowing CSF to pass into the hollow mandrin as soon as the ventricle is reached. By connecting a small translucent tube at the distal portion of the hollow mandrin ICP can be measured without loss of CSF. The system has been used in 15 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or intraventricular haemeorrhage (IVH) and subsequent hydrocephalus. The new system improved the external ventricular drainage implantation procedure. In all 15 patients catheter placement was correct. ICP measurement was easy to perform immediately at ventricle puncture. In 4 patients at puncture no spontaneous CSF flow was observed, therefore by connecting a syringe and gentle aspiration of CSF correct placement was confirmed in this unexpected low pressure hydrocephalus. Otherwise by using the conventional technique further punctures would have been necessary. Advantages of the new technique are less puncture procedures with a lower risk of damage to neural structures and reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhages. Implantation of the ventricular catheter to far into the brain can be monitored and this complication can be overcome. Using the connected pressure monitoring tube an exact measurement of the opening

  13. A hemodynamics model to study the collective behavior of the ventricular-arterial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin Wang, Yuh-Ying; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2013-01-01

    Applying principles from complex systems to study the efficacy of integrative therapies has become a new interest in medical research. We aimed to construct a concise model for the ventricular-arterial (VA) system and to provide a systematic method for exploring its overall behavior. The transportation of blood from the heart to the peripheral arterioles via hydraulic pressure forces was described by a multi-rank model. Parts of the VA system that have strong mutual interactions were combined into a single sub system. Sub systems of four different ranks were characterized. We then applied the multi-rank model to analyze the aortic pressure wave generated by the periodic ventricular blood ejection, the renal pressure in response to the input from the VA system, and the blood flowing from the renal artery to its arterioles. Maintaining the pressure distribution along the main arteries and in all of the organs with the lowest possible ventricular input turned out to be the first principle for the operation of an efficient VA system. By this principle, we pointed out the benefit of some arterial structures in mammals, derived specific regulation rules and deduced some fundamental concepts for healing. The justification of the biomechanics in our model that differed greatly from those in the prevailing models was given. We concluded that the oscillatory motion and the pressure pulse of the arterial system can be analyzed as steady states with resonance behaviors and suggested utilizing this model to construct integrative therapies for diseases correlated with abnormality in blood circulation.

  14. [Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Case report and a brief literature review].

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Carlos; Curotto-Grasiosi, Jorge; Rocchinotti, Mónica; Torres, María J; Moranchel, Manuel; Cañas, Sebastián; Cardús, Marta E; Alasia, Diego; Cordero, Diego J; Angel, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of palpitations and a feeling of dizziness for a period of 2h. The electrocardiogram revealed a regular wide-QRS complex tachycardia at a rate of 250 beats per minute, with superior axis and left bundle branch block morphology without hemodynamically decompensation, the patient was cardioverted to sinus rhythm after the administration of a loading and maintenance dose of amiodarone. The elechtrophysiological study showed the ventricular origin of the arrhythmia. In order to diagnose the etiology of the ventricular tachycardia we performed a coronary arteriography that showed normal epicardial vessels, thus ruling out coronary disease. Doppler echocardiography revealed systolic and diastolic functions of both left and right ventricles within normal parameters, and normal diameters as well. A cardiac magnetic resonance with late enhancement was done, showing structural abnormalities of the right ventricle wall with moderate impairment of the ejection fraction, and a mild dysfunction of the left ventricle. The diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was performed as 2 major Task Force criteria were met. We implanted an automatic cardioverter defibrillator as a prophylactic measure. The patient was discharged without complications. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical validation of the planar radionuclide ventriculography in patients with right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, L; Merabet, Y; Chevalier, P; Itti, R

    2013-01-01

    Gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) may be used for the evaluation of the right ventricular function. However, the accuracy of the method should be clinically validated in patients suffering from diseases with specific pathology of the right ventricle (RV) and with possible left ventricular (LV) interaction. Three groups of 15 patients each, diagnosed with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) or atrial septal defect (ASD) were compared to a group of normal subjects. The parameters for both ventricles were evaluated separately (ejection fractions: LVEF and RVEF, and intraventricular synchronism quantified as phase standard deviation: LVPSD and RVPSD) as well as the relation or interdependence of the right to left ventricle (RV/LV volume ratio, LV/RV ejection fraction and stroke volume ratios, and interventricular synchronism). All the variables as a whole were analyzed to identify groups of patients according to their functional behaviour. Significant differences were found between the patients and control group for the RV function while the LV function remained mostly within normal limits. When the RV function was considered, the control group and ASD patient group showed differences regarding the ARVD and PAH patients. On evaluating the RV/LV ratios, differences were found between the control group and the ASD group. In the PAH patients, LV function showed differences in relation to the rest of the groups. RNV is a reliable clinical tool to evaluate RV function in patients with RV abnormality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. L-carnitine supplementation decreases the left ventricular mass in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sakurabayashi, Tai; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yuasa, Yasuko; Sakai, Shinji; Suzuki, Masashi; Takahashi, Sachio; Hirasawa, Yoshihei

    2008-06-01

    Patients on long-term hemodialysis become deficient in carnitine and are frequently treated with carnitine supplementation to offset their renal anemia, lipid abnormality and cardiac dysfunction. The therapeutic value of carnitine supplementation on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with normal cardiac systolic function remains uncertain. The cardiac morphology and function of 10 patients given 10 mg/kg of L-carnitine orally, immediately after hemodialysis sessions 3 times per week for a 12-month period were compared with 10 untreated control patients. Using echocardiography, left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured before and after the study period. As a result, amounts of serum-free carnitine increased from 28.4+/-4.7 to 58.5+/-12.1 micromol/L. The LVMI decreased significantly from 151.8+/-21.2 to 134.0+/-16.0 g/m(2) in treated patients (p<0.01), yet the LVMI in untreated control patients did not change significantly (ie, from 153.3+/-28.2 to 167.1+/-43.1 g/m(2)). However, LVFS values remained unchanged in both groups. Although L-carnitine promoted a 31% reduction in erythropoietin requirements, hematocrit and blood pressure did not change during the study period. Supplementation with L-carnitine induced regression of LVH in patients on hemodialysis, even for those with normal systolic function.

  17. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K D; Dazzan, P; Morgan, C; Lappin, J; Hutchinson, G; Chitnis, X; Suckling, J; Fearon, P; Jones, P B; Leff, J; Murray, R M

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients. We obtained dual-echo (proton density/T2-weighted) images from a sample of 75 first-episode psychosis patients and 68 healthy controls. We used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based methods of image analysis. Two separate analyses were conducted: (1) 34 white British patients were compared with 33 white British controls; (2) 41 African-Caribbean and black African patients were compared with 35 African-Caribbean and black African controls. White British patients and African-Caribbean/black African patients had ventricular enlargement and increased lenticular nucleus volume compared with their respective ethnic controls. The African-Caribbean/black African patients also showed reduced global grey matter and increased lingual gyrus grey-matter volume. The white British patients had no regional or global grey-matter loss compared with their normal ethnic counterparts but showed increased grey matter in the left superior temporal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found no evidence in support of our hypothesis. Indeed, the finding of reduced global grey-matter volume in the African-Caribbean/black African patients but not in the white British patients was contrary to our prediction.

  18. Mutation-Linked Defective Inter-Domain Interactions within Ryanodine Receptor Cause Aberrant Ca2+ Release Leading to Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Suetomi, Takeshi; Yano, Masafumi; Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Masakazu; Hino, Akihiro; Ono, Makoto; Xu, Xiaojuan; Tateishi, Hiroki; Okuda, Shinichi; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ikeda, Yasuhiho; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2011-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanism by which catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is induced by single amino acid mutations within the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) remains elusive. Here, we investigated mutation-induced conformational defects of RyR2 using a knock-in (KI) mouse model expressing the human CPVT-associated RyR2 mutant (S2246L; Serine to Leucine mutation at the residue 2246). Methods and Results All KI mice we examined produced VT after exercise on a treadmill. cAMP-dependent increase in the frequency of Ca2+ sparks was more pronounced in saponin-permeabilized KI cardiomyocytes than in WT cardiomyocytes. Site-directed fluorescent labeling and quartz microbalance assays of the specific binding of DP2246 (a peptide corresponding to the 2232–2266 region: the 2246 domain) showed that DP2246 binds with the K201-binding sequence of RyR2 (1741– 2270). Introduction of S2246L mutation into the DP2246 increased the affinity of peptide binding. Fluorescence quench assays of inter-domain interactions within RyR2 showed that tight interaction of the 2246 domain/K201-binding domain is coupled with domain unzipping of the N-terminal (1-600)/central (2000–2500) domain pair in an allosteric manner. Dantrolene corrected the mutation-caused domain unzipping of the domain switch, and stopped the exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions The CPVT-linked mutation of RyR2, S2246L, causes an abnormally tight local sub-domain/sub-domain interaction within the central domain involving the mutation site, which induces defective interaction between the N-terminal and central domains. This results in an erroneous activation of Ca2+ channel in a diastolic state reflecting on the increased Ca2+ spark frequency, which then leads to lethal arrhythmia. PMID:21768539

  19. Continuous on-line monitoring of left ventricular function with a new nonimaging detector:validation and clinical use in the evaluation of patients post angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Breisblatt, W M; Schulman, D S; Follansbee, W P

    1991-06-01

    A new miniaturized nonimaging radionuclide detector (Cardioscint, Oxford, England) was evaluated for the continuous on-line assessment of left ventricular function. This cesium iodide probe can be placed on the patient's chest and can be interfaced to an IBM compatible personal computer conveniently placed at the patient's bedside. This system can provide a beat-to-beat or gated determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and ST segment analysis. In 28 patients this miniaturized probe was correlated against a high resolution gamma camera study. Over a wide range of ejection fraction (31% to 76%) in patients with and without regional wall motion abnormalities, the correlation between the Cardioscint detector and the gamma camera was excellent (r = 0.94, SEE +/- 2.1). This detector system has high temporal (10 msec) resolution, and comparison of peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling (TPFR) also showed close agreement with the gamma camera (PFR, r = 0.94, SEE +/- 0.17; TPFR, r = 0.92, SEE +/- 6.8). In 18 patients on bed rest the long-term stability of this system for measuring ejection fraction and ST segments was verified. During the monitoring period (108 +/- 28 minutes) only minor changes in ejection fraction occurred (coefficient of variation 0.035 +/- 0.016) and ST segment analysis showed no significant change from baseline. To determine whether continuous on-line measurement of ejection fraction would be useful after coronary angioplasty, 12 patients who had undergone a successful procedure were evaluated for 280 +/- 35 minutes with the Cardioscint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Joubert Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Avery H.; Doherty, Dan; Parisi, Melissa; Shaw, Dennis; Glass, Ian; Phillips, James O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Joubert syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by hypoplasia of the midline cerebellum and deficiency of crossed connections between neural structures in the brain stem that control eye movements. The goal of the study was to quantify the eye movement abnormalities that occur in Joubert syndrome. Methods Eye movements were recorded in response to stationary stimuli and stimuli designed to elicit smooth pursuit, saccades, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and vergence using video-oculography or Skalar search coils in 8 patients with Joubert syndrome. All patients underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results All patients had the highly characteristic molar tooth sign on brain MRI. Six patients had conjugate pendular (n = 4) or see-saw nystagmus (n = 2); gaze holding was stable in four patients. Smooth-pursuit gains were 0.28 to 1.19, 0.11 to 0.68, and 0.33 to 0.73 at peak stimulus velocities of 10, 20, and 30 deg/s in six patients; smooth pursuit could not be elicited in four patients. Saccade gains in five patients ranged from 0.35 to 0.91 and velocities ranged from 60.9 to 259.5 deg/s. Targeted saccades could not be elicited in five patients. Horizontal OKN gain was uniformly reduced across gratings drifted at velocities of 15, 30, and 45 deg/s. VOR gain was 0.8 or higher and phase appropriate in three of seven subjects; VOR gain was 0.3 or less and phase was indeterminate in four subjects. Conclusions The abnormalities in gaze-holding and eye movements are consistent with the distributed abnormalities of midline cerebellum and brain stem regions associated with Joubert syndrome. PMID:19443711

  1. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete trisomy 9 with unusual phenotypic associations: Dandy-Walker malformation, cleft lip and cleft palate, cardiovascular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Lituania, Mario; Chitayat, David; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Keating, Sarah; Thompson, Megan; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Trisomy 9 is a rare chromosomal abnormality usually associated with first-trimester miscarriage; few fetuses survive until the second trimester. We report two new cases of complete trisomy 9 that both present unusual phenotypic associations, and we analyze the genetic pathway involved in this chromosomal abnormality. The first fetus investigated showed Dandy-Walker malformation, cleft lip, and cleft palate) at the second trimester scan. Cardiovascular abnormalities were characterized by a right-sided, U-shaped aortic arch associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Symmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and multicystic dysplastic kidney disease were associated findings. The second fetus showed a dysmorphic face, bilateral cleft lip, hypoplastic corpus callosum, and a Dandy-Walker malformation. Postmortem examination revealed cardiovascular abnormalities such as persistent left superior vena cava draining into the coronary sinus, membranous ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary valve with two cusps and three sinuses, and the origin of the left subclavian artery distal to the junction of ductus arteriosus and aortic arch. Complete trisomy 9 may result in a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities, and the presented case series contributes further details on the phenotype of this rare aneuploidy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  5. Left ventricular functions in children with newly diagnosed Graves' disease. A single-center study from Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad; Abdelhamid, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in a cohort of children with Graves' disease (GD). This is a cross-sectional case-control study. It included 36 children with GD and 36 healthy children matched for age and gender. Thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, and FT3) and anti-thyroid autoantibodies [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyrotropin receptor (TRAbs), and thyroglobulin antibodies] were measured. Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographies were used to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. LV mass index (LVMI) and myocardial performance index (MPI) were also measured. Compared to healthy children, conventional echocardiography of patients with GD revealed higher LVMI (P = 0.001) indicating LV hypertrophy but normal LV functions while TDI revealed lower Em/Am ratio indicating LV diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between FT4 with LVMI (P = 0.05), Em/Am (P = 0.01), and MPI (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a positive correlation was identified between FT4 with MPI (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.09-1.15; P = 0.001). Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in LV structure and function (diastolic and global). TDI is more sensitive than conventional Doppler in detecting LV dysfunction. These findings highlight the importance of early monitoring of children with GD for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. What is Known: • There is an increased risk for cardiac abnormalities in children with Graves' disease (GD). • Limited studies assessed left ventricular function in patients with GD. What is New: • Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in left ventricular structure and functions. • Children with newly diagnosed GD should be monitored for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function.

  6. Ventricular Arrhythmias in the North American Multidisciplinary Study of ARVC

    PubMed Central

    Link, Mark S.; Laidlaw, Douglas; Polonsky, Bronislava; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Gear, Kathleen; Marcus, Frank; Mark Estes, NA

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is associated with sudden cardiac death. However, the selection of patients for implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), as well as programming of the ICD, is unclear. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to identify predictors, characteristics, and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ARVC. METHODS The Multidisciplinary Study of Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy established the North American ARVC Registry and enrolled patients with a diagnosis of ARVC. Patients were followed prospectively. RESULTS Of 137 patients enrolled, 108 received ICDs. Forty-eight patients had 502 sustained episodes of ventricular arrhythmias, including 489 that were monomorphic and 13 that were polymorphic. In the patients with ICDs, independent predictors of ventricular arrhythmias in follow-up included spontaneous sustained ventricular arrhythmias before ICD implantation and T-wave inversions inferiorly. The only independent predictor for life-threatening arrhythmias, defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) ≥240 beats/min or ventricular fibrillation, was a younger age at enrollment. Anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP), independent of the cycle length of the VT, was successful in terminating 92% of VT episodes. CONCLUSIONS In the North American ARVC Registry, the majority of ventricular arrhythmias in follow-up are monomorphic. Risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias were spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias before enrollment and a younger age at ICD implantation. ATP is highly successful in terminating VT, and all ICDs should be programmed for ATP, even for rapid VT. PMID:25011714

  7. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  8. Aortic Wave Dynamics and Its Influence on Left Ventricular Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2010-11-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that hypertension plays a key role in development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure mostly due to increased LV workload. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and treat abnormal high LV workload at early stages. The pumping mechanism of the heart is pulsatile, thus it sends pressure and flow wave into the compliant aorta. The wave dynamics in the aorta is dominated by interplay of heart rate (HR), aortic rigidity, and location of reflection sites. We hypothesized that for a fixed cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR), interplay of HR and aortic compliance can create conditions that minimize LV power requirement. We used a computational approach to test our hypothesis. Finite element method with direct coupling method of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was used. Blood was assumed to be incompressible Newtonian fluid and aortic wall was considered elastic isotropic. Simulations were performed for various heart rates and aortic rigidities while inflow wave, CO, and PR were kept constant. For any aortic compliance, LV power requirement becomes minimal at a specific heart rate. The minimum shifts to higher heart rates as aortic rigidity increases.

  9. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  10. Pregnancy Outcome of Abnormal Nuchal Translucency: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Azizi, Maryam; Darvish, Leili

    2017-03-01

    Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities. The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. The present systematic review was conducted by searching English language articles from sources such as International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL. Persian articles were searched from Iranmedex and SID sources. Related key words were "outcome", "pregnancy", "abnormal", and "Nuchal Translucency" (NT). All, randomized, descriptive, analytic-descriptive, case control study conducted during 1997-2015 were included. Including duplicate articles, 95 related articles were found. After reviewing article titles, 30 unrelated article and abstracts were removed, and 65 articles were evaluated of which 30 articles were duplicate. Finally 22 articles were selected for final analysis. Exclusion criteria were, case studies and reports and quasi experimental designs. This evaluation has optioned negative relationship between nuchal translucency and pregnancy result. Rate of cardiac, chromosomal and other defects are correlated with increased NT≥2.5mm. Cardiac disease which were associated to the increased NT are heart murmur, systolic organic murmur, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary valve insufficiency, Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The most common problems that related with increased NT were allergic symptoms. According to this systematic review, increased NT is associated with various foetal defects. To verify the presence of malformations, birth defect consultations with a perinatologist and additional tests are required.

  11. Viscous Energy Loss in the Presence of Abnormal Aortic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Barker, A.J.; van Ooij, P.; Bandi, K.; Garcia, J.; Albaghdadi, M.; McCarthy, P.; Bonow, R. O.; Carr, J.; Collins, J.; Malaisrie, C.; Markl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses, and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. Methods 4D flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n=12, age=37±10), patients with aortic dilation (n=16, age=52±8), and patients with aortic valve stenosis matched for age and aortic size (n=14, age=46±15), using a relationship between the 3D velocity field and viscous energy dissipation. Results Viscous energy loss was significantly elevated in the thoracic aorta for patients with dilated aorta (3.6±1.3 mW, p=0.024) and patients with aortic stenosis (14.3±8.2 mW, p<0.001) compared to healthy volunteers (2.3±0.9 mW). The same pattern of significant differences were seen in the ascending aorta, where viscous energy losses in patients with dilated aortas (2.2±1.1 mW, p=0.021) and patients with aortic stenosis (10.9±6.8 mW, p<0.001) were elevated compared to healthy volunteers (1.2±0.6 mW). Conclusion This technique provides a capability to quantify the contribution of abnormal laminar blood flow to increased ventricular afterload. In this pilot study, viscous energy loss in patient cohorts was significantly elevated and indicates that cardiac afterload is increased due to abnormal flow. PMID:24122967

  12. Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bauduin, Stephanie E E C; van der Wee, Nic J A; van der Werff, Steven J A

    2018-05-08

    Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome. Recent findings are of particular interest because they provide more detailed information on localization of the structural changes as well as possible insights into the underlying biological processes. Active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome is related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and in a prefrontal region involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Whilst there are indications that the reductions in hippocampal volume are partially reversible, the changes in the ACC and MFG appear to be more persistent. In contrast to the volumetric findings, changes in white matter connectivity are typically widespread involving multiple tracts.

  13. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  14. Left ventricular function by echocardiogram in children with sickle cell anaemia in Mumbai, Western India.

    PubMed

    Tidake, Abhay; Gangurde, Pranil; Taksande, Anup; Mahajan, Ajay; Nathani, Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular events and complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with sickle cell disease. Cardiac abnormalities occur frequently and at an early stage in sickle cell anaemia patients, despite being more evident in adulthood. Sickle cell anaemia patients are increasingly able to reach adulthood owing to improved healthcare, and may, therefore, suffer the consequences of chronic cardiac injury. Thus, the study of cardiac abnormalities is essential in children The aim of this study was to determine the echocardiographic changes in left ventricular function in children suffering from sickle cell disease in Mumbai, Western India. The study comprised of 48 cases of sickle cell anaemia and 30 non-anaemic controls with normal haemoglobin and electrophoresis pattern. M-mode, two-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements of patients and controls were performed according to the criteria of the American Echocardiography Society. On Doppler study, the A wave height was increased and the E/A ratio was decreased, whereas the deceleration and isovolumetric relaxation times were prolonged, which is typically seen in slowed or impaired myocardial relaxation (p<0.001). Although chamber dilatations were present, echocardiographic parameters showed no statistically significant correlation with severity of anaemia and age among the sickle cell patients. We conclude that the increased left ventricular stiffness, compared with controls, might be due to fibrosis related to ischaemia caused by SS disease in addition to wall hypertrophy.

  15. Possible association between different congenital abnormalities and use of different sulfonamides during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Puhó, Erzsébet; Sørensen, Henrik T; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-06-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to check the debated human teratogenic potential of sulfonamide drugs. Five different sulfonamides such as sulfamethazine, sulfathiourea, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethoxydiazine and the combination of sulfamethazine-sulfathiourea-sulfamethoxypyridazine were differentiated. Cases with congenital abnormalities were compared with their matched controls without congenital abnormalities in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 newborn infants without any congenital abnormalities (control group), 163 (0.4%) had mothers who were treated with the sulfonamides studied during pregnancy, while of 22,843 cases with congenital abnormalities, 140 (0.6%) had mothers who were treated with the sulfonamides studied during pregnancy. The analysis of cases and matched controls indicated a higher rate of cardiovascular malformation (adjusted prevalence odds ratios [POR] with 95% CI: 3.5, 1.9-6.4) and clubfoot (adjusted POR with 95% CI: 2.6, 1.1-6.2) in infants born to mothers with sulfonamide treatment in the second and third months of pregnancy. The detailed analysis of different sulfonamides showed a possible association between cardiovascular malformations (adjusted POR with 95%; CI: 6.5, 2.6-15.9), particularly ventricular septal defect (17.1, 1.3-141.1) and sulfamethoxydiazine during the second and third months of pregnancy. In addition, a possible association was found between clubfoot and sulfathiourea, both during the entire pregnancy (adjusted POR with 95% CI: 2.3, 1.2-4.3) and in the second and third months of gestation (3.9, 1.1-13.8). Thus, maternal treatment of sulfamethoxydiazine may cause ventricular septal defect, while sulfathiourea may induce clubfoot; however, further studies are needed to verify or reject these associations.

  16. Cardiac abnormalities in patients with mitochondrial DNA mutation 3243A>G

    PubMed Central

    Majamaa-Voltti, Kirsi; Peuhkurinen, Keijo; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Hassinen, Ilmo E; Majamaa, Kari

    2002-01-01

    Background Tissues that depend on aerobic energy metabolism suffer most in diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cardiac abnormalities have been described in many cases, but their frequency and clinical spectrum among patients with mtDNA mutations is unknown. Methods Thirty-nine patients with the 3243A>G mtDNA mutation were examined, methods used included clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, Holter recording and echocardiography. Autopsy reports on 17 deceased subjects were also reviewed. The degree of 3243A>G mutation heteroplasmy was determined using an Apa I restriction fragment analysis. Better hearing level (BEHL0.5–4 kHz) was used as a measure of the clinical severity of disease. Results Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed in 19 patients (56%) by echocardiography and in six controls (15%) giving an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval; 1.74–67). The dimensions of the left ventricle suggested a concentric hypertrophy. Left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction was observed in 11 patients. Holter recording revealed frequent ventricular extrasystoles (>10/h) in five patients. Patients with LVH differed significantly from those without LVH in BEHL0.5–4 kHz, whereas the contribution of age or the degree of the mutant heteroplasmy in skeletal muscle to the risk of LVH was less remarkable. Conclusions Structural and functional abnormalities of the heart were common in patients with 3243A>G. The risk of LVH was related to the clinical severity of the phenotype, and to a lesser degree to age, suggesting that patients presenting with any symptoms from the mutation should also be evaluated for cardiac abnormalities. PMID:12150714

  17. Cardiac abnormalities in patients with mitochondrial DNA mutation 3243A>G.

    PubMed

    Majamaa-Voltti, Kirsi; Peuhkurinen, Keijo; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Hassinen, Ilmo E; Majamaa, Kari

    2002-08-01

    Tissues that depend on aerobic energy metabolism suffer most in diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cardiac abnormalities have been described in many cases, but their frequency and clinical spectrum among patients with mtDNA mutations is unknown. Thirty-nine patients with the 3243A>G mtDNA mutation were examined, methods used included clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, Holter recording and echocardiography. Autopsy reports on 17 deceased subjects were also reviewed. The degree of 3243A>G mutation heteroplasmy was determined using an Apa I restriction fragment analysis. Better hearing level (BEHL0.5-4 kHz) was used as a measure of the clinical severity of disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed in 19 patients (56%) by echocardiography and in six controls (15%) giving an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval; 1.74-67). The dimensions of the left ventricle suggested a concentric hypertrophy. Left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction was observed in 11 patients. Holter recording revealed frequent ventricular extrasystoles (>10/h) in five patients. Patients with LVH differed significantly from those without LVH in BEHL0.5-4 kHz, whereas the contribution of age or the degree of the mutant heteroplasmy in skeletal muscle to the risk of LVH was less remarkable. Structural and functional abnormalities of the heart were common in patients with 3243A>G. The risk of LVH was related to the clinical severity of the phenotype, and to a lesser degree to age, suggesting that patients presenting with any symptoms from the mutation should also be evaluated for cardiac abnormalities.

  18. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. This was a case-control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e': 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function.

  19. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P < 0.001), as defined by E/A ratio <1 and E-wave deceleration time >220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  20. Value of the QRS complex in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Askenazi, J; Parisi, A F; Cohn, P F; Freedman, W B; Braunwald, E

    1978-03-01

    The relation between electrocardiographic findings and the angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and the augmented ejection fraction after a premature ventricular contraction was investigated in 73 patients with documented chronic coronary artery disease. The patients were separated into four groups according to the presence or absence of abnormal Q waves. Twenty-four patients had diaphragmatic myocardial infarction, 21 had anterior myocardial infarction, 15 had both and 13 had no myocardial infarction. There was no statistically significant differences in cardiac index, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure or number of coronary vessels showing critical narrowing in the four groups. The sum of R waves (in mv) in leads aVL, aVF and V1 to V6 (sigmaR) was correlated with the ejection fraction (EF) and the augmented ejection fraction (EFa). EF in percent = 6.6 sigmaR mv + 9.4 (no. =73, r = 0.61); and EFa in percent = 8.6 sigmaR mv + 11.0 (no. = 73, r = 0.77). Among patients with sigmaR of less than 4.0 mv, augmented ejection fraction was less than 0.45 in 73 percent; among patients with sigmaR of 4.0 mv or more the augmented ejection fraction was greater than 0.45 in 93 percent (P less than 0.001). Thus, the sigmaR, calculated from six precordial and two augmented leads in patients with chronic coronary artery disease, correlated with both ejection fraction and augmented ejection fraction. The electrocardiogram in patients with coronary artery disease may prove useful as a simple, readily available and noninvasive guide in the assessment of left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease.

  1. Sildenafil Preserves Exercise Capacity in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Right-sided Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bach, David S.; Hagan, Peter G.; Yow, Eric; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Toews, Galen B.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with pulmonary vasculopathy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sildenafil improves 6-min walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with IPF and right ventricular dysfunction. Methods: The IPFnet, a network of IPF research centers in the United States, conducted a randomized trial examining the effect of sildenafil on 6MWD in patients with advanced IPF, defined by carbon monoxide diffusing capacity < 35% predicted. A substudy examined 119 of 180 randomized subjects where echocardiograms were available for independent review by two cardiologists. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH), right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD), and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were assessed. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the relationship between RV abnormality, sildenafil treatment, and changes in 6MWD, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the EuroQol instrument, and SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) from enrollment to 12 weeks. Results: The prevalence of RVH and RVSD were 12.8% and 18.6%, respectively. RVSP was measurable in 71 of 119 (60%) subjects; mean RVSP was 42.5 mm Hg. In the subgroup of subjects with RVSD, subjects treated with sildenafil experienced less decrement in 6MWD (99.3 m; P = .01) and greater improvement in SGRQ (13.4 points; P = .005) and EuroQol visual analog scores (17.9 points; P = .04) than subjects receiving placebo. In the subgroup with RVH, sildenafil was not associated with change in 6MWD (P = .13), but was associated with greater relative improvement in SGRQ (14.8 points; P = .02) vs subjects receiving placebo. Sildenafil treatment in those with RVSD and RVH was not associated with change in SF-36. Conclusions: Sildenafil treatment in IPF with RVSD results in better preservation of exercise capacity as compared with placebo. Sildenafil also improves quality of life in subjects with RVH and RVSD. PMID:23732584

  2. Influence of the hole geometry on the flow distribution in ventricular catheters for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Ángel; Galarza, Marcelo; Pellicer, Olga; Valero, José; Amigó, José M

    2016-07-15

    Hydrocephalus is a medical condition consisting of an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain. A catheter is inserted in one of the brain ventricles and then connected to an external valve to drain the excess of cerebrospinal fluid. The main drawback of this technique is that, over time, the ventricular catheter ends up getting blocked by the cells and macromolecules present in the cerebrospinal fluid. A crucial factor influencing this obstruction is a non-uniform flow pattern through the catheter, since it facilitates adhesion of suspended particles to the walls. In this paper we focus on the effects that tilted holes as well as conical holes have on the flow distribution and shear stress. We have carried out 3D computational simulations to study the effect of the hole geometry on the cerebrospinal fluid flow through ventricular catheters. All the simulations were done with the OpenFOAM® toolbox. In particular, three different groups of models were investigated by varying (i) the tilt angles of the holes, (ii) the inner and outer diameters of the holes, and (iii) the distances between the so-called hole segments. The replacement of cylindrical holes by conical holes was found to have a strong influence on the flow distribution and to lower slightly the shear stress. Tilted holes did not involve flow distribution changes when the hole segments are sufficiently separated, but the mean shear stress was certainly reduced. The authors present new results about the behavior of the fluid flow through ventricular catheters. These results complete earlier work on this topic by adding the influence of the hole geometry. The overall objective pursued by this research is to provide guidelines to improve existing commercially available ventricular catheters.

  3. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e′: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Conclusion Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function. PMID:25565790

  4. Left ventricular geometric patterns in newly presenting nigerian hypertensives: An echocardiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Aje, Akinyemi; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Oladapo, Olulola O; Dada, Adekola; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ojji, Dike B; Falase, Ayodele O

    2006-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a global problem and it is prevalent in Nigeria. Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major complication of hypertension with risk of sudden death and arrhythmias among others. Abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns also increase the burden of morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to know the different left ventricular geometric patterns in Nigerian hypertensives because of their prognostic significance. Methods One hundred (100) newly presenting hypertensives (53 males and 47 females) and 100 controls (53 males and 47 females) were recruited for the study. All were subjected to clinical evaluation and full echocardiographic examination was performed according to the ASE recommendation. The relative wall thickness and the presence or absence of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy were used to determine the various geometric patterns Results The mean age of the hypertensive subjects was 56.06 (± 7.68) years while that of the control subjects was 56.10 (± 7.68) years. There was no significant difference in the mean ages of the two groups. In the hypertensive subjects 28% had normal geometry, 26% had concentric remodeling, 28% had concentric hypertrophy and 18% had eccentric hypertrophy. In the control group, 86% had normal geometry, 11% had concentric remodeling, 3% had eccentric hypertrophy and none had concentric hypertrophy. There was statistical significance when the geometric patterns of the hypertensive and controls were compared (χ2 = 74.30, p value < 0.0001). Conclusion The study showed that only 28% of the hypertensive subjects had normal LV geometric pattern while 86% of the normal subjects had normal geometry. There is need for longitudinal studies in order to prognosticate the various geometric patterns. PMID:16426452

  5. Discontinuation of antithrombotic therapy for a year or more in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Naveen L; Chen, Dong; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

    2010-10-01

    The recommended anticoagulation regimen during continuous-flow axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support is aspirin and warfarin with a targeted international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. We report two patients in whom recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding during LVAD support necessitated discontinuation of this anti-thrombotic regimen for a year or more. Despite this, neither patients developed thrombotic complications during 29 patient-months of follow-up. An acquired von Willebrand factor (VWF) abnormality reflected by the absence or decreased abundance of the highest molecular weight multimers was demonstrated in both patients. The gold standard test for platelet function, light transmission platelet aggregometry was measured in one patient and was normal, indicative that the predominant abnormality in the coagulation profile of these patients is an acquired VWF syndrome. Clinical trials are required to address the question whether it is safe to discontinue anticoagulation in LVAD patients with acquired VWF abnormalities.

  6. [Competitive sports and dilated cardiomyopathy: the case of a 32-year-old soccer player with ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Scharhag, J; Meyer, T; Görge, G; Kindermann, W

    2003-01-24

    A 32-year-old competitive soccer player presented with palpitations he had felt for 4 weeks during maximal activity (soccer training and match). The physical examination and an exercise electrocardiogram were carried out by his general practitioner up to 19 s at 350 W and a heart rate of 147/min without showing any abnormalities. All blood parameters revealed no signs of illness. During treadmill exercise at a heart rate of 181/min, a non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was induced. Echocardiography showed a dilated left ventricle with an enddiastolic diameter of 70 mm and low fractional shortening (28 %). Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a diminished left ventricular ejection fraction (38 %) and an enlarged enddiastolic volume (199 ml) without signs of coronary artery disease. Electrophysiologic testing induced a non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. The echocardiographic and angiographic results indicated a dilated cardiomyopathy. Competitive sports activities were stopped and treatment with a beta-blocker (metoprolol) and an ACE-antagonist (ramipril) was started. In young male and female athletes, the possibility of severe cardiac abnormalities have to be considered even in the presence of good physical fitness and performance. To reach a high sensitivity for diagnostic ergometry, the work-load must reach the maximal capacity of the cardio-pulmonary system. Differences in the exercise performance of athletes and untrained subjects have to be considered.

  7. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients.

  8. [Prevalence of congenital abnormalities identified in fetuses with 13, 18 and 21 chromosomal trisomy].

    PubMed

    Emer, Caroline Soares Cristofari; Duque, Julio Alejandro Peña; Müller, Ana Lúcia Letti; Gus, Rejane; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; da Silva, André Anjos; Magalhães, José Antonio de Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of malformations found in fetuses with trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 by identifying the most frequent within each condition. A retrospective cross-sectional study with the analysis of trisomy cases of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 diagnosed through fetal karyotype obtained by amniocentesis/cordocentesis, between October 1994 and May 2014, at a Teaching Hospital in Brazil Southern Region. Malformations identified through morphological ultrasonography were described and, subsequently, confirmed in newborn examinations and/or fetal autopsy. The results were analyzed using Fisher's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a 5% level of significance (p=0.05). Sixty-nine cases of trisomy were diagnosed among 840 exams; nine were excluded due to outcome outside Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre or incomplete records, remaining 60 cases (nine cases of chromosome 13 trisomy, 26 of chromosome 18, and 25 of chromosome 21). In all three groups, heart disease occurred in most cases; the ventricular septal defect was more prevalent and occurred in 66.7% of the trisomy 13 group. Gastrointestinal abnormalities were more prevalent in the trisomy 18 group, especially omphalocele (38.5%; p<0.01). Genitourinary anomalies were more significantly frequent in the trisomy 13 gro