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  1. Online Support: Impact on Anxiety in Women Who Experience an Abnormal Screening Mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Obadina, Eniola T.; Dubenske, Lori L.; McDowell, Helene E.; Atwood, Amy K.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Woods, Ryan W.; Gustafson, David H.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether an online support tool can impact anxiety in women experiencing an abnormal mammogram. MATERIALS AND METHODS We developed an online support system using the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) designed for women experiencing an abnormal mammogram as a model. Our trial randomized 130 of these women to online support (the intervention group) or to a list of five commonly used Internet sites (the comparison group). Surveys assessed anxiety and breast cancer worry, and patient satisfaction at three important clinical time points: when women were notified of their abnormal mammogram, at the time of diagnostic imaging, and at the time of biopsy (if biopsy was recommended). RESULTS Study participants in the intervention group showed a significant decrease in anxiety at the time of biopsy compared to the comparison group (p=0.017). However, there was no significant difference in anxiety between the intervention group and the comparison group at the time of diagnostic work-up. We discontinued assessment of patient satisfaction after finding that many women had substantial difficulty answering the questions that referenced their physician, because they did not understand who their physician was for this process of care. CONCLUSION The combination of the inability to identify the physician providing care during the mammography work-up and anxiety effects seen only after an interaction with the breast imaging team may indicate that online support only decreases the anxiety of women in concert with direct interpersonal support from the healthcare team. PMID:25193424

  2. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  3. Automated multimodal segmentation of an abnormal breast mass in mammogram.

    PubMed

    Kirubha, Angeline Sp; Rachel, Minnita; Anburajan, Micheal

    2016-06-01

    A lot of computer-aided diagnosis systems have been attempted to segment automatically breast mass from a mammogram and to classify the mass as benign and malignant quantitatively. This study aimed to develop an automated computer-aided diagnosis system to evaluate the disease with high accuracy using the proposed multimodal segmentation algorithm when compared to an abnormal breast mass region outlined in mammogram by radiologists of American College of Radiology as "standard." In this study, a total number of 150 mammograms were downloaded from the DDSM database for screening mammography. Based on the available diagnostic report, the studied data were classified as follows: (1) Group I: normal (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 55 ± 8 years), (2) Group II: benign breast cancer (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 58 ± 11 years), and (3) Group III: malignant breast cancer (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 58±9 years). It was found that the proposed multimodal segmentation algorithm processed all the mammograms of different mass types, density, shapes, size, margin, calcification type, and distortion successfully, and it segmented the mass automatically with high accuracy. In this study, a computer-aided diagnosis system was developed to segment the breast mass automatically in a mammogram with high accuracy of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity of the system were found to be 94% and 97%, respectively, when compared to abnormal region outlined in mammogram by radiologists of American College of Radiology as standard. PMID:27045116

  4. Mammograms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find current recommendations for screening mammography? What is the best method of detecting breast ... implants do about screening mammograms? What is digital mammography? How is it different from conventional (film) mammography? ...

  5. Mammogram

    MedlinePlus

    Mammography; Breast cancer - mammography; Breast cancer - screening mammography; Breast lump - mammogram; Breast tomosynthesis ... images. This does not always mean you have breast cancer. Your health care provider may simply need to ...

  6. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  7. The classification of normal screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Zoey Z. Y.; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: To understand how breast screen readers classify the difficulty of normal screening mammograms using common lexicon describing normal appearances. Cases were also assessed on their suitability for a single reader strategy. Materials and Methods: 15 breast readers were asked to interpret a test set of 29 normal screening mammogram cases and classify them by rating the difficulty of the case on a five-point Likert scale, identifying the salient features and assessing their suitability for single reading. Using the False Positive Fractions from a previous study, the 29 cases were classified into 10 "low", 10 "medium" and nine "high" difficulties. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Spearman's correlation was used to test the strength of association between the difficulty of the cases and the readers' recommendation for single reading strategy. Results: The ratings from readers in this study corresponded to the known difficulty level of cases for the 'low' and 'high' difficulty cases. Uniform ductal pattern and density, symmetrical mammographic features and the absence of micro-calcifications were the main reasons associated with 'low' difficulty cases. The 'high' difficulty cases were described as having `dense breasts'. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the difficulty of the cases and readers' recommendation for single reading (r = -0.475, P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated potential relationships between certain mammographic features and the difficulty for readers to classify mammograms as 'normal'. The standard Australian practice of double reading was deemed more suitable for most cases. There was an inverse moderate association between the difficulty of the cases and the recommendations for single reading.

  8. Mammograms

    MedlinePlus

    ... a digital rather than a film mammogram. Digital mammography may offer these benefits: Long-distance consultations with ... offices. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certifies mammography facilities that meet strict quality standards for their ...

  9. Depressive symptoms among women with an abnormal mammogram.

    PubMed

    Alderete, Ethel; Juarbe, Teresa C; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Pasick, Rena; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-01-01

    An abnormal mammography finding constitutes a stressful event that may increase vulnerability by developing or intensifying pre-existing psychological morbidity. We evaluated depressive symptoms using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview among women of four ethnic groups who had an abnormal mammography result controlling for the effect of demographic, psychosocial and medical factors on recent onset of depressive symptoms. Telephone surveys were conducted among women aged 40-80 years recruited from four clinical sites in the San Francisco Bay Area after receiving a screening mammography result that was classified as abnormal but probably benign, suspicious or highly suspicious, or indeterminate using standard criteria. Among the 910 women who completed the interview, mean age was 56 (S.D.=10), 42% were White, 19% Latina, 25% African American, and 14% Asian. Prevalence of lifetime depressive symptoms was 44%, and 11% of women had symptoms in the previous month. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that Asian ethnicity, annual income >$10 000 and weekly attendance at religious services were significantly associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Having an indeterminate result on mammography and being on disability were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Reporting a first episode of depression more than a year before the interview was associated with significant increase in depressive symptoms in the month prior to the interview regardless of mammography result. Women with an indeterminate interpretation on mammography were at greater risk of depressive episode in the month prior to the interview compared to women with probably benign results (odds ratio=2.41; 95% CI=1.09-5.31) or with a suspicious finding. Clinicians need to consider depression as a possible consequence after an abnormal mammography result. PMID:15816053

  10. The psychological impact of a false-positive screening mammogram in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Espasa, Rebecca; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Bayés, Ramón; Sala, Maria; Casamitjana, Montserrat; Macià, Francesc; Castells, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the psychological impact of mammographic screening for women who receive negative results and for those who need additional non-invasive and invasive complementary investigations to exclude breast cancer (false positives). One hundred fifty women who attended a breast cancer screening programme in Barcelona, aged 50-69 years, were included in this study: 50 with negative results and 100 with false positive mammograms (50 underwent non-invasive and 50 underwent invasive complementary investigations). Participants worried little until they underwent mammography, but worries increased when a telephone call notified the women of the need for further testing. A substantial proportion of women requiring further assessment reported that they were at least somewhat worried about having breast cancer throughout the screening process (P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, levels of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, showed no statistically significant differences among the three groups. In conclusion, although the women showed no psychological morbidity, there is a substantial psychological response in those with an abnormal screening mammogram. PMID:22477233

  11. A clinical algorithm for the management of abnormal mammograms. A community hospital's experience.

    PubMed Central

    Gist, D; Llorente, J; Mayer, J

    1997-01-01

    Mammography is an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer, but its use has been criticized for stimulating the performance of unnecessary breast biopsies. We retrospectively reviewed the results of breast biopsies preceded by abnormal mammograms at a community hospital for three 5-month periods--baseline, postintervention, and follow-up--to determine the effectiveness of algorithm-based care for patients with an abnormal mammogram. Cases in which there was a definite or implied recommendation for biopsy by a radiologist revealed a baseline positive predictive value of 4% (2/45), a postintervention positive predictive value of 21% (9/42), and a follow-up phase positive predictive value of 18% (5/28). A Fisher's exact test of the preintervention and postintervention positive predictive values after an abnormal mammogram with a "recommendation for biopsy" was significant (n = 87, P = .023). A Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance to determine if there had been an increase in the mean lesion size of breast cancers detected over the 3 study periods was not significant. The results of this study suggest that developing a clinical algorithm under the leadership of an opinion leader combined with continuing medical education efforts may be efficacious in reducing the incidence of unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:9074335

  12. Patient Navigation to Improve Follow-Up of Abnormal Mammograms Among Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, Jeffrey M.; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Atlas, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patient navigation (PN) can improve breast cancer care among disadvantaged women. We evaluated the impact of a PN program on follow-up after an abnormal mammogram. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, disadvantaged women with an abnormal mammogram (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] codes 0, 3, 4, 5) cared for in a community health center (CHC) with PN were compared to those receiving care in 11 network practices without PN. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to compare the percentages receiving appropriate follow-up and time to follow-up between the groups. Results: Abnormal mammography findings were reported for 132 women in the CHC with PN and 168 from practices without PN. The percentage of women with appropriate follow-up care was higher in the practice with PN than in non-PN practices (90.4% vs. 75.3%, adjusted p=0.006). Results varied by BI-RADS score for women in PN and non-PN practices (BI-RADS 0, 93.7% vs. 90.2%, p=0.24; BI-RADS 3, 85.7% vs. 49.2%, p=0.003; BI-RADS 4/5, 95.1% vs. 82.8%, p=0.26). Time to follow-up was similar for BI-RADS 0 and occurred sooner for women in the PN practice than in non-PN practices for BI-RADS 3 and 4/5 (BI-RADS 3, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.41 [1.36–4.27], BI-RADS 4/5, aHR [95% CI]: 1.41 [0.88–2.24]). Conclusions: Disadvantaged women from a CHC with PN were more likely to receive appropriate follow-up after an abnormal mammogram than were those from practices without PN. Expanding PN to include all disadvantaged women within primary care networks could improve equity in cancer care. PMID:25522246

  13. Patient understanding of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines: need for development of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ understanding of the revised screening mammogram guidelines released by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in 2009 addressing age at initiation and frequency of screening mammography. Methods Patients from the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Obstetrics and Gynecology (n = 150) at a tertiary care medical center in the United States completed a survey regarding their understanding of the revised USPSTF guidelines following their release, within four to six months of their scheduled mammogram (March 2010 to May 2010). Results Of the patients surveyed, 97/147 (67%) indicated increased confusion regarding the age and frequency of screening mammography, 61/148 (41%) reported increased anxiety about mammograms, and 58/146 (40%) reported anxiety about their own health status following the release of the revised screening guidelines. Most of the patients surveyed, 111/148 (75%), did not expect to change their timing or frequency of screening mammograms in the future. Conclusion Results from this survey suggested increased confusion and possibly an increase in patients’ anxiety related to screening mammography and their own health status following the release of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines to the public and subsequent media portrayal of the revised guidelines. Although the study did not specifically address causality for these findings, the results highlight the need for improvements in the communication of guidelines to patients and the public. Development of shared decision-making tools and outcomes should be considered to address the communication challenge. PMID:23051022

  14. Assessment of Barriers to Screening Mammograms for Rural, Poor, Uninsured Women and a Community Plan of Action.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Muna; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Broxton, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This project determined the barriers to obtaining screening mammograms for women aged 40-64 years in rural northwest Georgia, sampling 20 poor and uninsured women and 5 key community professionals. Data were collected from the women participants regarding mammogram screening beliefs about their susceptibility, barriers encountered, and benefits identified. The same women and key community providers were interviewed about their perception of barriers to receiving mammograms. The women experienced more barriers and believed that they had a greater susceptibility to developing breast cancer compared to previous research. The most overwhelming barrier was cost. A community plan was developed to address screening needs. PMID:26813053

  15. Normal and abnormal tissue identification system and method for medical images such as digital mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, John J. (Inventor); Clarke, Laurence P. (Inventor); Deans, Stanley R. (Inventor); Stauduhar, Richard Paul (Inventor); Cullers, David Kent (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system and method for analyzing a medical image to determine whether an abnormality is present, for example, in digital mammograms, includes the application of a wavelet expansion to a raw image to obtain subspace images of varying resolution. At least one subspace image is selected that has a resolution commensurate with a desired predetermined detection resolution range. A functional form of a probability distribution function is determined for each selected subspace image, and an optimal statistical normal image region test is determined for each selected subspace image. A threshold level for the probability distribution function is established from the optimal statistical normal image region test for each selected subspace image. A region size comprising at least one sector is defined, and an output image is created that includes a combination of all regions for each selected subspace image. Each region has a first value when the region intensity level is above the threshold and a second value when the region intensity level is below the threshold. This permits the localization of a potential abnormality within the image.

  16. Underutilizers of mammography screening today: characteristics of women planning, undecided about, and not planning a mammogram.

    PubMed

    Clemow, L; Costanza, M E; Haddad, W P; Luckmann, R; White, M J; Klaus, D; Stoddard, A M

    2000-01-01

    Using concepts from the Precaution Adoption Process Model, we identified behavioral factors, sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, and beliefs about breast cancer that discriminated among women at different stages with regard to their intention to obtain mammography screening. An independent survey company conducted telephone interviews with 2,507 women aged 50 to 80 who were identified as underutilizers of mammography screening. Each underutilizer was assigned to one of three stages with regard to intention to get a mammogram: (a) definitely planning, (b) thinking about, and (c) not planning. Estimated actual risk of breast cancer, perceived risk to breast cancer, worry about breast cancer, and fear of learning from a mammogram that one has breast cancer were variables found to be significantly associated with intention to obtain a mammogram for several subgroups of underutilizing women. There are significant behavioral and psychosocial variables, beliefs and feelings about breast cancer, and demographic characteristics that distinguish underutilizing women at various stages with regard to intention to obtain mammography screening. Our findings provide new information that could help the health care professional motivate women who are not planning to utilize this preventive health measure to become regular utilizers. PMID:10892532

  17. DNA: directional neighborhood analysis for detection of breast masses in screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltonsy, Nevine H.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Habas, Piotr A.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system for the automated detection of breast masses in screening mammograms. The system targets the directional behavior of the neighborhood pixels surrounding a reference image pixel. The underlying hypothesis is that in the presence of a mass the directional properties of the breast tissue surrounding the mass should be altered. The hypothesis was tested using a database of 1,337 mammographic regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from DDSM mammograms. There were 681 ROIs containing a biopsy-proven mass centered in the ROI (340 malignant, 341 benign) and 656 ROIs depicting normal breast parenchyma. Initially, eight main directional propagations were identified and modeled given the center of the ROI as the reference pixel. Subsequently, eight novel morphological features were extracted for each direction. The features were designed to characterize the disturbance occurring in normal breast parenchyma due to the presence of a mass. Finally, the extracted features were merged using a back propagation neural network (BPANN). The network served as a non linear classifier trained to determine the presence of a mass centered at the reference image pixel. The BPANN was trained and tested using a leave-one-out sampling scheme. Its performance was evaluated with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our CAD system showed an ROC area index of Az=0.88+/-0.01 for discriminating mass vs. normal ROIs. Detection performance was robust for both malignant (Az=0.88+/-0.01) and benign masses (Az=0.87+/-0.01). Thus, the proposed directional neighborhood analysis (DNA) can be applied effectively to identify suspicious masses in screening mammograms.

  18. How much is enough? Factors affecting the optimal interpretation of breast screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Hazel J.; Gale, Alastair G.

    2007-03-01

    PERFORMS (Personal Performance in Mammographic Screening), a self-assessment scheme for film-readers is undertaken as an educational tool by mammographers reading breast-screening films in the UK. The scheme has been running as a bi-annual exercise since its inception in 1991. In addition to completing the scheme each year the majority of film-readers also choose to complete a questionnaire, administered as part of the scheme, indicating key aspects of their every-day reading practice. These key aspects include, volume of cases read per week, time-on-task reading screening films, incidence and time of break periods as well as typical number of film-reading sessions per week. Previous recommendations on best screening practice (significantly the optimum time on task) were considered in the light of these film-readers' self-reports on a current PERFORMS case set. In addition we looked at performance accuracy of over 450 film-readers reading PERFORMS cases (60 difficult mammographic cases). Performance on measures akin to True Positive (Correct Recall Percentages) and True Negative (Correct Return to Screen Percentages) decisions were investigated. Data presented demonstrate that individual behaviours in real life screening, for the interpretation of mammographic cases, affect film-reading accuracy on a test set of mammograms for specificity and sensitivity (namely volume of cases read per week and film-reading experience). The consequences for best screening practice, in real life, are considered.

  19. A volumetric method for estimation of breast density on digitized screen-film mammograms.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Augustine, Bindu J; Yaffe, Martin J; Rico, Dan; Yang, Jiwei; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Boyd, Norman F

    2003-03-01

    A method is described for the quantitative volumetric analysis of the mammographic density (VBD) from digitized screen-film mammograms. The method is based on initial calibration of the imaging system with a tissue-equivalent plastic device and the subsequent correction for variations in exposure factors and film processing characteristics through images of an aluminum step wedge placed adjacent to the breast during imaging. From information about the compressed breast thickness and technique factors used for taking the mammogram as well as the information from the calibration device, VBD is calculated. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert images to Log relative exposure. Second, the images are corrected for x-ray field inhomogeneity using a spherical section PMMA phantom image. The effectiveness of using the aluminum step wedge in tracking down the variations in exposure factors and film processing was tested by taking test images of the calibration device, aluminum step wedge and known density phantoms at various exposure conditions and also at different times over one year. Results obtained on known density phantoms show that VBD can be estimated to within 5% accuracy from the actual value. A first order thickness correction is employed to correct for inaccuracy in the compression thickness indicator of the mammography units. Clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate whether VBD can be a better indicator for breast cancer risk. PMID:12674236

  20. Bilateral Image Subtraction and Multivariate Models for the Automated Triaging of Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Celaya-Padilla, José; Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Galvan-Tejada, Jorge; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2015-01-01

    Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. This work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) method aimed to automatically triage mammogram sets. The method coregisters the left and right mammograms, extracts image features, and classifies the subjects into risk of having malignant calcifications (CS), malignant masses (MS), and healthy subject (HS). In this study, 449 subjects (197 CS, 207 MS, and 45 HS) from a public database were used to train and evaluate the CADx. Percentile-rank (p-rank) and z-normalizations were used. For the p-rank, the CS versus HS model achieved a cross-validation accuracy of 0.797 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.882; the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.772 and an AUC of 0.842. For the z-normalization, the CS versus HS model achieved an accuracy of 0.825 with an AUC of 0.882 and the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.698 and an AUC of 0.807. The proposed method has the potential to rank cases with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the prioritization of radiologists work list. PMID:26240818

  1. Closing the Gap in Mammogram Screening: An Experimental Intervention among Low-Income Hispanic Women in Community Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine

    2011-01-01

    A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…

  2. Evaluating radiographers' diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading mammograms: what constitutes a quality study?

    SciTech Connect

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers as mammogram screen-readers and then to develop an adapted tool for determining the quality of screen-reading studies. A literature search was used to identify relevant studies and a quality evaluation tool constructed by combining the criteria for quality of Whiting, Rutjes, Dinnes et al. and Brealey and Westwood. This constructed tool was then applied to the studies and subsequently adapted specifically for use in evaluating quality in studies investigating diagnostic accuracy of screen-readers. Eleven studies were identified and the constructed tool applied to evaluate quality. This evaluation resulted in the identification of quality issues with the studies such as potential for bias, applicability of results, study conduct, reporting of the study and observer characteristics. An assessment of the applicability and relevance of the tool for this area of research resulted in adaptations to the criteria and the development of a tool specifically for evaluating diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading. This tool, with further refinement and rigorous validation can make a significant contribution to promoting well-designed studies in this important area of research and practice.

  3. Improving screening recall services for women with false-positive mammograms: a comparison of qualitative evidence with UK guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Mary; Garside, Ruth; Hyde, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To gain an understanding of the views of women with false-positive screening mammograms of screening recall services, their ideas for service improvements and how these compare with current UK guidelines. Methods Inductive qualitative content analysis of semistructured interviews of 21 women who had false-positive screening mammograms. These were then compared with UK National Health Service (NHS) guidelines. Results Participants’ concerns about mammography screening recall services focused on issues of communication and choice. Many of the issues raised indicated that the 1998 NHS Breast Screening Programme guidelines on improving the quality of written information sent to women who are recalled, had not been fully implemented. This included being told a clear reason for recall, who may attend with them, the length of appointment, who they will see and what tests will be carried out. Additionally women voiced a need for: reassurance that a swift appointment did not imply they had cancer; choice about invasive assessment or watchful waiting; the offer of a follow-up mammogram for those uncertain about the validity of their all-clear and an extension of the role of the clinical nurse specialist, outlined in the 2012 NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines, to include availability at the clinic after the all-clear for women with false-positive mammograms. Conclusions It is time the NHSBSP 1998 recall information guidelines were fully implemented. Additionally, the further suggestions from this research, including extending the role of the clinical nurses from the 2012 NHSBSP guidelines, should be considered. These actions have the potential to reduce the anxiety of being recalled. PMID:25618139

  4. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ2 tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the “perceived benefits” domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between

  5. Patients’ Willingness to Participate in a Breast Cancer Biobank at Screening Mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christoph I.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Leng, Mei; Maliski, Sally L.; Pezeshki, Bryan B.; Wells, Colin J.; Mangione, Carol M.; Naeim, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To characterize patients’ willingness to donate a biospecimen for future research as part of a breast cancer-related biobank involving a general screening population. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of 4,217 women aged 21 to 89 years presenting to our facilities for screening mammogram between December 2010 and October 2011. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by our institutional review board. We collected data on patients’ interest in and actual donation of a biospecimen, motivators and barriers to donating, demographic information, and personal breast cancer risk factors. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify patient-level characteristics associated with an increased likelihood to donate. Results Mean patient age was 57.8 years (SD 11.1 years). While 66.0% (2785/4217) of patients were willing to donate blood or saliva during their visit, only 56.4% (2378/4217) actually donated. Women with a college education (OR=1.27, p=0.003), older age (OR=1.02, p<0.001), previous breast biopsy (OR=1.23, p=0.012), family history of breast cancer (OR=1.23, p=0.004), or a comorbidity (OR=1.22, p=0.014) were more likely to donate. Asian-American women were significantly less likely to donate (OR=0.74, p=0.005). The major reason for donating was to help all future patients (42.3%) and the major reason for declining donation was privacy concerns (22.3%). Conclusion A large proportion of women participating in a breast cancer screening registry are willing to donate blood or saliva to a biobank. Among minority participants, Asian-American women are less likely to donate and further qualitative research is required to identify novel active recruitment strategies to ensure their involvement. PMID:23129174

  6. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  7. Breast Density and Your Breast Mammogram Report

    MedlinePlus

    Breast Density and Your Mammogram Report Regular mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early. But if ... But in some women, there’s little change. Breast density is very common, and is not abnormal. How ...

  8. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Double Reading versus Single Reading of Mammograms in a Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Posso, Margarita; Carles, Misericòrdia; Rué, Montserrat; Puig, Teresa; Bonfill, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The usual practice in breast cancer screening programmes for mammogram interpretation is to perform double reading. However, little is known about its cost-effectiveness in the context of digital mammography. Our purpose was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of double reading versus single reading of digital mammograms in a population-based breast cancer screening programme. Methods Data from 28,636 screened women was used to establish a decision-tree model and to compare three strategies: 1) double reading; 2) double reading for women in their first participation and single reading for women in their subsequent participations; and 3) single reading. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which was defined as the expected cost per one additionally detected cancer. We performed a deterministic sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the ICER. Results The detection rate of double reading (5.17‰) was similar to that of single reading (4.78‰; P = .768). The mean cost of each detected cancer was €8,912 for double reading and €8,287 for single reading. The ICER of double reading versus single reading was €16,684. The sensitivity analysis showed variations in the ICER according to the sensitivity of reading strategies. The strategy that combines double reading in first participation with single reading in subsequent participations was ruled out due to extended dominance. Conclusions From our results, double reading appears not to be a cost-effective strategy in the context of digital mammography. Double reading would eventually be challenged in screening programmes, as single reading might entail important net savings without significantly changing the cancer detection rate. These results are not conclusive and should be confirmed in prospective studies that investigate long-term outcomes like quality adjusted life years (QALYs). PMID:27459663

  10. Mammogram screening in Chile: Using mixed methods to implement health policy planning at the primary care level

    PubMed Central

    Puschel, Klaus; Thompson, Beti

    2011-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer has the highest incidence of all cancers among women in Chile. In 2005, a national health program progressively introduced free mammography screening for women aged 50 and older; however, three years later the rates of compliance with mammographic screening was only 12% in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. This implementation article combines the findings of two previous studies that applied qualitative and quantitative methods to improve mammography screening in an area of Santiago. Socio-cultural and accessibility factors were identified as barriers and facilitators during the qualitative phase of the study and then applied to the design of a quantitative randomized clinical trial. After six months of intervention, 6% of women in the standard care group, 51.8% in the low intensity intervention group, and 70.1% in the high intensity intervention group had undergone a screening mammogram. This review discusses how the utilization of mixed methods research can contribute to the improvement of the implementation of health policies in local communities. PMID:21334897

  11. Application of support vector machines to breast cancer screening using mammogram and history data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Walker H., Jr.; Akanda, Anab; Lo, Joseph Y.; Anderson, Francis; Bryden, Margaret

    2002-05-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a new and radically different type of classifiers and learning machines that use a hypothesis space of linear functions in a high dimensional feature space. This relatively new paradigm, based on Statistical Learning Theory (SLT) and Structural Risk Minimization (SRM), has many advantages when compared to traditional neural networks, which are based on Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM). Unlike neural networks, SVM training always finds a global minimum. Furthermore, SVMs have inherent ability to solve pattern classification without incorporating any problem-domain knowledge. In this study, the SVM was employed as a pattern classifier, operating on mammography data used for breast cancer detection. The main focus was to formulate the best learning machine configurations for optimum specificity and positive predictive value at very high sensitivities. Using a mammogram database of 500 biopsy-proven samples, the best performing SVM, on average, was able to achieve (under statistical 5-fold cross-validation) a specificity of 45.0% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 50.1% at 100% sensitivity. At 97% sensitivity, a specificity of 55.8% and a PPV of 55.2% were obtained.

  12. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  13. Computer detection of stellate lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The three primary signs for which radiologists search when screening mammograms for breast cancer are stellate lesions, microcalcifications, and circumscribed lesions. Stellate lesions are of particular importance, as they are almost always associated with a malignancy. Further, they are often indicated only by subtle architectural distortions and so are in general easier to miss than the other signs. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of stellate lesions in digitized mammograms, and have tested them on image data where the presence or absence of malignancies is known. We extract image features from the known images, use them to grow binary decision trees, and use those trees to label each pixel of new mammograms with its probability of being located on an abnormality. The primary feature for the detection of stellate lesions is ALOE, analysis of local oriented edges, which is derived from an analysis of the histogram of edge orientations in local windows. Other features, based on the Laws texture energy measures, have been developed to respond to normal tissue, and so improve the false alarm performance of the entire system.

  14. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up: An experience from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the "perceived benefits" domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between groups. We

  15. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  16. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A <1st%ile has a good predictive value for subsequent fetal growth restriction. Women with PAPP-A<5th%ile should undergo subsequent risk assessment with routine MSAFP screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  17. Heterotaxia syndrome: the role of screening for intestinal rotation abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Choi, M; Borenstein, S; Hornberger, L; Langer, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Heterotaxia syndrome involves multiple anomalies, including cardiac malformations and intestinal rotation abnormalities. Most authors recommend routine radiological evaluation, with laparotomy and Ladd procedure if a rotation abnormality is found. Aims: To determine if routine radiological screening is necessary, and if there is a group of children that can safely be managed expectantly. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all children with heterotaxia syndrome from 1968 to 2002. Results: Complete data were available for 177 patients. Twenty five (14%) had neonatal gastrointestinal symptoms (feeding intolerance, vomiting). Eleven of these had gastrointestinal contrast studies, of which seven were abnormal and led to surgery. Of the 152 asymptomatic neonates, nine had radiological screening and six of these were abnormal. Only one was thought to have a narrow based mesentery, but did not undergo surgery due to cardiac disease. There were no intestinal complications on follow up in this group. The other 143 asymptomatic children did not undergo radiological screening and were closely followed. Four subsequently developed gastrointestinal symptoms and had contrast studies; only one of these had malrotation and underwent a Ladd procedure. Of the remaining 139 patients who remained asymptomatic, 60 (43%) died of cardiac disease and none developed intestinal symptoms or complications related to malrotation on follow up. Conclusion: Asymptomatic children with heterotaxia syndrome have a low risk of adverse outcome related to intestinal rotation abnormalities. Routine screening may not be necessary as long as close follow up is done, and prompt investigation is performed for those that develop gastrointestinal symptomatology. PMID:15890694

  18. Ant-cuckoo colony optimization for feature selection in digital mammogram.

    PubMed

    Jona, J B; Nagaveni, N

    2014-01-15

    Digital mammogram is the only effective screening method to detect the breast cancer. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textural features are extracted from the mammogram. All the features are not essential to detect the mammogram. Therefore identifying the relevant feature is the aim of this work. Feature selection improves the classification rate and accuracy of any classifier. In this study, a new hybrid metaheuristic named Ant-Cuckoo Colony Optimization a hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Cuckoo Search (CS) is proposed for feature selection in Digital Mammogram. ACO is a good metaheuristic optimization technique but the drawback of this algorithm is that the ant will walk through the path where the pheromone density is high which makes the whole process slow hence CS is employed to carry out the local search of ACO. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with Radial Basis Kernal Function (RBF) is done along with the ACO to classify the normal mammogram from the abnormal mammogram. Experiments are conducted in miniMIAS database. The performance of the new hybrid algorithm is compared with the ACO and PSO algorithm. The results show that the hybrid Ant-Cuckoo Colony Optimization algorithm is more accurate than the other techniques. PMID:24783812

  19. Korean American Women and Mammogram Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice E; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Park, HanJong; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Lee, Jongwon; Menon, Usha

    2016-02-01

    A high percentage of Korean American (KA) women have never had a mammogram, which puts them at greater risk for late-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare health beliefs and spousal support about breast cancer and screening between KA women with and without a history of mammogram completion. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 428 non-adherent married KA women. KA women who never had a mammogram were younger, had less access to health care, had less knowledge, and had lower perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and spousal support, and higher perceived barriers to breast cancer screening compared to women who had had a mammogram. Assessing differing characteristics between the two groups of KA women may lead to a better understanding of the variables influencing mammography screening in this population and possibly increase early screening. PMID:25669627

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for urinary tract abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hálek, Jan; Flögelová, Hana; Michálková, Kamila; Smakal, Oldrich; Dubrava, Lubomír; Zapletalová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at (1) the determination of the incidence of abnormalities of the urinary tract in newborn infants detected by postnatal ultrasound screening, and (2) the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for detecting surgical urinary tract abnormalities. The prospective study was of full-term neonates born in the University Hospital of Olomouc in 2005-2008 who underwent renal ultrasound screening after 72 h of life. Significant findings were recorded. Subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were recorded and evaluated in a group of children with detected renal pelvic dilatation (RPD). (1) A total of 6,088 newborn infants was examined. The absolute and relative RPD incidence rates (anteroposterior diameter, APD) were as follows: 5-7 mm, 146 (2.4%); 7-10 mm, 70 (1.15%); 10-15 mm, 13 (0.21%), and 15 mm or more, 5 (0.08%). Of those, 16 children were operated on for abnormalities of the urinary tract, of which nine (56%) had been detected by prenatal screening. Other findings: six cases of unilateral renal agenesis, four cases of multicystic renal dysplasia, four of renal dystopia, one of polycystic kidney disease and one of renal hypoplasia. (2) A group of 224 children with postnatally detected RPD was examined, of whom 40 (17.9%) underwent voiding cystourethrography and/or scintigraphy and 16 (7.1%) were treated surgically. The receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed, and the areas under the curves were calculated. Postnatal renal ultrasound screening is probably a suitable test for detecting significant urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:19856001

  1. Temporal mammogram image registration using optimized curvilinear coordinates.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Nasser, Mohamed; Moreno, Antonio; Puig, Domenec

    2016-04-01

    Registration of mammograms plays an important role in breast cancer computer-aided diagnosis systems. Radiologists usually compare mammogram images in order to detect abnormalities. The comparison of mammograms requires a registration between them. A temporal mammogram registration method is proposed in this paper. It is based on the curvilinear coordinates, which are utilized to cope both with global and local deformations in the breast area. Temporal mammogram pairs are used to validate the proposed method. After registration, the similarity between the mammograms is maximized, and the distance between manually defined landmarks is decreased. In addition, a thorough comparison with the state-of-the-art mammogram registration methods is performed to show its effectiveness. PMID:27000285

  2. Computer-aided detection of breast cancer on mammograms: a swarm intelligence optimized wavelet neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Dheeba, J; Albert Singh, N; Tamil Selvi, S

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Accurate early detection can effectively reduce the mortality rate caused by breast cancer. Masses and microcalcification clusters are an important early signs of breast cancer. However, it is often difficult to distinguish abnormalities from normal breast tissues because of their subtle appearance and ambiguous margins. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) helps the radiologist in detecting the abnormalities in an efficient way. This paper investigates a new classification approach for detection of breast abnormalities in digital mammograms using Particle Swarm Optimized Wavelet Neural Network (PSOWNN). The proposed abnormality detection algorithm is based on extracting Laws Texture Energy Measures from the mammograms and classifying the suspicious regions by applying a pattern classifier. The method is applied to real clinical database of 216 mammograms collected from mammogram screening centers. The detection performance of the CAD system is analyzed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. This curve indicates the trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity that is available from a diagnostic system, and thus describes the inherent discrimination capacity of the proposed system. The result shows that the area under the ROC curve of the proposed algorithm is 0.96853 with a sensitivity 94.167% of and specificity of 92.105%. PMID:24509074

  3. Mammograms in Special Circumstances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live Chat 800-227-2345 Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Find Support & Treatment » Understanding Your Diagnosis » Exams and Test Descriptions » Mammograms and Other Breast Imaging Procedures » Mammograms for women with breast implants ...

  4. Nipple Aspirate Test Is No Substitute for Mammogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous false assurance," Lerner says. back to top Mammography Still the Best The mammogram can be uncomfortable ... Still, FDA is not alone in believing that mammography is the most effective method for screening for ...

  5. Prediction of near-term risk of developing breast cancer using computerized features from bilateral mammograms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Lure, Fleming; Wu, Teresa; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Benjamin Y; Saltzstein, Edward C; Qian, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral mammographic tissue density and patterns is a potentially strong indicator of having or developing breast abnormalities or early cancers. The purpose of this study is to design and test the global asymmetry features from bilateral mammograms to predict the near-term risk of women developing detectable high risk breast lesions or cancer in the next sequential screening mammography examination. The image dataset includes mammograms acquired from 90 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including image preprocessing, suspicious region segmentation, image feature extraction, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under curve (AUC) is 0.754±0.024 when applying the new computerized aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.58 and 0.80, respectively. PMID:24725671

  6. Wavelet Compression of Satellite-Transmitted Digital Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yuan F.

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death in women in the United States. The most effective way to treat breast cancer is to detect it at an early stage by screening patients periodically. Conventional film-screening mammography uses X-ray films which are effective in detecting early abnormalities of the breast. Direct digital mammography has the potential to improve the image quality and to take advantages of convenient storage, efficient transmission, and powerful computer-aided diagnosis, etc. One effective alternative to direct digital imaging is secondary digitization of X-ray films. This technique may not provide as high an image quality as the direct digital approach, but definitely have other advantages inherent to digital images. One of them is the usage of satellite-transmission technique for transferring digital mammograms between a remote image-acquisition site and a central image-reading site. This technique can benefit a large population of women who reside in remote areas where major screening and diagnosing facilities are not available. The NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF), has begun a pilot study to investigate the application of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) network to telemammography. The bandwidth of the T1 transmission is limited (1.544 Mbps) while the size of a mammographic image is huge. It takes a long time to transmit a single mammogram. For example, a mammogram of 4k by 4k pixels with 16 bits per pixel needs more than 4 minutes to transmit. Four images for a typical screening exam would take more than 16 minutes. This is too long a time period for a convenient screening. Consequently, compression is necessary for making satellite-transmission of mammographic images practically possible. The Wavelet Research Group of the Department of Electrical Engineering at The Ohio State University (OSU) participated in the LeRC-CCF collaboration by

  7. Urinary Screening for Detection of Renal Abnormalities in Asymptomatic School Children

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Prince; Bhatta, Nisha K; Mishra, Om P; Shrestha, Pramod; Budhathoki, Sunil; Majhi, Shankar; Sinha, Arvind; Dhungel, Kanchan; Prabhakar, Rahul; Haldhar, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary screening tests for early detection of renal diseases in asymptomatic school children and adolescents are important in the detection of silent renal diseases. Objectives The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of occult renal diseases by dipstick test (reagent strips) in asymptomatic Nepalese children. Patients and Methods A total of 2,243 school children, aged 5–15 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick test screening. The children who tested positive in the first screening were re-tested after 2–4 weeks. Results In the first screening, 123 children (5.5%) tested positive for isolated hematuria and proteinuria and for combined hematuria and proteinuria. Of these children, 16 (0.71%) cases tested positive in a second screening. Subsequently, 1 child from the secondary screening group was lost to follow up, 5 tested normal and 10 revealed abnormalities. Glomerulonephritis was the most commonly detected disorder (50%). Conclusions Urinary screening was found to be useful in identifying occult renal diseases in asymptomatic children. Urinary screening would therefore not only help in early detection but also in the prevention of the deterioration of renal function later in life. PMID:23573484

  8. Screening of inherited metabolic abnormalities in 56 children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAOMING; LI, RUI; CHEN, SHENGZHI; SANG, YAN; ZHAO, JIAQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common children's neural disease that is largely controlled by anti-epileptic drugs. Nevertheless, children experience repeated attacks that develop into intractable epilepsy (IE). The aim of the present study was to examine the inherited metabolic abnormalities in children with IE to provide early etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples of 56 children with IE served as the experimental group and 56 cases of children with IE, who were successfully treated served as the control group, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry for the metabolic screening of amino, organic, and fatty acids. Urine routine, hepatic function, blood biochemistry, imageology of encephalon and brain stem-evoked potential (auditory and optical) were also examined. Of the 27 IE children confirmed as abnormal in urine and blood screening, there were 19 cases (70.3%) of hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, 15 cases (55.5%) of brain stem-evoked potential and of encephalic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, 6 cases (22.2%) of abnormal family history and of abnormal blood biochemistry and blood gas analysis, and 5 cases (18.5%) with skin change and of abnormal hepatic function. Of the 27 cases, 11 cases (19.6%) were diagnosed with inherited metabolic diseases. Among the children in the control group, 3 cases showed abnormal urine test results, one of which had family history, one had hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, one had brain stem-evoked potential and encephalic CT or MRI abnormality, while two of the 3 cases had inherited metabolic abnormalities. The correlation analysis revealed that abnormal urine test was significantly correlated with inherited metabolic abnormalities (P<0.05). Of the 56 IE patients, 25 cases (44.6%) were identified as abnormal under urine screening, and of the 25 cases, 6 cases had simple

  9. Clustering microcalcifications techniques in digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Claudia. C.; Bosco, Paolo; Cerello, Piergiorgio

    2008-11-01

    Breast cancer has become a serious public health problem around the world. However, this pathology can be treated if it is detected in early stages. This task is achieved by a radiologist, who should read a large amount of mammograms per day, either for a screening or diagnostic purpose in mammography. However human factors could affect the diagnosis. Computer Aided Detection is an automatic system, which can help to specialists in the detection of possible signs of malignancy in mammograms. Microcalcifications play an important role in early detection, so we focused on their study. The two mammographic features that indicate the microcalcifications could be probably malignant are small size and clustered distribution. We worked with density techniques for automatic clustering, and we applied them on a mammography CAD prototype developed at INFN-Turin, Italy. An improvement of performance is achieved analyzing images from a Perugia-Assisi Hospital, in Italy.

  10. An automated confirmatory system for analysis of mammograms.

    PubMed

    Peng, W; Mayorga, R V; Hussein, E M A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated system for the automatic analysis of mammograms to assist radiologists in confirming their diagnosis in mammography screening. The proposed automated confirmatory system (ACS) can process a digitalized mammogram online, and generates a high quality filtered segmentation of an image for biological interpretation and a texture-feature based diagnosis. We use a serial of image pre-processing and segmentation techniques, including 2D median filtering, seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm, image contrast enhancement, to remove noise, delete radiopaque artifacts and eliminate the projection of the pectoral muscle from a digitalized mammogram. We also develop an entire-image texture-feature based classification method, by combining a Rough-set approach to extract five fundamental texture features from images, and then an Artificial Neural Network technique to classify a mammogram as: normal; indicating the presence of a benign lump; or representing a malignant tumor. Here, 222 random images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database are used for the offline ACS training. Once the system is tuned and trained, it is ready for the automated use for the analysis and diagnosis of new mammograms. To test the trained system, a separate set of 100 random images from the MIAS and another set of 100 random images from the independent BancoWeb database are selected. The proposed ACS is shown to be successful in confirming diagnosis of mammograms from the two independent databases. PMID:26742491

  11. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  12. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  13. Ultrasound screening: Status of markers and efficacy of screening for structural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rashmi; Platt, Lawrence D

    2016-02-01

    Aneuploidy is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and can have a significant impact on expecting parents and their families. With early screening and diagnosis it is important to be able to educate parents regarding the potential impact of the diagnosis. This knowledge allows parents the opportunity to consider management options early in the pregnancy, permitting more time to mentally and emotionally prepare both for the course of the pregnancy, and after the birth of the child should the pregnancy continue. Prenatal screening provides pregnant women a non-invasive risk assessment for the most common aneuploidies. Those who are considered "high-risk" then have the option for additional diagnostic (invasive) testing. Prior to the 1980s, prenatal screening consisted of risk assessment through maternal age; however, with the advent of maternal serum biochemical analysis and ultrasound, the field of prenatal screening developed significantly. As biochemical and sonographic advances continued into the 1990s, the emphasis shifted to risk assessment in the first trimester, with the combination of maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation of the nuchal translucency.(1) Within the last decade, the introduction of non-invasive screening (NIPT/S) has shown great impact on the expansion and evolving practice of prenatal screening. Although in many places the standard for prenatal testing continues to include maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation, the role of each marker alone and in combination remains important. In the era of increasingly available screening tests, especially with NIPT/(NIPS), this article attempts to review the current role of ultrasound in prenatal care and elucidate the role of ultrasound markers in prenatal screening. PMID:26777687

  14. Human papillomavirus ‘reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, M; Johansson, B; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P=0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and LSIL among women ⩾30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results. PMID:18682715

  15. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Distance to the Clinic, and Breast Cancer Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seijeoung; Chukwudozie, Beverly; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Timely detection and follow-up of abnormal cellular changes can aid in early diagnosis of breast cancer, thus leading to better treatment outcomes. However, despite substantial breast cancer screening initiatives, the proportion of female breast cancer cases diagnosed at late stages remains high. Distance to screening clinics may affect access to care, particularly for women living in impoverished areas with limited means of reliable transportation. Utilizing breast cancer screening data collected by the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program between 1996 and 2010, we examined the effect of travel distance to the clinic from which women received breast cancer screening tests on stage of diagnosis. The proportion of abnormal mammograms in White women (1.6%) was higher than in Black women (1.1%) or Hispanic women (0.5%). The average distance traveled to a clinic was also farthest among White women (6.7 mi) than for Hispanic (5.3 mi) or Black women (4.4 mi). Distance to a clinic was significantly associated with increased odds of having abnormal results. When distance to clinic was controlled for, the observed disparity in odds of having an abnormal mammogram between White and Black women was no longer statistically significant. Individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics were significantly associated with distance to clinic, but were not associated with increased odds of having an abnormal mammogram, controlling for distance to the clinic. Findings showed that individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics are directly and indirectly associated with abnormal mammogram results, and that distance to a clinic may mediate, in part, the effects of individual characteristics and neighborhood disadvantage on the probability of having an abnormal mammogram. PMID:24466505

  16. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  17. Decision support system for breast cancer detection using mammograms.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, Rajendra U; Chua, Chua K; Min, Lim C; Mathew, Betty; Thomas, Abraham K

    2013-07-01

    Mammograms are by far one of the most preferred methods of screening for breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer can improve survival rates to a greater extent. Although the analysis and diagnosis of breast cancer are done by experienced radiologists, there is always the possibility of human error. Interobserver and intraobserver errors occur frequently in the analysis of medical images, given the high variability between every patient. Also, the sensitivity of mammographic screening varies with image quality and expertise of the radiologist. So, there is no golden standard for the screening process. To offset this variability and to standardize the diagnostic procedures, efforts are being made to develop automated techniques for diagnosis and grading of breast cancer images. This article presents a classification pipeline to improve the accuracy of differentiation between normal, benign, and malignant mammograms. Several features based on higher-order spectra, local binary pattern, Laws' texture energy, and discrete wavelet transform were extracted from mammograms. Feature selection techniques based on sequential forward, backward, plus-l-takeaway-r, individual, and branch-and-bound selections using the Mahalanobis distance criterion were used to rank the features and find classification accuracies for combination of several features based on the ranking. Six classifiers were used, namely, decision tree classifier, fisher classifier, linear discriminant classifier, nearest mean classifier, Parzen classifier, and support vector machine classifier. We evaluated our proposed methodology with 300 mammograms obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography and 300 mammograms from the Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association CommHealth database. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were used to compare the performances of the classifiers. Our results show that the decision tree classifier demonstrated an excellent performance compared to

  18. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  19. Screening Outcomes in Older US Women Undergoing Multiple Mammograms in Community Practice: Does Interval, Age, or Comorbidity Score Affect Tumor Characteristics or False Positive Rates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity. PMID:23385442

  20. Comparison of computerized mass detection in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) mammograms and conventional mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    We are developing a CAD system for mass detection on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) mammograms. In this study, we compared the detection accuracy on DBT and conventional screen-film mammograms (SFMs). DBT mammograms were acquired with a GE prototype system at the University of Michigan. 47 cases containing the CC- and MLO-view DBT mammograms of the breast with a biopsy-proven mass and the corresponding two-view SFMs of the same breast were collected. Subjective judgment showed that the masses were much more conspicuous on DBT slices than on SFMs. The CAD system for DBT includes two parallel processes, one performs mass detection in the reconstructed DBT volume, and the other in the projection view (PV) images. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidate in the two processes are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs). For detection on SFMs, we previously developed a dual system approach by fusing two single CAD systems optimized for detection of average and subtle masses, respectively. A trained neural network is used to merge the mass likelihood scores of the two single systems to reduce FPs. At the case-based sensitivities of 80% and 85%, mass detection in the DBT volume resulted in an average of 0.72 and 1.06 FPs/view, and detection in the SFMs yielded 0.94 and 1.67 FPs/view, respectively. The difference fell short of statistical significance (p=0.07) by JAFROC analysis. Study is underway to collect a larger data set and to further improve the DBT CAD system.

  1. Quality of life following a false positive mammogram.

    PubMed

    Gram, I T; Lund, E; Slenker, S E

    1990-12-01

    To assess how women regard having had a false positive mammogram screening exam, and the influence that this had on their quality of life, 126 such women were interviewed. Their responses were compared to those of 152 women randomly selected among screenees with a negative exam. Eighteen months after the screening the reported prevalence of anxiety about breast cancer was 29% among women with a false positive and 13% among women with a negative screening mammogram (P = 0.001). Of 30 women biopsied, 8 (27%) had pain in the breast and 10 (33%) had reduced sexual sensitivity. A false positive mammogram was described by 7 (5%) of the women as the worst thing they ever had experienced. However, most women with a false positive result regarded this experience, in retrospect, as but one of many minor stressful experiences creating a temporary decrease in quality of life. They report the same quality of life today as women with negative screening results and 98% would attend another screening. Even so, false positive results are a matter of concern, and efforts should be made to minimise this cost whenever a screening programme is conducted. PMID:2257206

  2. Usefulness of histogram analysis of spatial frequency components for exploring the similarity and bilateral asymmetry in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiotsuki, Kenshi; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Morishita, Junji

    2015-03-01

    The right and left mammograms of a patient are assumed to be bilaterally symmetric for image readings. The detection of asymmetry in bilateral mammograms is a reliable indicator for detecting possible breast abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential usefulness of a new method in terms of spatial frequency components for exploration of similarity and abnormality between the right and left mammograms. A total of 98 normal and 119 abnormal cases with calcifications were used for this study. Each case included two mediolateral oblique views. The spatial frequency components were determined from the symmetric regions in the right and left mammograms by Fourier transform. The degrees of conformity between the two spatial frequency components in the right and left mammograms were calculated for the same and different patients. The degrees of conformity were also examined for cases with and without calcifications for the same patient to show if the proposed method was useful for indicating the existence of calcifications or not. The average degrees of conformity and the standard deviations for the same and different patients were 0.911 +/- 0.0165 and 0.857 +/- 0.0328, respectively. The degrees of conformity calculated from abnormal cases (0.836 +/- 0.0906) showed statistically lower values compared with those measured from normal cases (0.911 +/- 0.0165). Our results indicated that histogram analysis of spatial frequency components could be useful as a similarity measure between bilateral mammograms for the same patient and abnormal signs in a mammogram.

  3. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:22047978

  4. Look what else we found - clinically significant abnormalities detected during routine ROP screening

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Vinekar, Anand; Bauer, Noel; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kemmanu, Vasudha; Mallipatna, Ashwin; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the spectrum of anterior and posterior segment diagnoses in Asian Indian premature infants detected serendipitously during routine retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening during a 1 year period. Methods: A retrospective review of all Retcam (Clarity MSI, USA) imaging sessions during the year 2011 performed on infants born either <2001 g at birth and/or <34.1 weeks of gestation recruited for ROP screening was performed. All infants had a minimum of seven images at each session, which included the dilated anterior segment, disc, and macula center and the four quadrants using the 130° lens. Results: Of the 8954 imaging sessions of 1450 new infants recruited in 2011, there were 111 (7.66%) with a diagnosis other than ROP. Anterior segment diagnoses seen in 31 (27.9%) cases included clinically significant cataract, lid abnormalities, anophthalmos, microphthalmos, and corneal diseases. Posterior segment diagnoses in 80 (72.1%) cases included retinal hemorrhages, cherry red spots, and neonatal uveitis of infective etiologies. Of the 111 cases, 15 (13.5%) underwent surgical procedures and 24 (21.6%) underwent medical procedures; importantly, two eyes with retinoblastoma were detected which were managed timely. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of ocular digital imaging in premature infants. Visually significant, potentially life-threatening, and even treatable conditions were detected serendipitously during routine ROP screening that may be missed or detected late otherwise. This pilot data may be used to advocate for a possible universal infant eye screening program using digital imaging. PMID:26139795

  5. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A.; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening. PMID:27403355

  6. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening. PMID:27403355

  7. Automatic segmentation of mammogram and tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty; Park, Sun Young

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a one of the most common forms of cancer in terms of new cases and deaths both in the United States and worldwide. However, the survival rate with breast cancer is high if it is detected and treated before it spreads to other parts of the body. The most common screening methods for breast cancer are mammography and digital tomosynthesis, which involve acquiring X-ray images of the breasts that are interpreted by radiologists. The work described in this paper is aimed at optimizing the presentation of mammography and tomosynthesis images to the radiologist, thereby improving the early detection rate of breast cancer and the resulting patient outcomes. Breast cancer tissue has greater density than normal breast tissue, and appears as dense white image regions that are asymmetrical between the breasts. These irregularities are easily seen if the breast images are aligned and viewed side-by-side. However, since the breasts are imaged separately during mammography, the images may be poorly centered and aligned relative to each other, and may not properly focus on the tissue area. Similarly, although a full three dimensional reconstruction can be created from digital tomosynthesis images, the same centering and alignment issues can occur for digital tomosynthesis. Thus, a preprocessing algorithm that aligns the breasts for easy side-by-side comparison has the potential to greatly increase the speed and accuracy of mammogram reading. Likewise, the same preprocessing can improve the results of automatic tissue classification algorithms for mammography. In this paper, we present an automated segmentation algorithm for mammogram and tomosynthesis images that aims to improve the speed and accuracy of breast cancer screening by mitigating the above mentioned problems. Our algorithm uses information in the DICOM header to facilitate preprocessing, and incorporates anatomical region segmentation and contour analysis, along with a hidden Markov model (HMM) for

  8. Follow-up to abnormal cancer screening tests: Considering the multilevel context of care

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane M.; Edwards, Heather M.; Chollette, Veronica; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The call for multilevel interventions to improve the quality of follow-up to abnormal cancer screening has been out for a decade but published work emphasizes individual approaches, and conceptualizations differ regarding the definition of levels. To investigate the scope and methods being undertaken in this focused area of follow-up to abnormal tests (breast, colon, cervical), we reviewed recent literature and grants (2007-2012) funded by the National Cancer Institute. A structured search yielded 16 grants with varying definitions of “follow-up” (e.g. completion of recommended tests, time to diagnosis); most included minority racial/ethnic group participants. Ten grants concentrated on measurement/intervention development, and 13 piloted or tested interventions (categories not mutually exclusive). All studies considered patient level factors and effects. While some directed interventions at provider levels, few measured group characteristics and effects of interventions on the providers or levels other than the patient. Multilevel interventions are being proposed, but clarity regarding endpoints, definition of levels, and measures is needed. The differences in the conceptualization of levels and factors that affect practice need empirical exploration and we need to measure their salient characteristics to advance our understanding of how context affects cancer care delivery in a changing practice and policy environment. PMID:25073625

  9. Follow-up to abnormal cancer screening tests: considering the multilevel context of care.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane M; Edwards, Heather M; Chollette, Veronica; Taplin, Stephen H

    2014-10-01

    The call for multilevel interventions to improve the quality of follow-up to abnormal cancer screening has been out for a decade, but published work emphasizes individual approaches, and conceptualizations differ regarding the definition of levels. To investigate the scope and methods being undertaken in this focused area of follow-up to abnormal tests (breast, colon, cervical), we reviewed recent literature and grants (2007-2012) funded by the National Cancer Institute. A structured search yielded 16 grants with varying definitions of "follow-up" (e.g., completion of recommended tests, time to diagnosis); most included minority racial/ethnic group participants. Ten grants concentrated on measurement/intervention development and 13 piloted or tested interventions (categories not mutually exclusive). All studies considered patient-level factors and effects. Although some directed interventions at provider levels, few measured group characteristics and effects of interventions on the providers or levels other than the patient. Multilevel interventions are being proposed, but clarity about endpoints, definition of levels, and measures is needed. The differences in the conceptualization of levels and factors that affect practice need empirical exploration, and we need to measure their salient characteristics to advance our understanding of how context affects cancer care delivery in a changing practice and policy environment. PMID:25073625

  10. Do Primary Care Physician Perform Clinical Breast Exams Prior to Ordering a Mammogram?

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelsey E; Cowher, Michael S; O'Rourke, Colin; Patel, Mita; Pratt, Debra

    2016-03-01

    Both the American Cancer Society and National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend annual clinical breast examination (CBE) along with screening mammogram (SM) for patients starting at 40 years of age. However, patients with a palpable breast mass should have a diagnostic mammogram (DM) during workup. Review at our institution demonstrated that 11% of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and self-identified breast mass had SM instead of DM. This led us to question whether primary care physicians (PCP) perform CBE prior to ordering mammography. As part of the routine preimaging screening, patients were asked if they had undergone breast examination by a medical provider prior to mammogram order. Data on mammogram type, ordering physician specialty, and presence of symptoms on day of mammogram were recorded. Of 6,109 mammograms, 4,823 were ordered by PCPs. CBE was performed prior to 67.2% SM and 64.8% DM (p = 0.12). OB/GYN performed statistically significantly higher CBE (81.6%) compared to internal (45.4%) and family (50.5%) medicine physicians (p < 0.001). Of patients with self-reported breast symptoms, 8.7% had SM ordered rather than DM. Despite recommendations, approximately 1/3 of women report not having CBE prior to mammogram. The chances of having a CBE varied significantly by PCP specialty. Lack of CBE can lead to incorrect type of mammogram, with possibly increased cost and delay in diagnosis. Further evaluation is needed to understand why CBE was not performed in some patients. PMID:26687763

  11. Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.

  12. Utilization of Human Papillomavirus DNA Detection for Cervical Cancer Screening in Women Presenting With Abnormal Cytology in Lokoja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olatunji; Ogah, Jeremiah; Alabi, Olatunde; Suleiman, Mustapha; Amuda, Oluwatomi; Kolawole, Folashade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths in Nigeria, with an overall prevalence similar to most developing countries. Screening for cervical cancer is primarily performed using papanicolaou (PAP) staining procedure, in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to use human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA typing, as a means of ascertaining the presence of high risk HPV in cytology samples, which are positive for the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), using the PAP screening procedure. Patients and Methods: Amplification of DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction. Gene sequencing was carried out to determine the presence of high risk HPV from cervical smears that were positive for abnormal cytology, from a cross-sectional study involving women between the ages of 16 - 65 years, screened for CIN and cervical cancer, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Results: Result showed a 100% presence of high risk HPV in all the samples with abnormal cytology. The HPV genotype 35 accounted for the highest percentage of the HPVs cases, with a 40% incidence. The HPV genotype 31 accounted for 30% of samples, while HPV genotype 16 and 18 accounted for 20% and 10% of samples, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HPV in abnormal cytology underlines to the fact that the presence of HPV is a critical factor in the development of cervical cancer. The use of HPV DNA techniques could actually become an effective and fast means of ascertaining the presence of HPV in abnormal cytology. PMID:26568803

  13. Using autoencoders for mammogram compression.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun Chet; Eswaran, Chikkannan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained for medical image compression using autoencoder neural networks. Since mammograms (medical images) are usually of big sizes, training of autoencoders becomes extremely tedious and difficult if the whole image is used for training. We show in this paper that the autoencoders can be trained successfully by using image patches instead of the whole image. The compression performances of different types of autoencoders are compared based on two parameters, namely mean square error and structural similarity index. It is found from the experimental results that the autoencoder which does not use Restricted Boltzmann Machine pre-training yields better results than those which use this pre-training method. PMID:20703586

  14. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E; Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M; Boyages, John

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

  15. Recognizing architectural distortion in mammogram: a multiscale texture modeling approach with GMM.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sujoy Kumar; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2011-07-01

    We propose a generative model for constructing an efficient set of distinctive textures for recognizing architectural distortion in digital mammograms. In the first layer of the proposed two-layer architecture, the mammogram is analyzed by a multiscale oriented filter bank to form texture descriptor of vectorized filter responses. Our model presumes that every mammogram can be characterized by a "bag of primitive texture patterns" and the set of textural primitives (or textons) is represented by a mixture of Gaussians which builds up the second layer of the proposed model. The observed textural descriptor in the first layer is assumed to be a stochastic realization of one (hard mapping) or more (soft mapping) textural primitive(s) from the second layer. The results obtained on two publicly available datasets, namely Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:21421429

  16. Pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes to prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: Croatian multicentric survey.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Vesna; Zec, Ivana; Tislarić-Medenjak, Dubravka; Kuna, Krunoslav; Simundić, Ana Maria; Lajtman-Krizaić, Marta; Lovrić, Boris; Mimica, Marko; Estatiev, Zrinka Komadina; Borgudan, Vesna

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess opinion and preferences of Croatian pregnant women regarding the prenatal screening tests for trisomies. The study was conducted in Zagreb, Split, Cakovec, Nova Gradiska, Gospić and Zlatar. It was organized in the public primary healthcare centers, among the pregnant volunteers during their first visit to an antenatal clinic (7-12 weeks pregnant). The respondents filled anonymous questionnaire reflecting their knowledge and attitudes to the screening options. In total, 437 completed questionnaires were selected. The average maternal age and the level of education differed significantly between the respondents in the respective cities (P < 0.001). Of the respondents with positive attitude towards screening, the majority would prefer the first-trimester combined test (160/219; 73.1%), while 37/219 (16.9%) opted for the second-trimester biochemical screening. The remaining 22/219 (10.0%) would accept only the ultrasound screening. Among the 224 respondents, who would accept the combined first-trimester test, 95 (42.4%) held a college and university degree, whereas among 59 women, who would choose the second-trimester biochemical screening, 14 were highly educated (23.7%). The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). The univariate regression analysis showed that age, level of education and previous information were significant variables predictive for the choice of the test; the level of education and previous knowledge remained significant in the multivariate model. The survey has revealed some of the points that should be improved in the future concept of screening program in Croatia. Health professionals should persist to mend women's knowledge about prenatal screening, taking into consideration women's preferences as well. PMID:23940994

  17. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  18. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  19. Peripheral neurologic abnormalities among roofing workers: sentinel case and clinical screening.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R; Gerr, F; Luo, J; Harris-Abbott, D; Landrigan, P J

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy developed in a 52-y-old roofer who was exposed to multiple solvents in one-ply roofing systems. Forty roofers who were exposed to various roofing systems were assessed by symptoms, occupational history, standardized physical examination, and measurement of vibrotactile thresholds of the upper and lower extremities. After exclusion of roofers who were predisposed to peripheral neuropathy, we detected abnormal vibrotactile thresholds in 42% (p < .001) of roofers' dominant toes and in 36% (p < .001) of roofers' nondominant toes; fewer roofers had abnormal sensory physical examinations or reported neuritic symptoms. Roofing workers may be at increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, perhaps resulting from exposure to solvents--particularly n-hexane, associated with one-ply roofing systems. PMID:7574888

  20. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  1. A forward genetic screen in mice identifies mutants with abnormal cortical patterning.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W; Furley, Andrew J; Beier, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain. PMID:23968836

  2. Genetic Counseling for Patients Considering Screening and Diagnosis for Chromosomal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chard, Renée L; Norton, Mary E

    2016-06-01

    With the introduction of cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and chromosomal microarray for prenatal diagnostic testing, options for pregnant women have become increasingly complex. Discussions regarding options for prenatal testing for aneuploidy should occur prior to any testing and should include pertinent risks and benefits of each alternative test. There is no single screening or diagnostic test option that is the right choice for all patients; patient decisions should be based on each individual woman's values and preferences after a discussion of all options. PMID:27235908

  3. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  4. The Effect of Breast Implants on Mammogram Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kam, Kelli; Lee, Esther; Pairawan, Seyed; Anderson, Kendra; Cora, Cherie; Bae, Won; Senthil, Maheswari; Solomon, Naveenraj; Lum, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer detection in women with implants has been questioned. We sought to evaluate the impact of breast implants on mammographic outcomes. A retrospective review of women undergoing mammography between March 1 and October 30, 2013 was performed. Demographic characteristics and mammogram results were compared between women with and without breast implants. Overall, 4.8 per cent of 1863 women identified during the study period had breast implants. Median age was 59 years (26-93). Women with implants were younger (53.9 vs 59.2 years, P < 0.0001), had lower body mass index (25.4 vs 28.9, P < 0.0001), and were more likely to have dense breast tissue (72.1% vs 56.4%, P = 0.004) than those without. There were no statistically significant differences with regards to Breast Imaging Recording and Data System 0 score (13.3% with implants vs 21.4% without), call back exam (18.9% with vs 24.1% without), time to resolution of abnormal imaging (58.6 days with vs 43.3 without), or cancer detection rate (0% with implants vs 1.0% without). Because implants did not significantly affect mammogram results, women with implants should be reassured that mammography remains useful in detecting cancer. However, future research is required to determine whether lower call back rates and longer time to resolution of imaging findings contribute to delays in diagnosis in patients with implants. PMID:26463307

  5. Scheduling mammograms for asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Gohagan, J K; Darby, W P; Spitznagel, E L; Tome, A E

    1988-03-01

    A decision theoretic model was used to investigate the relative importance of risk level, radiation hazard, mammographic accuracy, and cost in mammographic screening decision. The model uses woman-specific medical and family history facts and clinic-specific information regarding mammographic accuracy and practice to profile both woman and clinic, and to formulate periodic screening recommendations. Model parameters were varied extensively to investigate the sensitivity of screening schedules to input values. Multivariate risk was estimated within the program using published data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project 5-year follow-up study. Radiation hazard estimates were developed from published radiation physics and radioepidemiologic risk data. Benchmark values for mammographic sensitivity and specificity under screening conditions were calculated from Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project data. Procedural costs used in the analysis were varied around values reflecting conditions at the Washington University Medical Center. Mortality advantages of early versus late breast cancer detection were accounted for using Health Insurance Plan of New York case survival rates. Results are compared with published screening policies to provide insight into implicit assumptions behind those policies. This analysis emphasizes the importance of accounting for variations in clinical accuracy under screening circumstances, in costs, in radiation exposure, and in woman-specific risk when recommending mammographic screening. PMID:3420070

  6. Sampling probability distributions of lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, P.; Warren, L. M.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    One approach to image perception studies in mammography using virtual clinical trials involves the insertion of simulated lesions into normal mammograms. To facilitate this, a method has been developed that allows for sampling of lesion positions across the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections in accordance with measured distributions of real lesion locations. 6825 mammograms from our mammography image database were segmented to find the breast outline. The outlines were averaged and smoothed to produce an average outline for each laterality and radiographic projection. Lesions in 3304 mammograms with malignant findings were mapped on to a standardised breast image corresponding to the average breast outline using piecewise affine transforms. A four dimensional probability distribution function was found from the lesion locations in the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections for calcification and noncalcification lesions. Lesion locations sampled from this probability distribution function were mapped on to individual mammograms using a piecewise affine transform which transforms the average outline to the outline of the breast in the mammogram. The four dimensional probability distribution function was validated by comparing it to the two dimensional distributions found by considering each radiographic projection and laterality independently. The correlation of the location of the lesions sampled from the four dimensional probability distribution function across radiographic projections was shown to match the correlation of the locations of the original mapped lesion locations. The current system has been implemented as a web-service on a server using the Python Django framework. The server performs the sampling, performs the mapping and returns the results in a javascript object notation format.

  7. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  8. Towards registration of temporal mammograms by finite element simulation of MR breast volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yan; Sun, Xuejun; Manohar, Vasant; Goldgof, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Performing regular mammographic screening and comparing corresponding mammograms taken from multiple views or at different times are necessary for early detection and treatment evaluation of breast cancer, which is key to successful treatment. However, mammograms taken at different times are often obtained under different compression, orientation, or body position. A temporal pair of mammograms may vary significantly due to the spatial disparities caused by the variety in acquisition environments, including 3D position of the breast, the amount of pressure applied, etc. Such disparities can be corrected through the process of temporal registration. We propose to use a 3D finite element model for temporal registration of digital mammography. In this paper, we apply patient specific 3D breast model constructed from MRI data of the patient, for cases where lesions are detectable in multiple mammographic views across time. The 3D location of the lesion in the breast model is computed through a breast deformation simulation step presented in our earlier work. Lesion correspondence is established by using a nearest neighbor approach in the uncompressed breast volume. Our experiments show that the use of a 3D finite element model for simulating and analyzing breast deformation contributes to good accuracy when matching suspicious regions in temporal mammograms.

  9. Automatic extraction of pectoral muscle in the MLO view of mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feudjio, C. K.; Klein, J.; Tiedeu, A.; Colot, O.

    2013-12-01

    A mammogram is the standard modality used for breast cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) approaches are helpful for improving breast cancer detection rates when applied to mammograms. However, automated analysis of a mammogram often leads to inaccurate results in the presence of the pectoral muscle. Therefore, it is necessary to first handle pectoral muscle segmentation separately before any further analysis of a mammogram. One difficulty to overcome when segmenting out pectoral muscle is its strong overlapping with dense glandular tissue which tampers with its extraction. This paper introduces an automated two-step approach for pectoral muscle extraction. The pectoral region is firstly estimated through segmentation by mean of a modified Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm. After contour validation, the final boundary is delineated through iterative refinement of edge point using average gradient. The proposed method is quite simple in implementation and yields accurate results. It was tested on a set of images from the MIAS database and yielded results which, compared to those of some state-of-the-art approaches, were better.

  10. Wavelet transforms for detecting microcalcifications in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.N.; Hahn, H.I.

    1996-04-01

    Clusters of fine, granular microcalcifications in mammograms may be an early sign of disease. Individual grains are difficult to detect and segment due to size and shape variability and because the background mammogram texture is typically inhomogeneous. The authors develop a two-stage method based on wavelet transforms for detecting and segmenting calcifications. The first stage is based on an undecimated wavelet transform, which is simply the conventional filter bank implementation without downsampling, so that the low-low (LL), low-high (LH), high-low (HL), and high-high (HH) sub-bands remain at full size. Detection takes place in HH and the combination LH + HL. Four octaves are compared with two inter-octave voices for finer scale resolution. By appropriate selection of the wavelet basis the detection of microcalcifications in the relevant size range can be nearly optimized. In fact, the filters which transform the input image into HH and LH + HL are closely related to prewhitening matched filters for detecting Gaussian objects (idealized microcalcifications) in two common forms of Markov (background) noise. The second stage is designed to overcome the limitations of the simplistic Gaussian assumption and provides an accurate segmentation of calcification boundaries. Detected pixel sites in HH and LH + HL are dilated then weighted before computing the inverse wavelet transform. Individual microcalcifications are greatly enhanced in the output image, to the point where straightforward thresholding can be applied to segment them. FROC curves are computed from tests using a freely distributed database of digitized mammograms.

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities in breast cancer screening: results from the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo 1996-2001.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Torin; Myrvold, Kristina; Lømo, Jon; Anderssen, Karin Yvonne; Skaane, Per

    2003-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of nonpalpable mammographic lesions has been under attack from two sides for some years. There has been much discussion and controversy as to the ability to differentiate between in situ and invasive carcinomas in cytological material. A further issue is that of optimal sampling to obtain adequate cell material in sufficient quantity. We present the results of FNAC from 832 nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities detected in the course of the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo during 1996-2001. In 11.6% of cases the smears were inadequate, and there were 7% false negatives (FN) and 1.3% false positives. Of the FN, 64% represented microcalcifications and 86% were due to sampling errors. Absolute sensitivity was 74%, complete sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. In 255 carcinomas a cytological diagnosis of them as in situ or invasive was made. In 93% of the invasive cases (190/205) these had been correctly identified as invasive on FNAC. In 78% of cases proper follow-up could be resolved by cytology/radiology alone. Suboptimal sampling and localization remains the main cause of FN FNAC results. Problems in differentiating between in situ and invasive breast carcinomas can be significantly reduced by applying strict criteria for in situ lesions. PMID:14659146

  12. Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary

  13. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Jan; Vallova, Vladimira; Greslikova, Henrieta; Kupska, Renata; Nemec, Pavel; Mikulasova, Aneta; Almasi, Martina; Pour, Ludek; Adam, Zdenek; Sandecka, Viera; Zahradová, Lenka; Hajek, Roman; Kuglik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs) play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91). Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91); del(13)(q14) was detected in 57.1% (52/91); gain(1)(q21) occurred in 58.2% (53/91); del(17)(p13) was observed in 15.4% (14/91); and t(4;14)(p16;q32) was found in 18.6% (16/86). Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91). Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%), 1p (39.6%), and 8p (31.1%), whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%). Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients. PMID:24987674

  14. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  15. Mammogram CAD, hybrid registration and iconic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, A.; Cloppet, F.; Vincent, N.

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to develop a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on a two-step methodology to register and analyze pairs of temporal mammograms. The concept of "medical file", including all the previous medical information on a patient, enables joint analysis of different acquisitions taken at different times, and the detection of significant modifications. The developed registration method aims to superimpose at best the different anatomical structures of the breast. The registration is designed in order to get rid of deformation undergone by the acquisition process while preserving those due to breast changes indicative of malignancy. In order to reach this goal, a referent image is computed from control points based on anatomical features that are extracted automatically. Then the second image of the couple is realigned on the referent image, using a coarse-to-fine approach according to expert knowledge that allows both rigid and non-rigid transforms. The joint analysis detects the evolution between two images representing the same scene. In order to achieve this, it is important to know the registration error limits in order to adapt the observation scale. The approach used in this paper is based on an image sparse representation. Decomposed in regular patterns, the images are analyzed under a new angle. The evolution detection problem has many practical applications, especially in medical images. The CAD is evaluated using recall and precision of differences in mammograms.

  16. Vitamin D Intake, Month the Mammogram Was Taken and Mammographic Density in Norwegian Women Aged 50–69

    PubMed Central

    Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Grotmol, Tom; Kaur Sakhi, Amrit; Hofvind, Solveig; Qureshi, Samera; Skov Markussen, Marianne; Couto, Elisabeth; Vos, Linda; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway—a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year. Methods 3114 women aged 50–69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT), education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes. Results There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03). Conclusion Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old. PMID:25938768

  17. Initial and repeat mammography screening in a low income multi-ethnic population in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Bastani, R; Kaplan, C P; Maxwell, A E; Nisenbaum, R; Pearce, J; Marcus, A C

    1995-03-01

    Low income, older, minority women are at high risk for underutilization of screening mammography. One strategy for increasing utilization is to conduct interventions targeting local and state health departments where a majority of these women seek health care. A prerequisite for conducting effective screening programs is to obtain current and accurate information on baseline screening rates to understand the nature and scope of the problem and to plan appropriate intervention strategies. The sample consisted of 3240 women who were 50+ years of age from 2 hospitals and 2 comprehensive health centers operated by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Reviews of medical records indicated that only 21% of the sample had received a mammogram in the 12 months prior to the clinic visit on which they were sampled and 23% of the sample received a mammogram in the following 9 months. Approximately 5% of the total sample received a repeat mammogram in the 21-month period over which they were tracked. Prospective independent predictors of screening were age, number of visits to primary care clinics, number of visits to specialty care clinics, and history of breast abnormalities. The results underscore the importance of implementing programs to increase mammography implementing programs to increase mammography screening within public facilities serving low income multiethnic women. An important finding is that a large number of older women are seen in specialty clinics, which represents an untapped resource for increasing screening in this population. Innovative interventions targeting such specialty clinics could substantially contribute to increasing screening rates. A comprehensive approach targeting system, physician, and patient barriers is recommended. PMID:7742724

  18. Evaluation of hybrids algorithms for mass detection in digitalized mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, José; Garzón Reyes, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer remains being a significant public health problem, the early detection of the lesions can increase the success possibilities of the medical treatments. The mammography is an image modality effective to early diagnosis of abnormalities, where the medical image is obtained of the mammary gland with X-rays of low radiation, this allows detect a tumor or circumscribed mass between two to three years before that it was clinically palpable, and is the only method that until now achieved reducing the mortality by breast cancer. In this paper three hybrids algorithms for circumscribed mass detection on digitalized mammograms are evaluated. In the first stage correspond to a review of the enhancement and segmentation techniques used in the processing of the mammographic images. After a shape filtering was applied to the resulting regions. By mean of a Bayesian filter the survivors regions were processed, where the characteristics vector for the classifier was constructed with few measurements. Later, the implemented algorithms were evaluated by ROC curves, where 40 images were taken for the test, 20 normal images and 20 images with circumscribed lesions. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages in the correct detection of a lesion of every algorithm are discussed.

  19. A breast density index for digital mammograms based on radiologists' ranking.

    PubMed

    Boone, J M; Lindfors, K K; Beatty, C S; Seibert, J A

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computerized method of calculating a breast density index (BDI) from digitized mammograms that was designed specifically to model radiologists' perception of breast density. A set of 153 pairs of digitized mammograms (cranio-caudal, CC, and mediolateral oblique, MLO, views) were acquired and preprocessed to reduce detector biases. The sets of mammograms were ordered on an ordinal scale (a scale based only on relative rank-ordering) by two radiologists, and a cardinal (an absolute numerical score) BDI value was calculated from the ordinal ranks. The images were also assigned cardinal BDI values by the radiologists in a subsequent session. Six mathematical features (including fractal dimension and others) were calculated from the digital mammograms, and were used in conjunction with single value decomposition and multiple linear regression to calculate a computerized BDI. The linear correlation coefficient between different ordinal ranking sessions were as follows: intraradiologist intraprojection (CC/CC): r = 0.978; intraradiologist interprojection (CC/MLO): r = 0.960; and interradiologist intraprojection (CC/CC): r = 0.968. A separate breast density index was derived from three separate ordinal rankings by one radiologist (two with CC views, one with the MLO view). The computer derived BDI had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.907 with the radiologists' ordinal BDI. A comparison between radiologists using a cardinal scoring system (which is closest to how radiologists actually evaluate breast density) showed r = 0.914. A breast density index calculated by a computer but modeled after radiologist perception of breast density may be valuable in objectively measuring breast density. Such a metric may prove valuable in numerous areas, including breast cancer risk assessment and in evaluating screening techniques specifically designed to improve imaging of the dense breast. PMID:9718500

  20. Super-resolution reconstruction of compressed sensing mammogram based on contourlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Chen, Houjin; Yao, Chang; Qiao, Zhijun

    2013-05-01

    Calcification detection in mammogram is important in breast cancer diagnosis. A super-resolution reconstruction method is proposed to reconstruct mammogram image from one single low resolution mammogram based on the compressed sensing by the contourlet transform. The initial estimation of the super-resolution mammogram is obtained by the interpolation method of the low resolution mammogram reconstructed by compressed sensing, then contourlet transform is applied respectively to the initial estimation and the reconstructed low resolution mammogram. From the statistical characteristics of the mutiscale frequency bands between the initial estimation and the reconstructed low resolution mammogram, the thresholds are estimated to integrate the high frequency of the initial estimation and the low frequency of the reconstructed low resolution mammogram. The super-resolution mammogram is achieved through the reconstruction of contourlet inverse transform. The proposed method can retrieve some details of the low resolution images. The calcification in mammogram can be detected efficiently.

  1. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart. PMID:26178432

  2. A New GLLD Operator for Mass Detection in Digital Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, N.; Dammak Masmoudi, A.; Sellami Masmoudi, D.; Abid, R.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, several works have dealt with computer automatic diagnosis (CAD) of masses in digital mammograms. Generally, the main difficulty remains the detection of masses. This work proposes an efficient methodology for mass detection based on a new local feature extraction. Local binary pattern (LBP) operator and its variants proposed by Ojala are a powerful tool for textures classification. However, it has been proved that such operators are not able to model at their own texture masses. We propose in this paper a new local pattern model named gray level and local difference (GLLD) where we take into consideration absolute gray level values as well as local difference as local binary features. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbors (kNNs) are, then, used for classifying masses from nonmasses, illustrating better performance of ANN classifier. We have used 1000 regions of interest (ROIs) obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The area under the curve of the corresponding approach has been found to be Az = 0.95 for the mass detection step. A comparative study with previous approaches proves that our approach offers the best performances. PMID:23365556

  3. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    PubMed Central

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) to stratify GDM population according to postpartum risk. Materials and methods Electronic medical records of an ethnically homogenous cohort of women diagnosed and treated for GDM in a single medical centre during the period 2005–2011 who completed postpartum oGTT up to 1 year after the index delivery were retrospectively analysed (N = 305). Results Postpartum glucose abnormality was detected in 16.7% subjects. Mid-trimester oGTT values, respective area under the curve and HbA1c were significantly associated with early postpartum glucose abnormality (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney) and exhibited significant predictive potential for postpartum glucose abnormality risk assessment. Optimal cut-off values for discrimination of at-risk sub-population were identified using ROC analysis and their comparison with WHO and IADPSG criteria exhibited superiority of IADPSG for risk-stratification of GDM population. Conclusion Risk-based stratification at the time of GDM diagnosis could improve efficiency of the post-gestational screening for diabetes. IADPSG criteria seem to optimally capture both perinatal and maternal metabolic risks and are therefore medically and economically justified. PMID:26526166

  4. Statistical measures of orientation of texture for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Banik, Shantanu; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Leo Desautels, J. E.

    2012-07-01

    Architectural distortion is an important sign of early breast cancer. Due to its subtlety, it is often missed during screening. We propose a method to detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases based on statistical measures of oriented patterns. Oriented patterns were analyzed in the present work because regions with architectural distortion contain a large number of tissue structures spread over a wide angular range. Two new types of cooccurrence matrices were derived to estimate the joint occurrence of the angles of oriented structures. Statistical features were computed from each of the angle cooccurrence matrices to discriminate sites of architectural distortion from falsely detected regions in normal parts of mammograms. A total of 4,224 regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically obtained from 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases with the application of Gabor filters and phase portrait analysis. For each ROI, Haralick's 14 features were computed using the angle cooccurrence matrices. The best result obtained in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with the leave-one-patient-out method was 0.76; the free-response ROC curve indicated a sensitivity of 80% at 4.2 false positives per patient.

  5. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio, L.N.; Hernandez, J.M.; Logan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Digital mammography offers the promise of significant advances in early detection of breast cancer. Our overall goal is to design a digital system which improves upon every aspect of current mammography technology: the x-ray source, detector, visual presentation of the mammogram and computer-aided diagnosis capabilities. This paper will discuss one part of our whole-system approach -- the development of a computer algorithm using gray-scale morphology to automatically analyze and flag microcalcifications in digital mammograms in hopes of reducing the current percentage of false-negative diagnoses, which is estimated at 20%. The mammograms used for developing this ``mammographers assistant`` are film mammograms which we have digitized at either 70 {mu}m or 35 {mu}m per pixel resolution with 4096 (12 bits) of gray level per pixel. For each potential microcalcification detected in these images, we compute a number of features in order to distinguish between the different kinds of objects detected.

  6. High-resolution display system for mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Michael J.; Huang, H. K.; Wang, Jun; Allen, Jeffrey; Sickles, Edward A.; Giles, Anthony

    1995-04-01

    A high resolution mammographic display station is implemented for clinical diagnosis and for a digital teaching file. The display consists of a specially designed, high resolution mammographic station which contains a connection to a 50 micron (variable spot size) laser film digitizer, two 2 K X 2.5 K display monitors, an image processor, a host computer, and a disk array for high speed image transfer to the display monitors. After digitization on a separate host computer, the files are immediately transferred to the display station and post- processed for viewing. The algorithm for post-processing of the digitized image applies a non- linear LUT to mimic the original film characteristics while taking into account the luminosity of the display monitors in an attempt to produce the highest digital image quality possible. Image processing functions for enhancing calcification and soft tissue are also available to assist the human observer in classification of objects within the image. Windowing and level controls are seamlessly integrated for each monitor, as well as magnification capabilities. For an image display at its full resolution (e.g., digitized at 100 microns), the magnification is accomplished with a roaming window utilizing simple 2X pixel replication. This has been found to be acceptable in preliminary tests with clinicians. Measurements of features on the 2 k displays are possible, as well. The display format accurately simulates mammographic viewing arrangements with automatic side-by-side historical, current, left and right craniocaudal, mediolateral, etc., view comparisons. This high resolution mammographic display is found to be essential for fast and accurate display of high resolution digitized mammograms. A digital mammographic teaching file has been designed and tested using this display architecture. The teaching file presents the case questions on the host display monitor, and the related images for each question are presented on the high

  7. STEAM - Statistical Template Estimation for Abnormality Mapping: A personalized DTI analysis technique with applications to the screening of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian G; Miller, Steven P; Brown, Colin J; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-15

    We introduce the STEAM DTI analysis engine: a whole brain voxel-based analysis technique for the examination of diffusion tensor images (DTIs). Our STEAM analysis technique consists of two parts. First, we introduce a collection of statistical templates that represent the distribution of DTIs for a normative population. These templates include various diffusion measures from the full tensor, to fractional anisotropy, to 12 other tensor features. Second, we propose a voxel-based analysis (VBA) pipeline that is reliable enough to identify areas in individual DTI scans that differ significantly from the normative group represented in the STEAM statistical templates. We identify and justify choices in the VBA pipeline relating to multiple comparison correction, image smoothing, and dealing with non-normally distributed data. Finally, we provide a proof of concept for the utility of STEAM on a cohort of 134 very preterm infants. We generated templates from scans of 55 very preterm infants whose T1 MRI scans show no abnormalities and who have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The remaining 79 infants were then compared to the templates using our VBA technique. We show: (a) that our statistical templates display the white matter development expected over the modeled time period, and (b) that our VBA results detect abnormalities in the diffusion measurements that relate significantly with both the presence of white matter lesions and with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18months. Most notably, we show that STEAM produces personalized results while also being able to highlight abnormalities across the whole brain and at the scale of individual voxels. While we show the value of STEAM on DTI scans from a preterm infant cohort, STEAM can be equally applied to other cohorts as well. To facilitate this whole-brain personalized DTI analysis, we made STEAM publicly available at http://www.sfu.ca/bgb2/steam. PMID:26515903

  8. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases and ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 to ...

  9. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 ...

  10. Automated registration of diagnostic to prediagnostic x-ray mammograms: Evaluation and comparison to radiologists' accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Hipwell, John H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Tanner, Christine; Moss, Sue M.; Wilkinson, Louise S.; Khoo, Lisanne A. L.; Pagliari, Catriona; Skippage, Pippa L.; Kliger, Carole J.; Hawkes, David J.; Santos Silva, Isabel M. dos

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate intensity-based registration methods for computation of serial x-ray mammogram correspondence. Methods: X-ray mammograms were simulated from MRIs of 20 women using finite element methods for modeling breast compressions and employing a MRI/x-ray appearance change model. The parameter configurations of three registration methods, affine, fluid, and free-form deformation (FFD), were optimized for registering x-ray mammograms on these simulated images. Five mammography film readers independently identified landmarks (tumor, nipple, and usually two other normal features) on pairs of diagnostic and corresponding prediagnostic digitized images from 52 breast cancer cases. Landmarks were independently reidentified by each reader. Target registration errors were calculated to compare the three registration methods using the reader landmarks as a gold standard. Data were analyzed using multilevel methods. Results: Between-reader variability varied with landmark (p<0.01) and screen (p=0.03), with between-reader mean distance (mm) in point location on the diagnostic/prediagnostic images of 2.50 (95% CI 1.95, 3.15)/2.84 (2.24, 3.55) for nipples and 4.26 (3.43, 5.24)/4.76 (3.85, 5.84) for tumors. Registration accuracy was sensitive to the type of landmark and the amount of breast density. For dense breasts ({>=}40%), the affine and fluid methods outperformed FFD. For breasts with lower density, the affine registration surpassed both fluid and FFD. Mean accuracy (mm) of the affine registration varied between 3.16 (95% CI 2.56, 3.90) for nipple points in breasts with density 20%-39% and 5.73 (4.80, 6.84) for tumor points in breasts with density <20%. Conclusions: Affine registration accuracy was comparable to that between independent film readers. More advanced two-dimensional nonrigid registration algorithms were incapable of increasing the accuracy of image alignment when compared to affine registration.

  11. Pharmacological screening of bryophyte extracts that inhibit growth and induce abnormal phenotypes in human HeLa cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Krzaczkowski, Lucie; Wright, Michel; Rebérioux, Delphine; Massiot, Georges; Etiévant, Chantal; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2009-08-01

    Antitumor activities of substances from natural sources apart from vascular plants and micro-organisms have been poorly investigated. Here we report on a pharmacological screening of a bryophyte extract library using a phenotypic cell-based assay revealing microtubules, centrosomes and DNA. Among the 219 moss extracts tested, we identified 41 extracts acting on cell division with various combinations of significant effects on interphasic and mitotic cells. Seven extracts were further studied using a cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis and the phenotypic assay. Three distinct pharmacological patterns were identified including two unusual phenotypes. PMID:19709324

  12. Multi-view score fusion for content-based mammogram retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahbi, Sami; Barhoumi, Walid; Zagrouba, Ezzeddine

    2015-12-01

    Screening mammography provides two views for each breast: Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) and Cranial-Caudal (CC) views. However, current content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems analyze each view independently, in spite of their complementarities. To further improve the retrieval performance, this paper introduces a two-view CBIR system that combines retrieval results of MLO and CC views. First, we computed the similarity scores between MLO (resp. CC) ROIs in the database and the MLO (resp. CC) query ROI. These ROIs are characterized using curvelet moments. Then, a new linear weighted sum scheme combines MLO and CC scores; it assigns weights for each view according to the distribution of the classes of its neighbors. The ROIs having the highest fused scores are displayed to the radiologist and used to compute the malignancy likelihood of the lesion. Experiments performed on mammograms from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio, L.N.; Hernandez, J.M.; Logan, C.M.

    1994-10-01

    Digital mammography offers the promise of significant advances in early detection of breast cancer. Our overall goal is to design a digital system which improves upon every aspect of current mammography technology: the x-ray source, detector, visual presentation of the mammogram and computer-aided diagnosis capabilities. This paper will discuss one part of our whole-system approach -- the development of a computer algorithm using gray-scale morphology to automatically analyze and flag microcalcifications in digital mammograms in hopes of reducing the current percentage of false-negative diagnoses, which is estimated at 20%. The mamrnograms used for developing this ``mammographers assistant`` are film mammograms which we have digitized at either 70{mu}m or 35{mu}m per pixel resolution with 4096(12 bits) of gray level per pixel. For each potential microcalcification detected. in these images, we compute a number of features in order to distinguish between the different kinds of objects detected.

  14. Automatic correspondence detection in mammogram and breast tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Krüger, Julia; Bischof, Arpad; Barkhausen, Jörg; Handels, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional mammography is the major imaging modality in breast cancer detection. A disadvantage of mammography is the projective nature of this imaging technique. Tomosynthesis is an attractive modality with the potential to combine the high contrast and high resolution of digital mammography with the advantages of 3D imaging. In order to facilitate diagnostics and treatment in the current clinical work-flow, correspondences between tomosynthesis images and previous mammographic exams of the same women have to be determined. In this paper, we propose a method to detect correspondences in 2D mammograms and 3D tomosynthesis images automatically. In general, this 2D/3D correspondence problem is ill-posed, because a point in the 2D mammogram corresponds to a line in the 3D tomosynthesis image. The goal of our method is to detect the "most probable" 3D position in the tomosynthesis images corresponding to a selected point in the 2D mammogram. We present two alternative approaches to solve this 2D/3D correspondence problem: a 2D/3D registration method and a 2D/2D mapping between mammogram and tomosynthesis projection images with a following back projection. The advantages and limitations of both approaches are discussed and the performance of the methods is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using a software phantom and clinical breast image data. Although the proposed 2D/3D registration method can compensate for moderate breast deformations caused by different breast compressions, this approach is not suitable for clinical tomosynthesis data due to the limited resolution and blurring effects perpendicular to the direction of projection. The quantitative results show that the proposed 2D/2D mapping method is capable of detecting corresponding positions in mammograms and tomosynthesis images automatically for 61 out of 65 landmarks. The proposed method can facilitate diagnosis, visual inspection and comparison of 2D mammograms and 3D tomosynthesis images for

  15. A new approach to develop computer-aided detection schemes of digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maxine; Qian, Wei; Pu, Jiantao; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new global mammographic image feature analysis based computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme and evaluate its performance in detecting positive screening mammography examinations. A dataset that includes images acquired from 1896 full-field digital mammography (FFDM) screening examinations was used in this study. Among them, 812 cases were positive for cancer and 1084 were negative or benign. After segmenting the breast area, a computerized scheme was applied to compute 92 global mammographic tissue density based features on each of four mammograms of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. After adding three existing popular risk factors (woman’s age, subjectively rated mammographic density, and family breast cancer history) into the initial feature pool, we applied a sequential forward floating selection feature selection algorithm to select relevant features from the bilateral CC and MLO view images separately. The selected CC and MLO view image features were used to train two artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results were then fused by a third ANN to build a two-stage classifier to predict the likelihood of the FFDM screening examination being positive. CAD performance was tested using a ten-fold cross-validation method. The computed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC = 0.779   ±   0.025 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 31.55 as CAD-generated detection scores increased. The study demonstrated that this new global image feature based CAD scheme had a relatively higher discriminatory power to cue the FFDM examinations with high risk of being positive, which may provide a new CAD-cueing method to assist radiologists in reading and interpreting screening mammograms.

  16. A new approach to develop computer-aided detection schemes of digital mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Maxine; Qian, Wei; Pu, Jiantao; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new global mammographic image feature analysis based computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme and evaluate its performance in detecting positive screening mammography examinations. A dataset that includes images acquired from 1896 full-field digital mammography (FFDM) screening examinations was used in this study. Among them, 812 cases were positive for cancer and 1084 were negative or benign. After segmenting the breast area, a computerized scheme was applied to compute 92 global mammographic tissue density based features on each of four mammograms of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. After adding three existing popular risk factors (woman’s age, subjectively rated mammographic density, and family breast cancer history) into the initial feature pool, we applied a Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS) feature selection algorithm to select relevant features from the bilateral CC and MLO view images separately. The selected CC and MLO view image features were used to train two artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results were then fused by a third ANN to build a two-stage classifier to predict the likelihood of the FFDM screening examination being positive. CAD performance was tested using a ten-fold cross-validation method. The computed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC=0.779±0.025 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 31.55 as CAD-generated detection scores increased. The study demonstrated that this new global image feature based CAD scheme had a relatively higher discriminatory power to cue the FFDM examinations with high risk of being positive, which may provide a new CAD-cueing method to assist radiologists in reading and interpreting screening mammograms. PMID:25984710

  17. Evaluating a Bilingual Patient Navigation Program for Uninsured Women With Abnormal Screening Tests for Breast and Cervical Cancer: Implications for Future Navigator Research

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Laura S.; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Murphy, Kara R.; Endress, Richard; Dong, XinQi; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The DuPage Patient Navigation Collaborative evaluated the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) model for uninsured women receiving free breast or cervical cancer screening through the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in DuPage County, Illinois. Methods. We used medical records review and patient surveys of 477 women to compare median follow-up times with external Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program and Chicago PNRP benchmarks of performance. We examined the extent to which we mitigated community-defined timeliness risk factors for delayed follow-up, with a focus on Spanish-speaking participants. Results. Median follow-up time (29.0 days for breast and 56.5 days for cervical screening abnormalities) compared favorably to external benchmarks. Spanish-speaking patients had lower health literacy, lower patient activation, and more health care system distrust than did English-speaking patients, but despite the prevalence of timeliness risk factors, we observed no differences in likelihood of delayed (> 60 days) follow-up by language. Conclusions. Our successful replication and scaling of the PNRP navigation model to DuPage County illustrates a promising approach for future navigator research. PMID:25713942

  18. Classification of mammogram using two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Beura, Shradhananda; Majhi, Banshidhar; Dash, Ratnakar; Roy, Susnata

    2015-04-01

    An efficient approach for classification of mammograms for detection of breast cancer is presented. The approach utilises the two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform (DOST) to extract the coefficients from the digital mammograms. A feature selection algorithm based the on null-hypothesis test with statistical 'two-sample t-test' method has been suggested to select most significant coefficients from a large number of DOST coefficients. The selected coefficients are used as features in the classification of mammographic images as benign or malignant. This scheme utilises an AdaBoost algorithm with random forest as its base classifier. Two standard databases Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) are used for the validation of the proposed scheme. Simulation results show an optimal classification performance with respect to accuracies of 98.3 and 98.8% and AUC (receiver operating characteristic) values of 0.9985 and 0.9992 for MIAS and DDSM, respectively. Comparative analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms its competent schemes. PMID:26609404

  19. Classification of mammogram using two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform for breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Banshidhar; Dash, Ratnakar; Roy, Susnata

    2015-01-01

    An efficient approach for classification of mammograms for detection of breast cancer is presented. The approach utilises the two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform (DOST) to extract the coefficients from the digital mammograms. A feature selection algorithm based the on null-hypothesis test with statistical ‘two-sample t-test’ method has been suggested to select most significant coefficients from a large number of DOST coefficients. The selected coefficients are used as features in the classification of mammographic images as benign or malignant. This scheme utilises an AdaBoost algorithm with random forest as its base classifier. Two standard databases Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) are used for the validation of the proposed scheme. Simulation results show an optimal classification performance with respect to accuracies of 98.3 and 98.8% and AUC (receiver operating characteristic) values of 0.9985 and 0.9992 for MIAS and DDSM, respectively. Comparative analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms its competent schemes. PMID:26609404

  20. Estimation of the breast skin-line in mammograms using multidirectional Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Casti, P; Mencattini, A; Salmeri, M; Ancona, A; Mangeri, F; Pepe, M L; Rangayyan, R M

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of the breast region is a fundamental step in any system for computerized analysis of mammograms. In this work, we propose a novel procedure for the estimation of the breast skin-line based upon multidirectional Gabor filtering. The method includes an adaptive values-of-interest (VOI) transformation, extraction of the skin-air ribbon by Otsu's thresholding method and the Euclidean distance transform, Gabor filtering with 18 real kernels, and a step for suppression of false edge points using the magnitude and phase responses of the filters. On a test set of 361 images from different acquisition modalities (screen-film and full-field digital mammograms), the average Hausdorff and polyline distances obtained were 2.85 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively, with reference to the ground-truth boundaries provided by an expert radiologist. When compared with the results obtained by other state-of-the-art methods on the same set of images and with respect to the same ground-truth boundaries, our method mostly outperformed the other approaches. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24209932

  1. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  2. Segmentation for the enhancement of microcalcifications in digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Marina; Jankovic, Dragan; Peulic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Microcalcification clusters appear as groups of small, bright particles with arbitrary shapes on mammographic images. They are the earliest sign of breast carcinomas and their detection is the key for improving breast cancer prognosis. But due to the low contrast of microcalcifications and same properties as noise, it is difficult to detect microcalcification. This work is devoted to developing a system for the detection of microcalcification in digital mammograms. After removing noise from mammogram using the Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT), we first selected the region of interest (ROI) in order to demarcate the breast region on a mammogram. Segmenting region of interest represents one of the most important stages of mammogram processing procedure. The proposed segmentation method is based on a filtering using the Sobel filter. This process will identify the significant pixels, that belong to edges of microcalcifications. Microcalcifications were detected by increasing the contrast of the images obtained by applying Sobel operator. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this microcalcification segmentation method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighborhood (k-NN) algorithm are employed for the classification task using cross-validation technique. PMID:25059254

  3. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  4. Diagnostic clinical benefits of digital spot and digital 3D mammography following analysis of screening findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtimaki, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena; Roiha, Marja; Kalke, Martti; Siltanen, Samuli; Ihamäki, Timo

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of 3-dimensional digital mammography and digital spot imaging following analysis of the abnormal findings of screening mammograms. Over a period of eight months, digital 3-D mammography imaging TACT Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography+, digital spot imaging (DSI), screen-film mammography imaging (SFM) and diagnostic film imaging (DFM) examinations were performed on 60 symptomatic cases. All patients were recalled because it was not possible to exclude the presence of breast cancer on screening films. Abnormal findings on the screening films were non-specific tumor-like parenchymal densities, parenchymal asymmetries or distortions with or without microcalcifications or just microcalcifications. Mammography work-up (film imaging) included spot compression and microfocus magnification views. The 3-D softcopy reading in all cases was done with Delta 32 TACT mammography workstation, while the film images were read using a mammography-specific light box. During the softcopy reading only windowing tools were allowed. The result of this study indicates that the clinical diagnostic image quality of digital 3-D and digital spot images are better than in film images, even in comparison with diagnostic work-up films. Potential advantages are to define if the mammography finding is caused by a real abnormal lesion or by superimposition of normal parenchymal structures, to detect changes in breast tissue which would otherwise be missed, to verify the correct target for biopsies and to reduce the number of biopsies performed.

  5. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOEpatents

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  6. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOEpatents

    Mascio, Laura N.

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  7. Estimation of Volumetric Breast Density from Digital Mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo-Proulx, Olivier

    Mammographic breast density (MBD) is a strong risk factor for developing breast cancer. MBD is typically estimated by manually selecting the area occupied by the dense tissue on a mammogram. There is interest in measuring the volume of dense tissue, or volumetric breast density (VBD), as it could potentially be a stronger risk factor. This dissertation presents and validates an algorithm to measure the VBD from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on an empirical calibration of the mammography system, supplemented by physical modeling of x-ray imaging that includes the effects of beam polychromaticity, scattered radation, anti-scatter grid and detector glare. It also includes a method to estimate the compressed breast thickness as a function of the compression force, and a method to estimate the thickness of the breast outside of the compressed region. The algorithm was tested on 26 simulated mammograms obtained from computed tomography images, themselves deformed to mimic the effects of compression. This allowed the determination of the baseline accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm was also used on 55 087 clinical digital mammograms, which allowed for the determination of the general characteristics of VBD and breast volume, as well as their variation as a function of age and time. The algorithm was also validated against a set of 80 magnetic resonance images, and compared against the area method on 2688 images. A preliminary study comparing association of breast cancer risk with VBD and MBD was also performed, indicating that VBD is a stronger risk factor. The algorithm was found to be accurate, generating quantitative density measurements rapidly and automatically. It can be extended to any digital mammography system, provided that the compression thickness of the breast can be determined accurately.

  8. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    PubMed

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  9. Automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digitized mammogram films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songyang; Guan, Ling; Brown, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The existence of clustered microcalcifications is one of the important early signs of breast cancer. This paper presents an image processing procedure for the automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digitized mammograms. In particular, a sensitivity range of around one false positive per image is targeted. The proposed method consists of two main steps. First, possible microcalcification pixels in the mammograms are segmented out using wavelet features or both wavelet features and gray level statistical features, and labeled into potential individual microcalcification objects by their spatial connectivity. Second, individual microcalcifications are detected by using the structure features extracted from the potential microcalcification objects. The classifiers used in these two steps are feedforward neutral networks. The method is applied to a database of 40 mammograms (Nijmegen database) containing 105 clusters of microcalcifications. A free response operating characteristics curve is used to evaluate the performance. Results show that the proposed procedure gives quite satisfactory detection performance. In particular, a 93% mean true positive detection rate is achieved at the price of one false positive per image when both wavelet features and gray level statistical features are used in the first step.

  10. Quantification and normalization of x-ray mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tromans, Christopher E; Cocker, Mary R; Brady, Sir Michael

    2012-10-21

    The analysis of (x-ray) mammograms remains qualitative, relying on the judgement of clinicians. We present a novel method to compute a quantitative, normalized measure of tissue radiodensity traversed by the primary beam incident on each pixel of a mammogram, a measure we term the standard attenuation rate (SAR). SAR enables: the estimation of breast density which is linked to cancer risk; direct comparison between images; the full potential of computer aided diagnosis to be utilized; and a basis for digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction. It does this by removing the effects of the imaging conditions under which the mammogram is acquired. First, the x-ray spectrum incident upon the breast is calculated, and from this, the energy exiting the breast is calculated. The contribution of scattered radiation is calculated and subtracted. The SAR measure is the scaling factor that must be applied to the reference material in order to match the primary attenuation of the breast. Specifically, this is the scaled reference material attenuation which when traversed by an identical beam to that traversing the breast, and when subsequently detected, results in the primary component of the pixel intensity observed in the breast image. We present results using two tissue equivalent phantoms, as well as a sensitivity analysis to detector response changes over time and possible errors in compressed thickness measurement. PMID:23010610

  11. Quantification and normalization of x-ray mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromans, Christopher E.; Cocker, Mary R.; Brady, Michael, Sir

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of (x-ray) mammograms remains qualitative, relying on the judgement of clinicians. We present a novel method to compute a quantitative, normalized measure of tissue radiodensity traversed by the primary beam incident on each pixel of a mammogram, a measure we term the standard attenuation rate (SAR). SAR enables: the estimation of breast density which is linked to cancer risk; direct comparison between images; the full potential of computer aided diagnosis to be utilized; and a basis for digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction. It does this by removing the effects of the imaging conditions under which the mammogram is acquired. First, the x-ray spectrum incident upon the breast is calculated, and from this, the energy exiting the breast is calculated. The contribution of scattered radiation is calculated and subtracted. The SAR measure is the scaling factor that must be applied to the reference material in order to match the primary attenuation of the breast. Specifically, this is the scaled reference material attenuation which when traversed by an identical beam to that traversing the breast, and when subsequently detected, results in the primary component of the pixel intensity observed in the breast image. We present results using two tissue equivalent phantoms, as well as a sensitivity analysis to detector response changes over time and possible errors in compressed thickness measurement.

  12. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  13. Quantitative visually lossless compression ratio determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Verislav T; Karahaliou, Anna N; Skiadopoulos, Spyros G; Arikidis, Nikos S; Kazantzi, Alexandra D; Panayiotakis, George S; Costaridou, Lena I

    2013-06-01

    The current study presents a quantitative approach towards visually lossless compression ratio (CR) threshold determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms. This is achieved by identifying quantitative image quality metrics that reflect radiologists' visual perception in distinguishing between original and wavelet-compressed mammographic regions of interest containing microcalcification clusters (MCs) and normal parenchyma, originating from 68 images from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Specifically, image quality of wavelet-compressed mammograms (CRs, 10:1, 25:1, 40:1, 70:1, 100:1) is evaluated quantitatively by means of eight image quality metrics of different computational principles and qualitatively by three radiologists employing a five-point rating scale. The accuracy of the objective metrics is investigated in terms of (1) their correlation (r) with qualitative assessment and (2) ROC analysis (A z index), employing pooled radiologists' rating scores as ground truth. The quantitative metrics mean square error, mean absolute error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity demonstrated strong correlation with pooled radiologists' ratings (r, 0.825, 0.823, -0.825, and -0.826, respectively) and the highest area under ROC curve (A z , 0.922, 0.920, 0.922, and 0.922, respectively). For each quantitative metric, the highest accuracy values of corresponding ROC curves were used to define metric cut-off values. The metrics cut-off values were subsequently used to suggest a visually lossless CR threshold, estimated to be between 25:1 and 40:1 for the dataset analyzed. Results indicate the potential of the quantitative metrics approach in predicting visually lossless CRs in case of MCs in mammography. PMID:23065144

  14. Filter-based feature selection and support vector machine for false positive reduction in computer-aided mass detection in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. D.; Nguyen, D. T.; Nguyen, T. D.; Phan, V. A.; Truong, Q. D.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a method for reducing false positive in computer-aided mass detection in screening mammograms is proposed. A set of 32 features, including First Order Statistics (FOS) features, Gray-Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, Block Difference Inverse Probability (BDIP) features, and Block Variation of Local Correlation coefficients (BVLC) are extracted from detected Regions-Of-Interest (ROIs). An optimal subset of 8 features is selected from the full feature set by mean of a filter-based Sequential Backward Selection (SBS). Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized to classify the ROIs into massive regions or normal regions. The method's performance is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC or AZ). On a dataset consisting about 2700 ROIs detected from mini-MIAS database of mammograms, the proposed method achieves AZ=0.938.

  15. Automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms based on wavelet features and neural network classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songyang; Guan, Ling; Brown, Stephen

    1998-06-01

    The appearance of clustered microcalcifications in mammogram films is one of the important early signs of breast cancer. This paper presents a new image processing system for the automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digitized mammogram films. The detection method uses wavelet features and feed forward neural network to find possible microcalcifications pixels and a set of features to locate individual microcalcifications.

  16. Is a Short-Interval Postradiation Mammogram Necessary After Conservative Surgery and Radiation in Breast Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kevin Eradat, Jilbert B.S.; Mehta, Niraj H.; Bent, Chris; Lee, Steve P.; Apple, Sophia K.; Bassett, Lawrence W.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To examine, in a retrospective study, whether the initial posttreatment mammogram offers any benefit to patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected who had radiation after breast-conservation therapy from 1995 through 2005 and had follow-up mammography at University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) within 1 year of completing radiotherapy. Results of the initial follow-up mammogram were analyzed to determine the yield of this initial mammogram. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 408 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and radiation had follow-up mammograms at UCLA within 1 year of completion of radiation. Median age at radiation completion was 56.9 years. Median interval between radiation and the initial mammogram was 3.1 months. Ten patients were found to have suspicious findings on the initial postradiation mammogram, prompting biopsy, but only 2 were found to have recurrent cancer. None of those lesions were palpable. In both cases the recurrences were ductal carcinoma in situ. Thus, the yield of the initial postoperative mammogram as compared with physical examination findings is estimated at 0.49 recurrences detected per 100 mammograms performed (95% confidence interval 0.059-1.759). Conclusions: The yield of the initial postradiation mammography at UCLA seems to be low, and only noninvasive carcinomas were found. Our data support the rationale to avoid the initial short-interval postradiation mammography and evaluate patients at 12 months.

  17. Bio Inspired Swarm Algorithm for Tumor Detection in Digital Mammogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheeba, J.; Selvi, Tamil

    Microcalcification clusters in mammograms is the significant early sign of breast cancer. Individual clusters are difficult to detect and hence an automatic computer aided mechanism will help the radiologist in detecting the microcalcification clusters in an easy and efficient way. This paper presents a new classification approach for detection of microcalcification in digital mammogram using particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) based clustering technique. Fuzzy C-means clustering technique, well defined for clustering data sets are used in combination with the PSO. We adopt the particle swarm optimization to search the cluster center in the arbitrary data set automatically. PSO can search the best solution from the probability option of the Social-only model and Cognition-only model. This method is quite simple and valid, and it can avoid the minimum local value. The proposed classification approach is applied to a database of 322 dense mammographic images, originating from the MIAS database. Results shows that the proposed PSO-FCM approach gives better detection performance compared to conventional approaches.

  18. Ameliorating mammograms by using novel image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, A.; Kwartowitz, D.

    2014-03-01

    Mammography is one of the most important tools for the early detection of breast cancer typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or micro calcifications. Digital mammography has become commonplace in recent years. High quality mammogram images are large in size, providing high-resolution data. Estimates of the false negative rate for cancers in mammography are approximately 10%-30%. This may be due to observation error, but more frequently it is because the cancer is hidden by other dense tissue in the breast and even after retrospective review of the mammogram, cannot be seen. In this study, we report on the results of novel image processing algorithms that will enhance the images providing decision support to reading physicians. Techniques such as Butterworth high pass filtering and Gabor filters will be applied to enhance images; followed by segmentation of the region of interest (ROI). Subsequently, the textural features will be extracted from the ROI, which will be used to classify the ROIs as either masses or non-masses. Among the statistical methods most used for the characterization of textures, the co-occurrence matrix makes it possible to determine the frequency of appearance of two pixels separated by a distance, at an angle from the horizontal. This matrix contains a very large amount of information that is complex. Therefore, it is not used directly but through measurements known as indices of texture such as average, variance, energy, contrast, correlation, normalized correlation and entropy.

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Classification of breast regions as mass and non-mass based on digital mammograms using taxonomic indexes and SVM.

    PubMed

    Soares Sérvulo de Oliveira, Fernando; Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Antonio; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; Cardoso de Paiva, Anselmo; Gattass, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world. Several computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems have been used to assist health experts identify suspicious areas that are difficult to perceive with the human eye, thus aiding in the detection and diagnosis of cancer. This work proposes a methodology for the discrimination and classification of regions extracted from mammograms as mass and non-mass. The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) was used in this work for the acquisition of mammograms. The taxonomic diversity index (Δ) and the taxonomic distinctness (Δ(⁎)), which were originally used in ecology, were used to describe the texture of the regions of interest. These indexes were computed based on phylogenetic trees, which were applied to describe the patterns in regions of breast images. Two approaches were used for the analysis of texture: internal and external masks. A support vector machine was used to classify the regions as mass and non-mass. The proposed methodology successfully classified the masses and non-masses, with an average accuracy of 98.88%. PMID:25528696

  1. Automated microcalcification detection in mammograms using statistical variable-box-threshold filter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Mark; Mitra, Sunanda; Roberson, Glenn H.; Shieh, Yao-Yang

    1997-10-01

    Currently early detection of breast cancer is primarily accomplished by mammography and suspicious findings may lead to a decision for performing a biopsy. Digital enhancement and pattern recognition techniques may aid in early detection of some patterns such as microcalcification clusters indicating onset of DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) that accounts for 20% of all mammographically detected breast cancers and could be treated when detected early. These individual calcifications are hard to detect due to size and shape variability and inhomogeneous background texture. Our study addresses only early detection of microcalcifications that allows the radiologist to interpret the x-ray findings in computer-aided enhanced form easier than evaluating the x-ray film directly. We present an algorithm which locates microcalcifications based on local grayscale variability and of tissue structures and image statistics. Threshold filters with lower and upper bounds computed from the image statistics of the entire image and selected subimages were designed to enhance the entire image. This enhanced image was used as the initial image for identifying the micro-calcifications based on the variable box threshold filters at different resolutions. The test images came from the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and the MIAS mammographic database, which are classified into various categories including microcalcifications. Classification of other types of abnormalities in mammograms based on their characteristic features is addressed in later studies.

  2. Exploring potential use of internet, E-mail, and instant text messaging to promote breast health and mammogram use among immigrant Hispanic women in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Dang, Catherine M; Estrada, Sylvia; Bresee, Catherine; Phillips, Edward H

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of death in Hispanic women (HW). Internet, e-mail, and instant text messaging may be cost-effective in educating HW about breast health and in reducing breast cancer mortality. We surveyed 905 HW women attending a free health fair about their technology use, acculturation, insurance status, mammography use, and breast cancer knowledge. Data were analyzed by t test or χ(2) tests. Mean age was 51.9 ± 14.2 years (range, 18 to 88 years). Ninety-two per cent were foreign-born. Most had completed some high school (39%) or elementary (38%) education. Most (62%) were uninsured. The majority spoke (67%) and read (66%) only Spanish. Only 60 per cent of HW older than 40 years had a recent mammogram. HW older than 40 years who had not had a recent mammogram were younger (mean 54.9 ± 10.8 vs 58 ± 10.4 years) and less likely to have health insurance (25 vs 44%; P < 0.001). Most HW never use the Internet (58%) or e-mail (64%). However, 70 per cent have mobile phones (66% older than 40 years), and 65 per cent use text messaging daily (58% older than 40 years, P = 0.001). In fact, 45 per cent wish to receive a mammogram reminder by text. Text messaging may be an inexpensive way to promote breast health and screening mammography use among uninsured HW. PMID:24160786

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  4. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  5. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  7. Fourier-based segmentation of microcalcifications in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Meléndez, Elizabeth; Lara-Rodríguez, Luis David; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a Fourier transform approach to detect microcalcifications in digital mammograms. The basic idea consists in the design of parametric Butterworth bandpass filters in the Fourier domain used to extract sharpened border like structures that correspond to detected mammography microcalcifications. Image thresholding of the filtered image is accomplished, first by homogenizing the background (fibroglandular tissue) with a median filter, after which a gamma correction is applied to change the global contrast. Second, by postprocessing the resulting image using histogram based local and global statistics we obtain a properly binarized image that emphasizes the desired objects (microcalcifications) and segmentation is completed using a sequence of morphological binary operations. Several illustrative examples taken from a clinical database are included to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach in comparison with other edge detection techniques such as the difference of Gaussians (DoG) and the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LoG).

  8. Salience measure for assessing scale-based features in mammograms.

    PubMed

    Perconti, Philip; Loew, Murray H

    2007-12-01

    This work assesses the usefulness of an objective, task-based image quality measure that is correlated with perceived image quality; the measure uses the most salient features contained within a medical image. Contributions include the development of a perceptually correlated metric that is useful for quantifying the salience of local, low-level visual cues and identifying those spatial frequencies that are most distinct and perhaps most relied upon by radiologists for decision making. A set of 40 mammograms and registered eye position data from nine observers was used to evaluate the salience metric. A parsimonious analysis-of-variance model explained the variance in the salience results. This analysis is generalized to a population of readers and cases. An analysis of salience versus time of first eye fixation shows good correlation with true positive lesions that were found by experienced readers in less than 2 s. PMID:18059917

  9. Detection of spicules on mammogram based on skeleton analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kobatake, Hidefumi; Yoshinaga, Yukiyasu

    1996-06-01

    Existence of spicules is one of important clues of malignant tumors. This paper presents a new image processing method for the detection of spicules on mammogram. Spicules can be recognized as line patterns radiating from the center of tumor. To detect such characteristic patterns, line skeletons and a modified Hough transform are proposed. Line skeleton processing is effective in enhancing spinal axes of spicules and in reducing the other skeletons. The modified Hough transform is applied to line skeletons and radiating line structures are obtained. Experiments were made to test the performance of the proposed method. The system was designed using 19 training images, for which one normal case was recognized to be star-shaped. The other cases were recognized correctly. Experiments using 34 test images were also performed. The correct classification rate was 74%. These results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. A content based framework for mass retrieval in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Simranjit; Sharma, Vipul; Singh, Sukhwinder; Gupta, Savita

    2014-03-01

    In the recent years, there has been a phenomenal growth in the volume of digital mammograms produced in hospitals and medical centers. Thus, there is a need to create efficient access methods or retrieval tools to search, browse and retrieve images from large repositories to aid diagnoses and research. This paper presents a Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) system for mass retrieval in mammograms using a two stage framework. Also, for mass segmentation, a semi-automatic method based on Seed Region Growing approach is proposed. Shape features are extracted at the first stage to find similar shape lesions and the second stage further refines the results by finding similar pathology bearing lesions using texture features. Various shape features used in this study are Compactness, Convexity, Spicularity, Radial Distance (RD) based features, Zernike Moments (ZM) and Fourier Descriptors (FD). The texture of mass lesions is characterized by Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) features and Fourier Power Spectrum (FPS) features. In this paper, feature selection is done by Correlation based Feature Selection (CFS) technique to select the best subset of shape and texture features as high dimensionality of feature vector may limit computational efficiency. This study used the IRMA Version of DDSM LJPEG data to evaluate the retrieval performance of various shape and texture features. From the experimental results, it has been found that the proposed CBMIR system using merely the compactness or shape features selected by CFS provided better distinction among four categories of mass shape (Round, Oval, Lobulated and Irregular) at the first stage and FPS based texture features provided better distinction between pathology (Benign and Malignant) at the second stage.

  11. Automated detection scheme of architectural distortion in mammograms using adaptive Gabor filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Ruriha; Teramoto, Atsushi; Matsubara, Tomoko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is a serious health concern for all women. Computer-aided detection for mammography has been used for detecting mass and micro-calcification. However, there are challenges regarding the automated detection of the architectural distortion about the sensitivity. In this study, we propose a novel automated method for detecting architectural distortion. Our method consists of the analysis of the mammary gland structure, detection of the distorted region, and reduction of false positive results. We developed the adaptive Gabor filter for analyzing the mammary gland structure that decides filter parameters depending on the thickness of the gland structure. As for post-processing, healthy mammary glands that run from the nipple to the chest wall are eliminated by angle analysis. Moreover, background mammary glands are removed based on the intensity output image obtained from adaptive Gabor filter. The distorted region of the mammary gland is then detected as an initial candidate using a concentration index followed by binarization and labeling. False positives in the initial candidate are eliminated using 23 types of characteristic features and a support vector machine. In the experiments, we compared the automated detection results with interpretations by a radiologist using 50 cases (200 images) from the Digital Database of Screening Mammography (DDSM). As a result, true positive rate was 82.72%, and the number of false positive per image was 1.39. There results indicate that the proposed method may be useful for detecting architectural distortion in mammograms.

  12. Mass type-specific sparse representation for mass classification in computer-aided detection on mammograms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of both incidence and mortality in women population. For this reason, much research effort has been devoted to develop Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) systems for early detection of the breast cancers on mammograms. In this paper, we propose a new and novel dictionary configuration underpinning sparse representation based classification (SRC). The key idea of the proposed algorithm is to improve the sparsity in terms of mass margins for the purpose of improving classification performance in CAD systems. Methods The aim of the proposed SRC framework is to construct separate dictionaries according to the types of mass margins. The underlying idea behind our method is that the separated dictionaries can enhance the sparsity of mass class (true-positive), leading to an improved performance for differentiating mammographic masses from normal tissues (false-positive). When a mass sample is given for classification, the sparse solutions based on corresponding dictionaries are separately solved and combined at score level. Experiments have been performed on both database (DB) named as Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and clinical Full Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM) DBs. In our experiments, sparsity concentration in the true class (SCTC) and area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were measured for the comparison between the proposed method and a conventional single dictionary based approach. In addition, a support vector machine (SVM) was used for comparing our method with state-of-the-arts classifier extensively used for mass classification. Results Comparing with the conventional single dictionary configuration, the proposed approach is able to improve SCTC of up to 13.9% and 23.6% on DDSM and FFDM DBs, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method is able to improve AUC with 8.2% and 22.1% on DDSM and FFDM DBs, respectively. Comparing to SVM classifier, the proposed method improves

  13. Promoting screening mammography: insight or uptake?

    PubMed

    Keen, John D

    2010-01-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force has emphasized individualized decision-making regarding participation in screening mammography for women ages 40 to 49. Positive public opinion regarding screening mammography is understandable given that screening advocates have heavily promoted the slogan "early detection saves lives" while ignoring screening harms. The goal of mammography screening advocates is to increase screening participation or uptake. The purpose of this paper is to promote physician and patient insight by presenting the age-related benefit and harms of screening. At age 50, routine screening saves approximately 1 woman per 1000 over 10 years. The life-saving proportion of screen-detected cancers is 5%, which means mammograms must detect 21 cancers to save one life. Almost half of screen-detected cancers represent pseudo-disease and would never become symptomatic yet alone lethal during a woman's lifetime. Consequently, 40- and 50-year-old women are 10 times more likely to experience overdiagnosis and overtreatment than to have their lives saved. Analysis of events and outcomes per single screening round for women ages 40 to 49 show that approximately 9600 screening mammograms, 960 diagnostic exams, and 90 to 140 biopsies are required to save one life. Given the substantial harms of screening, advocates should refocus their priority from promoting uptake to promoting insight. PMID:21057074

  14. Breast Cancer Patients with High Density Mammograms Do Not Have Increased Risk of Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, September 6, 2012 Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have ... is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of ...

  15. About Half of Women May Benefit from Mammograms at 40: Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Women May Benefit From Mammograms at 40: Analysis Study puts new scrutiny on latest guidelines, which ... been published in a peer-reviewed journal. The analysis was designed to look at new breast cancer ...

  16. An improved method for simulating microcalcifications in digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Zanca, Federica; Chakraborty, Dev Prasad; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Jacobs, Jurgen; Claus, Filip; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-09-01

    The assessment of the performance of a digital mammography system requires an observer study with a relatively large number of cases with known truth which is often difficult to assemble. Several investigators have developed methods for generating hybrid abnormal images containing simulated microcalcifications. This article addresses some of the limitations of earlier methods. The new method is based on digital images of needle biopsy specimens. Since the specimens are imaged separately from the breast, the microcalcification attenuation profile scan is deduced without the effects of over and underlying tissues. The resulting templates are normalized for image acquisition specific parameters and reprocessed to simulate microcalcifications appropriate to other imaging systems, with different x-ray, detector and image processing parameters than the original acquisition system. This capability is not shared by previous simulation methods that have relied on extracting microcalcifications from breast images. The method was validated by five experienced mammographers who compared 59 pairs of simulated and real microcalcifications in a two-alternative forced choice task designed to test if they could distinguish the real from the simulated lesions. They also classified the shapes of the microcalcifications according to a standardized clinical lexicon. The observed probability of correct choice was 0.415, 95% confidence interval (0.284, 0.546), showing that the radiologists were unable to distinguish the lesions. The shape classification revealed substantial agreement with the truth (mean kappa = 0.70), showing that we were able to accurately simulate the lesion morphology. While currently limited to single microcalcifications, the method is extensible to more complex clusters of microcalcifications and to three-dimensional images. It can be used to objectively assess an imaging technology, especially with respect to its ability to adequately visualize the morphology of

  17. An improved method for simulating microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, Federica; Chakraborty, Dev Prasad; Ongeval, Chantal van; Jacobs, Jurgen; Claus, Filip; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-09-15

    The assessment of the performance of a digital mammography system requires an observer study with a relatively large number of cases with known truth which is often difficult to assemble. Several investigators have developed methods for generating hybrid abnormal images containing simulated microcalcifications. This article addresses some of the limitations of earlier methods. The new method is based on digital images of needle biopsy specimens. Since the specimens are imaged separately from the breast, the microcalcification attenuation profile scan is deduced without the effects of over and underlying tissues. The resulting templates are normalized for image acquisition specific parameters and reprocessed to simulate microcalcifications appropriate to other imaging systems, with different x-ray, detector and image processing parameters than the original acquisition system. This capability is not shared by previous simulation methods that have relied on extracting microcalcifications from breast images. The method was validated by five experienced mammographers who compared 59 pairs of simulated and real microcalcifications in a two-alternative forced choice task designed to test if they could distinguish the real from the simulated lesions. They also classified the shapes of the microcalcifications according to a standardized clinical lexicon. The observed probability of correct choice was 0.415, 95% confidence interval (0.284, 0.546), showing that the radiologists were unable to distinguish the lesions. The shape classification revealed substantial agreement with the truth (mean kappa=0.70), showing that we were able to accurately simulate the lesion morphology. While currently limited to single microcalcifications, the method is extensible to more complex clusters of microcalcifications and to three-dimensional images. It can be used to objectively assess an imaging technology, especially with respect to its ability to adequately visualize the morphology of the

  18. An improved method for simulating microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Federica; Chakraborty, Dev Prasad; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Jacobs, Jurgen; Claus, Filip; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of the performance of a digital mammography system requires an observer study with a relatively large number of cases with known truth which is often difficult to assemble. Several investigators have developed methods for generating hybrid abnormal images containing simulated microcalcifications. This article addresses some of the limitations of earlier methods. The new method is based on digital images of needle biopsy specimens. Since the specimens are imaged separately from the breast, the microcalcification attenuation profile scan is deduced without the effects of over and underlying tissues. The resulting templates are normalized for image acquisition specific parameters and reprocessed to simulate microcalcifications appropriate to other imaging systems, with different x-ray, detector and image processing parameters than the original acquisition system. This capability is not shared by previous simulation methods that have relied on extracting microcalcifications from breast images. The method was validated by five experienced mammographers who compared 59 pairs of simulated and real microcalcifications in a two-alternative forced choice task designed to test if they could distinguish the real from the simulated lesions. They also classified the shapes of the microcalcifications according to a standardized clinical lexicon. The observed probability of correct choice was 0.415, 95% confidence interval (0.284, 0.546), showing that the radiologists were unable to distinguish the lesions. The shape classification revealed substantial agreement with the truth (mean kappa=0.70), showing that we were able to accurately simulate the lesion morphology. While currently limited to single microcalcifications, the method is extensible to more complex clusters of microcalcifications and to three-dimensional images. It can be used to objectively assess an imaging technology, especially with respect to its ability to adequately visualize the morphology of the

  19. Breast cancer screening: the role of attachment.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Natalie L; Consedine, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    Attachment style is the dispositional way in which a person relates to others, and differences in attachment characteristics may offer insight into why many women do not adhere to breast screening guidelines. While mammograms involve contact with medical professionals, breast self-examination (BSE) does not, and may be preferable for women who dislike interpersonal vulnerability. As such, differences in the attachment characteristics that predict mammography versus BSE utilisation may indicate whether attachment related motivations are relevant to both interpersonal examinations and independent self-care behaviours. The current report examined how attachment dimensions predicted the frequency of mammography and BSE in a sample of 1204 ethnically diverse women from Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed measures of mammography and BSE frequency, and attachment, together with demographic, health care context and emotional predictors of screening. Multiple regressions showed that attachment dimensions predicted both mammography and BSE screening even when controlling for established predictors and emotion relevant variables. As hypothesised, fearful avoidance predicted fewer mammograms and BSEs, while preoccupation predicted more frequent BSEs. Consistent with some prior work in male cancer screening, greater attachment security also predicted fewer mammograms while degree of dismissiveness was not associated with screening frequencies. Understanding the psychosocial predictors of screening may help identify low screeners, and guide the development of targeted interventions that are better suited to the interpersonal preferences of older women. PMID:25192017

  20. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  1. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  2. Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Banik, Shantanu; Desautels, J.E. Leo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases based on analysis of the orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammograms. We hypothesize that architectural distortion modifies the normal orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammographic images before the formation of masses or tumors. In the initial steps of our methods, the oriented structures in a given mammogram are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect node-like sites of radiating or intersecting tissue patterns. Each detected site is then characterized using the node value, fractal dimension, and a measure of angular dispersion specifically designed to represent spiculating patterns associated with architectural distortion. Our methods were tested with a database of 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases using the features developed for the characterization of architectural distortion, pattern classification via quadratic discriminant analysis, and validation with the leave-one-patient out procedure. According to the results of free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, our methods have demonstrated the capability to detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms, taken 15 months (on the average) before clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, with a sensitivity of 80% at about five false positives per patient. PMID:24022326

  3. Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

  4. A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S K; Srivastava, R

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based unsharp masking and crispening method is applied on the approximation coefficients of the wavelet transformed images to further highlight the abnormalities such as micro-calcifications, tumours, etc., to reduce the false positives (FPs). Thirdly, a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) segmentation method is applied on the output of the second step. In the modified FCM method, the mutual information is proposed as a similarity measure in place of conventional Euclidian distance based dissimilarity measure for FCM segmentation. Finally, the inverse 2D-DWT is applied. The efficacy of the proposed unsharp masking and crispening method for image enhancement is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and that of the proposed segmentation method is evaluated in terms of random index (RI), global consistency error (GCE), and variation of information (VoI). The performance of the proposed segmentation approach is compared with the other commonly used segmentation approaches such as Otsu's thresholding, texture based, k-means, and FCM clustering as well as thresholding. From the obtained results, it is observed that the proposed segmentation approach performs better and takes lesser processing time in comparison to the standard FCM and other segmentation methods in consideration. PMID:25190996

  5. A half-second glimpse often lets radiologists identify breast cancer cases even when viewing the mammogram of the opposite breast.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Cooper, Julie; Culpan, Anne-Marie; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-09-13

    Humans are very adept at extracting the "gist" of a scene in a fraction of a second. We have found that radiologists can discriminate normal from abnormal mammograms at above-chance levels after a half-second viewing (d' ∼ 1) but are at chance in localizing the abnormality. This pattern of results suggests that they are detecting a global signal of abnormality. What are the stimulus properties that might support this ability? We investigated the nature of the gist signal in four experiments by asking radiologists to make detection and localization responses about briefly presented mammograms in which the spatial frequency, symmetry, and/or size of the images was manipulated. We show that the signal is stronger in the higher spatial frequencies. Performance does not depend on detection of breaks in the normal symmetry of left and right breasts. Moreover, above-chance classification is possible using images from the normal breast of a patient with overt signs of cancer only in the other breast. Some signal is present in the portions of the parenchyma (breast tissue) that do not contain a lesion or that are in the contralateral breast. This signal does not appear to be a simple assessment of breast density but rather the detection of the abnormal gist may be based on a widely distributed image statistic, learned by experts. The finding that a global signal, related to disease, can be detected in parenchyma that does not contain a lesion has implications for improving breast cancer detection. PMID:27573841

  6. Use of volumetric features for temporal comparison of mass lesions in full field digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Jelena Grgic, Mislav; Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Temporal comparison of lesions might improve classification between benign and malignant lesions in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). The authors compare the use of volumetric features for lesion classification, which are computed from dense tissue thickness maps, to the use of mammographic lesion area. Use of dense tissue thickness maps for lesion characterization is advantageous, since it results in lesion features that are invariant to acquisition parameters. Methods: The dataset used in the analysis consisted of 60 temporal mammogram pairs comprising 120 mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views with a total of 65 lesions, of which 41 were benign and 24 malignant. The authors analyzed the performance of four volumetric features, area, and four other commonly used features obtained from temporal mammogram pairs, current mammograms, and prior mammograms. The authors evaluated the individual performance of all features and of different feature sets. The authors used linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross validation to classify different feature sets. Results: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs achieved the best individual performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z} value). Volume change (A{sub z} = 0.88) achieved higher A{sub z} value than projected lesion area change (A{sub z} = 0.78) in the temporal comparison of lesions. Best performance was achieved with a set that consisted of a set of features extracted from the current exam combined with four volumetric features representing changes with respect to the prior mammogram (A{sub z} = 0.90). This was significantly better (p = 0.005) than the performance obtained using features from the current exam only (A{sub z} = 0.77). Conclusions: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs combined with features from the single exam significantly improve discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in FFDM mammograms

  7. Pectoral muscle detection in mammograms using local statistical features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Qian; Lu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Mammography is a primary imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. It is an important issue to accurately identify and separate pectoral muscles (PM) from breast tissues. Hough-transform-based methods are commonly adopted for PM detection. But their performances are susceptible when PM edges cannot be depicted by straight lines. In this study, we present a new pectoral muscle identification algorithm which utilizes statistical features of pixel responses. First, the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test is used to extract a feature image by assuming non-Gaussianity for PM boundaries. Second, a global weighting scheme based on the location of PM was applied onto the feature image to suppress non-PM regions. From the weighted image, a preliminary set of pectoral muscles boundary components is detected via row-wise peak detection. An iterative procedure based on the edge continuity and orientation is used to determine the final PM boundary. Our results on a public mammogram database were assessed using four performance metrics: the false positive rate, the false negative rate, the Hausdorff distance, and the average distance. Compared to previous studies, our method demonstrates the state-of-art performance in terms of four measures. PMID:24482043

  8. Breast mass classification on mammograms using radial local ternary patterns.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Endo, Tokiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Textural features can be useful in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions on mammograms. Unlike previous computerized schemes, which relied largely on shape and margin features based on manual contours of masses, textural features can be determined from regions of interest (ROIs) without precise lesion segmentation. In this study, therefore, we investigated an ROI-based feature, namely, radial local ternary patterns (RLTP), which takes into account the direction of edge patterns with respect to the center of masses for classification of ROIs for benign and malignant masses. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers, the classification abilities of RLTP were compared with those of the regular local ternary patterns (LTP), rotation invariant uniform (RIU2) LTP, texture features based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and wavelet features. The performance was evaluated with 376 ROIs including 181 malignant and 195 benign masses. The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves among three classifiers were 0.90, 0.77, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.83 for RLTP, LTP, RIU2-LTP, GLCM, and wavelet features, respectively. The results indicate the usefulness of the proposed texture features for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and the superiority of the radial patterns compared with the conventional rotation invariant patterns. PMID:27015322

  9. Multiple-instance learning for breast cancer detection in mammograms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de la Rosa, Rubén; Lamard, Mathieu; Cazuguel, Guy; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Quellec, Gwenolé

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes an experimental computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, the breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, either textural features, or features derived from the detection of masses and microcalcifications, are extracted from each region. Finally, feature vectors extracted from each region are combined using an MIL algorithm (Citation k-NN or mi-Graph), in order to recognize "normal" mammography examinations or to categorize examinations as "normal", "benign" or "cancer". An accuracy of 91.1% (respectively 62.1%) was achieved for normality recognition (respectively three-class categorization) in a subset of 720 mammograms from the DDSM dataset. The paper also discusses future improvements, that will make the most of the MIL paradigm, in order to improve "benign" versus "cancer" discrimination in particular. PMID:26737917

  10. A Probabilistic Approach for Breast Boundary Extraction in Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of the breast boundary is crucial to perform further analysis of mammogram. Methods to extract the breast boundary can be classified into two categories: methods based on image processing techniques and those based on models. The former use image transformation techniques such as thresholding, morphological operations, and region growing. In the second category, the boundary is extracted using more advanced techniques, such as the active contour model. The problem with thresholding methods is that it is a hard to automatically find the optimal threshold value by using histogram information. On the other hand, active contour models require defining a starting point close to the actual boundary to be able to successfully extract the boundary. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to address the aforementioned problems. In our approach we use local binary patterns to describe the texture around each pixel. In addition, the smoothness of the boundary is handled by using a new probability model. Experimental results show that the proposed method reaches 38% and 50% improvement with respect to the results obtained by the active contour model and threshold-based methods respectively, and it increases the stability of the boundary extraction process up to 86%. PMID:24324523

  11. Improved location features for linkage of regions across ipsilateral mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Christine; van Schie, Guido; Lesniak, Jan M; Karssemeijer, Nico; Székely, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    Improved performance has been reported for computer aided detection (CADe) methods using information from multiple mammographic views over single-view CADe approaches. Linkage across the views is based on assuming that location and image features from the same lesion depicted in both views will be similar. In this study we investigate if the location features can be improved and what effect such an improvement has on the linkage of lesions across ipsilateral views. Performance of different methods to define the location features was first assessed with respect to the location of 137 manually annotated and linked masses. Taking the median result from five complementary methods (based on pectoral muscle boundary, breast shape and intensity signature) increased the mean accuracy compared to the current standard (7.1 vs. 6.3 mm). Thereafter the impact of this best method on the automatic linkage of detected regions across views was assessed for a second, independent dataset of 131 mammogram pairs. Linkage was based on the combination of location and single-view image features by a linear discriminate analysis classifier trained to differentiate between links of corresponding true-positive (TP) regions versus links including TP and false-positive (FP) regions. Nested cross-validation results showed that using the improved location features significantly increased the classification performance and the percentage of correctly linked regions. PMID:23731758

  12. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  13. A Qualitative Secondary Evaluation of Statewide Follow-Up Interviews for Abnormal Newborn Screening Results for Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy

    PubMed Central

    La Pean, Alison; Collins, Jenelle L.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Eskra, Kerry L.; Roedl, Sara; Tluczek, Audrey; Farrell, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to assess parental acceptability of large-scale, telephone follow-up regarding their infants' newborn screening (NBS) results indicating carrier status for sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (SCH) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Analysis of 195 interview transcripts focused on parents' responses to two open-ended questions “What was your reaction to being called by me?” and “What do you think of the state newborn screening program having follow-up people calling parents like you?” Responses were coded using conventional content analysis procedures and non-parametric tests were performed to analyze quantitative data. Results Most parents reported favorable opinions about the follow-up. Favorable opinions were associated with several emotional reactions to receiving follow-up (p<0.001), and three reasons why parents found the interview beneficial (p<0.05): it provided information, clarified NBS results, and answered questions. Seventeen parents of SCH carriers reportedly had not been told their infant's NBS results and received them for the first time during the follow-up interview. Conclusion Parents of CF and SCH carrier infants had favorable opinions and identified specific benefits to receiving follow-up contact. This analysis demonstrates an information deficit among carrier parents and illustrates the importance of NBS follow-up and need for comprehensive communication and counseling. PMID:22261754

  14. Sociodemographic and health-related predictors of self-reported mammogram, faecal occult blood test and prostate specific antigen test use in a large Australian study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While several studies have examined factors that influence the use of breast screening mammography, faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) for bowel cancer screening and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests for prostate disease in Australia, research directly comparing the use of these tests is sparse. We examined sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with the use of these tests in the previous two years either alone or in combination. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported questionnaire data from 96,711 women and 82,648 men aged 50 or over in The 45 and Up Study in NSW (2006–2010). Results 5.9% of men had a FOBT alone, 44.9% had a PSA test alone, 18.7% had both tests, and 30.6% had neither test. 3.2% of women had a FOBT alone, 56.0% had a mammogram alone, 16.2% had both and 24.7% had neither test. Among men, age and socioeconomic factors were largely associated with having both FOBT and PSA tests. PSA testing alone was largely associated with age, family history of prostate cancer, health insurance status and visiting a doctor. Among women, age, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), health insurance status, family history of breast cancer, being retired and not having a disability were associated with both FOBT and mammograms. Mammography use alone was largely associated with age, use of HRT and family history of breast cancer. FOBT use alone among men was associated with high income, living in regional areas and being fully-retired and among women, being fully-retired or sick/disabled. Conclusions These results add to the literature on sociodemographic discrepancies related to cancer screening uptake and highlight the fact that many people are being screened for one cancer when they could be screened for two. PMID:23641775

  15. Estimation of corresponding locations in ipsilateral mammograms: a comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Matthias; Krüger, Julia; Marx, Mirko; Ehrhardt, Jan; Bischof, Arpad; Handels, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    Mammography is a standard tool for breast cancer diagnosis. In current clinical practice, typically two mammograms of each breast are taken from different angles. A fundamental step when using ipsilateral mammograms for the diagnosis of breast cancer, is the identification of corresponding locations/structures in both views, which is a very challenging task due to the projective nature of the images and the different compression parameters used for each view. In this contribution, four different approaches for the estimation of corresponding locations in ipsilateral mammograms are systematically compared using 46 mammogram pairs (50 point-to-point correspondences). The evaluation includes simple heuristic methods (annular bands and straight strips) as well as methods based on geometric and physically motivated breast compression models, which aim to simulate the mammogram acquisition process. The evaluation results show that on average no significant differences exist between the estimation accuracies obtained using the simple heuristic methods and the more involved compression models. However, the results of this study indicate the potential of a method that optimally combines the different approaches.

  16. The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

  17. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E

    2015-10-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of I(Kr) blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in I(Kr) channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants.Weused themodel to predict themost potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human I(Kr) channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of I(Kr) channels. We then screened and identified the properties of I(Kr) blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes formild,moderate and severe variants. Mutant I(Kr) channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of I(Kr)-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and I(Kr) mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the I(Kr) channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a

  18. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr–drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  19. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E

    2014-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed "in silico mutagenesis" by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  20. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired Long-QT Syndrome (aLTQS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired Long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O’Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired Long QT Syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  1. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  2. A touch screen-automated cognitive test battery reveals impaired attention, memory abnormalities, and increased response inhibition in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Carola; Horner, Alexa E.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with abundant β-amyloid develop memory impairments. However, multiple nonmnemonic cognitive domains such as attention and executive control are also compromised early in AD individuals, but have not been routinely assessed in animal models. Here, we assessed the cognitive abilities of TgCRND8 mice—a widely used model of β-amyloid pathology—with a touch screen-based automated test battery. The test battery comprises highly translatable tests of multiple cognitive constructs impaired in human AD, such as memory, attention, and response control, as well as appropriate control tasks. We found that familial AD mutations affect not only memory, but also cause significant alterations of sustained attention and behavioral flexibility. Because changes in attention and response inhibition may affect performance on tests of other cognitive abilities including memory, our findings have important consequences for the assessment of disease mechanisms and therapeutics in animal models of AD. A more comprehensive phenotyping with specialized, multicomponent cognitive test batteries for mice might significantly advance translation from preclinical mouse studies to the clinic. PMID:22959727

  3. Detecting microcalcifications in digital mammograms using wavelet domain hidden Markov tree model.

    PubMed

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Veni, Gopaalkrishna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov tree model (WHMT) for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system for detecting microcalcification (MC) clusters. The system incorporates: (1) gross-segmentation of mammograms for obtaining the breast region; (2) eliminating the pepper-type noise, (3) block-wise wavelet transform of the breast signal and likelihood calculation; (4) image segmentation; (5) postprocessing for retaining MC clusters. FROC curves are obtained for all MC clusters containing mammograms of mini-MIAS database. 100% of true positive cases are detected by the system at 2.9 false positives per case. PMID:17945686

  4. The effectiveness of the cranio-caudal mammogram projection among radiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Lee, Warwick; Tapia, Kriscia; Brennan, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the single cranio-caudal (CC) mammogram in comparison with traditional two projection mammography for breast cancer detection. Sixteen radiologists were invited to report 60 two-projection (MLO and CC) mammograms of the left and right breasts of which 20 cases contained cancer. Participants searched for the presence of breast lesion(s) on each view and provided a confidence score. Sensitivity, lesion sensitivity and specificity were compared between the CC projection versus the two projection approach among different groups of readers. Results showed that expert readers needed only single CC mammogram in their reading while non-expert readers required two-projection mammography.

  5. Access to Cancer Screening in People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: Cohort Study in the Health Improvement Network, a Primary Care Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, David P. J.; Horsfall, Laura; Hassiotis, Angela; Petersen, Irene; Walters, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether people with learning disability in the UK have poorer access to cancer screening. Design Four cohort studies comparing people with and without learning disability, within the recommended age ranges for cancer screening in the UK. We used Poisson regression to determine relative incidence rates of cancer screening. Setting The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database with over 450 General practices. Participants Individuals with a recorded diagnosis of learning disability including general diagnostic terms, specific syndromes, chromosomal abnormalities and autism in their General Practitioner computerised notes. For each type of cancer screening, a comparison cohort of up to six people without learning disability was selected for each person with a learning disability, using stratified sampling on age within GP practice. Main outcome measures Incidence rate ratios for receiving 1) a cervical smear test, 2) a mammogram, 3) a faecal occult blood test and 4) a prostate specific antigen test. Results Relative rates of screening for all four cancers were significantly lower for people with learning disability. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) were Cervical smears: Number eligible with learning disability = 6,254; IRR = 0.54 (0.52–0.56). Mammograms: Number eligible with learning disability = 2,956; IRR = 0.76 (0.72–0.81); Prostate Specific Antigen: Number eligible = 3,520; IRR = 0.87 (0.80–0.96) and Faecal Occult Blood Number eligible = 6,566; 0.86 (0.78–0.94). Differences in screening rates were less pronounced in more socially deprived areas. Disparities in cervical screening rates narrowed over time, but were 45% lower in 2008/9, those for breast cancer screening appeared to widen and were 35% lower in 2009. Conclusion Despite recent incentives, people with learning disability in the UK are significantly less likely to receive screening tests for cancer that

  6. Evaluation of the population dose to the UK population from the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Wallis, M G; Neilson, F; Whitaker, C J

    2008-01-01

    In the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), women aged between 50 and 70 y are invited for mammography every 3 y. Screening histories for each woman, over four screening rounds, were analysed. Data from five screening programmes were used to select 57,425 women into the study. Cases were selected on the basis of being between the ages of 50 and 53 at the start of the NHSBSP (i.e. between 1989 and 1992). Assessment of the outcome for each screening round for each woman involved assigning a simple outcome code. Each of the possible pathways through the four screening rounds was analysed. This comprises of 500 possible pathways. This data enabled the following information to be determined: (i) The number of times a woman attended the screening programme. (ii) The number of women referred for assessment at each screening round. This information may be used to deduce the population dose to this group of women averaged over four screening rounds. Patient doses have been monitored since the programme's inception and are typically 4.5 mGy for two-view screening. It is possible to determine the mean glandular dose received by this cohort of women over four screening rounds by multiplying the number of examinations by the mean glandular dose for a typical woman. Allowance has to be made for the number of projections taken at each screening round. Once a woman has been screened, she may be invited back for further assessment if an abnormality is found on her mammogram. A stereotactic attachment is used to determine where to place the biopsy device. Although the dose received during a normal screening mammogram is well known, the dose for a stereotactic procedure and other assessment procedures is less well known, partly because only a small part of the breast is directly irradiated during stereotaxis. However, the woman may have multiple exposures during this stage. A prospective survey of doses was completed to deduce the mean glandular

  7. Comparison of three tissue composition measurement techniques using digital mammograms--a signal-to-noise study.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, D S; Shaw, C C

    1998-08-01

    Tissue composition measurement may provide a quantitatively and physically meaningful method to objectively determine the "mammographic density" linked to breast cancer risk. A single energy hybrid (SEH) techniques is described for measuring the tissue composition on a pixel-by-pixel basis with a single digital mammogram. Theoretical models were derived and used to compute signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in tissue composition measurement using the SEH method. The results were compared with those computed for measurements using the dual kVp and dual screen methods. SNRs were theoretically related to the pixel area, total unattenuated detector exposure and fluence spectra of the incident X-rays. SNRs were computed for measurement of the adipose tissue thickness for a 6 cm thick breast, consisting of 50% of adipose tissue and 50% of glandular tissue. Effects of kVp and prepatient filtration were studied by computing the SNRs for various kVps and filters and optimal kVps and filters are determined. The results showed that the SNRs obtained with the SEH method is an order of magnitude better than the dual kVp method, which, in turn, is an order of magnitude better than the dual screen method. When using the optimal kVp's and no prepatient filtration, the SNRs were computed to be 84.2, 13.2, and 2.0 for the SEH, dual kVp, and dual screen methods, respectively. Prepatient filtration can improve the SNR by as much as 35% for the dual kVp and dual screen techniques with reasonable tube loading factors (8-10). PMID:9718504

  8. Screening mammography intervals among postmenopausal hormone therapy users and nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Onega, Tracy; MacKenzie, Todd; Weiss, Julia; Goodrich, Martha; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent decline in US breast cancer incidence rates has been attributed to the marked reduction in use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). An alternative explanation is that women who are not routinely seeking medical care to renew HT prescriptions may be less adherent to recommendations for mammographic screening. To investigate the latter possibility, we compared mammographic intervals according to HT use. Methods Using data (1995–2007) from the New Hampshire Mammography Network (NHMN), a state-based mammography registry, we assessed mammographic intervals corresponding to HT use or nonuse among postmenopausal women. We used linear mixed effects models to assess whether the length of screening mammogram intervals differed according to HT use. Results A total of 310,185 mammograms, representing 76,192 postmenopausal women and 319,353 person-years of screening, were included in the analysis. The median screening interval corresponding to HT use overall was 13.0 months (interquartile range: 12.4–15.1) and for nonuse was 13.1 (interquartile range: 12.4–15.8). Virtually, all screening mammograms occurred within a 2-year interval regardless of HT use or nonuse (98.5 and 98.1%, respectively). Conclusions Our findings indicate that screening mammography intervals are similar whether or not women are using HT. Thus, reduced utilization of screening mammography is unlikely to account for the decrease in breast cancer incidence seen soon after the WHI report. PMID:19844798

  9. TU-F-18C-09: Mammogram Surveillance Using Texture Analysis for Breast Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H; Tome, W; FOX, J; Hong, L; Yaparpalvi, R; Mehta, K; Bodner, W; Kalnicki, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of applying cancer risk model established from treated patients to predict the risk of recurrence on follow-up mammography after radiation therapy for both ipsilateral and contralateral breast. Methods: An extensive set of textural feature functions was applied to a set of 196 Mammograms from 50 patients. 56 Mammograms from 28 patients were used as training set, 44 mammograms from 22 patients were used as test set and the rest were used for prediction. Feature functions include Histogram, Gradient, Co-Occurrence Matrix, Run-Length Matrix and Wavelet Energy. An optimum subset of the feature functions was selected by Fisher Coefficient (FO) or Mutual Information (MI) (up to top 10 features) or a method combined FO, MI and Principal Component (FMP) (up to top 30 features). One-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Nonlinear Discriminant Analysis (NDA) were utilized to build a risk model of breast cancer from the training set of mammograms at the time of diagnosis. The risk model was then used to predict the risk of recurrence from mammogram taken one year and three years after RT. Results: FPM with NDA has the best classification power in classifying the training set of the mammogram with lesions versus those without lesions. The model of FPM with NDA achieved a true positive (TP) rate of 82% compared to 45.5% of using FO with 1-NN. The best false positive (FP) rates were 0% and 3.6% in contra-lateral breast of 1-year and 3-years after RT, and 10.9% in ipsi-lateral breast of 3-years after RT. Conclusion: Texture analysis offers high dimension to differentiate breast tissue in mammogram. Using NDA to classify mammogram with lesion from mammogram without lesion, it can achieve rather high TP and low FP in the surveillance of mammogram for patient with conservative surgery combined RT.

  10. [Why reconsider the recommendation of breast cancer screening?].

    PubMed

    Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; d'Ávila, Thiago Luiz de Campos

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this article was to discuss the recommendation of mammogram screening for breast cancer and its technical basis. The first part discusses criteria for the decision, which should be consistent with high-quality scientific evidence. The second part discusses over-diagnosis (the greatest harm of screening) and its meaning in questioning the natural history of disease model. The third part summarizes studies on the efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of screening, showing that the latter (especially over-diagnosis and false-positives) are significant, shedding doubt on the balance between harms and benefits. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammogram screening at any age should be reconsidered by Brazilian health authorities. PMID:27253456

  11. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  12. Fractal dimension-bound spatio-temporal analysis of digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavadivu, P.; Sivakumar, V.; Sudhir, Rashmi

    2016-02-01

    A new Fractal Dimension-based diagnosis technique for the change detection and time-series analysis of masses in the temporal digital mammogram is presented in this paper. As the digital mammograms are confirmed as a reliable source for the prognosis of breast cancer, the demand for the development of precise computer aided detection techniques is constantly on the increase. This formed the basis for the development of this method using Fractal geometry, which is an efficient mathematical approach that deals with self-similar and irregular geometric objects called fractals. This work comprises of the detection of spatial masses using Fractal Hurst bound enhancement and segmentation of those temporal masses using Fractal Thresholding. The consultant radiologist's assessment of mass lesions forms the baseline for comparison and validation of the detected masses. Further, this research work performs temporal analysis of mass lesions, detected from the mammograms of the current and the respective prior view using the principle of Fractal Dimension. The precision of Fractal-dimension based temporal texture analysis of malignant masses of digital mammograms subsequently attributes to their characterization.

  13. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  14. Cost as a barrier to screening mammography among underserved women

    PubMed Central

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Reeves, Katherine W.; Tatum, Cathy; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a troublesome health problem, particularly among underserved and minority women. Early detection through screening mammography can reduce the impact of this disease, yet it remains underused. Objective We examined cost as a barrier to screening mammography and studied the accuracy of women’s perceptions of the cost of a mammogram among a rural, low-income, tri-racial (white, Native American and African American) population in need of a mammogram. Design We interviewed 897 women age 40 and older, asking about cost as a barrier to mammography and perceptions about the actual costs of a screening mammogram. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between 1998 and 2000 among women participating in a randomized, controlled study to evaluate a health education intervention to improve mammography screening rates in an underserved population. All data used in these analyses were from the baseline interviews. Results Cost acted as a barrier to screening mammography for a majority of the participants (53%). More than half of these women (52%), however, overestimated the cost of a screening mammogram, and overestimation of the cost was significantly related to mentioning cost as a barrier (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04–2.33). Higher estimates of out-of-pocket costs were associated with reporting cost as a barrier to mammography (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.43–3.52 for $1–50 and OR 12.64, 95% CI 6.61–24.17 for > $50). Factors such as race, income and employment status were not related to reporting cost as a barrier to screening mammography. Conclusions Among a group of tri-racial, low-income, rural women who were in need of a mammogram, cost was a common barrier. Overestimating the cost, however, was significantly and positively associated with reporting cost as a barrier. Providing information about the actual cost women have to pay for mammograms may lessen the role of cost as a barrier to mammography screening, especially for underserved women, potentially

  15. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: performance improvement using a dual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Ge, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses on mammograms. In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a CAD system optimized with "average" masses with another CAD system optimized with subtle masses. The latter system is trained to provide high sensitivity in detecting subtle masses. For an unknown mammogram, the two systems are used in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A feed-forward backpropagation neural network trained to merge the scores of the two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers from the two systems makes the final decision in differentiation of true masses from normal tissue. A data set of 86 patients containing 172 mammograms with biopsy-proven masses was partitioned into a training set and an independent test set. This data set is referred to as the average data set. A second data set of 214 prior mammograms was used for training the second CAD system for detection of subtle masses. When the single CAD system trained on the average data set was applied to the test set, the Az for false positive (FP) classification was 0.81 and the FP rates were 2.1, 1.5 and 1.3 FPs/image at the case-based sensitivities of 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the Az was 0.85 and the FP rates were improved to 1.7, 1.2 and 0.8 FPs/image at the same case-based sensitivities. Our results indicate that the dual CAD system can improve the performance of mass detection on mammograms.

  16. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screen Related tests: hCG Pregnancy ; Estrogens ; First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen ; Amniotic Fluid Analysis ; Chromosome Analysis Were you ... that a fetus has certain chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) , or ...

  17. Hybrid Mammogram Classification Using Rough Set and Fuzzy Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amara, Fadi; Abdel-Qader, Ikhlas

    2009-01-01

    We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and classification of suspicious regions in mammographic images. This system combines a dimensionality reduction module (using principal component analysis), a feature extraction module (using independent component analysis), and a feature subset selection module (using rough set model). Rough set model is used to reduce the effect of data inconsistency while a fuzzy classifier is integrated into the system to label subimages into normal or abnormal regions. The experimental results show that this system has an accuracy of 84.03% and a recall percentage of 87.28%. PMID:19859576

  18. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio

    2008-12-15

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features was selected. The correlation

  19. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these tests as well as the possible harms, both of which are explained below. This fact ... after receiving abnormal test results. Benefits and Possible Harms The main benefit of screening is that it ...

  20. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  1. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  2. Health Beliefs as Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening Behaviour in a Group of Female Employees in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Abbasi, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of getting such health screenings as mammography and breast self-examination among a group of women and also to identify the role of health beliefs in predicting mammography practice. Methods The data were collected from a convenience sample of 113 female staff at the University of Shiraz and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The participants completed the Champion Health Beliefs Scale (CHBS) designed to measure patients' perception on mammography of breast cancer screening. The scale assesses health beliefs components such as perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits of mammography screening, and perceived barriers to mammography screening. The participants also answered several questions on practicing Breast Self-Examination (BSE), mammography screening behaviours and health factors such as family history of cancer, and physicians' recommendation for mammography. Results The results indicated that 51% of women had BSE, and only 21% had a mammogram. Logistic regression showed that physician's recommendation, and the perceived barriers significantly predicted mammography screening, explaining 27% of the total variance of mammography practice. The participants who saw fewer barriers to have a mammogram and those who had been recommended to have one by their physician were more likely to get it. The present study provides some supports for the health beliefs model. Conclusions Data indicated that perceived barriers to have a mammogram predicted not getting one, and physicians' recommendation predicted getting a mammogram by women. PMID:25628831

  3. Maintaining quality in the UK breast screening program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Alastair

    2010-02-01

    Breast screening in the UK has been implemented for over 20 years and annually nearly two million women are now screened with an estimated 1,400 lives saved. Nationally, some 700 individuals interpret screening mammograms in almost 110 screening centres. Currently, women aged 50 to 70 are invited for screening every three years and by 2012 this age range will increase to 47 - 73 years. There is a rapid ongoing transition from using film mammograms to full field digital mammography such that in 2010 every screening centre will be partly digital. An early, and long running, concern has been how to ensure the highest quality of imaging interpretation across the UK, an issue enhanced by the use of a three year screening interval. To partly address this question a self assessment scheme was developed in 1988 and subsequently implemented nationally in the UK as a virtually mandatory activity. The scheme is detailed from its beginnings, through its various developments to current incarnation and future plans. This encompasses both radiological (single view screening, two view screening, mammographic film and full field digital mammography) as well as design changes (cases reported by means of: form filling; PDA; tablet PC; iPhone, and the internet). The scheme provides a rich data source which is regularly studied to examine different aspects of radiological performance. Overall it aids screening radiologists by giving them regular access to a range of difficult exemplar cases together with feedback on their performance as compared to their peers.

  4. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  5. Interventional Education Methods for Increasing Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769

  6. Identification of masses in digital mammogram using gray level co-occurrence matrices

    PubMed Central

    Mohd. Khuzi, A; Besar, R; Wan Zaki, WMD; Ahmad, NN

    2009-01-01

    Digital mammogram has become the most effective technique for early breast cancer detection modality. Digital mammogram takes an electronic image of the breast and stores it directly in a computer. The aim of this study is to develop an automated system for assisting the analysis of digital mammograms. Computer image processing techniques will be applied to enhance images and this is followed by segmentation of the region of interest (ROI). Subsequently, the textural features will be extracted from the ROI. The texture features will be used to classify the ROIs as either masses or non-masses. In this study normal breast images and breast image with masses used as the standard input to the proposed system are taken from Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) digital mammogram database. In MIAS database, masses are grouped into either spiculated, circumscribed or ill-defined. Additional information includes location of masses centres and radius of masses. The extraction of the textural features of ROIs is done by using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) which is constructed at four different directions for each ROI. The results show that the GLCM at 0º, 45º, 90º and 135º with a block size of 8X8 give significant texture information to identify between masses and non-masses tissues. Analysis of GLCM properties i.e. contrast, energy and homogeneity resulted in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve area of Az = 0.84 for Otsu’s method, 0.82 for thresholding method and Az = 0.7 for K-mean clustering. ROC curve area of 0.8-0.9 is rated as good results. The authors’ proposed method contains no complicated algorithm. The detection is based on a decision tree with five criterions to be analysed. This simplicity leads to less computational time. Thus, this approach is suitable for automated real-time breast cancer diagnosis system. PMID:21611053

  7. Microcalcification detection system in digital mammogram using two-layer SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sunil; Jin, Sung Ho; Kwon, Ju Won; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Sung Min

    2008-02-01

    Microcalcification detection in a mammogram is an effective method to find the early stage of breast tumor. Especially, computer aided diagnosis (CAD) improves the working performance of radiologists and doctors as it offers an efficient microcalcification detection. In this paper, we propose a microcalcification detection system which consists of three modules; coarse detection, clustering, and fine detection module. The coarse detection module finds candidate pixels from an entire mammogram which are suspected as a part of a microcalcification. The module not only extracts two median contrast features and two contrast-to-noise ratio features, but also categorizes the candidate pixels with a linear kernel-based SVM classifier. Then, the clustering module forms the candidate pixels into regions of interest (ROI) using a region growing algorithm. The objective of the fine detection module is to decide whether the corresponding region classifies as a microcalcification or not. Eleven features including distribution, variance, gradient, and various edge components are extracted from the clustered ROIs and are fed into a radial basis function-based SVM classifier to determine the microcalcification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed microcalcification detection system, the experiments are performed with full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). We also compare its detection performance with an ANN-based detection system.

  8. Robust Automatic Pectoral Muscle Segmentation from Mammograms Using Texture Gradient and Euclidean Distance Regression.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vibha Bafna; Kothari, Ashwin G; Keskar, Avinash G

    2016-02-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of mammogram, the accuracy of tissue segmentation highly depends on the exclusion of pectoral muscle. Robust methods for such exclusions are essential as the normal presence of pectoral muscle can bias the decision of CAD. In this paper, a novel texture gradient-based approach for automatic segmentation of pectoral muscle is proposed. The pectoral edge is initially approximated to a straight line by applying Hough transform on Probable Texture Gradient (PTG) map of the mammogram followed by block averaging with the aid of approximated line. Furthermore, a smooth pectoral muscle curve is achieved with proposed Euclidean Distance Regression (EDR) technique and polynomial modeling. The algorithm is robust to texture and overlapping fibro glandular tissues. The method is validated with 340 MLO views from three databases-including 200 randomly selected scanned film images from miniMIAS, 100 computed radiography images and 40 full-field digital mammogram images. Qualitatively, 96.75 % of the pectoral muscles are segmented with an acceptable pectoral score index. The proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches but also accurately quantifies the pectoral edge. Thus, its high accuracy and relatively quick processing time clearly justify its suitability for CAD. PMID:26259521

  9. Automatic localization of the nipple in mammograms using Gabor filters and the Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Sadhu, Anup; Azevedo-Marques, P. M.

    2013-02-01

    The nipple is an important landmark in mammograms. Detection of the nipple is useful for alignment and registration of mammograms in computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for automatic detection of the nipple based on the oriented patterns of the breast tissues present in mammograms. The Radon transform is applied to the oriented patterns obtained by a bank of Gabor filters to detect the linear structures related to the tissue patterns. The detected linear structures are then used to locate the nipple position using the characteristics of convergence of the tissue patterns towards the nipple. The performance of the method was evaluated with 200 scanned-film images from the mini-MIAS database and 150 digital radiography (DR) images from a local database. Average errors of 5:84 mm and 6:36 mm were obtained with respect to the reference nipple location marked by a radiologist for the mini-MIAS and the DR images, respectively.

  10. Using X-Ray Mammograms to Assist in Microwave Breast Image Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Charlotte; Frayne, Richard; Fear, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Current clinical breast imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the ubiquitous X-ray mammography. Microwave imaging, which takes advantage of differing electromagnetic properties to obtain image contrast, shows potential as a complementary imaging technique. As an emerging modality, interpretation of 3D microwave images poses a significant challenge. MR images are often used to assist in this task, and X-ray mammograms are readily available. However, X-ray mammograms provide 2D images of a breast under compression, resulting in significant geometric distortion. This paper presents a method to estimate the 3D shape of the breast and locations of regions of interest from standard clinical mammograms. The technique was developed using MR images as the reference 3D shape with the future intention of using microwave images. Twelve breast shapes were estimated and compared to ground truth MR images, resulting in a skin surface estimation accurate to within an average Euclidean distance of 10 mm. The 3D locations of regions of interest were estimated to be within the same clinical area of the breast as corresponding regions seen on MR imaging. These results encourage investigation into the use of mammography as a source of information to assist with microwave image interpretation as well as validation of microwave imaging techniques. PMID:22536208

  11. Detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms using statistical measures of orientation of texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Banik, Shantanu; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Desautels, J. E. L.

    2012-03-01

    We present a method using statistical measures of the orientation of texture to characterize and detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases. Based on the orientation field, obtained by the application of a bank of Gabor filters to mammographic images, two types of co-occurrence matrices were derived to estimate the joint occurrence of the angles of oriented structures. For each of the matrices, Haralick's 14 texture features were computed. From a total of 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases, 4,224 regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically obtained by applying Gabor filters and phase portrait analysis. For each ROI, statistical features were computed using the angle co-occurrence matrices. The performance of the features in the detection of architectural distortion was analyzed and compared with that of Haralick's features computed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrices of the ROIs. Using logistic regression for feature selection, an artificial neural network for classification, and the leave-one-image-out approach for cross-validation, the best result achieved was 0.77 in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Analysis of the free-response ROC curve yielded a sensitivity of 80% at 5.4 false positives per image.

  12. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  13. Cancer prevention and screening behaviors in lesbians.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Cecilia Gatson; McGehee, Linda A; Patsdaughter, Carol A; Roberts, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of cancer diagnosis has increased in the United States highlighting the need for astute cancer prevention and screening behaviors. Previous literature has suggested that lesbians may not follow the American Cancer Society's (ACS) guidelines regarding prevention and screening for cancer due to disparity in access to care and increased use of alcohol and tobacco. The purpose of this study was to examine the cancer prevention and screening behaviors of lesbians using the ACS guidelines as the standards for comparison, and to determine factors that influence mammography screening. A 102-item self-report survey was distributed to lesbians nationwide using various methods including snowballing sampling techniques. The sample included 1139 self-identified lesbians from 44 states. In general, healthy lifestyle behaviors were followed. The majority of the women did not smoke, ate plenty of fruits and vegetables, ate protein sources low in fat and consumed alcohol at a moderate rate. However, safe sex practices were often not used by participants. Most women did have mammograms and Papanicolaou smears (PAP) as recommended; however, adherence to self-breast examination guidelines was not followed. Women who were older, had higher yearly incomes, did not smoke, performed regular self breast exams and had regular physical exams were most likely to have a mammogram. Over half of the women met American Cancer Society guidelines for prevention and screening for breast and cervical cancer. However, strategies are needed to increase compliance with these guidelines in order to improve cancer health outcomes. PMID:17255057

  14. Barriers to mammography among inadequately screened women.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Carolyn R T; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography screening status, and to examine whether number and type of barriers are different for never-screened and off-schedule women. A total of 182 women aged 40 years or older completed a computer kiosk facilitated survey as part of a larger patient navigator intervention. Logistic regression analysis indicated that breast cancer knowledge predicted whether a woman had ever had a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.06, p = .0003), while the number of emotional, structural, and communication barriers predicted whether a woman was on-schedule for mammograms (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.95, p = .0127). The results suggest that to increase the use of mammography at recommended regular intervals, interventions should be tailored toward current screening status. PMID:24722216

  15. Comparative Multifractal Analysis of Dynamic Infrared Thermograms and X-Ray Mammograms Enlightens Changes in the Environment of Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, Evgeniya; Toner, Brian; Marin, Zach; Audit, Benjamin; Roux, Stephane G; Argoul, Francoise; Khalil, Andre; Gileva, Olga; Naimark, Oleg; Arneodo, Alain

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can create a niche favoring the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze breast skin temperature temporal fluctuations collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations superimposed on cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27555823

  16. Comparative Multifractal Analysis of Dynamic Infrared Thermograms and X-Ray Mammograms Enlightens Changes in the Environment of Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, Evgeniya; Toner, Brian; Marin, Zach; Audit, Benjamin; Roux, Stephane G.; Argoul, Francoise; Khalil, Andre; Gileva, Olga; Naimark, Oleg; Arneodo, Alain

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can create a niche favoring the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze breast skin temperature temporal fluctuations collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations superimposed on cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27555823

  17. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  18. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  19. Evaluating geodesic active contours in microcalcifications segmentation on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marcelo A; Alvarenga, Andre V; Azevedo, Carolina M; Calas, Maria Julia G; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Pereira, Wagner C A

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring type of cancer among women, and it is the major cause of female cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its incidence is increasing in developed as well as developing countries. Efficient strategies to reduce the high death rates due to breast cancer include early detection and tumor removal in the initial stages of the disease. Clinical and mammographic examinations are considered the best methods for detecting the early signs of breast cancer; however, these techniques are highly dependent on breast characteristics, equipment quality, and physician experience. Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been developed to improve the accuracy of mammographic diagnosis; usually such systems may involve three steps: (i) segmentation; (ii) parameter extraction and selection of the segmented lesions and (iii) lesions classification. Literature considers the first step as the most important of them, as it has a direct impact on the lesions characteristics that will be used in the further steps. In this study, the original contribution is a microcalcification segmentation method based on the geodesic active contours (GAC) technique associated with anisotropic texture filtering as well as the radiologists' knowledge. Radiologists actively participate on the final step of the method, selecting the final segmentation that allows elaborating an adequate diagnosis hypothesis with the segmented microcalcifications presented in a region of interest (ROI). The proposed method was assessed by employing 1000 ROIs extracted from images of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). For the selected ROIs, the rate of adequately segmented microcalcifications to establish a diagnosis hypothesis was at least 86.9%, according to the radiologists. The quantitative test, based on the area overlap measure (AOM), yielded a mean of 0.52±0.20 for the segmented images, when all 2136 segmented microcalcifications were considered. Moreover, a

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  1. Lung Cancer Screening Recommendation Questioned.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    According to a retrospective analysis of data from the National Lung Screening Trial, participants with a history of heavy smoking who test negative for abnormalities suggestive of lung cancer on an initial low-dose CT screen may not need yearly CT scans. Instead, they could work with their doctors to devise an appropriate screening schedule based on individual risk factors. PMID:27076372

  2. Effect of variable gain on computerized texture analysis on digitalized mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Lan, Li; Yuan, Yading; Bhooshan, Neha; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2010-03-01

    Computerized texture analysis of mammographic images has emerged as a means to characterize breast parenchyma and estimate breast percentage density, and thus, to ultimately assess the risk of developing breast cancer. However, during the digitization process, mammographic images may be modified and optimized for viewing purposes, or mammograms may be digitized with different scanners. It is important to demonstrate how computerized texture analysis will be affected by differences in the digital image acquisition. In this study, mammograms from 172 subjects, 30 women with the BRCA1/2 gene-mutation and 142 low-risk women, were retrospectively collected and digitized. Contrast enhancement based on a look-up table that simulates the histogram of a mixed-density breast was applied on very dense and very fatty breasts. Computerized texture analysis was performed on these transformed images, and the effect of variable gain on computerized texture analysis on mammograms was investigated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit to assess the individual texture feature performance in the task of distinguishing between the high-risk and the low-risk women for developing breast cancer. For those features based on coarseness measures and fractal measures, the histogram transformation (contrast enhancement) showed little effect on the classification performance of these features. However, as expected, for those features based on gray-scale histogram analysis, such as balance and skewnesss, and contrast measures, large variations were observed in terms of AUC values for those features. Understanding this effect will allow us to better assess breast cancer risk using computerized texture analysis.

  3. Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo-Proulx, O; Packard, N; Boone, J M; Al-Mayah, A; Brock, K K; Shen, S Z; Yaffe, M J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an algorithm used to measure the volumetric breast density (VBD) from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on the calibration of the detector signal versus the thickness and composition of breast-equivalent phantoms. The baseline error in the density from the algorithm was found to be 1.25 ± 2.3% VBD units (PVBD) when tested against a set of calibration phantoms, of thicknesses 3–8 cm, with compositions equivalent to fibroglandular content (breast density) between 0% and 100% and under x-ray beams between 26 kVp and 32 kVp with a Rh/Rh anode/filter. The algorithm was also tested against images from a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanner acquired on 26 volunteers. The CT images were segmented into regions representing adipose, fibroglandular and skin tissues, and then deformed using a finite-element algorithm to simulate the effects of compression in mammography. The mean volume, VBD and thickness of the compressed breast for these deformed images were respectively 558 cm3, 23.6% and 62 mm. The displaced CT images were then used to generate simulated digital mammograms, considering the effects of the polychromatic x-ray spectrum, the primary and scattered energy transmitted through the breast, the anti-scatter grid and the detector efficiency. The simulated mammograms were analyzed with the VBD algorithm and compared with the deformed CT volumes. With the Rh/Rh anode filter, the root mean square difference between the VBD from CT and from the algorithm was 2.6 PVBD, and a linear regression between the two gave a slope of 0.992 with an intercept of −1.4 PVBD and a correlation with R2 = 0.963. The results with the Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh anode/filter were similar. PMID:20463377

  4. Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Alonzo-Proulx, O; Packard, N; Boone, J M; Al-Mayah, A; Brock, K K; Shen, S Z; Yaffe, M J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an algorithm used to measure the volumetric breast density (VBD) from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on the calibration of the detector signal versus the thickness and composition of breast-equivalent phantoms. The baseline error in the density from the algorithm was found to be 1.25 +/- 2.3% VBD units (PVBD) when tested against a set of calibration phantoms, of thicknesses 3-8 cm, with compositions equivalent to fibroglandular content (breast density) between 0% and 100% and under x-ray beams between 26 kVp and 32 kVp with a Rh/Rh anode/filter. The algorithm was also tested against images from a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanner acquired on 26 volunteers. The CT images were segmented into regions representing adipose, fibroglandular and skin tissues, and then deformed using a finite-element algorithm to simulate the effects of compression in mammography. The mean volume, VBD and thickness of the compressed breast for these deformed images were respectively 558 cm(3), 23.6% and 62 mm. The displaced CT images were then used to generate simulated digital mammograms, considering the effects of the polychromatic x-ray spectrum, the primary and scattered energy transmitted through the breast, the anti-scatter grid and the detector efficiency. The simulated mammograms were analyzed with the VBD algorithm and compared with the deformed CT volumes. With the Rh/Rh anode filter, the root mean square difference between the VBD from CT and from the algorithm was 2.6 PVBD, and a linear regression between the two gave a slope of 0.992 with an intercept of -1.4 PVBD and a correlation with R(2) = 0.963. The results with the Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh anode/filter were similar. PMID:20463377

  5. Reader Variability in Breast Density Estimation from Full-Field Digital Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, may be measured as either a relative percentage of dense (ie, radiopaque) breast tissue or as an absolute area from either raw (ie, “for processing”) or vendor postprocessed (ie, “for presentation”) digital mammograms. Given the increasing interest in the incorporation of mammographic density in breast cancer risk assessment, the purpose of this study is to determine the inherent reader variability in breast density assessment from raw and vendor-processed digital mammograms, because inconsistent estimates could to lead to misclassification of an individual woman’s risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Bilateral, mediolateral-oblique view, raw, and processed digital mammograms of 81 women were retrospectively collected for this study (N = 324 images). Mammographic percent density and absolute dense tissue area estimates for each image were obtained from two radiologists using a validated, interactive software tool. Results The variability of interreader agreement was not found to be affected by the image presentation style (ie, raw or processed, F-test: P > .5). Interreader estimates of relative and absolute breast density are strongly correlated (Pearson r > 0.84, P < .001) but systematically different (t-test, P < .001) between the two readers. Conclusion Our results show that mammographic density may be assessed with equal reliability from either raw or vendor postprocessed images. Furthermore, our results suggest that the primary source of density variability comes from the subjectivity of the individual reader in assessing the absolute amount of dense tissue present in the breast, indicating the need to use standardized tools to mitigate this effect. PMID:23465381

  6. Dual system approach to computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Jun; Chan, H.-P.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou Chuan; Ge Jun

    2006-11-15

    In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a computer-added detection (CAD) system optimized with ''average'' masses with another CAD system optimized with ''subtle'' masses. The two single CAD systems have similar image processing steps, which include prescreening, object segmentation, morphological and texture feature extraction, and false positive (FP) reduction by rule-based and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers. A feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network was trained to merge the scores from the LDA classifiers in the two single CAD systems and differentiate true masses from normal tissue. For an unknown test mammogram, the two single CAD systems are applied to the image in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A total of three data sets were used for training and testing the systems. The first data set of 230 current mammograms, referred to as the average mass set, was collected from 115 patients. We also collected 264 mammograms, referred to as the subtle mass set, which were one to two years prior to the current exam from these patients. Both the average and the subtle mass sets were partitioned into two independent data sets in a cross validation training and testing scheme. A third data set containing 65 cases with 260 normal mammograms was used to estimate the FP marker rates during testing. When the single CAD system trained on the average mass set was applied to the test set with average masses, the FP marker rates were 2.2, 1.8, and 1.5 per image at the case-based sensitivities of 90%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the FP marker rates were reduced to 1.2, 0.9, and 0.7 per image, respectively, at the same case-based sensitivities. Statistically significant (p<0.05) improvements on the free response receiver operating characteristic curves were observed when the dual system and the single system were compared

  7. B-Spline Filtering for Automatic Detection of Calcification Lesions in Mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, G.; Sánchez, S.; Ruiz, M.

    2006-10-01

    Breast cancer continues to be an important health problem between women population. Early detection is the only way to improve breast cancer prognosis and significantly reduce women mortality. It is by using CAD systems that radiologist can improve their ability to detect, and classify lesions in mammograms. In this study the usefulness of using B-spline based on a gradient scheme and compared to wavelet and adaptative filtering has been investigated for calcification lesion detection and as part of CAD systems. The technique has been applied to different density tissues. A qualitative validation shows the success of the method.

  8. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  9. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis of masses and clustered microcalcifications from digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Doi, Kunio; Vyborny, Carl J.; Schmidt, Robert A.; Metz, Charles E.; Wu, Chris Y.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Jiang, Yulei; Huo, Zhimin; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Ema, Takahiro; Bick, Ulrich; Papaioannou, John; Nagel, Rufus H.

    1993-07-01

    We are developing an 'intelligent' workstation to assist radiologists in diagnosing breast cancer from mammograms. The hardware for the workstation will consist of a film digitizer, a high speed computer, a large volume storage device, a film printer, and 4 high resolution CRT monitors. The software for the workstation is a comprehensive package of automated detection and classification schemes. Two rule-based detection schemes have been developed, one for breast masses and the other for clustered microcalcifications. The sensitivity of both schemes is 85% with a false-positive rate of approximately 3.0 and 1.5 false detections per image, for the mass and cluster detection schemes, respectively. Computerized classification is performed by an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN has a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity of 60%. Currently, the ANN, which is a three-layer, feed-forward network, requires as input ratings of 14 different radiographic features of the mammogram that were determined subjectively by a radiologist. We are in the process of developing automated techniques to objectively determine these 14 features. The workstation will be placed in the clinical reading area of the radiology department in the near future, where controlled clinical tests will be performed to measure its efficacy.

  10. An analysis of perceptual errors in reading mammograms using quasi-local spatial frequency spectra.

    PubMed

    Mello-Thoms, C; Dunn, S M; Nodine, C F; Kundel, H L

    2001-09-01

    In this pilot study the authors examined areas on a mammogram that attracted the visual attention of experienced mammographers and mammography fellows, as well as areas that were reported to contain a malignant lesion, and, based on their spatial frequency spectrum, they characterized these areas by the type of decision outcome that they yielded: true-positives (TP), false-positives (FP), true-negatives (TN), and false-negatives (FN). Five 2-view (craniocaudal and medial-lateral oblique) mammogram cases were examined by 8 experienced observers, and the eye position of the observers was tracked. The observers were asked to report the location and nature of any malignant lesions present in the case. The authors analyzed each area in which either the observer made a decision or in which the observer had prolonged (>1,000 ms) visual dwell using wavelet packets, and characterized these areas in terms of the energy contents of each spatial frequency band. It was shown that each decision outcome is characterized by a specific profile in the spatial frequency domain, and that these profiles are significantly different from one another. As a consequence of these differences, the profiles can be used to determine which type of decision a given observer will make when examining the area. Computer-assisted perception correctly predicted up to 64% of the TPs made by the observers, 77% of the FPs, and 70% of the TNs. PMID:11720333

  11. Identification of the breast boundary in mammograms using active contour models.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R J; Rangayyan, R M; Desautels, J E L; Borges, R A; Frère, A F

    2004-03-01

    A method for the identification of the breast boundary in mammograms is presented. The method can be used in the preprocessing stage of a system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer and also in the reduction of image file size in picture archiving and communication system applications. The method started with modification of the contrast of the original image. A binarisation procedure was then applied to the image, and the chain-code algorithm was used to find an approximate breast contour. Finally, the identification of the true breast boundary was performed by using the approximate contour as the input to an active contour model algorithm specially tailored for this purpose. After demarcation of the breast boundary, all artifacts outside the breast region were eliminated. The method was applied to 84 medio-lateral oblique mammograms from the Mini-MIAS database. Evaluation of the detected breast boundary was performed based upon the percentage of false-positive and false-negative pixels determined by a quantitative comparison between the contours identified by a radiologist and those identified by the proposed method. The average false positive and false negative rates were 0.41% and 0.58%, respectively. The two radiologists who evaluated the results considered the segmentation results to be acceptable for CAD purposes. PMID:15125150

  12. Statistical properties of 4000 raw and processed digital mammograms from a GE Senograph 2000D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Rico, Dan; Bright, Stewart

    2003-06-01

    Optimization of the display of digital mammograms is an important challenge and requires knowledge of the characteristics of actual patient images. This work aims to create a description of some of the fundamental statistical properties of a large volume of images acquired on an FDA approved device as used in clinical practice. 4569 digital mammograms (1246 patients) were acquired between October 2001 and August 2002 on a GE Senograph 2000D at Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre. Images were saved in "raw" format. The breast was then segmented from the background on the image using a technique based on thresholding and some connectivity rules. The histogram of pixel values in the breast only is then calculated for both the raw and processed versions of the image. The region of constant thickness, where the breast is in contact with the compression paddle, was also segmented from the CC view raw images. The histogram and statistical properties in this central region were also calculated. Assorted statistical descriptors of the histograms were examined (dynamic range, mean, standard deviations, median and mode). The effect of image processing on the dynamic range in the periphery and central area of the breast was evaluated. The results were compared against the automatic exposure algorithm and acquisition parameters, projection (view) and breast thickness.

  13. Feature extraction employing fuzzy-morphological decomposition for detection and classification of mass on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Lima, Sidney; Azevedo, Washington; Cordeiro, Filipe; Silva-Filho, Abel; Santos, Wellington

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical Morphology is a theory of nonlinear processing extensively used in digital image processing. The computation effort, however, associated to Mathematical Morphology is usually large mainly because of high occurrence of conditional branches, due to use of intersection and union set operations. In terms of processing, it means the occurrence of maximum and minimum calculation. Mathematical Morphology, despite a relative large computational cost, is suitable to biomedical images applications, where both form and texture are essential in order to study anatomical deformities. We use detection and classification of mass in mammograms as a case study. The reason is that breast cancer is the leading cause of adult women by cancer worldwide. We propose a method inspired by series of wavelets for fuzzy-morphological decomposition in regions of interest on mammograms. Our decomposition employs nonlinear low-pass and high-pass filters based on openings and closings operations, which employ fuzzy-approximations. They replace conditional branches by arithmetic operators of subtraction and multiplication, computationally more efficient. We used 355 images of fatty breast tissue of IRMA database, with 233 normal instances, 66 benign, and 56 malignant cases. Classification was performed using SVM and ELM networks with modified kernels, in order to optimize accuracy rates, reaching 93.18%. PMID:26736383

  14. Review of recent advances in segmentation of the breast boundary and the pectoral muscle in mammograms.

    PubMed

    Mustra, Mario; Grgic, Mislav; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in the development of methods for segmentation of the breast boundary and the pectoral muscle in mammograms. Regardless of improvement of imaging technology, accurate segmentation of the breast boundary and detection of the pectoral muscle are still challenging tasks for image processing algorithms. In this paper, we discuss problems related to mammographic image preprocessing and accurate segmentation. We review specific methods that were commonly used in most of the techniques proposed for segmentation of mammograms and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Comparative analysis of the methods reported on is made difficult by variations in the datasets and procedures of evaluation used by the authors. We attempt to overcome some of these limitations by trying to compare methods which used the same dataset and have some similarities in approaches to the breast boundary segmentation and detection of the pectoral muscle. In this paper, we will address the most often used methods for segmentation such as thresholding, morphology, region growing, active contours, and wavelet filtering. These methods, or their combinations, are the ones most used in the last decade by the majority of work published in this image processing domain. PMID:26546074

  15. Use of CAD output to guide the intelligent display of digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Morgan, Trevor; Rico, Dan; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-05-01

    For digital mammography to be efficient, methods are needed to choose an initial default image presentation that maximizes the amount of relevant information perceived by the radiologist and minimizes the amount of time spent adjusting the image display parameters. The purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of using the output of computer aided detection (CAD) software to guide image enhancement and presentation. A set of 16 digital mammograms with lesions of known pathology was used to develop and evaluate an enhancement and display protocol to improve the initial softcopy presentation of digital mammograms. Lesions were identified by CAD and the DICOM structured report produced by the CAD program was used to determine what enhancement algorithm should be applied in the identified regions of the image. An improved version of contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is used to enhance calcifications. For masses, the image is first smoothed using a non-linear diffusion technique; subsequently, local contrast is enhanced with a method based on morphological operators. A non-linear lookup table is automatically created to optimize the contrast in the regions of interest (detected lesions) without losing the context of the periphery of the breast. The effectiveness of the enhancement will be compared with the default presentation of the images using a forced choice preference study.

  16. Reconstruction and rendering of microcalcifications from two mammogram views by modified projective grid space (MPGS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Rong; Chung, Pau-Choo; Lee, Tong-Yee; Yang, Sheng-Chih; Lee, San-Kan

    2006-03-01

    Mammograms taken by two views: cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views provide only 2D projections of the microcalcifications, which lack the depth information. Thus, envisioning the relative lesion location from mammograms is a challenge for radiologists. To assist radiologists in locating and rendering lesion tissues, a modified projective grid space (MPGS) scheme is proposed to reconstruct 3D microcalcifications. The MPGS scheme reconstructs 3D microcalcifications in a unique space defined by corresponding points and the epipoles retrieved from the fundamental matrix of the CC and MLO views. Since only corresponding points of images are required in the proposed MPGS scheme, we can avoid the difficulty associated with most reconstruction approaches that require prior complicated calibration of X-ray machine. Considering the deformation of the breast, a new method based on the concept of bundle adjustment is proposed to rectify the 3D locations of reconstructed microcalcifications by uncompressed breast model reconstructed from the real patient body using MPGS scheme with iterative closest point (ICP). Then, the reconstructed microcalcifications are augmented in the real patient body model to show their relative positions. PMID:16500078

  17. Women with painful breasts without palpable masses: do they really need a mammogram?

    PubMed

    Jumah, K B; Obajimi, M O; Darko, R

    2003-12-01

    This prospective study was carried out over a period of 36 months, and the study population was, all the women (726) referred for mammograms on account of painful breast(s) without palpable masses. They were matched with the same number of asymptomatic women in a control group. The mammographic findings in the women with painful breast(s) and no palpable masses were normal in 639 (88%), benign in 80 (11%), suspicious in 2 (0.3%) and malignant in 5 (0.7%). In the control group mammograms showed normal breasts in 625 (86.1%), benign and suspicious lesions in 87 (12%) and 7 (1.0%) respectively. Malignant lesions were recorded in 7 (0.9%) women. The prevalence of breast cancer was similar in women with painful breast(s) and the control asymptomatic cases. Our reports show that inspite of the pain experienced by the women in this study mammography had a low diagnostic yield of malignant lesions, just as it was found in the control group. Mammography therefore, in these patients will only provide reassurance. PMID:15259923

  18. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  19. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Many breast cancer screening programs are based on the assumption that dissemination of information through social networks and the provision of social support are effective strategies for promoting mammography use. This paper examines the prospective relationship between social network characteristics and breast cancer screening practices among employed women. Methods Women age 40 and over employed in 26 worksites participating in a randomized intervention trial completed baseline and two-year follow-up assessments. These analyses include women in the embedded cohort (n = 1,475). Measures included social network characteristics (size, social influences and support), breast cancer screening practices, and socio-demographic characteristics. Adherence to screening guidelines at follow-up (mammogram within the past two years) was modeled as a function of social network characteristics at baseline. Results The majority of women in this sample were adherent with mammography screening guidelines at baseline. Baseline adherence explained the vast majority of variation in screening practices at follow-up. Only after removing the effects of previous mammography screening did we find statistically significant relationships between network characteristics and screening status. Specifically, among women age 40–51, subjective norms and encouragement by family/friends to have a mammogram at baseline were each significantly associated with screening adherence at follow-up (OR = 2.20 and 1.18, respectively). For women age 52+, the perception that screening was normative among one’s peers was associated with increased likelihood of recent mammography at follow-up (OR = 1.46). Conclusions Previous mammography use is strongly predictive of future screening. Among employed women with high baseline screening rates, the impact of social network characteristics was modest. As previous use of screening is highly associated with future use, programs should focus on reaching

  20. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  1. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  2. Shapelet analysis of pupil dilation for modeling visuo-cognitive behavior in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hammond, Tracy; Hudson, Kathy; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Tourassi, Georgia

    2016-03-01

    Our objective is to improve understanding of visuo-cognitive behavior in screening mammography under clinically equivalent experimental conditions. To this end, we examined pupillometric data, acquired using a head-mounted eye-tracking device, from 10 image readers (three breast-imaging radiologists and seven Radiology residents), and their corresponding diagnostic decisions for 100 screening mammograms. The corpus of mammograms comprised cases of varied pathology and breast parenchymal density. We investigated the relationship between pupillometric fluctuations, experienced by an image reader during mammographic screening, indicative of changes in mental workload, the pathological characteristics of a mammographic case, and the image readers' diagnostic decision and overall task performance. To answer these questions, we extract features from pupillometric data, and additionally applied time series shapelet analysis to extract discriminative patterns in changes in pupil dilation. Our results show that pupillometric measures are adequate predictors of mammographic case pathology, and image readers' diagnostic decision and performance with an average accuracy of 80%.

  3. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    PubMed Central

    Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based survey was conducted on the Hopi reservation in 2012 (n = 252 women). Frequency of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, participation in HCSS programs and barriers to screening were evaluated. Unconditional multiple logistic regression estimated the independent effect of the HCSS program on CRC screening. Approximately 88 % of Hopi women 40+ reported ever having had a mammogram; 71 % did so within the past 2 years. Approximately 66 % of women 50+ were ever screened for colorectal cancer (FOBT and/or colonoscopy). Women who had their last mammogram through HCSS were 2.81 (95 % CI 1.12, 7.07) times more likely to have been screened for CRC. Breast and cervical cancer screening continues at a high rate among Hopi women and is substantially greater than that reported prior to the inception of HCSS. Furthermore, participation in programs offered by HCSS is strongly associated with increased colorectal cancer screening. This tribal health program (HCSS) has strongly influenced cancer screening among Hopi women and is a model of a tribally run cancer prevention program. PMID:26091896

  4. Variation of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening with age.

    PubMed

    Harris, R

    1997-01-01

    The critical issue in deciding whether to recommend breast cancer screening for women in their forties is to determine whether potential benefits are substantially greater than potential harms. Recent evidence from randomized clinical trials makes it likely that, after 10-12 years of follow-up, there is a real benefit from screening women ages 40-49, on the order of a 15-20% reduction in the relative risk of breast cancer death. This relative risk reduction translates into an absolute risk reduction of 1-2 women whose lives are extended from screening 1,000 women in their forties annually for 10 years (i.e., about one life extended per 5,000 mammograms). The absolute benefit of screening increases with age. Evidence about potential harms is less well established, but it is compelling that there are 15-40 times as many false positive as true positive mammograms (depending on the patient's age), and that at least some of the women with false positive mammograms have ongoing psychological distress as a result. Some 30% of all women who are screened annually during their forties will have at least one false positive mammogram and this probability likely decreases with advancing age. If the balance between benefits and harms is judged to be a "close call" for women in their forties, a blanket recommendation for all is inappropriate. Instead, each woman in her forties should be helped to understand the pros and cons of screening, to clarify her own values, and to consider with her primary care physician what decision would be best for her. PMID:9709290

  5. First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... is carrying has a chromosomal abnormality such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) . The ...

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Among Mexican Migrant Women, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Rangel, Gudelia; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Information on cervical and breast cancer screening among Latinas in the United States is limited. Even less information is available on screening practices of migrant women who engage in circular migration. We examined rates of cervical and breast cancer screening and the extent to which sociodemographics and other characteristics explain screening practices of Mexican migrant women who return to Mexico from the United States. Methods We used data from a cross-sectional probability survey of Mexico-born migrant women who returned, through Tijuana, to Mexico from the United States in 2013. The sample consisted of women who returned involuntarily (via deportation) or voluntarily; 177 reported authorized documentation status, and 36 reported unauthorized documentation status in the previous 12 months. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regressions were estimated. Results Of 36 undocumented migrant women, 8 (22.2%) had a Papanicolaou test and 11 (30.6%) had a mammogram in the previous year; of 177 documented migrants, 83 (46.9%) had a Papanicolaou test and 68 (38.4%) had a mammogram. Undocumented migrants were less likely than documented migrants to receive a Papanicolaou test (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12–0.67); the likelihood was similar after adjustment for sociodemographic, migration, and acculturation factors (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12–0.90). Having health insurance (adjusted OR = 4.17; 95% CI, 1.80–9.65) and a regular source of health care (adjusted OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.05–7.65) were significant predictors of receiving a mammogram but not a Papanicolaou test. Conclusion Public health programs are needed to improve access to cervical and breast cancer screenings for Latina migrant women in general and undocumented circular migrants in particular. PMID:27513995

  8. Mammography Screening – as of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.; Bock, K.; Heindel, W.; Hecht, G.; Regitz-Jedermann, L.; Hacker, A.; Kaeaeb-Sanyal, V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the German Mammography Screening Programme has been available throughout Germany to all women aged between 50 and 69. The programme strictly follows the European Guidelines. There are controversial discussions in the media as well as in the specialised press. Materials and Methods: Overview of the available data with regard to an evaluation of randomised studies and with regard to quality-assured screening programmes in accordance with EU Guidelines (including data from 18 screening countries). Results: Positive effects of screening: reduction in mortality, less invasive treatment. Negative effects: False-positive diagnoses and biopsy recommendations, so-called overdiagnoses, radiation dose. Limits of screening: Interval carcinomas, incomplete reduction in mortality. A mathematical synopsis of the latest publications from the European screening programmes with the diagnosis rates in Germany determined from > 4.6 million screening examinations produces the following: a total of 10 000 mammograms are created for 1000 women (P) taking part in the Mammography Screening Programme (each of whom undergoes 10 mammograms in 20 years). Overall, the risk of triggering breast cancer through a mammogram is very clearly below the annual natural risk of suffering from breast cancer. In the German screening, of these 1000 women, an average of 288 women are called back once in 20 years as a result of changes that are ultimately benign (< 3 % per cycle). Of these, 74 of the 288 women undergo a biopsy due to a benign change (false-positive biopsy recommendations, usually punch or vacuum biopsies). According to EUROSCREEN, 71 carcinomas develop among participants (56 are discovered in the screening, 15 in the interval), and 67 carcinomas among non-participants (N-P) (in some cases, several years later) during this period. The 4 additional diagnoses among the Ps are referred to as overdiagnoses, as they do not contribute to a reduction in mortality

  9. Classification based micro-calcification detection using discriminative restricted Boltzmann machine in digitized mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, SeungYeon; Lee, Soochan; Yun, Il Dong

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method for automatic detection of micro-calcifications using the Discriminative Restricted Boltzmann Machine (DRBM). The DRBM is used to automatically learn the specific features which distinguish micro-calcifications from normal tissue as well as their morphological variations. Within the DRBM, low level image structures that are specific features of micro-calcifications are automatically captured without any appropriate feature selection based on expert knowledge or time-consuming hand-tuning, which was required for previous methods. Experimental evaluation conducted on a set of 33 mammograms gave a result of area under Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve 0.8294, which showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Application of Fractional Wave Packet Transform for Robust Watermarking of Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Siddaraju, Pushpa Mala; Jayadevappa, Devappa; Ezhilarasan, Kaliyamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Exchanging of medical data requires efficient authentication and protection of medical data that can be illegally modified. Watermarking plays an important role in protecting, sharing, and securing medical data. In this work, a robust nonblind medical image watermarking scheme is proposed. The process involves two steps: the embedding and the extraction phase. During the embedding phase, l-level FRWPT is performed on the host image and the watermark is embedded into the modified reference image. In the second phase, inverse FRWPT is performed on the watermarked image to extract the watermark from the watermarked image. The proposed scheme is tested on mammograms images and is subjected to common attacks like Gaussian filtering, median filtering, compression, sharpening, and contrast adjustments. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust. PMID:26770193

  11. Iterative method for automatic detection of masses in digital mammograms for computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Victor G.; Gamo, Daniel M.; Rios, Juan; Vilarrasa, Amparo

    1999-05-01

    An iterative algorithm has been developed for automatic detection of breast masses from digitalized mammograms. The procedure has been divided in two stages. The first one based on the histogram analysis of the input image. The second one employs a topological analysis from the results obtained in the first stage. The final output is a set of interest regions that are defined as suspicious areas by the system. These suspicious regions should be harder studied in order to present a final diagnosis. The developed system may be used together with any other suspicious area diagnosis algorithms. In this way a computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) program to assist radiologists in his mammography interpretation task could be easy developed.

  12. Learning distance metrics for interactive search-assisted diagnosis of mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Jin, Rong; Sukthankar, Rahul; Zheng, Bin; Mummert, Lily; Satyanarayanan, M.; Chen, Mei; Jukic, Drazen

    2007-03-01

    The goal of interactive search-assisted diagnosis (ISAD) is to enable doctors to make more informed decisions about a given case by providing a selection of similar annotated cases. For instance, a radiologist examining a suspicious mass could study labeled mammograms with similar conditions and weigh the outcome of their biopsy results before determining whether to recommend a biopsy. The fundamental challenge in developing ISAD systems is the identification of similar cases, not simply in terms of superficial image characteristics, but in a medically-relevant sense. This task involves three aspects: extraction of a representative set of features, identifying an appropriate measure of similarity in the high-dimensional feature space, and return the most similar matches at interactive speed. The first has been an active research area for several decades. The second has largely been ignored by the medical imaging community. The third can be achieved using the Diamond framework, an open-source platform that enables efficient exploration of large distributed complex data repositories. This paper focuses on the second aspect. We show that the choice of distance metric affects the accuracy of an ISAD system and that machine learning enables the construction of effective domain-specific distance metrics. In the learned distance, data points with the same labels (e.g., malignant masses) are closer than data points with different labels (e.g., malignant vs. benign). Thus, the labels of the near neighbors of a new case are likely to be informative. We present and evaluate several novel methods for distance metric learning and evaluate them on a database involving 2522 mass regions of interest (ROI) extracted from digital mammograms, with ground truth defined by biopsy results (1800 malignant, 722 benign). Our results show that learned distance metrics improve both classification (ROC curve) and retrieval performance.

  13. Radiological technologists’ performance for the detection of malignant microcalcifications in digital mammograms without and with a computer-aided detection system

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Rie; Takamori, Miho; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Shiraishi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of radiological technologists (RTs) in the detection of malignant microcalcifications and to evaluate how much computer-aided detection (CADe) improved their performances compared with those by expert breast radiologists (BRs). Six board-certified breast RTs and four board-certified BRs participated in a free-response receiver operating characteristic observer study. The dataset consisted of 75 cases (25 malignant, 25 benign, and 25 normal cases) of digital mammograms, selected from the digital database for screening mammography provided by the University of South Florida. Average figure of merit (FOM) of the RTs’ performances was statistically analyzed using jack-knife free-response receiver operating characteristic and compared with that of expert BRs. The detection performance of RTs was significantly improved by using CADe; average sensitivity was increased from 46.7% to 56.7%, with a decrease in the average number of false positives per case from 0.19 to 0.13. Detection accuracy of an average FOM was improved from 0.680 to 0.816 (p=0.001) and the difference in FOMs between RTs and radiologists failed to reach statistical significance. RTs’ performances for the identification of malignant microcalcifications on digital mammography were sufficiently high and comparable to those of radiologists by using CADe. PMID:26158109

  14. How should we interpret noncompliance with screening mammography?

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H

    1996-01-01

    Primary care practitioners have an important role to play in recommending breast cancer screening to patients in the target age group. In this issue of CMAJ (see pages 1335 to 1343) Dr. Marie-Dominique Beaulieu and associates report the results of a program designed to maximize utilization of screening mammography. Only two thirds of eligible women for whom screening mammography was prescribed obtained a mammogram within the 2-month study period. However, when taken in context, this compliance rate is fairly encouraging. There are many possible reasons for noncompliance such as a need for more information or for repeated suggestions. Family physicians should not become disheartened in their efforts to increase the use of screening procedures and may find that collaboration with others in giving consistent messages will help to maximize screening rates within their patient population. PMID:8616738

  15. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  18. Mammography Screening in a Large Health System Following the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Wang, Lian; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background Practice recommendations for mammography screening were issued by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in 2009 and expansion of insurance coverage was provided under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act soon thereafter, yet the influence of these changes on screening practices in the United States is not known. Methods To determine changes in mammography screening and their associations with new practice recommendations and the Affordable Care Act, we examined patient-level data from 249,803 screening mammograms from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012 in a large community-based health system in the northwestern United States. Associations were determined by an intervention analysis of time-series data method. Results Among women screened, 64% were age 50-74 years; 84% self-identified as white race; 62% had commercial insurance; and 70% were seen in facilities located in metropolitan areas. Practice recommendations were associated with decreased screening volumes among women age <40 (-37.4 mammograms/month; -39.4% change; P<0.001), 40-49 (-106.0 mammograms/month; -11.2% change; P<0.001), and ≥75 (-54.7 mammograms/month; -10.0% change; P<0.001), but not women age 50-74. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening among women age 50-74 (+184.3 mammograms/month; +7.2% change; P=0.001), but not women <40 or ≥75; increases for age 40-49 were of borderline statistical significance (+56.9 mammograms/month; +6% change; P=0.06). Practice recommendations were also associated with decreased screening for women with commercial insurance, while the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening for women with Medicare, Medicaid, or other noncommercial sources of payment. Conclusions Mammography screening volumes in a large community health system decreased among women age <50 and ≥75 in association with new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force practice recommendations, while insurance coverage

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  20. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes. PMID:25561069

  1. Breast cancer beliefs of women participating in a television-promoted mammography screening project.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, S M; McDermott, R J; Roetzheim, R G; Marty, P J

    1992-01-01

    A survey of breast cancer and breast cancer screening beliefs was mailed to a random sample of 1,000 women who contacted a telephone bank in response to a television-promoted, reduced-cost mammography project. Beliefs and demographics of women in the sample who subsequently completed a mammogram were compared with those who did not. No statistically significant differences were found between participants (persons who completed a mammogram) and nonparticipants with respect to age, race, marital status, income, or educational preparation. Groups also did not differ significantly in the series of beliefs examined. Factor analysis revealed respondents' most salient beliefs about breast cancer and early detection of breast cancer. Evidence is presented to suggest a need for enhanced efforts to recruit minority group women to participate in mammography screening. PMID:1454981

  2. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  3. Computed Tomography for Coronary Artery Calcification Scoring: Mammogram for the Heart.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Abdul H; Zallaghi, Forough; Torres-Acosta, Noel; Thompson, Randall C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC), identified via low-radiation, non-contrast computed tomography of the heart, quantifies the burden of calcified coronary atherosclerosis. This modality is highly useful for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification among individuals without known coronary heart disease (CHD), especially for those at intermediate risk. The presence of CAC is associated with up to a 10-fold higher risk of adverse CV events, even after fully adjusting for the standard CV risk factors. In fact, the CAC score is among the strongest clinically available predictors of future risk of adverse CV events among primary prevention patients. Additionally, the absence of CAC in asymptomatic individuals confers a very low risk of CV events. Even in the presence of a benign CV risk factor profile and normal cardiac stress test, a very high CAC score portends a high risk of adverse CV events. On the other hand, a CAC score of zero is associated with a low CHD risk despite significant CV risk factor profiles. CAC scoring is a quick, low-cost screening tool to help risk-stratify patients and identify those likely to benefit from aggressive preventive treatments (such as high-intensity statin therapy, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, and aspirin) and to identify those likely who warrant close monitoring. Moreover, individuals with a zero CAC score may be at low enough risk to avoid or defer daily aspirin therapy and pharmacological therapy for cholesterol management, and instead work on therapeutic lifestyle changes. An abnormal CAC score may also lead to better adherence to pharmacological regimens and suggested lifestyle changes. PMID:26892393

  4. Screening for Open Neural Tube Defects.

    PubMed

    Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence W; Carmichael, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical prenatal screening was initiated with the use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein to screen for open neural tube defects. Screening now includes multiple marker and sequential screening protocols involving serum and ultrasound markers to screen for aneuploidy. Recently cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy has been initiated, but does not screen for neural tube defects. Although ultrasound is highly effective in identifying neural tube defects in high-risk populations, in decentralized health systems maternal serum screening still plays a significant role. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein alone or in combination with other markers may indicate adverse pregnancy outcome in the absence of open neural tube defects. PMID:27235920

  5. The Impact of Near-Universal Insurance Coverage on Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: Evidence from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Lindsay M; Bradley, Cathy J

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of expansion to near-universal health insurance coverage in Massachusetts on breast and cervical cancer screening. We use data from 2002 to 2010 to compare changes in receipt of mammograms and Pap tests in Massachusetts relative to other New England states. We also consider the effect specifically among low-income women. We find positive effects of Massachusetts health reform on cancer screening, suggesting a 4 to 5% increase in mammograms and 6 to 7% increase in Pap tests annually. Increases in both breast and cervical cancer screening are larger 3 years after the implementation of reform than in the year immediately following, suggesting that there may be an adjustment or learning period. Low-income women experience greater increases in breast and cervical cancer screening than the overall population; among women with household income less than 250% of the federal poverty level, mammograms increase by approximately 8% and Pap tests by 9%. Overall, Massachusetts health reform appears to have increased breast and cervical cancer screening, particularly among low-income women. Our results suggest that reform was successful in promoting preventive care among targeted populations. PMID:25693869

  6. "5 mins of uncomfyness is better than dealing with cancer 4 a lifetime": an exploratory qualitative analysis of cervical and breast cancer screening dialogue on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Courtney R; López, Andrea; Pasick, Rena; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2013-03-01

    Twitter.com is a "micro-blogging" website. Although Twitter use is growing rapidly, little is known about health behavior discussions on this site, even though a majority of messages are publicly available. We retrieved publicly available Twitter messages during a 5-week period in early 2012, searching separately for the terms "Pap smear" and "mammogram." We used content analysis to code each 140-character message, generating a separate coding framework for each cancer screening term and calculating the frequencies of comments. Using the brief account description, we also coded the author as individual, organization, or news media outlet. There were 203 Pap smear and 271 mammogram messages coded, over three fourths of which were from individual accounts. Overall, 22 % of Pap smear messages and 25 % of mammogram messages discussed personal experiences, including attending appointments, negative sentiment about the procedure, and results. Other messages from both individuals and organizations (8 % Pap smear, 18 % mammogram) promoted screening. About one quarter of the messages expressed personal experiences with cancer screening. This demonstrates that Twitter can be a rich source of information and could be used to design new health-related interventions. PMID:23132231

  7. Priming cases disturb visual search patterns in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Reed, Warren M.; Tan, Alvin N. K.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Rationale and Objectives: To investigate the effect of inserting obvious cancers into a screening set of mammograms on the visual search of radiologists. Previous research presents conflicting evidence as to the impact of priming in scenarios where prevalence is naturally low, such as in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: An observer performance and eye position analysis study was performed. Four expert breast radiologists were asked to interpret two sets of 40 screening mammograms. The Control Set contained 36 normal and 4 malignant cases (located at case # 9, 14, 25 and 37). The Primed Set contained the same 34 normal and 4 malignant cases (in the same location) plus 2 "primer" malignant cases replacing 2 normal cases (located at positions #20 and 34). Primer cases were defined as lower difficulty cases containing salient malignant features inserted before cases of greater difficulty. Results: Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test indicated no significant differences in sensitivity or specificity between the two sets (P > 0.05). The fixation count in the malignant cases (#25, 37) in the Primed Set after viewing the primer cases (#20, 34) decreased significantly (Z = -2.330, P = 0.020). False-Negatives errors were mostly due to sampling in the Primed Set (75%) in contrast to in the Control Set (25%). Conclusion: The overall performance of radiologists is not affected by the inclusion of obvious cancer cases. However, changes in visual search behavior, as measured by eye-position recording, suggests visual disturbance by the inclusion of priming cases in screening mammography.

  8. Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Tan, Susanna; Keegan, Theresa HM; Clarke, Christina A

    2007-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women on non-adherence to screening guidelines, they have not identified the distinct segments of the population who remain at highest risk of not being screened. Methods To better describe characteristics of Asian women associated with not having a mammogram in the last two years, we applied recursive partitioning to population-based data (N = 1521) from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), for seven racial/ethnic groups of interest: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Vietnamese, and all Asians combined. Results We identified two major subgroups of Asian women who reported not having a mammogram in the past two years and therefore, did not follow mammography screening recommendations: 1) women who have never had a pap exam to screen for cervical cancer (68% had no mammogram), and 2) women who have had a pap exam, but have no women's health issues (osteoporosis, using menopausal hormone therapies, and/or hysterectomy) nor a usual source of care (62% had no mammogram). Only 19% of Asian women who have had pap screening and have women's health issues did not have a mammogram in the past two years. In virtually all ethnic subgroups, having had pap or colorectal screening were the strongest delineators of mammography usage. Other characteristics of women least likely to have had a mammogram included: Chinese non-U.S. citizens or citizens without usual source of health care, Filipinas with no health insurance, Koreans without women's health issues and public or no health insurance, South Asians less than age 50 who were unemployed or non

  9. Possible logistic and sociodemographyc factors on breast cancer screening in Turkey: lessons from a women’s health project in Mersin province.

    PubMed

    Abali, Huseyin; Ata, Alper; Gokçe, Gozde; Gokçe, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    Mortality from breast cancer is decreasing partly owing to early detection. In Mersin province in our country, local health authorities launched an education program on sexual diseases and breast cancer early detection for women over 15 years of age. After the educational session, clinical breast examination was offered by a nurse or physician, and if suspicious they were recommended to apply a specialist for further examination. Here, we report the results on those women with abnormal clinical breast examination. In this second project, socio-demographic variables were investigated such as educational level and place of living,parameters to measure the success of previous project, whether they followed the recommendation themselves, whether mammograms were reported in accordance with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). Of 3,793 women recruited, mean age was 42.2 years, 42.3%were younger than 40.0 years. Majority (88.5%) were married, graduate of primary school (60.6%), without a job(91.2%), and inhabiting in the province (38.7%). Of the population, 98.1% believe in the importance of screening in the treatment of breast cancer. According to 70.3%,monthly breast self-examination enables early detection, 33.5% believe that clinical breast examination detects cancer early, and 35.5% think that annual mammography can detect it early. Among 2,183 women 40 years of age or over, 41.5% had mammography at once before participating in the first project. Breast self-examination was being carried out by 56.6% on a monthly basis. After an abnormal breast examination, 86.4% applied to hospitals for specialist examination. Reasons for declining to seek for further examination among 410 women answering were as follows:42.0% did not accept, 27.0% did not know it was important, 16.6% because of economical reasons, and 5.0% were too shy to be examined. Being older, being married, being the graduate of primary and secondary school, residing in rural areas, having a

  10. Classification of microcalcifications in digital mammograms for the diagnosis of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Osamu; Hasegawa, Akira; Wu, Chris Y.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    We are developing a computer program for automated classification of clustered microcalcifications associated with benign and malignant processes in mammograms. Accurate classification of microcalcifications into benign and malignant groups would help improve diagnosis sensitivity as well as reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. In this study we investigate the effectiveness of several image features and the proposed neural network, the Trend-Oriented Radial Basis Function (TRBF). Our database is composed of 47 benign and 81 malignant region of interest (ROI) images, a total of 128 ROIs, which are selected from 50 micron by 50 micron digitized whole mammograms manually. Each 256 by 256 pixel ROI image contains clustered microcalcifications. First we extract 16 image features which are calculated from a binarized microcalcifications image and its two morphological dilation images. These features are based on 3 morphological criteria: (1) size and/or shape of the calcifications, (2) size or shape of the 'cluster,' and (3) number of microcalcifications. Secondly, we apply Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion to 16 dimension feature space in order to reduce the dimension of the problem. Next we select two dimensional K-L features, which are outcomes of K-L expansion, through a calculation of the Euclidean distance measure. Finally we classify them based on two dimensional K-L features using the proposed neural network. The proposed TRBF neural network has three layers and a new learning algorithm. Its cost function for the learning process consists of a sum of squares error and a sum of inverse RBFs width. Through the learning process, the center and the width of each RBF and the weights between hidden and output layers are decided. The performances of the K-L features and the TRBF neural network are evaluated through the round-robin method in which one sample is tested after learning based on the rest of 127 samples. The two dimensional K-L features are more

  11. Estimation of stress relaxation time for normal and abnormal breast phantoms using optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.

    2015-03-01

    Many of the early occurring micro-anomalies in breast may transform into a deadliest cancer tumor in future. Probability of curing early occurring abnormalities in breast is more if rightly identified. Even in mammogram, considered as a golden standard technique for breast imaging, it is hard to pick up early occurring changes in the breast tissue due to the difference in mechanical behavior of the normal and abnormal tissue when subjected to compression prior to x-ray or laser exposure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the stress relaxation time of normal and abnormal breast mimicking phantom using laser speckle image correlation. Phantoms mimicking normal breast is prepared and subjected to precise mechanical compression. The phantom is illuminated by a Helium Neon laser and by using a CCD camera, a sequence of strained phantom speckle images are captured and correlated by the image mean intensity value at specific time intervals. From the relation between mean intensity versus time, tissue stress relaxation time is quantified. Experiments were repeated for phantoms with increased stiffness mimicking abnormal tissue for similar ranges of applied loading. Results shows that phantom with more stiffness representing abnormal tissue shows uniform relaxation for varying load of the selected range, whereas phantom with less stiffness representing normal tissue shows irregular behavior for varying loadings in the given range.

  12. Newly discovered quick, non-invasive screening method of bone marrow malignancies including various leukemias, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, & multiple myeloma by abnormality of small rectangular area within bone marrow organ representation areas of the face.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Nihrane, Abdalla; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Diagnoses of bone marrow associated malignancies such as Acute & Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute & Chronic Myelogenous (Myeloid) Leukemia, Hodgkin's Lymphoma & Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma are often missed without a blood test. However, in 2008, Omura Y reported several newly discovered organ representation areas that exist between the lower end of the eyebrows and upper end of the upper eyelid. This space was divided into 5 organ representation areas. The first space (more than 1/4 of entire space) near the side of the face (temple) is the bone marrow representation area (BMRA). Therefore, we examined the bone marrow representation areas non-invasively using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT). When the small rectangular shaped part of the BMRA is strong negative (-) with more than -2, often there is a malignancy associated with bone marrow. In this area, we found 1) Integrin alpha5beta1 & Oncogen C-fos Ab2 increased very significantly between 125-300 ng BDORT units; 2) very high Chrysotile Asbestos (0.11-0.14 mg); 3) markedly reduced Acetylcholine of less than 1 ng; 4) significantly reduced telomere of less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g); and 5) Increased 8-OH-dG (often more than 5 ng). Once the abnormal small rectangular area is localized by BDORT, by detecting the specific microscope slide which produces EMF (electromagnetic field) resonance, one can diagnose these malignancies non-invasively in about 10 minutes. When a subject has any one of the above 7 types of bone marrow associated malignancies, the 5 aforementioned abnormal parameters can be detected. When Acetylcholine is markedly reduced to 0.25 ng or less, 8-OH-dG is 10 ng or higher, and Sirtuin 1 (one of the 7 mammalian longevity genes products) in both the Hippocampus and the body is 0.025 pg or less, most of the patients have a very poor prognosis. However, we found that increasing normal cell telomere & longevity gene product Sirtuin 1 can often improve both pathology & prognosis. All

  13. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  14. About Half of Women May Benefit from Mammograms at 40: Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and therefore would be eligible to begin screening mammography at age 40, said lead researcher Dr. Jennifer ... in order to identify those who require screening mammography to start at the age of 40, and ...

  15. Mammographic screening for breast cancer. Overdiagnosis: an insidious adverse effect of screening.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Mammographic mass screening for breast cancer sometimes detects tumours that would grow so slowly that the women concerned would die from other causes before developing noteworthy symptoms. This "overdiagnosis" unnecessarily exposes women to cancer treatments and their adverse effects. To assess the risk of overdiagnosis during mammographic mass screening for breast cancer, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The most reliable estimates of overdiagnosis are obtained by deduction, based on data from randomised trials with lengthy post-screening follow-up. A randomised trial in Sweden and two in Canada compared screening versus no screening, and monitored the women for an average of 15 and 17 years after the end of screening. For every 10 000 women who were screened, there were 63 cases of breast cancer overdiagnosis in the Swedish trial and 26 in the Canadian trials, representing about 25% of all cancers diagnosed by screening. This rate of overdiagnosis is probably on the low side, as about 20% of the women in the unscreened control groups had at least one mammogram. Studies of the general female population confirm that mammographic mass screening leads to overdiagnosis, but the results add little to those of randomised trials. In 2015, the most reliable estimate is that at least 25% of breast cancers detected by screening mammography are overdiagnosed. In France, at least 19 breast cancers would be overdiagnosed for every 1000 women screened during a 20-year period, corresponding to a total of about 3800 overdiagnosed cancers for each year of mass screening. Women must be informed of the risk of overdiagnosis and its consequences in terms of unnecessary treatment, along with other factors influencing the harm-benefit balance. See page 190 for our proposals on how to inform women wondering whether or not to undergo mammographic screening. PMID:26240891

  16. Screening Outcomes Following Implementation of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in a General-Population Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Kontos, Despina; Synnestvedt, Marie; Tan, Kay See; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Schnall, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Background Early data on breast cancer screening utilizing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with digital mammography (DM) have shown improvements in false-positive and false-negative screening rates compared with DM alone. However, these trials were performed at sites where conventional mammographic screening was concurrently performed, possibly leading to selection biases or with complex, multireader algorithms not reflecting general clinical practice. Our study reports the impact on screening outcomes for DBT screening implemented in an entire clinic population. Methods Recall rates, cancer detection, and positive predictive values of screening were compared for 15571 women screened with DBT and 10728 screened with DM alone prior to DBT implementation at a single breast imaging center. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for recall rate adjusted for age, race, presence of prior mammograms, breast density and reader. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results DBT screening showed a statistically significant reduction in recalls compared to DM alone. For the entire population, there were 16 fewer recalls (8.8% vs 10.4%, P <.001, adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.88, P < .001) and 0.9 additional cancers detected per 1000 screened with DBT compared to DM alone. There was a statistically significant increase in PPV1 (6.2% vs 4.4%, P = .047). In women younger than age 50 years screened with DBT, there were 17 fewer recalls (12.3% vs 14.0%, P = .02) and 3.6 additional cancer detected per 1000 screened (5.7 vs 2.2 per 1000, P = .02). Conclusions Our data support the clinical implementation of DBT in breast cancer screening; however, larger prospective trials are needed to validate our findings in specific patient subgroups. PMID:25313245

  17. Automated regional registration and characterization of corresponding microcalcification clusters on temporal pairs of mammograms for interval change analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Filev, Peter; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Ge Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn; Zhou Chuan

    2008-12-15

    A computerized regional registration and characterization system for analysis of microcalcification clusters on serial mammograms is being developed in our laboratory. The system consists of two stages. In the first stage, based on the location of a detected cluster on the current mammogram, a regional registration procedure identifies the local area on the prior that may contain the corresponding cluster. A search program is used to detect cluster candidates within the local area. The detected cluster on the current image is then paired with the cluster candidates on the prior image to form true (TP-TP) or false (TP-FP) pairs. Automatically extracted features were used in a newly designed correspondence classifier to reduce the number of false pairs. In the second stage, a temporal classifier, based on both current and prior information, is used if a cluster has been detected on the prior image, and a current classifier, based on current information alone, is used if no prior cluster has been detected. The data set used in this study consisted of 261 serial pairs containing biopsy-proven calcification clusters. An MQSA radiologist identified the corresponding clusters on the mammograms. On the priors, the radiologist rated the subtlety of 30 clusters (out of the 261 clusters) as 9 or 10 on a scale of 1 (very obvious) to 10 (very subtle). Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for feature selection and classification in both the correspondence and malignant/benign classification schemes. The search program detected 91.2%(238/261) of the clusters on the priors with an average of 0.42 FPs/image. The correspondence classifier identified 86.6%(226/261) of the TP-TP pairs with 20 false matches (0.08 FPs/image) relative to the entire set of 261 image pairs. In the malignant/benign classification stage the temporal classifier achieved a test A{sub z} of 0.81 for the 246 pairs which contained a detection on the prior. In addition, a classifier was designed by using the

  18. Learning contextual relationships in mammograms using a hierarchical pyramid neural network.

    PubMed

    Sajda, Paul; Spence, Clay; Pearson, John

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes a pattern recognition architecture, which we term hierarchical pyramid/neural network (HPNN), that learns to exploit image structure at multiple resolutions for detecting clinically significant features in digital/digitized mammograms. The HPNN architecture consists of a hierarchy of neural networks, each network receiving feature inputs at a given scale as well as features constructed by networks lower in the hierarchy. Networks are trained using a novel error function for the supervised learning of image search/detection tasks when the position of the objects to be found is uncertain or ill defined. We have evaluated the HPNN's ability to eliminate false positive (FP) regions of interest generated by the University of Chicago's (UofC) Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for microcalcification and mass detection. Results show that the HPNN architecture, trained using the uncertain object position (UOP) error function, reduces the FP rate of a mammographic CAD system by approximately 50% without significant loss in sensitivity. Investigation into the types of FPs that the HPNN eliminates suggests that the pattern recognizer is automatically learning and exploiting contextual information. Clinical utility is demonstrated through the evaluation of an integrated system in a clinical reader study. We conclude that the HPNN architecture learns contextual relationships between features at multiple scales and integrates these features for detecting microcalcifications and breast masses. PMID:11989848

  19. An Efficient Approach for Automated Mass Segmentation and Classification in Mammograms.

    PubMed

    Dong, Min; Lu, Xiangyu; Ma, Yide; Guo, Yanan; Ma, Yurun; Wang, Keju

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is becoming a leading death of women all over the world; clinical experiments demonstrate that early detection and accurate diagnosis can increase the potential of treatment. In order to improve the breast cancer diagnosis precision, this paper presents a novel automated segmentation and classification method for mammograms. We conduct the experiment on both DDSM database and MIAS database, firstly extract the region of interests (ROIs) with chain codes and using the rough set (RS) method to enhance the ROIs, secondly segment the mass region from the location ROIs with an improved vector field convolution (VFC) snake and following extract features from the mass region and its surroundings, and then establish features database with 32 dimensions; finally, these features are used as input to several classification techniques. In our work, the random forest is used and compared with support vector machine (SVM), genetic algorithm support vector machine (GA-SVM), particle swarm optimization support vector machine (PSO-SVM), and decision tree. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated by a comprehensive and objective evaluation system; also, Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) indicator is used. Among the state-of-the-art classifiers, our method achieves the best performance with best accuracy of 97.73%, and the MCC value reaches 0.8668 and 0.8652 in unique DDSM database and both two databases, respectively. Experimental results prove that the proposed method outperforms the other methods; it could consider applying in CAD systems to assist the physicians for breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:25776767

  20. Breast cancer risk analysis based on a novel segmentation framework for digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Taylor, Chris; Astley, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The radiographic appearance of breast tissue has been established as a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we present a complete machine learning framework for automatic estimation of mammographic density (MD) and robust feature extraction for breast cancer risk analysis. Our framework is able to simultaneously classify the breast region, fatty tissue, pectoral muscle, glandular tissue and nipple region. Integral to our method is the extraction of measures of breast density (as the fraction of the breast area occupied by glandular tissue) and mammographic pattern. A novel aspect of the segmentation framework is that a probability map associated with the label mask is provided, which indicates the level of confidence of each pixel being classified as the current label. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the estimated MD value and the ground truth is 0.8012 (p-value < 0.0001). We demonstrate the capability of our methods to discriminate between women with and without cancer by analyzing the contralateral mammograms of 50 women with unilateral breast cancer, and 50 controls. Using MD we obtained an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.61; however our texture-based measure of mammographic pattern significantly outperforms the MD discrimination with an AUC of 0.70. PMID:25333160

  1. Comparison of AMPLICOR and Hybrid Capture II assays for high risk HPV detection in normal and abnormal liquid-based cytology: use of INNO-LiPA Genotyping assay to screen the discordant results.

    PubMed

    Mo, L Z; Monnier-Benoit, S; Kantelip, B; Petitjean, A; Riethmuller, D; Prétet, J L; Mougin, C

    2008-02-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with normal or abnormal cervical smears using the Roche Amplicor MWP HPV Test. We compared by AMPLICOR Test and Hybrid Capture II (HCII) Test, the prevalence of HR-HPV in 470 cervical samples including 55 samples with WNL cytology, 208 ASC-US, 193 LGSIL and 14 HGSIL. Samples with discordant results were retested with INNO-LiPA Genotyping HPV Test v2. The HR-HPV positivity in WNL cytology samples was similar (21.8%) by AMPLICOR and HCII. In ASC-US, the HPV positivity was 42.3% by both tests. In LGSIL, HPV positivity was 66.3% and 66.8% by AMPLICOR and HCII, respectively. In HGSIL, 92.8% of samples were positive by AMPLICOR and 85.7% by HCII. The agreement of both tests was 96.2% with a Kappa value of 0.92. Eighteen cases were discordant: 9 HCII positive/AMPLICOR negative and 9 HCII negative/AMPLICOR positive. The INNO-LiPA test revealed HPV positivity in every case. Interestingly, all HCII+/AMPLICOR- samples were found to harbour HPV53. As for the HCII-/AMPLICOR+ samples, 8 demonstrated a multiple infection with HR 16- and/or 18- and/or 56-phylogenetically related HPV types. Moreover, two of these samples were co-infected with HPV6 and two other with HPV54. By using consensus HR-HPV as our reference HPV positivity, the sensitivity (96.6%) and specificity (100%) of AMPLICOR was similar to that of HCII Test. The AMPLICOR HPV Test is sensitive, specific, feasible and appropriate for routine HPV detection. PMID:18036888

  2. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  3. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  4. The 'GALS' locomotor screen.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, M; Dacre, J; Dieppe, P; Snaith, M

    1992-01-01

    The locomotor system is complex and difficult to examine. A selective clinical process to detect important locomotor abnormalities and functional disability could prove valuable. A screen based on a tested 'minimal' history and examination system is described, together with a simple method of recording. The screen is fast and easy to perform. As well as providing a useful introduction to examination of the locomotor system, the screen includes objective observation of functional movements relevant to activities of daily living. Its inclusion in the undergraduate clerking repertoire could improve junior doctors' awareness and recognition of rheumatic disease and general disability. It could also provide a valuable screening test for use in general practice. Images PMID:1444632

  5. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  6. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  7. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  8. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  9. Inter- and intra-observer variations in the delineation of lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buelow, Thomas; Heese, Harald S.; Grewer, Ruediger; Kutra, Dominik; Wiemker, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Many clinical and research tasks require the delineation of lesions in radiological images. There is a variety of methods available for deriving such delineations, ranging from free hand manual contouring and manual positioning of lowparameter graphical objects, to (semi-)automatic computerized segmentation methods. In this paper we investigate the impact of the chosen segmentation method on the inter-observer variability of the resulting contour. Three different methods are compared in this paper, namely (1) manual positioning of an ellipse, (2) an automatic segmentation method, coined live-segmentation, which depends on the current mouse pointer position as input information and is updated in real-time as the user hovers with the mouse over the image and (3) free form segmentation which is realized by allowing the user to pull the result of method (2) to image positions that the contour is required to pass. Each of the three methods was used by three experienced radiologists to delineate a set of 215 round breast lesion images in digital mammograms. Agreement between contours was assessed by computing the Dice coefficient. The median Dice coefficient for the ellipses placed by different readers was 0.85. The intra-reader Dice coefficient comparing ellipses and livesegmentations was 0.84, thus showing that the live-segmentation results agree with ellipse segmentations to the same extent as readers agree on the ellipse placement. Inter-observer agreement when using the live-segmentation was higher than for the ellipses (median Dice = 0.91 vs. 0.85) showing that the live-segmentation is a more reproducible alternative to the ellipse placement.

  10. Automatic Detection of Masses in Mammograms Using Quality Threshold Clustering, Correlogram Function, and SVM.

    PubMed

    de Nazaré Silva, Joberth; de Carvalho Filho, Antonio Oseas; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; Cardoso de Paiva, Anselmo; Gattass, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world. Several computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems have been used to assist health experts and to indicate suspect areas that would be difficult to perceive by the human eye; this approach has aided in the detection and diagnosis of cancer. The present work proposes a method for the automatic detection of masses in digital mammograms by using quality threshold (QT), a correlogram function, and the support vector machine (SVM). This methodology comprises the following steps: The first step is to perform preprocessing with a low-pass filter, which increases the scale of the contrast, and the next step is to use an enhancement to the wavelet transform with a linear function. After the preprocessing is segmentation using QT; then, we perform post-processing, which involves the selection of the best mass candidates. This step is performed by analyzing the shape descriptors through the SVM. For the stage that involves the extraction of texture features, we used Haralick descriptors and a correlogram function. In the classification stage, the SVM was again used for training, validation, and final test. The results were as follows: sensitivity 92.31 %, specificity 82.2 %, accuracy 83.53 %, mean rate of false positives per image 1.12, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve 0.8033. Breast cancer is notable for presenting the highest mortality rate in addition to one of the smallest survival rates after diagnosis. An early diagnosis means a considerable increase in the survival chance of the patients. The methodology proposed herein contributes to the early diagnosis and survival rate and, thus, proves to be a useful tool for specialists who attempt to anticipate the detection of masses. PMID:25277539

  11. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women’s needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  12. Sustaining Mammography Screening Among the Medically Underserved: A Follow-Up Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Our previous three-arm comparative effectiveness intervention in community clinic patients who were not up-to-date with screening resulted in mammography rates over 50% in all arms. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the three interventions on improving biennial screening rates among eligible patients. Methods: A three-arm quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted in eight community clinics from 2008 to 2011. Screening efforts included (1) enhanced care: Participants received an in-person recommendation from a research assistant (RA) in year 1, and clinics followed usual clinic protocol for scheduling screening mammograms; (2) education intervention: Participants received education and in-person recommendation from an RA in year 1, and clinics followed usual clinic protocol for scheduling mammograms; or (3) nurse support: A nurse manager provided in-person education and recommendation, scheduled mammograms, and followed up with phone support. In all arms, mammography was offered at no cost to uninsured patients. Results: Of 624 eligible women, biennial mammography within 24–30 months of their previous test was performed for 11.0% of women in the enhanced-care arm, 7.1% in the education- intervention arm, and 48.0% in the nurse-support arm (p<0.0001). The incremental cost was $1,232 per additional woman undergoing screening with nurse support vs. enhanced care and $1,092 with nurse support vs. education. Conclusions: Biennial mammography screening rates were improved by providing nurse support but not with enhanced care or education. However, this approach was not cost-effective. PMID:25692910

  13. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  15. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening.

    PubMed

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-06-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with breast cancer experience had higher risk perception already before screening invitation; after screening they were also more distressed. Women with high PS were more distressed than women with low PS also at pre-invitation. The distress was not alleviated by screening, but instead remained even after normal mammograms. Experience and PS did not influence responses to different screening findings. Of the finding groups, false positives experienced most adverse effects: their risk perception increased and they reported most post-screening breast cancer-specific concerns. Furthermore, they became more frequent in breast self-examination (BSE) despite a simultaneous decrease in BSE self-efficacy. Our findings suggest that women with high PS and women with false positive screening finding may need individualized counseling and follow-up as much as women with a family history of breast cancer. Besides medical risk factors, women's own perceptions of susceptibility should be discussed during the screening process. PMID:12748969

  16. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  17. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  18. Microcalcification detection in full-field digital mammograms with PFCM clustering and weighted SVM-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Mei, Ming; Liu, Jun; Hu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms are an important early sign of breast cancer in women. Their accurate detection is important in computer-aided detection (CADe). In this paper, we integrated the possibilistic fuzzy c-means (PFCM) clustering algorithm and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) for the detection of MC clusters in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). For each image, suspicious MC regions are extracted with region growing and active contour segmentation. Then geometry and texture features are extracted for each suspicious MC, a mutual information-based supervised criterion is used to select important features, and PFCM is applied to cluster the samples into two clusters. Weights of the samples are calculated based on possibilities and typicality values from the PFCM, and the ground truth labels. A weighted nonlinear SVM is trained. During the test process, when an unknown image is presented, suspicious regions are located with the segmentation step, selected features are extracted, and the suspicious MC regions are classified as containing MC or not by the trained weighted nonlinear SVM. Finally, the MC regions are analyzed with spatial information to locate MC clusters. The proposed method is evaluated using a database of 410 clinical mammograms and compared with a standard unweighted support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The detection performance is evaluated using response receiver operating (ROC) curves and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves. The proposed method obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.8676, while the standard SVM obtained an area of 0.8268 for MC detection. For MC cluster detection, the proposed method obtained a high sensitivity of 92 % with a false-positive rate of 2.3 clusters/image, and it is also better than standard SVM with 4.7 false-positive clusters/image at the same sensitivity.

  19. Area and Volumetric Density Estimation in Processed Full-Field Digital Mammograms for Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheddad, Abbas; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Easton, Douglas; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. Methods The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area) and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol). The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. Results All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p<0.025 for breast cancer risk and p<1×10−6 for rs10995190). After adjusting for one of the measures there remained little or no evidence of residual association with the remaining density measures (p>0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of

  20. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  1. Screening mammography. A risk versus risk decision

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, E.R.; Hendee, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential risk of a radiologic procedure often is compared with the potential benefit of the procedure. While risk vs. benefit analysis has been useful as a step toward increased communication and understanding among radiologists, referring physicians, and the general public, it has the disadvantage that risk and benefit are fundamentally different quantities. Hence, their juxtaposition for purposes of comparison presents contextual difficulties. In this article, the concept is presented of comparing the risk of doing a procedure with the risk of choosing not to do the procedure. An example of risk vs. risk analysis of screening mammography for women over the age of 50 is given, with the conclusion that the risk of having yearly mammograms is less than 1/10 the risk of early death caused by failure to diagnose breast cancer by x-ray mammography. This approach to risk analysis would yield interesting data for examinations that are part of more complicated diagnostic pathways.19 references.

  2. Screening Mammography in Older Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Louise C.; Schonberg, Mara A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Guidelines recommend individualizing screening mammography decisions for women 75 and older. However, little pragmatic guidance is available to inform this approach. Objective To provide an evidence-based approach to individualizing decision-making about screening mammography that considers older women's risk of breast cancer and the potential benefits and harms of screening in the context of varying life expectancies and preferences. Evidence Acquisition We searched PubMed for English-language studies in peer-reviewed journals published from January 1, 1990 to February 1, 2014 to identify risk factors for late-life breast cancer in women 65 and older and to quantify the benefits and harms of screening mammography for women 75 and older. Findings Age is the major risk factor for late-life breast cancer. In general, traditional breast cancer risk factors (e.g., age at first birth, age at menarche) that represent hormonal exposures in the distant past are less predictive of late-life breast cancer than factors indicating recent exposure to endogenous hormones (e.g., bone mass, obesity). None of the randomized trials of screening mammography included women over age 74, such that it is uncertain whether screening mammography is beneficial in these women. Observational data favor extending screening mammography to older women who have a life expectancy > 5-10 years. Modeling studies suggest approximately 2 fewer women per 1,000 die from breast cancer if women in their 70's continue biennial screening for 10 years, versus stopping screening at age 69. Potential benefits must be weighed with potential harms of continued screening over ten years, which include false-positive mammograms (~200 per 1,000 women screened) and overdiagnosis (~13 per 1,000 women screened). Providing these frequencies both verbally and graphically may help inform older women's decision-making. Conclusions and Relevance For women with less than a 5-10 year life expectancy

  3. Progress Toward Consensus on Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines and Reducing Screening Harms

    PubMed Central

    Kerlikowske, Karla

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Breast cancer is a leading cause of premature mortality among US women. Early detection has been shown to be associated with reduced breast cancer morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE To update the American Cancer Society (ACS) 2003 breast cancer screening guideline for women at average risk for breast cancer. PROCESS The ACS commissioned a systematic evidence review of the breast cancer screening literature to inform the update and a supplemental analysis of mammography registry data to address questions related to the screening interval. Formulation of recommendations was based on the quality of the evidence and judgment (incorporating values and preferences) about the balance of benefits and harms. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS Screening mammography in women aged 40 to 69 years is associated with a reduction in breast cancer deaths across a range of study designs, and inferential evidence supports breast cancer screening for women 70 years and older who are in good health. Estimates of the cumulative lifetime risk of false-positive examination results are greater if screening begins at younger ages because of the greater number of mammograms, as well as the higher recall rate in younger women. The quality of the evidence for overdiagnosis is not sufficient to estimate a lifetime risk with confidence. Analysis examining the screening interval demonstrates more favorable tumor characteristics when premenopausal women are screened annually vs biennially. Evidence does not support routine clinical breast examination as a screening method for women at average risk. RECOMMENDATIONS The ACS recommends that women with an average risk of breast cancer should undergo regular screening mammography starting at age 45 years (strong recommendation). Women aged 45 to 54 years should be screened annually (qualified recommendation). Women 55 years and older should transition to biennial screening or have the opportunity to continue screening annually (qualified recommendation

  4. Predictors of Self-reported Adherence to Mammography Screening Guidelines in West Virginia Women Visiting a Stationary Facility

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ami; Madhavan, Suresh; Kelly, Kimberly; Metzger, Aaron; Schreiman, Judith; Remick, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the characteristics of women age 40 years and above who utilize a stationary mammography facility and to determine the predictors of self-reported adherence to mammography screening guidelines. Data were analyzed using the expanded version of Andersen Behavioral Model of Healthcare Utilization. Of the 1,104 women included in the analysis, 1,019 women (92.3%) reported having had a mammogram in the past two years. In logistic regression after adjusting for all the variables, older age, having health insurance, not having delayed medical care due to transportation problem, being adherent to clinical breast exam (CBE), Pap test and other routine screenings and having positive views about mammography screening significantly predicted adherence to mammography screening. Adherence to mammography screening was very high in this sample, and enabling and need-related factors and positive views about mammography screening predicted adherence to mammography screening guidelines. PMID:24902464

  5. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  6. Breast Cancer Screening Practices Among First-Generation Immigrant Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Results: Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. Conclusions: This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers. PMID:24865517

  7. iPixel: a visual content-based and semantic search engine for retrieving digitized mammograms by using collective intelligence.

    PubMed

    Alor-Hernández, Giner; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto A

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, traditional search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing facilitate the retrieval of information in the format of images, but the results are not always useful for the users. This is mainly due to two problems: (1) the semantic keywords are not taken into consideration and (2) it is not always possible to establish a query using the image features. This issue has been covered in different domains in order to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The expert community has focussed their attention on the healthcare domain, where a lot of visual information for medical analysis is available. This paper provides a solution called iPixel Visual Search Engine, which involves semantics and content issues in order to search for digitized mammograms. iPixel offers the possibility of retrieving mammogram features using collective intelligence and implementing a CBIR algorithm. Our proposal compares not only features with similar semantic meaning, but also visual features. In this sense, the comparisons are made in different ways: by the number of regions per image, by maximum and minimum size of regions per image and by average intensity level of each region. iPixel Visual Search Engine supports the medical community in differential diagnoses related to the diseases of the breast. The iPixel Visual Search Engine has been validated by experts in the healthcare domain, such as radiologists, in addition to experts in digital image analysis. PMID:22656866

  8. Does Gender Discrimination Impact Regular Mammography Screening? Findings from the Race Differences in Screening Mammography Study

    PubMed Central

    DAILEY, AMY B.; KASL, STANISLAV V.; JONES, BETH A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. Methods African American and white women (1451) aged 40–79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Results Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of ≥$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women. PMID:18321171

  9. Autism and chromosome abnormalities-A review.

    PubMed

    Bergbaum, Anne; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2016-07-01

    The neuro-behavioral disorder of autism was first described in the 1940s and was predicted to have a biological basis. Since that time, with the growth of genetic investigations particularly in the area of pediatric development, an increasing number of children with autism and related disorders (autistic spectrum disorders, ASD) have been the subject of genetic studies both in the clinical setting and in the wider research environment. However, a full understanding of the biological basis of ASDs has yet to be achieved. Early observations of children with chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banded chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and in situ hybridization revealed, in some cases, ASD associated with other features arising from such an abnormality. The introduction of higher resolution techniques for whole genome screening, such as array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), allowed smaller imbalances to be detected, some of which are now considered to represent autism susceptibility loci. In this review, we describe some of the work underpinning the conclusion that ASDs have a genetic basis; a brief history of the developments in genetic analysis tools over the last 50 years; and the most common chromosome abnormalities found in association with ASDs. Introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into the clinical diagnostic setting is likely to provide further insights into this complex field but will not be covered in this review. Clin. Anat. 29:620-627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012322

  10. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  12. Accuracy of Self-Reported Screening Mammography Use: Examining Recall among Female Relatives from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Meghan J.; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Glendon, Gord; Ritvo, Paul; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of the accuracy of self-reported mammography use among women with familial breast cancer risk is limited. This study examined the accuracy of self-reported screening mammography dates in a cohort of 1,114 female relatives of breast cancer cases, aged 26 to 73 from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported dates were compared to dates abstracted from imaging reports. Associations between inaccurate recall and subject characteristics were assessed using multinomial regression. Almost all women (95.2% at baseline, 98.5% at year 1, 99.8% at year 2) accurately reported their mammogram use within the previous 12 months. Women at low familial risk (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.00–3.13), who reported 1 or fewer annual visits to a health professional (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.39), exhibited a lower perceived breast cancer risk (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.15), and reported a mammogram date more than 12 months previous (OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 3.10, 8.80), were significantly more likely to inaccurately recall their mammogram date. Women with varying levels of familial risk are accurate reporters of their mammogram use. These results present the first evidence of self-reported mammography recall accuracy among women with varying levels of familial risk. PMID:23984098

  13. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  14. Classification of findings in mammography screening--a method to minimise recall anxiety?

    PubMed Central

    Pamilo, M; Lönnqvist, J; Halttunen, A; Soiva, M; Suramo, I

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to find out if it is possible, by classifying screening mammograms according to the likelihood of malignancy, to divide the recalled women to a group in which there is high suspicion of malignancy, most having breast cancers, and a group with more obscure findings. DESIGN--Screening mammograms of recalled women were classified according to the likelihood of malignancy. 0 = technically insufficient, 1 = normal, 2 = benign tumour, 3 = malignancy cannot be excluded, 4 = strongly suspicious for malignancy, 5 = malignant. SETTING--This study was a population based survey of mammography screening in Helsinki and surroundings in Finland. PATIENTS--21,417 women (aged 50-59 years) were invited to be screened, 18,012 (84.10%) participated. Of these 579 (3.21% of those screened) were recalled for further studies; 124 of these were referred for surgical biopsy and 82 had breast cancer. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--All cases classified as 5, 60% of the cases classified as 4, 6.5% of the cases classified as 3, 0% of the cases classified as 2 or 1, and 1.2% of the cases classified as 0 proved to have breast cancers. However classification 5 represented 5.9% of all recalled women and 41.5% of all screening detected breast cancers; classification 4, 6.0% of all recalled women and 25.6% of all screening detected breast cancers; classification 3, 68.9% of all recalled women and 31.7% of all screening detected breast cancers; classification 2, 11.7% and classification 1, 2.9% of all recalled women. No breast cancers were detected with these classifications. Classification 0 represented 4.5% of all recalled women and 1.2% of all screening detected breast cancers. Classifications 5 and 4 represented only 11.9% of all recalled women but 67.1% of all screening detected breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS--By classifying screening mammograms according to the likelihood of malignancy, recalled women can be divided into two groups: (1) a quite small subgroup in which

  15. Time Trends in Radiologists’ Interpretive Performance at Screening Mammography from the Community-based Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, 1996–20041

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, William E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Brenner, R. James

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine time trends in radiologists’ interpretive performance at screening mammography between 1996 and 2004. Materials and Methods: All study procedures were institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Data were collected on subsequent screening mammograms obtained from 1996 to 2004 in women aged 40–79 years who were followed up for 1 year for breast cancer. Recall rate, sensitivity, and specificity were examined annually. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) and random-effects models were used to test for linear trend. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), tumor histologic findings, and size of the largest dimension or diameter of the tumor were also examined. Results: Data on 2 542 049 subsequent screening mammograms and 12 498 cancers diagnosed in the follow-up period were included in this study. Recall rate increased from 6.7% to 8.6%, sensitivity increased from 71.4% to 83.8%, and specificity decreased from 93.6% to 91.7%. In GEE models, adjusted odds ratios per calendar year were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.05) for recall rate, 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07. 1.12) for sensitivity, and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98) for specificity (P < .001 for all). Random-effects model results were similar. The AUC increased over time: 0.869 (95% CI: 0.861, 0.877) for 1996–1998, 0.884 (95% CI: 0.879, 0.890) for 1999–2001, and 0.891 (95% CI: 0.885, 0.896) for 2002–2004 (P < .001). Tumor histologic findings and size remained constant. Conclusion: Recall rate and sensitivity for screening mammograms increased, whereas specificity decreased from 1996 to 2004 among women with a prior mammogram. This trend remained after accounting for risk factors. The net effect was an improvement in overall discrimination, a measure of the probability that a mammogram with cancer in the follow-up period has a higher Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment category than does a mammogram without cancer in the

  16. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Breast Cancer Screening Among American Muslims

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Murrar, Sohad; Adviento, Brigid; Liao, Chuanhong; Hosseinian, Zahra; Peek, Monica; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims have low rates of mammography utilization, and research suggests that religious values influence their health-seeking behaviors. We assessed associations between religion-related factors and breast cancer screening in this population. A diverse group of Muslim women were recruited from mosques and Muslim organization sites in Greater Chicago to self-administer a survey incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, discrimination, and Islamic modesty. 254 surveys were collected of which 240 met age inclusion criteria (40 years of age or older). Of the 240, 72 respondents were Arab, 71 South Asian, 59 African American, and 38 identified with another ethnicity. 77 % of respondents had at least one mammogram in their lifetime, yet 37 % had not obtained mammography within the past 2 years. In multivariate models, positive religious coping, and perceived religious discrimination in healthcare were negatively associated with having a mammogram in the past 2 years, while having a PCP was positively associated. Ever having a mammogram was positively associated with increasing age and years of US residency, and knowing someone with breast cancer. Promoting biennial mammography among American Muslims may require addressing ideas about religious coping and combating perceived religious discrimination through tailored interventions. PMID:24700026

  17. Analysis of perceived similarity between pairs of microcalcification clusters in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Juan; Jing, Hao; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Content-based image retrieval aims to assist radiologists by presenting example images with known pathology that are visually similar to the case being evaluated. In this work, the authors investigate several fundamental issues underlying the similarity ratings between pairs of microcalcification (MC) lesions on mammograms as judged by radiologists: the degree of variability in the similarity ratings, the impact of this variability on agreement between readers in retrieval of similar lesions, and the factors contributing to the readers’ similarity ratings. Methods: The authors conduct a reader study on a set of 1000 image pairs of MC lesions, in which a group of experienced breast radiologists rated the degree of similarity between each image pair. The image pairs are selected, from among possible pairings of 222 cases (110 malignant, 112 benign), based on quantitative image attributes (features) and the results of a preliminary reader study. Next, the authors apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to quantify the level of variability in the readers’ similarity ratings, and study how the variability in individual reader ratings affects consistency between readers. The authors also measure the extent to which readers agree on images which are most similar to a given query, for which the Dice coefficient is used. To investigate how the similarity ratings potentially relate to the attributes underlying the cases, the authors study the fraction of perceptually similar images that also share the same benign or malignant pathology as the query image; moreover, the authors apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to embed the cases according to their mutual perceptual similarity in a two-dimensional plot, which allows the authors to examine the manner in which similar lesions relate to one another in terms of benign or malignant pathology and clustered MCs. Results: The ANOVA results show that the coefficient of determination in the reader similarity ratings is 0

  18. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  19. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  20. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  1. Screening Tests for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Culpepper, Larry; Cerreto, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities need thoughtful, well-coordinated primary care from family physicians. However, evidence-based screening recommendations are lacking. We examined screening recommendations for common preventable conditions using the US Preventative Service Task Force guidelines. We also reviewed the literature about the prevalence of these conditions in adults with intellectual disabilities. Obesity, osteoporosis, and smoking are more prevalent in adults with intellectual disabilities, and enhanced screening for these conditions is recommended. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears and cervical cancer are less common in adults with intellectual disabilities and screening recommendations should be individualized. We also discussed strategies to make screening procedures less stressful for these patients. PMID:17615421

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  3. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  4. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  5. Strategies to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipina women in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Aitaoto, Nia; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Wong, Danette Tomiyasu; Yamashita, Barbara A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai’i Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) offers free mammograms and Pap smears to women who are uninsured or underinsured through a statewide provider network. Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and Filipinas are priority populations for this program, and BCCCP providers are required through contract with the Hawaii Department of Health to utilize half of their allotted mammograms and Pap smears for eligible women from these groups. To identify strategies for increasing use by these groups of mammography and Pap smear screening services through BCCCP, we held focus groups with women who could potentially use BCCCP services, and we conducted key informant interviews with 9 of Hawai’i’s 11 BCCCP providers and 9 non-BCCCP outreach workers serving these populations. Findings led to recommendations for promoting awareness of BCCCP and enhancing outreach to Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Filipina communities in Hawai’i. PMID:19842363

  6. What is the point: will screening mammography save my life?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We analyzed the claim "mammography saves lives" by calculating the life-saving absolute benefit of screening mammography in reducing breast cancer mortality in women ages 40 to 65. Methods To calculate the absolute benefit, we first estimated the screen-free absolute death risk from breast cancer by adjusting the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program 15-year cumulative breast cancer mortality to account for the separate effects of screening mammography and improved therapy. We calculated the absolute risk reduction (reduction in absolute death risk), the number needed to screen assuming repeated screening, and the survival percentages without and with screening. We varied the relative risk reduction from 10%–30% based on the randomized trials of screening mammography. We developed additional variations of the absolute risk reduction for a screening intervention, including the average benefit of a single screen, as well as the life-saving proportion among patients with earlier cancer detection. Results Because the screen-free absolute death risk is approximately 1% overall but rises with age, the relative risk reduction from repeated screening mammography is about 100 times the absolute risk reduction between the starting ages of 50 and 60. Assuming a base case 20% relative risk reduction, repeated screening starting at age 50 saves about 1.8 (overall range, 0.9–2.7) lives over 15 years for every 1000 women screened. The number needed to screen repeatedly is 1000/1.8, or 570. The survival percentage is 99.12% without and 99.29% with screening. The average benefit of a single screening mammogram is 0.034%, or 2970 women must be screened once to save one life. Mammography saves 4.3% of screen-detectable cancer patients' lives starting at age 50. This means 23 cancers must be found starting at age 50, or 27 cancers at age 40 and 21 cancers at age 65, to save one life. Conclusion The life-saving absolute benefit of screening mammography

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 13-Year Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Carmen; Echevarria, Mónica; Rodríguez, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Serra, Bernat; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities (CA) over a 13-year period and correlate them to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Down syndrome (DS) screening tests and fetal karyotypes obtained by prenatal invasive testing (IT) in our fetal medicine unit between January 1999 and December 2011. Results: A total of 24,226 prenatal screening tests for DS and 11,045 invasive procedures have been analyzed. Over a 13-year period, utilization of non-invasive screening methods has significantly increased from 57% to 89%. The percentage of invasive procedures has declined from 49% to 12%, although the percentage of IT performed for maternal anxiety has increased from 22% to 55%. The percentage of detected CA increased from 2.5% to 5.9%. Overall, 31 invasive procedures are needed to diagnose 1 abnormal case, being 23 procedures in medical indications and 241 procedures in non-medical indications. Conclusions: Our experience on screening and invasive prenatal diagnostic practice shows a decrease of the number of IT, with a parallel decline in medical indications. There is an increasing efficiency of prenatal screening program to detect CA. Despite the increasing screening policies, our population shows a growing request for prenatal IT. The a priori low risk population shows a not negligible residual risk for relevant CA. This observation challenges the current prenatal screening strategy focused on DS; showing that the residual risk is higher than the current cut-off used to indicate an invasive technique. PMID:26859399

  8. TRICARE: changes included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007; improvements to descriptions of cancer screening for women. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    The Department is publishing this final rule to implement section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2007 (FY07), Public Law 109-364. Specifically, that legislation authorizes breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening for female beneficiaries of the Military Health System, instead of constraining such testing to mammograms and Papanicolaou smears. The rule allows coverage for "breast cancer screening" and "cervical cancer screening" for female beneficiaries of the Military Health System, instead of constraining such testing to mammograms and Papanicolaou tests. This rule ensures new breast and cervical cancer screening procedures can be added to the TRICARE benefit as such procedures are proven to be a safe, effective, and nationally accepted medical practice. This amends the cancer specific recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screenings to be brought in line with the processes for updating other cancer screening recommendations. In response to public comment on the proposed rule, this final rule includes a clarification that the benefit encompasses screening based on Health and Human Services guidelines. PMID:20690236

  9. Predicting radiologists' true and false positive decisions in reading mammograms by using gaze parameters and image-based features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Tay, Kevin; Ryder, Will; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists' gaze-related parameters combined with image-based features were utilized to classify suspicious mammographic areas ultimately scored as True Positives (TP) and False Positives (FP). Eight breast radiologists read 120 two-view digital mammograms of which 59 had biopsy proven cancer. Eye tracking data was collected and nearby fixations were clustered together. Suspicious areas on mammograms were independently identified based on thresholding an intensity saliency map followed by automatic segmentation and pruning steps. For each radiologist reported area, radiologist's fixation clusters in the area, as well as neighboring suspicious areas within 2.5° of the center of fixation, were found. A 45-dimensional feature vector containing gaze parameters of the corresponding cluster along with image-based characteristics was constructed. Gaze parameters included total number of fixations in the cluster, dwell time, time to hit the cluster for the first time, maximum number of consecutive fixations, and saccade magnitude of the first fixation in the cluster. Image-based features consisted of intensity, shape, and texture descriptors extracted from the region around the suspicious area, its surrounding tissue, and the entire breast. For each radiologist, a userspecific Support Vector Machine (SVM) model was built to classify the reported areas as TPs or FPs. Leave-one-out cross validation was utilized to avoid over-fitting. A feature selection step was embedded in the SVM training procedure by allowing radial basis function kernels to have 45 scaling factors. The proposed method was compared with the radiologists' performance using the jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC). The JAFROC figure of merit increased significantly for six radiologists.

  10. Double screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-01

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  12. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  13. Screening for Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression ... Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Screening for Panic Disorder Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for ...

  14. Genetic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Tarini, Beth; Press, Nancy A.; Evans, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement preventive therapy, genetic screening has always included an atypical element—information relevant to reproductive decisions. New technologies offer increasingly comprehensive identification of genetic conditions and susceptibilities. Tests based on these technologies are generating a different approach to screening that seeks to inform individuals about all of their genetic traits and susceptibilities for purposes that incorporate rapid diagnosis, family planning, and expediting of research, as well as the traditional screening goal of improving prevention. Use of these tests in population screening will increase the challenges already encountered in genetic screening programs, including false-positive and ambiguous test results, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. Whether this approach is desirable requires further empiric research, but it also requires careful deliberation on the part of all concerned, including genomic researchers, clinicians, public health officials, health care payers, and especially those who will be the recipients of this novel screening approach. PMID:21709145

  15. Effect of protocol-related variables and women's characteristics on the cumulative false-positive risk in breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Román, R.; Sala, M.; Salas, D.; Ascunce, N.; Zubizarreta, R.; Castells, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing the false-positive risk in breast cancer screening is important. We examined how the screening-protocol and women's characteristics affect the cumulative false-positive risk. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 1 565 364 women aged 45–69 years who underwent 4 739 498 screening mammograms from 1990 to 2006. Multilevel discrete hazard models were used to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk over 10 sequential mammograms under different risk scenarios. Results: The factors affecting the false-positive risk for any procedure and for invasive procedures were double mammogram reading [odds ratio (OR) = 2.06 and 4.44, respectively], two mammographic views (OR = 0.77 and 1.56, respectively), digital mammography (OR = 0.83 for invasive procedures), premenopausal status (OR = 1.31 and 1.22, respectively), use of hormone replacement therapy (OR = 1.03 and 0.84, respectively), previous invasive procedures (OR = 1.52 and 2.00, respectively), and a familial history of breast cancer (OR = 1.18 and 1.21, respectively). The cumulative false-positive risk for women who started screening at age 50–51 was 20.39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.02–20.76], ranging from 51.43% to 7.47% in the highest and lowest risk profiles, respectively. The cumulative risk for invasive procedures was 1.76% (95% CI 1.66–1.87), ranging from 12.02% to 1.58%. Conclusions: The cumulative false-positive risk varied widely depending on the factors studied. These findings are relevant to provide women with accurate information and to improve the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:21430183

  16. Utilization of Screening Mammography Among Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hochhalter, Angela K.; Ahn, SangNam; Wernicke, Meghan M.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study examines patterns of screening mammogram use, investigating the relationship of screening with demographic, health status, and healthcare factors. Methods Data from 1242 women aged ≥41 were obtained from a random sample of mailed surveys to community households in an eight-county region in Central Texas in 2010. The dependent variable was the timing of the participants' most recent screening mammography (in the past 12 months, between 1 and 2 years, or >2 years). Predictor variables included demographic, health status, and healthcare access factors. Multinomial logistic regression identified variables associated with screening mammography practices. Results The majority of women reported having at least one mammogram during their lifetime (93.0%) and having a mammography within the past 2 years (76.2%). Participants who reported not having a routine checkup in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] 0.12, p<0.001), having a lapse of insurance in the past 3 years (OR 2.95, p<0.05), and living in a health provider shortage area (OR 1.42, p<0.05) were less likely to be screened within the past 2 years. Conclusions Routine healthcare plays a major role in preventive screening, which indicates screening mammography practices can be enhanced by improving participation in routine checkups with medical providers, continuity of insurance coverage, and women's access to healthcare. Interventions to encourage screening mammography may be particularly needed for women who have experienced a lapse in insurance or have not had a checkup in the past year. PMID:21780914

  17. Exploring the potential of context-sensitive CADe in screening mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional computer-assisted detection (CADe) systems in screening mammography provide the same decision support to all users. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a context-sensitive CADe system which provides decision support guided by each user's focus of attention during visual search and reporting patterns for a specific case. Methods: An observer study for the detection of malignant masses in screening mammograms was conducted in which six radiologists evaluated 20 mammograms while wearing an eye-tracking device. Eye-position data and diagnostic decisions were collected for each radiologist and case they reviewed. These cases were subsequently analyzed with an in-house knowledge-based CADe system using two different modes: Conventional mode with a globally fixed decision threshold and context-sensitive mode with a location-variable decision threshold based on the radiologists' eye dwelling data and reporting information. Results: The CADe system operating in conventional mode had 85.7% per-image malignant mass sensitivity at 3.15 false positives per image (FPsI). The same system operating in context-sensitive mode provided personalized decision support at 85.7%-100% sensitivity and 0.35-0.40 FPsI to all six radiologists. Furthermore, context-sensitive CADe system could improve the radiologists' sensitivity and reduce their performance gap more effectively than conventional CADe. Conclusions: Context-sensitive CADe support shows promise in delineating and reducing the radiologists' perceptual and cognitive errors in the diagnostic interpretation of screening mammograms more effectively than conventional CADe.

  18. A study guided by the Health Belief Model of the predictors of breast cancer screening of women ages 40 and older.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, J P; Buechner, J S; Scott, H D; DeBuono, B A; Feldman, J P; Smith, R A; Kovenock, D

    1991-01-01

    In late 1987, a total of 852 Rhode Island women ages 40 and older were interviewed by telephone (78 percent response rate) to measure their use of breast cancer screening and to investigate potential predictors of use. Predictors included the women's socioeconomic status, use of medical care, a provider's reported recommendations for screening, and the women's health beliefs about breast cancer and mammography. The Health Belief Model guided the construction of the interview questions and data analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify leading independent predictors of breast cancer screening according to contemporary recommendations: reporting that a medical provider had ever recommended a screening mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 18.77), having received gynecological care in the previous year (OR = 4.92), having a regular source of gynecological care (OR = 2.63), having ever had a diagnostic mammogram (OR = 2.32), and perceiving mammography as safe enough to have annually (OR = 1.93). The findings suggest that programs intended to increase the use of breast cancer screening should include "inreach" and "outreach" elements; inreach to patients with established patient-provider relationships, by assuring that physicians recommend screening to all eligible patients, and outreach to all eligible women, by helping them overcome barriers to effective primary care, and by promoting mammography, emphasizing its effectiveness and safety. The findings also suggest that socioeconomically disadvantaged women, who are less likely to be screened than other women, should become special targets of inreach and outreach interventions. PMID:1908592

  19. Mammography Rates for Breast Cancer Screening: A Comparison of First Nations Women and All Other Women Living in Manitoba, Canada, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Alain A.; Decker, Kathleen M.; Kliewer, Erich V.; Musto, Grace; Shu, Emma; Biswanger, Natalie; Fradette, Katherine; Elias, Brenda; Griffith, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction First Nations (FN) women historically have low rates of preventive care, including breast cancer screening. We describe the frequency of breast cancer screening among FN women living in Manitoba and all other Manitoba (AOM) women after the introduction of a provincial, organized breast screening program and explore how age, area of residence, and time period influenced breast cancer screening participation. Methods The federal Indian Registry was linked to 2 population-based, provincial data sources. A negative binomial model was used to compare breast cancer screening for FN women with screening for AOM women. Results From 1999 through 2008, 37% of FN and 59% of AOM women had a mammogram in the previous 2 years. Regardless of area of residence, FN women were less likely to have had a mammogram than AOM women (relative rate [RR] = 0.69 in the north, RR = 0.55 in the rural south, and RR = 0.53 in urban areas). Conclusions FN women living in Manitoba had lower mammography rates than AOM women. To ensure equity for all Manitoba women, strategies that encourage FN women to participate in breast cancer screening should be promoted. PMID:26020546

  20. Characteristics and prognosis of interval cancers after biennial screen-film or full-field digital screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roy J P; van Bommel, Rob M G; Louwman, Marieke W; Nederend, Joost; Voogd, Adri C; Jansen, Frits H; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Duijm, Lucien E M

    2016-08-01

    We determined the characteristics and prognosis of interval breast cancers (IC) at screen-film (SFM) and full-field digital (FFDM) screening mammography. The study population consisted of 417,746 consecutive screening mammograms (302,699 SFM screens and 115,047 FFDM screens), obtained between 2000 and 2011. During 2-year follow-up, we collected breast imaging reports, surgical reports, and pathology results. A total of 800 ICs had been diagnosed in the screened population, of which 288 detected in the first year (early ICs) and 512 in the second year (late ICs) after a negative screen. 31.3 % of early IC's and 19.1 % of late IC's, respectively, were visible in retrospect on the latest previous screens, but had been missed during screening (P < 0.001). Missed invasive ICs were larger (28.5 mm vs. 23.9 mm, P = 0.003) and showed a higher fraction of T3+cancers (16.9 vs. 8.5 %, P = 0.02) than true ICs (i.e., not visible at the latest screen). A higher portion of missed than true ICs underwent mastectomy (44.7 vs. 30.8 %, P = 0.002). We found no differences in mammographic and tumor characteristics for early ICs, detected either after SFM or FFDM. Late ICs following FFDM were more often true ICs than missed ICs (69.0 vs. 57.6 %, P = 0.03) and more often receptor triple negative (P = 0.02), compared to late ICs at SFM. Interval cancer subgroups showed comparable overall survival. Interval cancer subgroups show distinctive mammographic and tumor characteristics but a comparable overall survival. PMID:27393617

  1. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alex C; Hitt, Austin N; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  2. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  3. Classification of ductal carcinoma in-situ by image analysis of calcifications from mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jon; Dance, David R.; Davies, David H.; Yeoman, L. J.; Michell, M. J.; Humphreys, S.

    1993-07-01

    Image analysis methods have been developed to characterize calcifications associated with Ductal Carcinoma in-Situ (DCIS), and to differentiate between those having comedo or non- comedo histology. Cases were selected from the U.K. breast screening program, and in each case the histology and a magnified mammographic view were obtained. The films were digitized at 25 micron sampling size and 8 bit grey level resolution. Calcifications were manually segmented from the normal breast background, and a radiologist, experienced in breast screening, checked the labelling of a calcifications. An algorithm was developed to classify firstly the individual objects within a film, and secondly the film itself. The algorithm automatically selected the combination of features giving the least estimated Bayes error for a set of object-oriented features evaluated for each calcification. The k-nearest neighbors statistical approach was then used to classify individual objects giving a ratio of comedo to non-comedo objects for a set of training films. Films were classified by applying a threshold to this ratio. In the classification of typical comedo from typical non-comedo the success rate of the algorithm was 100% for a training set of 4 cases and test set of 16 cases.

  4. Racial Differences in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Cancer Screening Practices among a Triracial Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Tatum, Cathy; Rushing, Julia; Michielutte, Robert; Bell, Ronny; Foley, Kristie Long; Bittoni, Marisa; Dickinson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low-income, minority, and rural women face a greater burden with regard to cancer-related morbidity and mortality and are usually underrepresented in cancer control research. The Robeson County Outreach, Screening and Education Project sought to increase mammography use among low-income, minority, and rural women age > 40 years. The current article reports on racial disparities and barriers to screening, especially those related to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. METHODS A baseline survey was administered to 897 women age > 40 years who lived in rural Robeson County in North Carolina. The sample consisted of three principal racial groups: whites, African Americans, and Native Americans. Survey comparisons were made among racial groups with respect to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding breast and cervical carcinoma screening. RESULTS Overall, Native American and African-American women had lower levels of knowledge, more inaccurate beliefs, and more barriers to screening compared with white women. Among the notable findings were that 43% of the patient population did not mention mammograms and 53% did not mention Pap smears as breast and cervical carcinoma screening tests, respectively; furthermore, compared with white women, significantly fewer African-American and Native American women mentioned these tests (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of all women reported that a physician had never encouraged them to receive a mammogram, although 75% reported having received a regular checkup in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS Although all low-income rural women experienced significant barriers to receiving cancer screening tests, these barriers were more common for minority women compared with white women. More research is needed to identify ways to overcome such barriers, especially among Native American women. The results of the current study have important implications with respect to the designing of interventions aimed at improving cancer

  5. Genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Anne; Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide a primer for primary care professionals who are increasingly called upon to discuss the growing number of genetic screening services available and to help patients make informed decisions about whether to participate in genetic screening, how to interpret results, and which interventions are most appropriate. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE As part of a larger research program, a wide literature relating to genetic screening was reviewed. PubMed and Internet searches were conducted using broad search terms. Effort was also made to identify the gray literature. MAIN MESSAGE Genetic screening is a type of public health program that is systematically offered to a specified population of asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reproductive options. Ensuring an added benefit from screening, as compared with standard clinical care, and preventing unintended harms, such as undue anxiety or stigmatization, depends on the design and implementation of screening programs, including the recruitment methods, education and counseling provided, timing of screening, predictive value of tests, interventions available, and presence of oversight mechanisms and safeguards. There is therefore growing apprehension that economic interests might lead to a market-driven approach to introducing and expanding screening before program effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility have been demonstrated. As with any medical intervention, there is a moral imperative for genetic screening to do more good than harm, not only from the perspective of individuals and families, but also for the target population and society as a whole. CONCLUSION Primary care professionals have an important role to play in helping their patients navigate the rapidly changing terrain of genetic screening services by informing them about the benefits and risks of new genetic and genomic technologies and empowering them to

  6. Promotion of breast cancer screening in a work site population.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, M E; Kurtz, J C; Given, B; Given, C C

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether attitudes, intentions, and practices regarding breast cancer screening by mammography and clinical breast examination could be positively influenced through a brief educational intervention administered to women employees at diverse work sites. The educational intervention involved the mailing of American Cancer Society brochures that discussed breast cancer screening and contained guidelines on the recommended frequency for each screening modality according to age. Effects of the intervention were measured through pre/post questionnaires. The results were positive for the entire group of women who participated, as evidenced by their increased perception of the importance of mammography and clinical breast examination and of the priority of getting a mammogram regularly, their decreased perception of mammography as an uncomfortable procedure, and the increased frequency of discussions of breast cancer screening at work. Employers, particularly large corporations and agencies, must realize that by introducing effective work site cancer screening programs they not only fulfill their social responsibility to contribute to their employees' health, but also achieve reductions in health care costs. PMID:8169167

  7. A method to test the reproducibility and to improve performance of computer-aided detection schemes for digitized mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Bin; Gur, David; Good, Walter F.; Hardesty, Lara A.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for assessment of the reproducibility of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes for digitized mammograms and to evaluate the possibility of using the implemented approach for improving CAD performance. Two thousand digitized mammograms (representing 500 cases) with 300 depicted verified masses were selected in the study. Series of images were generated for each digitized image by resampling after a series of slight image rotations. A CAD scheme developed in our laboratory was applied to all images to detect suspicious mass regions. We evaluated the reproducibility of the scheme using the detection sensitivity and false-positive rates for the original and resampled images. We also explored the possibility of improving CAD performance using three methods of combining results from the original and resampled images, including simple grouping, averaging output scores, and averaging output scores after grouping. The CAD scheme generated a detection score (from 0 to 1) for each identified suspicious region. A region with a detection score >0.5 was considered as positive. The CAD scheme detected 238 masses (79.3% case-based sensitivity) and identified 1093 false-positive regions (average 0.55 per image) in the original image dataset. In eleven repeated tests using original and ten sets of rotated and resampled images, the scheme detected a maximum of 271 masses and identified as many as 2359 false-positive regions. Two hundred and eighteen masses (80.4%) and 618 false-positive regions (26.2%) were detected in all 11 sets of images. Combining detection results improved reproducibility and the overall CAD performance. In the range of an average false-positive detection rate between 0.5 and 1 per image, the sensitivity of the scheme could be increased approximately 5% after averaging the scores of the regions detected in at least four images. At low false-positive rate (e.g., {<=}average 0.3 per image), the grouping method

  8. Image fusion of Ultrasound Computer Tomography volumes with X-ray mammograms using a biomechanical model based 2D/3D registration.

    PubMed

    Hopp, T; Duric, N; Ruiter, N V

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising breast imaging modality under development. Comparison to a standard method like mammography is essential for further development. Due to significant differences in image dimensionality and compression state of the breast, correlating USCT images and X-ray mammograms is challenging. In this paper we present a 2D/3D registration method to improve the spatial correspondence and allow direct comparison of the images. It is based on biomechanical modeling of the breast and simulation of the mammographic compression. We investigate the effect of including patient-specific material parameters estimated automatically from USCT images. The method was systematically evaluated using numerical phantoms and in-vivo data. The average registration accuracy using the automated registration was 11.9mm. Based on the registered images a method for analysis of the diagnostic value of the USCT images was developed and initially applied to analyze sound speed and attenuation images based on X-ray mammograms as ground truth. Combining sound speed and attenuation allows differentiating lesions from surrounding tissue. Overlaying this information on mammograms, combines quantitative and morphological information for multimodal diagnosis. PMID:25456144

  9. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  10. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  11. Investigating the link between the radiological experience and the allocation of an 'equivocal finding'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Vidotti, Camila; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Reed, Warren M.; Tapia, Kriscia; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and Objectives: This study will investigate the link between radiologists' experience in reporting mammograms, their caseloads and the decision to give a classification of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) category `3' (indeterminate or equivocal finding). Methods: A test set of 60 mammograms comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases were shown to 92 radiologists. Each radiologist was asked to identify and localize abnormalities and provide a RANZCR assessment category. Details were obtained from each reader regarding their experience, qualifications and breast reading activities. `Equivocal fractions' were calculated by dividing the number of `equivocal findings' given by each radiologist in the abnormal and normal cases by the total number of cases analyzed: 20 and 40 respectively. The `equivocal fractions' for each of the groups (normal vs abnormal) were calculated and independently correlated with age, number of years since qualification as a radiologist, number of years reading mammograms, number of mammograms read per year, number of hours reading mammograms per week and number of mammograms read over lifetime (the number of years reading mammograms multiplied by the number of mammograms read per year). The non-parametric Spearman test was used. Results: Statistically negative correlations were noted between `equivocal fractions' for the following groups: • For abnormal cases: hours per week (r= -0.38 P= 0.0001) • For normal cases: total number of mammograms read per year (r= -0.29, P= 0.006); number of mammograms read over lifetime (r= -0.21, P= 0.049)); hours reading mammograms per week (r= - 0.20, P= 0.05). Conclusion: Radiologists with greater reading experience assign fewer RANZCR category 3 or equivocal classifications. The findings have implications for screening program efficacy and recall rates. This work is still in progress and further data will be presented at the conference.

  12. A comparison study of textural features between FFDM and film mammogram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Yang, Yongyi; Wernick, Miles N.; Yarusso, Laura M.; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we conducted an imaging study to make a direct, quantitative comparison of image features measured by film and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We acquired images of cadaver breast specimens containing simulated microcalcifications using both a GE digital mammography system and a screen-film system. To quantify the image features, we calculated and compared a set of 12 texture features derived from spatial gray-level dependence matrices. Our results demonstrate that there is a great degree of agreement between film and FFDM, with the correlation coefficient of the feature vector (formed by the 12 textural features) being 0.9569 between the two; in addition, a paired sign test reveals no significant difference between film and FFDM features. These results indicate that textural features may be interchangeable between film and FFDM for CAD algorithms.

  13. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  14. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  15. Targeted Pathologic Evaluation of Bone Marrow Donors Identifies Previously Undiagnosed Marrow Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, MP; Jones, RJ; Sexauer, A; Griffin, CA; Morsberger, LA; Batista, DAS; Small, D; Burns, KH; Gocke, CD; Vuica-Ross, M; Borowitz, MJ; Duffield, AS

    2013-01-01

    Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies. 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001–2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. The median age of the screened potential donors was 59 years, and included 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years old (33), anemia (22), cytopenias other than anemia (27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (10), history of malignancy (4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (3), prior graft failure (1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (1), and body habitus (1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11/122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5/22; 23%), age >60 years (2/33; 6%), history of malignancy (2/4; 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1/20; 5%), and body habitus (1/1; 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (3), abnormal marrow cellularity (3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (1), and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. PMID:23769818

  16. Impedance and Otoscopy Screening of Multiply Handicapped Children in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Janet M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of impedance and otoscopic screening in the determination of middle ear abnormalities, 79 physically handicapped, mentally retarded school children (mean age 8 years) were examined. (Author/PHR)

  17. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  18. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Ready 3 of 4 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get screening tests at no cost to you. Most insurance plans, including Medicaid and ...

  19. TORCH screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... different infections in a newborn. TORCH stands for toxoplasmosis , rubella , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it ... used to screen infants for infections such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis and others. These infections ...

  20. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  1. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  2. TORCH Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... different infections in a newborn. TORCH stands for toxoplasmosis , rubella , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it ... used to screen infants for infections such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis and others. These infections ...

  3. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources For Lab Professionals Data and Reports Laboratory Reports National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) Resources ...

  4. Preparticipation athletic screening for genetic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Merle; Sanchez-Ross, Monica; Sherrid, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes is relatively uncommon but tragic when it occurs. Many of these deaths can be prevented by pre-exercise screening to identify cardiac abnormalities and those at high risk. Although recent research has provided much needed information on SCD in athletes, there remain significant gaps in the knowledge needed to determine an optimal screening protocol. This review examines the incidence and demographics of SCD in athletes and the difficulties in determining whether changes in an athlete's heart are due to training or represent a potentially malignant congenital abnormality. Current guidelines for screening and the intense debate over the use of the 12-lead electrocardiogram are discussed. Lastly, the importance of a response plan to an apparent SCD event that includes on-site/on-field automated external defibrillators will be discussed. A case study that illustrates the challenges in screening is presented. PMID:22687598

  5. Comparison of breast percent density estimation from raw versus processed digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Diane; Gavenonis, Sara; Conant, Emily; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    We compared breast percent density (PD%) measures obtained from raw and post-processed digital mammographic (DM) images. Bilateral raw and post-processed medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images from 81 screening studies were retrospectively analyzed. Image acquisition was performed with a GE Healthcare DS full-field DM system. Image post-processing was performed using the PremiumViewTM algorithm (GE Healthcare). Area-based breast PD% was estimated by a radiologist using a semi-automated image thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Comparison of breast PD% between raw and post-processed DM images was performed using the Pearson correlation (r), linear regression, and Student's t-test. Intra-reader variability was assessed with a repeat read on the same data-set. Our results show that breast PD% measurements from raw and post-processed DM images have a high correlation (r=0.98, R2=0.95, p<0.001). Paired t-test comparison of breast PD% between the raw and the post-processed images showed a statistically significant difference equal to 1.2% (p = 0.006). Our results suggest that the relatively small magnitude of the absolute difference in PD% between raw and post-processed DM images is unlikely to be clinically significant in breast cancer risk stratification. Therefore, it may be feasible to use post-processed DM images for breast PD% estimation in clinical settings. Since most breast imaging clinics routinely use and store only the post-processed DM images, breast PD% estimation from post-processed data may accelerate the integration of breast density in breast cancer risk assessment models used in clinical practice.

  6. A ranklet-based image representation for mass classification in digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Masotti, Matteo

    2006-10-15

    Regions of interest (ROIs) found on breast radiographic images are classified as either tumoral mass or normal tissue by means of a support vector machine classifier. Classification features are the coefficients resulting from the specific image representation used to encode each ROI. Pixel and wavelet image representations have already been discussed in one of our previous works. To investigate the possibility of improving classification performances, a novel nonparametric, orientation-selective, and multiresolution image representation is developed and evaluated, namely a ranklet image representation. A dataset consisting of 1000 ROIs representing biopsy-proven tumoral masses (either benign or malignant) and 5000 ROIs representing normal breast tissue is used. ROIs are extracted from the digital database for screening mammography collected by the University of South Florida. Classification performances are evaluated using the area A{sub z} under the receiver operating characteristic curve. By achieving A{sub z} values of 0.978{+-}0.003 and 90% sensitivity with a false positive fraction value of 4.5%, experiments demonstrate classification results higher than those reached by the previous image representations. In particular, the improvement on the A{sub z} value over that achieved by the wavelet image representation is statistically relevant with the two-tailed p value <0.0001. Besides, owing to the tolerance that the ranklet image representation reveals to variations in the ROIs' gray-level intensity histogram, this approach discloses to be robust also when tested on radiographic images having gray-level intensity histogram remarkably different from that used for training.

  7. Breast cancer characteristics associated with digital versus screen-film mammography for screen-detected and interval cancers

    PubMed Central

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Wernli, Karen J.; Sprague, Brian L.; Lehman, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if pathologic findings of screen-detected and interval cancers differ for digital versus film mammography. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Using 2003–2011 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data, we included 3,021,515 screening mammograms (40.3% digital and 59.7% film) for women ages 40 to 89 years. Cancers were considered screen-detected if diagnosed within 12 months of a positive examination and interval if diagnosed within 12 months of a negative examination. Tumor characteristics for screen-detected and interval cancers were compared for digital versus film mammography using logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, hormone therapy use, screening interval, examination year, and registry while accounting for correlation within facilities using generalized estimating equations. Results Among 15,729 breast cancers, 85.3% were screen-detected and 14.7% were interval. Digital and film mammography had similar rates of screen-detected (4.47 vs. 4.42 per 1000 examinations) and interval cancers (0.73 vs. 0.79 per 1000 examinations) for digital versus film, respectively. In adjusted analyses, interval cancers following a negative digital examination were less likely to be AJCC stage IIB or higher (OR=0.69, 95%CI:0.52–0.93), have positive nodal status (OR=0.78, 95%CI:0.64–0.95), or be estrogen receptor-negative (OR=0.71, 95%CI:0.56–0.91) compared with interval cancers following a negative film examination. Conclusions Screen-detected cancers following digital and film mammography had similar rates of unfavorable tumor characteristics. Interval-detected cancers after a digital examination were less likely to have unfavorable tumor features than those diagnosed after film, but absolute differences were small. PMID:26295657

  8. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  9. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  10. Strategies for Increasing Mammography Screening in Primary Care in Chile: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Püschel, Klaus; Coronado, Gloria; Soto, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Karla; Martinez, Javiera; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence among women in Chile and in many Latin American countries. Breast cancer screening has very low compliance among Chilean women. Methods We compare the effects on mammography screening rates of standard care, of a low intensity intervention based on mail contact, and of a high intensity intervention based on mail plus telephone or personal contact. A random sample of 500 women 50 to 70 years registered at a community clinic in Santiago who had not had a mammogram in the past two years were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups. Six months after randomization, participants were re-evaluated for their compliance with mammography screening. The outcome was measured by self report and by electronic clinical records. An intention to treat model was used to analyze the results. Results Between 92% and 93% of participants completed the study. Based on electronic records, mammography screening rates increased significantly from 6% in the control group to 51.8% in the low intensity group, and 70.1% in the high intensity group. About 14% of participants in each group received opportunistic advice, 100% of participants in the low and high intensity groups received the mail contact, and 50% in the high intensity group received a telephone or personal contact. Conclusion A primary care intervention based on mail or brief personal contact could significantly improve mammogram screening rates. Impact A relatively simple intervention could have a strong impact in breast cancer prevention in underserved communities. PMID:20826832

  11. Use of mammography screening among older Samoan women in Los Angeles county: a diffusion network approach.

    PubMed

    Levy-Storms, Lené; Wallace, Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Minority migrant populations, such as older Samoan women, are likely to underuse preventive health services, including mammography screening. The purpose of this paper is to explore how informal (lay peers from churches) and formal (health care providers) health communication networks influence mammography screening use among older Samoan women. To do so, we apply diffusion of innovation theory and network analysis to understand how interpersonal networks may affect mammography use in this urban-dwelling, migrant population. The data come from a survey of 260 Samoan women, aged 50 years or older, who attended 39 randomly sampled Samoan churches in Los Angeles County (USA) between 1996 and 1997. Retrospective data, based over a 20-year period from this sample's year of first use of mammography screening, suggest that interpersonal networks may have accounted for the dramatic increase in the rate of adoption within the past 5 years of the survey. Using this information, we categorized women into mutually exclusive stages of mammography use and regressed these stages of mammography use on formal (had a provider referral) and informal (level of connectedness with peers in churches) health communication networks. The results indicated that being well-connected within women's informal, church-based health communication networks increased the likelihood of being in the decision (planned to have) and implementation and confirmation (had a recent mammogram) stages, but having a provider referral for a mammogram (formal networks) only increased the likelihood of being in the latter stages compared to women in the knowledge and persuasion stages. Formal and informal health communication networks influence recent use of mammography screening, but informal networks, in and of themselves, are also influential on future intention to use mammography screening. PMID:12878100

  12. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  13. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities among children born with conotruncal cardiac defects

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, Edward J.; Chak, Jacqueline S.; Iovannisci, David M.; Schultz, Kathleen; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conotruncal heart defects comprise 25%-30% of non-syndromic congenital heart defects. This study describes the frequency of chromosome abnormalities and microdeletion 22q11 associated with conotruncal heart malformations. METHODS From a population base of 974,579 infants/fetuses delivered, 622 Californian infants/fetuses were ascertained with a defect of aortico-pulmonary septation. Infants whose primary cardiac defect was tetralogy of Fallot (n=296) or D-transposition of the great vessels (n=189) were screened for microdeletions of 22q11. RESULTS Fourteen (2.3%) of the 622 infants/fetuses had chromosomal abnormalities. Thirty infants, 10% of those whose primary defect was tetralogy of Fallot, had chromosome 22q11 microdeletions. Right aortic arch, abnormal branching patterns of the major arteries arising from the thoracic aorta, and pulmonary artery abnormalities were observed more frequently in these children. CONCLUSIONS We found an unusual number of infants with an extra sex chromosome and a conotruncal defect. Infants with tetralogy of Fallot due to 22q11 microdeletion showed more associated vascular anomalies than infants with tetralogy but no 22q11 microdeletion. Although these associated vascular anomalies provide clues as to which infants with tetralogy of Fallot are more likely to carry the microdeletion, the overall risk of 10% among all infants with tetralogy of Fallot warrants chromosome analysis and FISH testing routinely. PMID:19067405

  15. Cancer Screening among immigrants living in urban and regional Australia: results from the 45 and up study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marianne F; Chiew, May; Feletto, Eleonora; Kahn, Clare; Sitas, Freddy; Webster, Lucy

    2014-08-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006-2010). Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening. PMID:25153460

  16. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marianne F.; Chiew, May; Feletto, Eleonora; Kahn, Clare; Sitas, Freddy; Webster, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006–2010). Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening PMID:25153460

  17. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  18. Classroom Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpha Plus Corp., Piedmont, CA.

    This classroom screening device was developed by the Circle Preschool First Chance Project, a government-funded program to integrate handicapped children into regular classroom activities, for use in preschools, nursery schools, Head Start centers and other agencies working with young children. It is designed to give a gross measure of a child's…

  19. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  20. Observer study for evaluating potential utility of a super-high-resolution LCD in the detection of clustered microcalcifications on digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Schmidt, Robert A; Doi, Kunio

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the potential utility of a newly developed liquid-crystal display (LCD), which used an independent sub-pixel drive (ISD) technique for increasing the spatial resolution of a standard LCD three times in one direction, by use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and a two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) method to determine improvement in radiologists' accuracy in the detection of clustered microcalcifications (MCLs) on digital mammograms. We used a standard LCD without and with the ISD technique, which can increase the spatial resolution of the LCD three times in one direction from three mega- to nine megapixels without changes in the size of the display. We used 60 single views of digital mammograms (30 with and 30 without clustered MCLs) for ROC studies and 60 regions of interest (ROIs) with clustered MCLs for 2AFC studies. In the ROC study, seven radiologists attempted to detect clustered MCLs without and with the ISD on the same LCD. In the 2AFC study, the same observer group compared the visibility of MCLs by use of the LCD without and with the ISD. Our institutional review board approved the use of this database and the participation of radiologists in this study. The accuracy in detecting clustered MCLs in the ROC study was improved by use of the LCD with the ISD, but the improvement was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). However, the superiority of the LCD with the ISD was demonstrated as significant (p < 0.001) in the 2AFC study. An LCD with ISD can improve the visibility of clustered MCLs when high-resolution digital mammograms are available. PMID:19277785

  1. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  2. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  3. Predicting stages of adoption of mammography screening in a general population.

    PubMed

    Chamot, E; Charvet, A I; Perneger, T V

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed predictions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behaviour change applied to mammography screening in a random sample of 909 Swiss women aged 40-80 years. We examined stages of mammography adoption, positive and negative attitudes toward screening (pros, cons and decisional balance), and additional predisposing, enabling and reinforcing characteristics. The stage of mammography adoption was defined for 827 women, of whom 46.9% reported on-schedule screening (action 10.2%, maintenance 29.7%, relapse risk 7.0%) and 53% did not (precontemplation 23.1%, contemplation 13.5%, relapse 16.4%). Independent factors associated with more advanced stages (from precontemplation to maintenance) were high pros, low cons, belief that mammography screening is recommended every 2 years, high objective risk of breast cancer, being married and higher income. Independent correlates of stage regression (from action/maintenance to relapse) were high cons, belief that mammography screening is recommended every 4 years or not at all and not being married. Perceived utility of an organised screening programme and reluctance to pay for a mammogram were independently associated with only certain transitions between stages of adoption. Our results confirm the applicability of the TTM to mammography screening in a European context. They also suggest that constructs other than pros and cons may be useful in predicting mammography use. PMID:11576843

  4. A bivariate binormal ROC methodology for comparing new methods to an existing standard for screening applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2007-03-01

    Validating the use of new imaging technologies for screening large patient populations is an important and very challenging area of diagnostic imaging research. A particular concern in ROC studies evaluating screening technologies is the problem of verification bias, in which an independent verification of disease status is only available for a subpopulation of patients, typically those with positive results by a current screening standard. For example, in screening mammography, a study might evaluate a new approach using a sample of patients that have undergone needle biopsy following a standard mammogram and subsequent work-up. This case sampling approach provides accurate independent verification of ground truth and increases the prevalence of disease cases. However, the selection criteria will likely bias results of the study. In this work we present an initial exploration of an approach to correcting this bias within the parametric framework of binormal assumptions. We posit conditionally bivariate normal distributions on the latent decision variable for both the new methodology as well as the screening standard. In this case, verification bias can be seen as the effect of missing data from an operating point in the screening standard. We examine the magnitude of this bias in the setting of breast cancer screening with mammography, and we derive a maximum likelihood approach to estimating bias corrected ROC curves in this model.

  5. The interplay of attention economics and computer-aided detection marks in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tayler M.; Sridharan, Radhika; Wei, Wei; Lukyanchenko, Olga; Geiser, William; Whitman, Gary J.; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: According to attention economists, overabundant information leads to decreased attention for individual pieces of information. Computer-aided detection (CAD) alerts radiologists to findings potentially associated with breast cancer but is notorious for creating an abundance of false-positive marks. We suspected that increased CAD marks do not lengthen mammogram interpretation time, as radiologists will selectively disregard these marks when present in larger numbers. We explore the relevance of attention economics in mammography by examining how the number of CAD marks affects interpretation time. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of bilateral digital screening mammograms obtained between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2014, using only weekend interpretations to decrease distractions and the likelihood of trainee participation. We stratified data according to reader and used ANOVA to assess the relationship between number of CAD marks and interpretation time. Results: Ten radiologists, with median experience after residency of 12.5 years (range 6 to 24,) interpreted 1849 mammograms. When accounting for number of images, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category, and breast density, increasing numbers of CAD marks was correlated with longer interpretation time only for the three radiologists with the fewest years of experience (median 7 years.) Conclusion: For the 7 most experienced readers, increasing CAD marks did not lengthen interpretation time. We surmise that as CAD marks increase, the attention given to individual marks decreases. Experienced radiologists may rapidly dismiss larger numbers of CAD marks as false-positive, having learned that devoting extra attention to such marks does not improve clinical detection.

  6. The Effect of Couples Intervention to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice; Menon, Usha; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Kviz, Frederick; Cho, Young; Miller, Arlene; Park, Hanjong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To assess the efficacy of Korean Immigrants and Mammography—Culture-Specific Health Intervention (KIM-CHI), an educational program for Korean American (KA) couples designed to improve mammography uptake among KA women. Design A two-group cluster randomized, longitudinal, controlled design. Setting 50 KA religious organizations in the Chicago area. Sample 428 married KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram in the past year. The women and their husbands were recruited from 50 KA religious organizations. Methods Couples were randomly assigned to intervention or attention control groups. Those in the KIM-CHI program (n = 211 couples) were compared to an attention control group (n = 217 couples) at baseline, as well as at 6 and 15 months postintervention on mammogram uptake. Main Research Variables Sociodemographic variables and mammography uptake were measured. Level of acculturation was measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Researchers asked questions about healthcare resources and use, health insurance status, usual source of care, physical examinations in the past two years, family history of breast cancer, and history of mammography. Findings The KIM-CHI group showed statistically significant increases in mammography uptake compared to the attention control group at 6 months and 15 months postintervention. Conclusions The culturally targeted KIM-CHI program was effective in increasing mammogram uptake among nonadherent KA women. Implications for Nursing Nurses and healthcare providers should consider specific health beliefs as well as inclusion of husbands or significant others. They also should target education to be culturally relevant for KA women to effectively improve frequency of breast cancer screening. PMID:24769601

  7. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  8. Justifying age thresholds for mammographic screening: an application of pragma-dialectical argumentation theory.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Peter J; Meuffels, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Information campaigns on breast cancer screening in the Netherlands need to convince women above 50 years of age to have biannual mammography, and women below 50 years of age that regular mammograms are not recommended for them. This article reports the results of two experiments in which the construction of the persuasive messages was informed by argumentation-theoretical insights. No differences were found between either statistical and anecdotal evidence or gain- and loss-framing in the attempt to convince women under 50 that they normally do not need regular mammography. A striking contrast emerged, however, between the overwhelming acceptance of breast cancer screening for women above 50 and the relative restraint and reluctance to consent that mammography is usually not recommended for women under 50. The reluctance to accept that regular mammography is not recommended for women under 50 is traced back to ego involvement. PMID:21823968

  9. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  10. Breast and Cervical Screening by Race/Ethnicity: Comparative Analyses Before and During the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    King, Christopher J.; Chen, Jie; Garza, Mary A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, economic recessions have resulted in decreased utilization of preventive health services. Purpose To explore racial and ethnic differences in breast and cervical cancer screening rates before and during the Great Recession. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel was the source for identifying 10,894 women, ages 50–74 for breast screening and 19,957 women, ages 21–65 for cervical screening. Survey years included 2004-2005 and 2009-2010. Dependent variables were as follows: 1) receipt of mammogram within the past 2 years; and 2) receipt of a Pap smear within the past 3 years. The interaction of the recession and the likelihood of screening between whites and minorities was analyzed. Multivariate regressions were applied to estimate the likelihood of screening for the two time periods while controlling for a recession variable. Results Nationally, breast and cervical cancer screening rates dropped during the recession period; white women contributed most to the decline. However, there were significant improvements in timely screening for both cancers among Hispanics during the recession period. After controlling for the recession, African American women were more likely to have timely screenings compared to white women. Screening rates during the recession were lowest in the South, Midwest and West. Conclusion There was a national reduction in the percentages of women who obtained timely breast and cervical screenings during the Great Recession. Outreach efforts are needed to ensure that women who were not screened during the recession are screened. Widespread education about the Affordable Care Act may be helpful. PMID:24650838

  11. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  12. Using Concept Mapping to Explore Barriers and Facilitators to Breast Cancer Screening in Formerly Homeless Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lara Carson; LaNoue, Marianna; Hurley, Katelyn; Sifri, Randa; Myers, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Women with serious mental illness (SMI) have disproportionately worse breast cancer profiles than those of other women. The purpose of this project was to examine barriers to and facilitators of breast cancer screening, specifically in formerly homeless women with SMI using the participatory methodology of concept mapping. A series of three concept mapping focus groups were held with 27 women over the age of 40 with a diagnosis of a SMI who live in supportive housing programs, and with 16 housing program staff. Data from the focus groups were combined through multidimensional scaling to create a visual cluster map. Barriers and facilitators to mammography screening generated by the participants clustered into eight categories. Participants rated addressing educational issues as most important and feasible. Interventions designed to improve mammogram screening in this population should address patients' perception of personal risk and should target education and support systems as modifiable factors. PMID:26320922

  13. Pilot test of a peer-led small-group video intervention to promote mammography screening among Chinese American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Annette E; Wang, Judy H; Young, Lucy; Crespi, Catherine M; Mistry, Ritesh; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effect of a small-group video intervention led by trained Chinese American lay educators who recruited Chinese American women not up to date on mammography screening. Nine lay educators conducted 14 Breast Health Tea Time Workshops in community settings and private homes that started with watching a culturally tailored video promoting screening followed by a question-and-answer session and distribution of print materials. Many group attendees did not have health insurance or a regular doctor, had low levels of income, and were not proficient in English. Forty-four percent of the attendees reported receipt of a mammogram within 6 months after the small-group session, with higher odds of screening among women who had lived in the United States less than 10% of their lifetime. Four of the educators were very interested in conducting another group session in the next 6 months. PMID:20720095

  14. Screening for contaminant hotspots in the marine environment of Kuwait using ecotoxicological and chemical screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; McGowan, T; Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait is a country with low rainfall and highly concentrated industrial and domestic effluents entering its coastal waters. These can be both treated and untreated. In this study we sampled a series of coastal and open-sea sites and used a variety of analyses to identify those sites requiring the most attention. We used a high throughput GC-MS screen to look for over 1000 chemicals in the samples. Estrogen and androgen screens assessed the potential to disrupt endocrine activity. An oyster embryo development screen was used to assess biological effect potential. The chemical screen identified sites which had high numbers of identified industrial and domestic chemicals. The oyster screen showed that these sites had also caused high levels of developmental abnormalities with 100% of embryos affected at some sites. The yeast screen showed that estrogenic chemicals were present in outfalls at 2-3 ng/l E2 equivalent, and detectable even in some open water sites. PMID:26478454

  15. Trends in Detection of Invasive Cancer and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ at Biennial Screening Mammography in Spain: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Román, Marta; Rué, Montse; Sala, Maria; Ascunce, Nieves; Baré, Marisa; Baroja, Araceli; De la Vega, Mariola; Galcerán, Jaume; Natal, Carmen; Salas, Dolores; Sánchez-Jacob, Mercedes; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Castells, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence has decreased in the last decade, while the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased substantially in the western world. The phenomenon has been attributed to the widespread adaption of screening mammography. The aim of the study was to evaluate the temporal trends in the rates of screen detected invasive cancers and DCIS, and to compare the observed trends with respect to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use along the same study period. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 1,564,080 women aged 45–69 years who underwent 4,705,681 screening mammograms from 1992 to 2006. Age-adjusted rates of screen detected invasive cancer, DCIS, and HRT use were calculated for first and subsequent screenings. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the existence of a change-point in trend, and to estimate the adjusted trends in screen detected invasive breast cancer and DCIS over the study period. Results The rates of screen detected invasive cancer per 100.000 screened women were 394.0 at first screening, and 229.9 at subsequent screen. The rates of screen detected DCIS per 100.000 screened women were 66.8 at first screen and 43.9 at subsequent screens. No evidence of a change point in trend in the rates of DCIS and invasive cancers over the study period were found. Screen detected DCIS increased at a steady 2.5% per year (95% CI: 1.3; 3.8), while invasive cancers were stable. Conclusion Despite the observed decrease in breast cancer incidence in the population, the rates of screen detected invasive cancer remained stable during the study period. The proportion of DCIS among screen detected breast malignancies increased from 13% to 17% throughout the study period. The rates of screen detected invasive cancer and DCIS were independent of the decreasing trend in HRT use observed among screened women after 2002. PMID:24376649

  16. ["Facing"--a preliminary parameter in diagnosis of fetal skeletal abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Krause, M; Feige, A

    1993-03-01

    Four cases with abnormalities of foetal faces are demonstrated--thanatophoric dwarfism, cheilognathopalotoschisis, osteogenesis imperfecta, achondrogenesis (Type I). A relationship to skeletal dysplasia was shown. We think, that the representation of foetal faces and their profile plays an important part in second trimester ultrasound screening between 18 and 22 weeks of gestational age. PMID:8467986

  17. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  18. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  19. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  20. Accuracy of patients' recall of Pap and cholesterol screening.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, S; Girgis, A; Sanson-Fisher, R; Ireland, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken in mid-1994 and assessed how accurately patients recall the recency and result of their most recent cholesterol and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional, door-to-door community survey was used to gather self-report and, subsequently, pathology laboratory data for 195 individuals. RESULTS: In regard to cholesterol screening, 30% of individuals who reported being adequately screened were actually inadequately screened, 45% who reported normal cholesterol levels actually had elevated levels, and 21% of inadequately screened individuals and 56% of individuals with elevated levels were not identified by self-report. In terms of Pap screening, 28% of women who reported being adequately screened were actually inadequately screened, 11% of patients who reported a normal Pap test actually had abnormal or inadequate results, and 55% of inadequately screened individuals and 53% of individuals with abnormal or inadequate results were not identified by self-report. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed self-report to be a less-than-adequate measure of individuals' recall of cholesterol and Pap screening. Relying exclusively on self-report surveys as indicators of screening coverage is likely to result in significant underestimations of the proportion of people who are inadequately screened or whose results indicate a need for intervention. PMID:10983202

  1. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with perinatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E.; Fennoy, I.; Laraque, D.; Kanem, N.; Brown, G.; Mitchell, J.

    1992-01-01

    Cocaine in all forms is the number one illicit drug of choice among pregnant women. Records of 70 children with cocaine exposure in utero who were referred for developmental evaluation at a large inner-city hospital were reviewed in an effort to determine whether a specific pattern of abnormalities could be discerned. Patients received physical examinations, neurological screenings, and behavioral and developmental assessments based on the Gesell Developmental Inventory, and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Documentation of specified drug use was obtained by history. Mean age (SEM) at referral was 19.2 (1.7) months. All mothers used cocaine in one of its forms, although polydrug use was common. Growth parameters were low (median = 15th percentile). Significant neurodevelopmental abnormalities were observed, including language delay in 94% of the children and an extremely high frequency of autism (11.4%). The high rate of autistic disorders not known to occur in children exposed to alcohol or opiates alone suggests specific cocaine effects. PMID:1380564

  2. Accuracy of Mammograms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Personal Stories Tools & Resources Recently Diagnosed In Treatment Life After Treatment Friends & Family Assistance & Support Understanding Health Insurance How to Find Financial Assistance Accessing Sources of Support Resources We Offer ...

  3. Dipstick urine analysis screening among asymptomatic school children

    PubMed Central

    Hajar, Farah; Taleb, Mohamad; Aoun, Bilal; Shatila, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mass urinary screening is a useful tool to identify children with asymptomatic progressive renal diseases. A dipstick urinalysis screening was conducted to detect such prevalence and to set up a more effective screening program for children. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in seven nurseries and primary schools in different regions of Lebanon (Beirut, North Lebanon, and Valley of Bekaa) between February 2010 and March 2010. Eight hundred seventy asymptomatic children were enrolled in this study. First morning mid steam urine samples were obtained from students and were tested by dipstick method. Children with abnormal findings were re-tested after fifteen days. Results: Twenty five (2.9%) children had urinary abnormalities at the first screening; Eighteen (72%) of them still had abnormal results at the second screening. Among all the students, hematuria was the most common abnormality found with a prevalence of 1.5%, followed by nitrituria (0.45%), combined hematuria and nitrituria (0.45%) and proteinuria (0.1%). Urinary abnormalities were more common in females than in males. With respect to age, most positive results were detected at 6 years of age. Hematuria and proteinuria were mainly present in the North of Lebanon. Conclusion: Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities might be detected by urine screening program at school age. Further work-up should be offered to define the exact etiology of any abnormal finding and to determine whether early detection of renal disorders in childhood will lead to effective interventions and reduction in the number of individuals who develop end-stage renal disease. PMID:22540088

  4. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  5. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  6. Autonomous detection of heart sound abnormalities using an auscultation jacket.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C; Scheffer, C; Lubbe, W W; Doubell, A F

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a study using an auscultation jacket with embedded electronic stethoscopes, and a software classification system capable of differentiating between normal and certain auscultatory abnormalities. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the potential of such a system for semi-automated diagnosis for underserved locations, for instance in rural areas or in developing countries where patients far outnumber the available medical personnel. Using an "auscultation jacket", synchronous data was recorded at multiple chest locations on 31 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with heart pathologies. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were also recorded simultaneously with phonocardiographic data. Features related to heart pathologies were extracted from the signals and used as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network. The system is able to classify between normal and certain abnormal heart sounds with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 86%. Though the number of training and testing samples presented are limited, the system performed well in differentiating between normal and abnormal heart sounds in the given database of available recordings. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of such a system to be used as a fast and cost-effective screening tool for heart pathologies. PMID:20169844

  7. Are PRO discharge screens associated with postdischarge adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, F.; Mark, D.; Hartz, A.; Campbell, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We evaluate whether patient outcomes may be affected by possible errors in care at discharge as assessed by Peer Review Organizations (PROs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The three data sources for the study were (1) the generic screen results of a 3 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years or older who were admitted to California hospitals between 1 July 1987 and 30 June 1988 (n = 20,136 patients); (2) the 1987 and 1988 California Medicare Provided Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data files; and (3) the American Hospital Association (AHA) 1988 Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the results of generic discharge administered by the PROs and two patient outcomes: mortality and readmission within 30 days. The analysis was adjusted for other patient characteristics recorded on the uniform discharge abstract. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Four discharge screens indicated an increased risk of an adverse outcome-absence of documentation of discharge planning, elevated temperature, abnormal pulse, and unaddressed abnormal test results at discharge. The other three discharge screens examined-abnormal blood pressure, IV fluids or drugs, and wound drainage before discharge-were unrelated to postdischarge adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Generic discharge screens based on inadequate discharge planning, abnormal pulse, increased temperature, or unaddressed abnormal tests may be important indicators of substandard care. Other discharge screens apparently do not detect errors in care associated with major consequences for patients. PMID:7649753

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  9. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  10. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  11. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  13. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  14. Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, James J

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of many disorders, mainly inherited, is feasible with population-wide analysis of newborn dried blood spot samples. Phenylketonuria was the prototype disorder for newborn screening (NBS) and early dietary treatment has resulted in vastly improved outcomes for this disorder. Testing for primary hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis (CF) was later added to NBS programs following the development of robust immunoassays and molecular testing. Current CF testing usually relies on a combined immunoreactive trypsin/mutation detection strategy. Multiplex testing for approximately 25 inborn errors of metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry is a relatively recent addition to NBS. The simultaneous introduction of many disorders has caused some re-evaluation of the traditional guidelines for NBS, because very rare disorders or disorders without good treatments can be included with minimal effort. NBS tests for many other disorders have been developed, but these are less uniformly applied or are currently considered developmental. This review focuses on Australasian NBS practices. PMID:20498829

  15. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region. PMID:25099235

  16. Cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Leece, Pamela; Kendall, Claire; Touchie, Claire; Pottie, Kevin; Angel, Jonathan B.; Jaffey, James

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of cervical screening among HIV-positive women who received care at a tertiary care clinic, and to determine whether screening rates were influenced by having a primary care provider. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary care outpatient clinic in Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women who were HIV-positive receiving care at the Ottawa Hospital General Campus Immunodeficiency Clinic between July 1, 2002, and June 30, 2005. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Whether patients had primary care providers and whether they received cervical screening. We recorded information on patient demographics, HIV status, primary care providers, and cervical screening, including date, results, and type of health care provider ordering the screening. RESULTS Fifty-eight percent (126 of 218) of the women had at least 1 cervical screening test during the 3-year period. Thirty-three percent (42 of 126) of the women who underwent cervical screening had at least 1 abnormal test result. The proportion of women who did not have any cervical tests performed was higher among women who did not have primary care providers (8 of 12 [67%] vs 84 of 206 [41%]; relative risk 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.52, P < .05), although this group was small. CONCLUSION Despite the high proportion of abnormal cervical screening test results among HIV-positive women, screening rates remained low. Our results support our hypothesis that those women who do not have primary care providers are less likely to undergo cervical screening. PMID:21375064

  17. Anal Dysplasia Screening

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    disease state of long-term immunosuppression. In Ontario, there are about 25,000 people living with HIV infection; more than 6,000 of these are women. About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999. It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it. Health Technology Description Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination. Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology. It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions. Abnormal cytological findings are subjected to further evaluations by high-resolution anoscopy, a technique similar to cervical colposcopy, and biopsy. Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains. Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia. Moreover, there are no formal screening programs provincially, nationally, or internationally. The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups. In Ontario, reimbursement exists only for Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed. Methods The scientific evidence base was evaluated through a systematic literature review. Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases

  18. Socioeconomic disparities in the uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening in Italy: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast and cervical cancer screening are widely recognized as effective preventive procedures in reducing cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic disparities in the uptake of female screening in Italy, with a specific focus on different types of screening programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2004-2005 national health interview survey. A sample of 15, 486 women aged 50-69 years for mammography and one of 35, 349 women aged 25-64 years for Pap smear were analysed. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between socioeconomic factors and female screening utilization. Results Education and occupation were positively associated with attendance to both screening. Women with higher levels of education were more likely to have a mammogram than those with a lower level (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10-1.49). Women of intermediate and high occupational classes were more likely to use breast cancer screening (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.55-2.03, OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.40-1.91) compared to unemployed women. Women in the highest occupational class had a higher likelihood of cervical cancer screening compared to those in the lowest class (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.63-2.01). Among women who attended screening, those with lower levels of education and lower occupational classes were more likely than more advantaged women to attend organized screening programs rather than being screened on the basis of their own initiative. Conclusions Inequalities in the uptake of female screening widely exist in Italy. Organized screening programs may have an important role in increasing screening attendance and tackling inequalities. PMID:22305108

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion #296: first-trimester screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    2004-07-01

    First-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities offers potential advantages over second-trimester screening. Studies in the 1900s demonstrated an association between chromosomal abnormalities and the ultrasonographic finding of abnormally increased nuchal translucency (an echo-free area at the back of the fetal neck) between 10 and 14 weeks of gestation. First-trimester screening using nuchal translucency, free beta-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A has comparable detection rates and positive screening rates for Down syndrome as second-trimester screening using 4 serum markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-hCG, unconjugated estriol, and inhibin-A). Although first-trimester screening for Down syndrome and trisomy 18 is an option, it should be offered only if certain criteria can be met. PMID:15229041

  20. Fractal analysis of radiologists' visual scanning pattern in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamudun, Folami T.; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathy; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Several researchers have investigated radiologists' visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists' visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists' scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the composite 4- view scanpaths. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist's scanpath was measured using fractal dimension estimated with the box counting method. The association between the fractal dimension of the radiologists' visual scanpath, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that the complexity of the radiologists' visual search pattern in screening mammography is dependent on case specific attributes (breast parenchyma density and case pathology) as well as on reader attributes, namely experience level. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases. There is also substantial inter-observer variability which cannot be explained only by experience level.

  1. NASA flight electronics environmental stress screening survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marian, E. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Data compiled by the Institute of Environmental Sciences were used to establish guidelines for identifying defective, abnormal, or marginal parts as well as manufacturing defects. These data are augmented with other available sources of similar information in conjunction with NASA centers' data and presented in a form that may be useful to all NASA centers in planning and developing effective environmental stress screens. Information relative to thermal and vibration screens as the most effective methods for surfacing latent failures in electronic equipment at the component level is considered.

  2. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  3. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  4. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  5. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  6. Screening for Specific Phobias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self-Help Strategies: Webinars to Calm Anxious Minds "Triumph" E-News ...

  7. Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and cancer screening among inner-city African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Coates, R. J.; Alema-Mensah, E.

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred twenty-one inner-city African-American women were interviewed to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and cancer screening, and their cancer screening histories. The women were recruited from a variety of sources in Atlanta and were interviewed in their homes by trained lay health workers. Half of the subjects had an annual household income of < $15,000. About half had received a Pap smear and clinical breast examination within the year preceding the interviews. For women > 35 years old, 35% had received a mammogram within the recommended interval. Younger women and women with higher incomes were more likely than older women and those with lower incomes to have received a Pap test and clinical breast examination within the preceding year, but income was not significantly associated with mammography histories. In general, women who were more knowledgeable about cancer and its prevention were more likely to have been appropriately screened. However, various attitudes and beliefs regarding cancer generally were not associated with screening histories. We conclude that cancer screening programs for inner-city minority women should focus on improving knowledge levels among older women rather than attempting to alter attitudes and beliefs. PMID:9195801

  8. Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice E.; Fogg, Louis; Sadler, Georgia R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of this group, 78% had had a mammogram at some point, and 38.6% had had one within the previous year. Fifty-three percent had had a CBE, while 26.1% had had one within the previous year. Whereas 58.1% had examined their breasts before, 46.3% did monthly BSE. Korean women’s breast cancer screening rates are improving even though the rates are still lower than screening rates in the United States. Having a regular check-up and being married were strongly related to all three measures of cancer screening. Further in-depth research is suggested to understand KA women’s perspectives on having access to care. PMID:16791532

  9. Promoting breast and cervical cancer screening at the workplace: results from the Woman to Woman Study.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J D; Stoddard, A M; Mays, J; Sorensen, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article reports findings from a peer-delivered intervention designed to increase use of breast and cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Twenty-six worksites were randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison group. The 16-month intervention consisted of group discussions, outreach, and educational campaigns. Data were collected from a random sample of women employees stratified by age (baseline n = 2943; final n = 2747). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of the intervention on screening behaviors. RESULTS: Relative to comparison worksites, the intervention group experienced greater increases in the percentage of women who reported a recent mammogram (7.2% vs 5.6%), clinical breast examination (5.8% vs 2.1%), and Papanicolaou (Pap) test (4.7% vs 1.9%). After worksite cluster and age strata were controlled for, the observed increase in Pap tests was significantly greater in the intervention group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.62); however, differences in mammography screening rates (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.90, 1.44) and clinical breast examination (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.96, 1.49) were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention activities produced a modest increase in cervical cancer screening, but they did not accelerate breast cancer screening rates above the observed secular trend. PMID:11291370

  10. Breast screening technologists: Does real-life case volume affect performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Hazel J.; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.

    2004-05-01

    In the UK fewer radiologists are now specialising in breast cancer screening. Consequently, a number of technologists have been specially trained to read mammograms so as to double-read with existing radiologists. Each year the majority of these film-readers examine a set of difficult cases as a means of self-assessing their skills. We investigated whether the technologists performed as well as breast-screening radiologists on this difficult test set. We also investigated technologists" performance over a number of years to compare the performance of those technologists who have read a greater number of breast screening films and those who have had less experience. Finally, we investigated real-life experience and performance on the scheme by comparing; volume of cases read, experience, and technologists" performance over time versus radiologists" performance. Data for approximately 250 breast screening Radiologists and 80 specially trained technologists over three years for six sets of 60 difficult recent screening cases were examined. Overall, those technologists who have not read the same volume of cases as radiologists did not perform as well on this particular task. Although when the group was fractionated by volume of cases read in real-life and the number of years reading cases, then the technologists performed at a level similar to the radiologists.

  11. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  12. Groundwater Screen

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  13. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  14. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  15. Screen time and children

    MedlinePlus

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  16. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  17. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page ... Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content ...

  18. Breast Cancer Screening for Women at Average Risk: 2015 Guideline Update from the American Cancer Society

    PubMed Central

    Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Etzioni, Ruth; Herzig, Abbe; Michaelson, James S.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Walter, Louise C.; Church, Timothy R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; DeSantis, Carol; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Andrews, Kimberly; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Smith, Robert A.; Brawley, Otis W.; Wender, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Importance Breast cancer is a leading cause of premature mortality among U.S. women. Early detection has been shown to be associated with reduced breast cancer morbidity and mortality. This report updates the American Cancer Society (ACS) 2003 breast cancer screening guideline for women at average risk for breast cancer. Process The ACS commissioned a systematic evidence review of the breast cancer screening literature to inform the update, and a supplemental analysis of mammography registry data to address questions related to the screening interval. Formulation of recommendations was based on the quality of the evidence and judgment (incorporating values and preferences) about the balance of benefits and harms. Evidence Synthesis Mammography screening in women aged 40–69 years is associated with a reduction in breast cancer deaths across a range of study designs, and inferential evidence supports breast cancer screening in women who are age 70 years and older and are in good health. Estimates of the cumulative lifetime risk of false positive exams are greater if screening begins at younger ages due to the greater number of mammograms, as well as the higher recall rate in younger women. The quality of the evidence for overdiagnosis is not sufficient to estimate a lifetime risk with confidence. Analysis examining the screening interval demonstrates more favorable tumor characteristics when premenopausal women are screened annually vs. biennially. Evidence does not support routine clinical breast examination as a screening method for average risk women. Recommendations The ACS recommends that women with an average risk of breast cancer should undergo regular screening mammography starting at age 45 years (strong recommendation). Women who are ages 45 to 54 years should be screened annually (qualified recommendation). Women who are age 55 years and older should transition to biennial screening or have the opportunity to continue screening annually (qualified

  19. Putting the Screen in Screening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sion Kim; Knight, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adolescent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such settings. This review describes the latest research examining the feasibility and efficacy of computer- or other technology-based alcohol SBI tools in medical settings, as they relate to the following three patient populations: adults (18 years or older); pregnant women; and adolescents (17 years or younger). The small but growing evidence base generally shows strong feasibility and acceptability of technology-based SBI in medical settings. However, evidence for effectiveness in changing alcohol use is limited in this young field. PMID:26259001

  20. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  1. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  2. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  3. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke: insufficient evidence for guidelines.

    PubMed

    Martino, R; Pron, G; Diamant, N

    2000-01-01

    There is no evaluation of the evidence for the screening of oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke. We reviewed the literature on clinical screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in adults with stroke to determine (a) the accuracy of different screening tests used to detect dysphagia defined by abnormal oropharyngeal physiology on videofluoroscopy and (b) the health outcomes reported and whether screening alters those outcomes. Peer-reviewed English-language and human studies were sought through Medline (from 1966 to July 1997) by using the key words cerebrovascular disorders and deglutition disorders, relevant Internet addresses, and extensive hand searching of bibliographies of identified articles. Of the 154 sources identified, 89 articles were original, peer-reviewed, and focused on oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke patients. To evaluate the evidence, the next selection identified 10 articles on the comparison of screening and videofluoroscopic findings and three articles on screening and health outcomes. Evidence was rated according to the level of study design by using the values of the Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination. From the identified screening tests, most of the screenings were related to laryngeal signs (63%) and most of the outcomes were related to physiology (74%). Evidence for screening accuracy was limited because of poor study design and the predominant use of aspiration as the diagnostic reference. Only two screening tests were identified as accurate: failure on the 50-ml water test (likelihood ratio = 5.7, 95% confidence interval = 2.5-12.9) and impaired pharyngeal sensation (likelihood ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-3.7). Limited evidence for screening benefit suggested a reduction in pneumonia, length of hospital stay, personnel costs, and patient charges. In conclusion, screening accuracy needs to be assessed by using both abnormal physiology and aspiration as diagnostic markers for dysphagia. Large well-designed trials

  5. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  6. A variant of human transferrin with abnormal properties.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1982-01-01

    Screening of human serum samples by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea revealed an individual who is heterozygous for a variant transferrin. The variant transferrin is able to bind two atoms of iron, but the iron in the C-terminal binding site is bound abnormally, as judged by its spectral properties, and is dissociated from the protein on electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea. The iron-free C-terminal domain of the variant protein is less stable than normal to thermal and urea denaturation. Structural changes in the variant protein have not yet been characterized. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. PMID:7082283

  7. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients. PMID:24170965

  8. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  9. Disparities in Cancer Screening in Individuals with a Family History of Breast or Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Tsui, Jennifer; Knight, Sara J.; Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ladabaum, Uri; Hiatt, Robert A.; Haas, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening by family history risk could identify critical opportunities for patient and provider interventions tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups. We evaluated whether breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities varied by family history risk using a large, multiethnic population-based survey. Methods Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, BC and CRC screening were evaluated separately with weighted multivariate regression analyses, and stratified by family history risk. Screening was defined for BC as mammogram within the past 2 years for women aged 40 to 64 years; for CRC, as annual fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy within the past 5 years, or colonoscopy within the past 10 years for adults aged 50 to 64 years. Results We found no significant BC screening disparities by race/ethnicity or income in both the family history risk groups. Racial/ethnic disparities were more evident in CRC screening, and the Latino-white gap widened among individuals with family history risk. Among adults with a family history for CRC, magnitude of the Latino-white difference in CRC screening (OR 0.28; 95%CI: 0.11 -0.60) was more substantial than that for individuals with no family history (OR 0.74; 95%CI: 0.59 -0.92). Conclusions Knowledge of their family history widened the Latino-white gap in CRC screening among adults. More aggressive interventions that enhance the communication between Latinos and their doctors about family history and cancer risk could reduce the substantial Latino-white screening disparity in Latinos most susceptible to CRC. PMID:22009719

  10. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  11. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  13. Abnormal brain scan with subacute extradural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Morley, J. Barrie; Langford, Keith H.

    1970-01-01

    Four patients are described with proven subacute extradural haematomas, each with an abnormal cerebral scan of diagnostic assistance. A possible mechanism of production of the subacute extradural haematoma is discussed, and appears to be similar to the mechanism involved in the subacute subdural haematoma. The means by which the abnormal scan results in such cases is also examined, from which it appears that non-specific meningeal membrane inflammatory reaction surrounding the haematoma is significant. Images PMID:5478950

  14. Development of prenatal screening--A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Cuckle, Howard; Maymon, Ron

    2016-02-01

    The first prenatal screening test to be introduced was based on a single maternal serum marker of neural tube defects. Since then various prenatal screening concepts have been developed, the most successful being Down syndrome risk estimation using multiple serum and ultrasound markers. Today a completely new approach to aneuploidy screening is available based on maternal plasma cell-free DNA testing. This has the potential to markedly improve screening performance but routine testing is currently too expensive in a public health setting. However, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker tests. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia that can be prevented using soluble low-dose aspirin treatment started before 16 weeks of gestation. Prenatal screening for cardiac abnormalities, fragile X syndrome and recessive genetic disorders is underutilized and public health planners should considered a more widespread application of available methods. PMID:26764253

  15. Detection of fetal structural abnormalities with US during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fong, Katherine W; Toi, Ants; Salem, Shia; Hornberger, Lisa K; Chitayat, David; Keating, Sarah J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Johnson, Jo-Ann

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is performed during early pregnancy for dating, determination of the number of fetuses, assessment of early complications, and increasingly for evaluation of the fetus, including measurement of the thickness of the nuchal translucency (NT). Measurement of NT thickness between 11 and 14 weeks gestation, combined with maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry, can be an effective method of screening for trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, an increased NT thickness in the presence of a normal karyotype is associated with an increased frequency of structural defects and genetic syndromes. Therefore, this finding is an indication for a more detailed anatomic survey of the fetus. Besides nuchal abnormalities, a wide range of other congenital anomalies can be diagnosed with US at 11-14 weeks gestation, including defects of the central nervous system, heart, anterior abdominal wall, urinary tract, and skeleton. The anatomic survey can be performed with a standardized protocol by using transabdominal US and, when necessary, transvaginal US. A thorough knowledge of the US features of normal fetal development is necessary to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:14730044

  16. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  17. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  18. Paid- and family-carers' views on supporting women with intellectual disability through breast screening.

    PubMed

    Willis, D S; Kilbride, L; Horsburgh, D; Kennedy, C M

    2015-07-01

    The cancer needs of people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being debated. This paper explores the views and experiences of paid- and family-carers when supporting women with intellectual disabilities through breast screening. An ethnographic approach was drawn on and purposive sampling methods were employed. One-to-one semi-structured interviews with 13 carers (10 paid-carers, three family-carers) were undertaken and supported by periods of focused observation on behaviour related to breast awareness and breast screening. Findings indicated that most women with intellectual disabilities needed some support but the quality and quantity of support depended upon both the woman's level of intellectual disability and who was supporting them. In terms of breast screening, the findings suggested that the women were potentially being let down at all the different stages of the breast screening process, from the arrival of the invitation letter to the experience of having a mammogram. The conclusion drawn was that there was evidence of equality of service provision but inequality of service delivery and uptake. PMID:25286771

  19. Reactions to Uncertainty and the Accuracy of Diagnostic Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Joyce P.; Abraham, Linn A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Aiello, Erin J.; Gerrity, Martha S.; Reisch, Lisa; Berns, Eric A.; Sickles, Edward A.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Reactions to uncertainty in clinical medicine can affect decision making. Objective To assess the extent to which radiologists’ reactions to uncertainty influence diagnostic mammography interpretation. Design Cross-sectional responses to a mailed survey assessed reactions to uncertainty using a well-validated instrument. Responses were linked to radiologists’ diagnostic mammography interpretive performance obtained from three regional mammography registries. Participants One hundred thirty-two radiologists from New Hampshire, Colorado, and Washington. Measurement Mean scores and either standard errors or confidence intervals were used to assess physicians’ reactions to uncertainty. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit via generalized estimating equations to assess the impact of uncertainty on diagnostic mammography interpretive performance while adjusting for potential confounders. Results When examining radiologists’ interpretation of additional diagnostic mammograms (those after screening mammograms that detected abnormalities), a 5-point increase in the reactions to uncertainty score was associated with a 17% higher odds of having a positive mammogram given cancer was diagnosed during follow-up (sensitivity), a 6% lower odds of a negative mammogram given no cancer (specificity), a 4% lower odds (not significant) of a cancer diagnosis given a positive mammogram (positive predictive value [PPV]), and a 5% higher odds of having a positive mammogram (abnormal interpretation). Conclusion Mammograms interpreted by radiologists who have more discomfort with uncertainty have higher likelihood of being recalled. PMID:17356992

  20. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  1. Zone-based analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, E-Fong; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Chou, Ming-Chung; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities in chest radiographs. Methods: The method was based on profile analysis to detect abnormalities in chest radiographs. In the method, one density-based feature, Density Symmetry Index, and two texture-based features, Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index, were used to detect abnormalities in the lung fields. In each chest radiograph, the lung fields were divided into four zones initially and then the method was applied to each zone separately. For each zone, Density Symmetry Index was obtained from the projection profile of each zone, and Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index were obtained by measuring the roughness of the horizontal profiles via moving average technique. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify normal and abnormal cases based on the three indices. The discriminant performance of the method was evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: The method was evaluated on a database of 250 normal and 250 abnormal chest images. In the optimized conditions, the zone-based performance Az of the method for zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.917, 0.897, 0.892, and 0.814, respectively, and the case-based performance Az of the method was 0.842. Our previous method for detection of gross abnormalities was also evaluated on the same database. The case-based performance of our previous method was 0.689. Conclusions: In comparing the previous method and the new method proposed in this study, there was a great improvement by the new method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities. The new method combined with the previous one has potential for screening abnormalities in chest radiographs.

  2. Pre-participation cardiovascular screening: is community screening using hand-held cardiac ultrasound feasible?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A R J; Hurry, R; Le Page, P; MacLachlan, H

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and costs of utilising hand-held cardiac ultrasound (HHCU) as part of a community-based pre-participation cardiovascular screening programme. Ninety-seven school children were screened using a personal history, a physical examination, a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and a HHCU. A consultant cardiologist independently reviewed and reported the data. Previously undiagnosed cardiovascular abnormalities were identified in nine participants (9%). An additional three participants (3%) were diagnosed with hypertension. The nine abnormalities were identified at a cost of £460 per finding, with a cost of £43 per participant screened. The marginal cost of adding a HHCU to the personal history, physical examination and ECG was £16 per participant. Pre-participation screening in the community using hand-held echocardiography is practical and inexpensive. The additional sensitivity and specificity provided by the ultrasound may enhance screening programmes, thereby reducing false positives and the need for expensive follow-up testing. PMID:26693333

  3. Pre-participation cardiovascular screening: is community screening using hand-held cardiac ultrasound feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Hurry, R; Le Page, P; MacLachlan, H

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and costs of utilising hand-held cardiac ultrasound (HHCU) as part of a community-based pre-participation cardiovascular screening programme. Ninety-seven school children were screened using a personal history, a physical examination, a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and a HHCU. A consultant cardiologist independently reviewed and reported the data. Previously undiagnosed cardiovascular abnormalities were identified in nine participants (9%). An additional three participants (3%) were diagnosed with hypertension. The nine abnormalities were identified at a cost of £460 per finding, with a cost of £43 per participant screened. The marginal cost of adding a HHCU to the personal history, physical examination and ECG was £16 per participant. Pre-participation screening in the community using hand-held echocardiography is practical and inexpensive. The additional sensitivity and specificity provided by the ultrasound may enhance screening programmes, thereby reducing false positives and the need for expensive follow-up testing. PMID:26693333

  4. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Taylor P.; Clavijo, Raul; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Hakky, Tariq; Candrashekar, Aravind; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations of autosomal chromosomes are present in about 1/625 men, yet often there are no symptoms except primary infertility. Abnormal segregation during meiosis often produces sperm and subsequent embryos with unbalanced translocations that often ultimately result in spontaneous abortions. We report on a 37-year-old man and his 39-year-old wife who complained of primary infertility. Previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) had resulted in pregnancy, but two spontaneous abortions. Upon chromosomal testing, the man was diagnosed with a reciprocal translocation and his wife was diagnosed with mosaic Turner’s syndrome. Through testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and IVF with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), they succeeded in having two healthy children. Since men with different karyotype abnormalities can have male infertility, we reviewed the literature and summarized the reproductive outcomes for men with both autosome and sex chromosomal karyotype abnormalities. PMID:26425238

  5. Improved segmentation of abnormal cervical nuclei using a graph-search based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Reliable segmentation of abnormal nuclei in cervical cytology is of paramount importance in automation-assisted screening techniques. This paper presents a general method for improving the segmentation of abnormal nuclei using a graph-search based approach. More specifically, the proposed method focuses on the improvement of coarse (initial) segmentation. The improvement relies on a transform that maps round-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system into lines in the polar coordinate system. The costs consisting of nucleus-specific edge and region information are assigned to the nodes. The globally optimal path in the constructed graph is then identified by dynamic programming. We have tested the proposed method on abnormal nuclei from two cervical cell image datasets, Herlev and H and E stained liquid-based cytology (HELBC), and the comparative experiments with recent state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  6. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Taylor P; Clavijo, Raul; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Hakky, Tariq; Candrashekar, Aravind; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations of autosomal chromosomes are present in about 1/625 men, yet often there are no symptoms except primary infertility. Abnormal segregation during meiosis often produces sperm and subsequent embryos with unbalanced translocations that often ultimately result in spontaneous abortions. We report on a 37-year-old man and his 39-year-old wife who complained of primary infertility. Previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) had resulted in pregnancy, but two spontaneous abortions. Upon chromosomal testing, the man was diagnosed with a reciprocal translocation and his wife was diagnosed with mosaic Turner's syndrome. Through testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and IVF with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), they succeeded in having two healthy children. Since men with different karyotype abnormalities can have male infertility, we reviewed the literature and summarized the reproductive outcomes for men with both autosome and sex chromosomal karyotype abnormalities. PMID:26425238

  7. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  8. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32–0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was

  9. Cancer Screening in Women: BMI and Adherence to Physician Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Chen, Ping-Hsin; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Reasons obese women are less likely to obtain mammograms and Pap smears are poorly understood. This study evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and receipt of and adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Methods Data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey (8289 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed in 2006 using logistic regression. Women with prior hysterectomy were excluded from Pap smear analyses (n=5521). Outcome measures were being up-to-date with screening, receipt of physician recommendations, and women's adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health care access, health behaviors, and comorbidity, severely obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) were less likely to have mammography within 2 years (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.37, 0.68) and Pap smear within 3 years (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27,0.70). Obese women were as likely as normal weight women to receive physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Severely obese women were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for mammography (OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.76). Women in all obese categories (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for Pap smear (OR's ranged 0.17-0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Obese women are less likely to adhere to physician recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Interventions focusing solely on increasing physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smears will probably be insufficient for obese women. Additional strategies are needed to make cancer screening more acceptable for this high-risk group. PMID:17533069

  10. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Penelope; McClaren, Belinda J; Hodgson, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have explored women's psychosocial experience of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality, and within this small group of studies it is rare for research to consider the embodied aspect of women's experiences. This paper reports on qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 59 women in Melbourne, Australia who received a prenatal diagnosis of a significant abnormality and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Interview transcripts were coded inductively through thematic analysis. Two themes about embodiment were generated from the interviews: transitioning embodiment, and vulnerable bodies in un/comfortable spaces. Theory of pregnant embodiment was drawn on in interpreting women's narratives. Recommendations arising from the analysis include health professionals recognising, acknowledging and accommodating the transitioning embodied state of women as they consider, prepare for, undergo and recover from pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Further recommendations address the connections and disconnections between this transitioning embodied state and the spaces of clinics, hospitals and home. PMID:27578350

  12. ‘If I feel something wrong, then I will get a mammogram’: understanding barriers and facilitators for mammography screening among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Püschel, Klaus; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria; Gonzalez, Karla; Rain, Carolina; Rivera, Soledad

    2010-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in Chile and in many Latin American countries. Breast cancer screening is an effective strategy to reduce mortality, but it has a very low compliance among Chilean women. Objective. To understand barriers and facilitators for breast cancer screening in a group of Chilean women aged 50–70. Methods. Following the Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing (PRECEDE) framework, seven focus groups (N = 48 women) were conducted with women that have had diverse experiences with breast cancer and screening practices. Information was collected using field notes and audio and video recording. Following the grounded theory model, a sequential process of open, axial and selective coding was used for the information analysis. Atlas ti 5.5 software was used for coding and segmenting the data obtained from the interviews. Results. The presence of symptoms and/or the finding of lumps through breast self-examination (BSE) were the main predisposing factors for getting a mammogram. Secrecy, embarrassment and fatalism about breast cancer were significant cultural factors that influenced the decision to seek mammogram screening. Confidence in medical staff and dignity in the treatment at the clinic were important enabling factors. The main reinforcing factors for getting the test were a sense of fulfilment by doing something good for themselves and getting timely information about the results. Conclusions. Primary health care providers should use culturally appropriate strategies to better inform women about the importance of mammography screening and the limitations of BSE for preventing advanced breast cancer. PMID:19897514

  13. Randomized Trial of A Lay Health Advisor and Computer Intervention to Increase Mammography Screening in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Kathleen M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Zhao, Qianqian; Spacey, Nicole; Rush, Nathan L.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-income African American women face numerous barriers to mammography screening. We tested the efficacy of a combined interactive computer program and lay health advisor (LHA) intervention to increase mammography screening. Methods In this randomized, single blind study, participants were 181 African American female health center patients ages 41-75, ≤250% of poverty level with no breast cancer history and no screening mammogram in the past 15 months. They were assigned to either (a) a low dose comparison group consisting of a culturally appropriate mammography screening pamphlet or (b) interactive, tailored computer instruction at baseline and 4 monthly LHA counseling sessions. Self-reported screening data were collected at baseline and 6 months and verified by medical record. Results For intent-to-treat analysis of primary outcome (medical-record-verified mammography screening, available on all but two participants), the intervention group had increased screening to 51% (45/89) compared to 18% (16/90) for the comparison group at 6 months. When adjusted for employment status, disability, first-degree relatives with breast cancer, health insurance, and previous breast biopsies, the intervention group was three times more likely (adjusted relative risk [RR]=2.7 [95% CI: 1.8, 3.7], p<.0001) to get screened than the low dose comparison group. Similar results were found for self-reported mammography stage of screening adoption. Conclusions The combined intervention was efficacious in improving mammography screening in low-income African American women, with an unadjusted effect size (RR = 2.84) significantly higher (p < .05) than previous studies of each intervention alone. PMID:20056639

  14. A Novel Strategy to Reveal the Latent Abnormalities in Human Embryonic Stages from a Large Embryo Collection.

    PubMed

    Kanahashi, Tohoru; Yamada, Shigehito; Tanaka, Mire; Hirose, Ayumi; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The cause of spontaneous abortion of normal conceptuses remains unknown in most cases. The study was aimed to reveal the latent abnormalities by using a large collection of embryo images from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database and novel phase-contrast radiographic computed tomography (PXCT). MRI from 1,156 embryos between Carnegie stage (CS) 14 and CS23 from the Kyoto Collection were screened by using the volume of the liver as the target organ. Embryos with liver volumes ≥2 SD above or below the mean for the stage of development were screened and examined precisely on MRI. Embryos with potentially abnormal livers were further analyzed by using PXCT. Liver abnormality was detected in all 7 embryos in the extra-small liver group and in 2 of 8 embryos in the extra-large liver group. The abnormalities in the extra-small liver group consisted of hepatic agenesis (2 embryos), hepatic hypogenesis (4), and liver lobe defect (1). Among the 7 extra-small liver group, 2 had only liver abnormalities and 5 exhibited complications in other organs. Of the 2 embryos in the extra-large liver group, one had only a single liver abnormality and the other had a morphologically abnormal liver with complications in other organs. Most of such liver abnormality cases are not survive, as liver function becomes essential. The prevalence of liver malformations in CS18 and CS21 in the intrauterine population of externally normal embryos is approximately 1.7%. The present study is the first step toward the elucidation of the latent abnormalities resulting in spontaneous abortion in externally normal embryos. PMID:26474800

  15. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E.; Bann, Carla M.; Watson, Victoria E.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Bodnar, Anna; Yolton, Kimberly; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Dusick, Anna M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Heyne, Roy J.; Hintz, Susan R.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Fuller, Janell; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Vohr, Betty R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm (EP) infants screen positive for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) at high rates. However it is not clear whether this is due to high rates of ASD in EPs or to high rates of false positive screens for ASD in children with a high rate of underlying neurodevelopmental impairments. Combining a parent questionnaire designed to distinguish developmental delay from ASD with direct observation of infant behavior may more accurately screen for ASD in EPs. Objectives To determine rates of positive screen for ASD at 18–22months(m) in EPs using three screens; to determine factors associated with a positive screen. Methods 554 infants born <27 weeks were screened at 18–22m using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test, 2nd edition, Stage 2 (PDDST-II) and the response to name and response to joint attention items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Infants with severe cerebral palsy, deafness and blindness were excluded. Associations between positive screen and neonatal/infant characteristics were determined. Results 113/554 (20 %) had ≥1 positive screen. 10% had a positive PDDST-II, 6% response to name, 9% response to joint attention; in only 1% were all 3 screens positive. Positive screen was associated with male gender, more hospital days, white race, lower maternal education, abnormal behavioral scores, and cognitive/language delay. Conclusions The use of three screens for ASD in EPs results in higher screen positive rates than use of one screen alone. Diagnostic confirmation is needed before true rates of ASD in EPs are known. PMID:22926660

  16. Perspectives on Mammography After Receipt of Secondary Screening Due to a False Positive

    PubMed Central

    Siminoff, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The utility of mammography screening as an efficacious tool for early detection is being contested due to the risk of potential harms including psychological distress and exposure to unnecessary procedures associated with FPs and over-diagnosis. Yet there is little research regarding women’s experiences, values or preferences for participating in mammography programs. Our aim was to explore women’s actual experiences of a FP mammography screen and their perceptions of the value, risks and benefits given their recent experience. METHODS We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women who experienced a recent FP mammogram. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A directed content analysis was used to identify and explore primary themes. Knowledge of breast cancer risk was also assessed. FINDINGS Receiving a FP mammography screen generated significant worry among 60% (n=24) of women. Yet 70% maintained that mammography screening was necessary despite the worry incurred. Women also described the experience as stimulating greater interest in additional cancer prevention activities (32.5%; n=13) and one third discussed needing more information about the risks and benefits of mammography screening. Less than one quarter of women (22.5%; n=9) correctly identified a women’s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, 20% (n=8) overestimated and 57.5% (n=23) underestimated this risk. CONCLUSION Women reported needing more information about the risks and benefits of mammography screening but also considered FPs an acceptable risk. Further, our results suggest that breast cancer screening programs may provide a unique opportunity to deliver additional breast cancer prevention interventions. PMID:25648490

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  19. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  20. The ethics of screening: is 'screeningitis' an incurable disease?

    PubMed Central

    Shickle, D; Chadwick, R

    1994-01-01

    Screening programmes are becoming increasingly popular since prevention is considered 'better than cure'. While earlier diagnosis may result in more effective treatment for some, there will be consequent harm for others due to anxiety, stigma, side-effects etc. A screening test cannot guarantee the detection of all 'abnormal' cases, therefore there will be false reassurance for some. A proper consideration of the potential benefit and harm arising from screening may lead to the conclusion that the programme should not be offered. A modified utilitarian approach may be used for allocation of scarce resources in health care. Ethics has an important role in this evaluation. PMID:8035433

  1. Fractal Analysis of Radiologists Visual Scanning Pattern in Screening Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Alamudun, Folami T; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathy; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators have investigated radiologists visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the derived scanpaths using the box counting method. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist s scanpath was estimated using fractal dimension. The association between gaze complexity, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using 3 factor fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that case pathology, breast density, and experience level are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases as well as when breast parenchyma density changes.

  2. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  3. Development of an Attitudes Measure for Prenatal Screening in Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, S. F.; Learman, L. A.; Gates, E. A.; Washington, A. E.; Kuppermann, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities is routinely offered to all pregnant women who present for care by their 20th gestational week. Not all women, however, choose to undergo one of these tests, and choice of which test(s) to undergo also vary. The reasons for variation in screening test behavior have not been fully…

  4. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  5. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  6. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  7. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  8. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  9. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  10. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  11. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  12. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  13. An adaptive incremental approach to constructing ensemble classifiers: Application in an information-theoretic computer-aided decision system for detection of masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-07-15

    Ensemble classifiers have been shown efficient in multiple applications. In this article, the authors explore the effectiveness of ensemble classifiers in a case-based computer-aided diagnosis system for detection of masses in mammograms. They evaluate two general ways of constructing subclassifiers by resampling of the available development dataset: Random division and random selection. Furthermore, they discuss the problem of selecting the ensemble size and propose two adaptive incremental techniques that automatically select the size for the problem at hand. All the techniques are evaluated with respect to a previously proposed information-theoretic CAD system (IT-CAD). The experimental results show that the examined ensemble techniques provide a statistically significant improvement (AUC=0.905{+-}0.024) in performance as compared to the original IT-CAD system (AUC=0.865{+-}0.029). Some of the techniques allow for a notable reduction in the total number of examples stored in the case base (to 1.3% of the original size), which, in turn, results in lower storage requirements and a shorter response time of the system. Among the methods examined in this article, the two proposed adaptive techniques are by far the most effective for this purpose. Furthermore, the authors provide some discussion and guidance for choosing the ensemble parameters.

  14. Dependence of Shape-Based Descriptors and Mass Segmentation Areas on Initial Contour Placement Using the Chan-Vese Method on Digital Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Acho, S. N.; Rae, W. I. D.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in signal intensity within mass lesions and missing boundary information are intensity inhomogeneities inherent in digital mammograms. These inhomogeneities render the performance of a deformable contour susceptible to the location of its initial position and may lead to poor segmentation results for these images. We investigate the dependence of shape-based descriptors and mass segmentation areas on initial contour placement with the Chan-Vese segmentation method and compare these results to the active contours with selective local or global segmentation model. For each mass lesion, final contours were obtained by propagation of a proposed initial level set contour and by propagation of a manually drawn contour enclosing the region of interest. Differences in shape-based descriptors were quantified using absolute percentage differences, Euclidean distances, and Bland-Altman analysis. Segmented areas were evaluated with the area overlap measure. Differences were dependent upon the characteristics of the mass margins. Boundary moments presented large percentage differences. Pearson correlation analysis showed statistically significant correlations between shape-based descriptors from both initial locations. In conclusion, boundary moments of digital mass lesions are sensitive to the placement of initial level set contours while shape-based descriptors such as Fourier descriptors, shape convexity, and shape rectangularity exhibit a certain degree of robustness to changes in the location of the initial level set contours for both segmentation algorithms. PMID:26379762

  15. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations. PMID:26605692

  16. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  17. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  18. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  19. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  20. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973