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Sample records for abnormal screening results

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  2. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  3. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  4. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  5. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    PubMed Central

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) to stratify GDM population according to postpartum risk. Materials and methods Electronic medical records of an ethnically homogenous cohort of women diagnosed and treated for GDM in a single medical centre during the period 2005–2011 who completed postpartum oGTT up to 1 year after the index delivery were retrospectively analysed (N = 305). Results Postpartum glucose abnormality was detected in 16.7% subjects. Mid-trimester oGTT values, respective area under the curve and HbA1c were significantly associated with early postpartum glucose abnormality (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney) and exhibited significant predictive potential for postpartum glucose abnormality risk assessment. Optimal cut-off values for discrimination of at-risk sub-population were identified using ROC analysis and their comparison with WHO and IADPSG criteria exhibited superiority of IADPSG for risk-stratification of GDM population. Conclusion Risk-based stratification at the time of GDM diagnosis could improve efficiency of the post-gestational screening for diabetes. IADPSG criteria seem to optimally capture both perinatal and maternal metabolic risks and are therefore medically and economically justified. PMID:26526166

  6. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

  7. Time to follow up after an abnormal finding in organized gastric cancer screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognosis for an abnormal medical finding is affected by both early detection and adherence to the presecribed schedule for follow-up examinations. In this study, we examined the time to follow up after an abnormal finding and determined the risk factors related to delays in follow up in a population-based screening program. Methods The study population consisted of patients who were newly diagnosed with gastric cancer through a gastric cancer screening program sponsored by the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2005. Due to the skewed nature of the distribution of time to follow up, medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) are presented, and we analyzed the number of days preceding the follow-up time as a binary variable (≤90 days or >90 days). We used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the risk factors for a long delay. Results The median number of days to follow-up initiation after an abnormal finding was 11 (IQR 7–27); 13.9% of the patients with gastric cancer obtained their follow-up evaluation more than 90 days. Age, type of health insurance, screening method, and screening results were risk factors for delays in follow up. Conclusions This study examined delays from the time of the discovery of an abnormal finding to time of the follow-up evaluation. Because inadequate follow up of abnormal exam results undermines the potential benefits of cancer screening, it is important to organize services that minimize delays between cancer screening and treatment. PMID:22963347

  8. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ2 tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the “perceived benefits” domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between

  9. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care.

  10. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  11. Impact of Patient and Navigator Race and Language Concordance on Care after Cancer Screening Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Charlot, Marjory; Santana, M. Christina; Chen, Clara A.; Bak, Sharon; Heeren, Timothy C.; Battaglia, Tracy A; Egan, A. Patrick; Kalish, Richard; Freund, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient navigation improves timely diagnosis of cancer among minorities but little is known about the effect of patient and navigator race and language concordance on health outcomes. Methods We conducted an investigation of patient and navigator race and language concordance on time to diagnosis of cancer screening abnormalities among participants of the Boston Patient Navigation Research Program, a clinical effectiveness trial for women with breast or cervical cancer screening abnormalities identified January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. Hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using proportional hazards regression adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. Results There were a total of 1257 women with either breast (n= 655) or cervical (n=602) cancer screening abnormalities and 56% were non-White. Language concordance was associated with timelier resolution in all patients in the cervical group in the first 90 days, aHR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.80), and specifically for Spanish speakers in the first 90 days, aHR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.84), with no difference after 90 days or for women with breast cancer screening abnormalities. Race concordance was associated with significant decreases in time to diagnosis for minority women with breast and cervical cancer screening abnormalities in analyses stratified by race with no difference found in analyses including all women. Conclusions Patient-navigator race and language concordance improves timeliness of care in a minority population. Impact Patient navigators that are diverse by race/ethnicity and multilingual may help address barriers to care and improve cancer outcomes for low-income minorities. PMID:25565151

  12. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  13. Mutational screening of the Wilms's tumour gene, WT1, in males with genital abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, P A; Davies, H R; Williams, D M; Chaudhary, R; Hughes, I A; Patterson, M N

    1993-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the Wilms's tumour susceptibility gene, WT1, has an important role in genital as well as kidney development. WT1 is expressed in developing kidney and genital tissues. Furthermore, mutations in WT1 have been detected in patients with the Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), which is characterised by nephropathy, genital abnormalities, and Wilms's tumour. It is possible that WT1 mutations may cause genital abnormalities in the absence of kidney dysfunction. We tested this hypothesis by screening the WT1 gene for mutation in 12 46,XY patients with various forms of genital abnormality. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) we did not detect any WT1 mutations in these patients. However, in addition to the 12 patients, three DDS patients were also analysed using SSCP, and in all three cases heterozygous WT1 mutations were found which would be predicted to disrupt the DNA binding activity of WT1 protein. These results support the notion that DDS results from a dominant WT1 mutation. However, WT1 mutations are unlikely to be a common cause of male genital abnormalities when these are not associated with kidney abnormalities. Images PMID:8411073

  14. Tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism: abnormal profile interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lainez, C; Aguilar-Lemus, J J; Vela-Amieva, M; Ibarra-González, I

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced in 1990's and is widely used around the world. In contrast to conventional screening methods, tandem mass spectrometry does not measure single analytes but identifies and quantifies metabolite profiles; one single blood spot analyzed provides information of about 60 metabolites including amino acids, acylcarnitines and related ratios that enable the diagnosis of approximately 50 different diseases. However, the interpretation of these profiles can become quite complex. The aim of this work is to present in an easy and practical manner a comprehensive compilation of information needed for tandem mass neonatal screening profile interpretation, and basic actions for immediate follow up of abnormal results, including the tests that are required for confirmatory purposes. Other conditions not attributable to metabolic disorders which can lead to an abnormal profile of these markers are also described as well as a series of general recommendations which would be useful for health professionals who are beginning newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry.

  15. The impact of insurance coverage during insurance reform on diagnostic resolution of cancer screening abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Alok; Battaglia, Tracy A; Isabelle, Alexis P; Hanchate, Amresh D; Kalish, Richard L; Bak, Sharon; Mishuris, Rebecca G; Shroff, Swati M; Freund, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    We examined the impact of Massachusetts insurance reform on the care of women at six community health centers with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening to investigate whether stability of insurance coverage was associated with more timely diagnostic resolution. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to predict time from cancer screening to diagnostic resolution, examining the impact of 1) insurance status at time of screening abnormality, 2) number of insurance switches over a three-year period, and 3) insurance history over a three-year period. We identified 1,165 women with breast and 781 with cervical cancer screening abnormalities. In the breast cohort, Medicaid insurance at baseline, continuous public insurance, and losing insurance predicted delayed resolution. We did not find these effects in the cervical cohort. These data provide evidence that stability of health insurance coverage with insurance reform nationally may improve timely care after abnormal cancer screening in historically underserved women.

  16. Disposition of sperm donors with resultant abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kuller, J A; Meyer, W R; Traynor, K D; Hartmann, K E

    2001-08-01

    We wished to determine how clinicians manage sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. A directed, multiple-choice survey was given to reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists to assess management of sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. The questionnaire was completed by 66 reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists. Abnormalities and the most common inheritance modes included: Trisomy 21 (aneuploidy, maternal origin), Turner syndrome (aneuploidy, paternal origin), cleft lip/palate (multifactorial), VATER sequence (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheo-esophageal fistula, radial and renal dysplasia, sporadic inheritance), and Hurler syndrome (autosomal recessive). Response choices were: (i) remove donor from programme, (ii) inform potential recipients of prior pregnancy outcomes and continue to use donor, or (iii) further study donor to assess karyotype/mutations. Inheritance mode appeared to influence decisions to remove donors from sperm banks; however, no clear consensus was noted. Guidelines exist for screening potential gamete donors, but not for managing donors whose offspring has a chromosomal or structural abnormality. Guidelines must be developed to manage sperm donors with untoward pregnancy outcomes. PMID:11473942

  17. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  18. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A.; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening. PMID:27403355

  19. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening. PMID:27403355

  20. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  1. The impact of obesity on follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Ellen A.; Elmore, Joann E.; Onega, Tracy; Wernli, Karen J.; Sickles, Edward A.; Haneuse, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective breast cancer screening and early detection are crucial for obese women, who experience a higher incidence of the disease and present at later stages. Methods We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and timeliness of follow-up after 241,222 abnormal screening mammograms performed on 201,470 women in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Each mammogram had one of three recommendations for follow-up: short-interval follow-up; immediate additional diagnostic imaging; and biopsy/surgical consultation. We used logistic regression to estimate the adjusted effect of BMI on any recorded follow-up within 270 days of the recommendation; linear regression was used to model the mean follow-up time among those with recorded follow-up. Results As compared to normal-weight women, higher BMI was associated with slightly increased odds of follow-up among women who received a recommendation for short-interval follow-up (odds ratios (ORs) 1.03–1.10; p=0.04) or immediate additional imaging (ORs 1.03–1.09; p=0.01). No association was found for biopsy/surgical consultation recommendations (p=0.90). Among those with recorded follow-up, higher BMI was associated with longer mean time to follow-up for both short-interval (3–10 days; p<0.001) and additional imaging recommendations (2–3 days; p<0.001), but not biopsy/surgical consultation (p=0.06). Regardless of statistical significance, actual differences in days to follow-up across BMI groups were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Conclusions Once obese women access screening mammography, their follow-up after abnormal results is similar to that of normal-weight women. Impact Efforts to improve early detection of breast cancer in obese women should focus elsewhere, such as improving participation in screening mammography. PMID:22144503

  2. Cervical Pap Screening Cytological Abnormalities among HIV-Infected Adolescents in the LEGACY Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Setse, Rosanna W.; Siberry, George K.; Moss, William J.; Gravitt, Patti; Wheeling, Travis; Bohannon, Beverly; Dominguez, Kenneth; Consortium, Legacy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of cervical Pap screening (CPAP-S), identify factors associated with CPAP-S, and explore risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in female adolescents with perinatally and behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Design Cross-sectional Setting LEGACY is a national observational cohort chart review study of 1478 HIV-infected persons (≤ age 24 years) managed in 22 HIV specialty clinics in the United States. Participants Sexually active females aged ≥13–24 years in the LEGACY cohort Main Outcome measures CPAP-S & abnormal cervical cytology. Results Of 231 sexually active female participants (>= 13 years) in 2006, 49% had CPAP-S documented since 2001. 58% of 113 cervical tests were abnormal (2% high-grade). In multivariable analysis, perinatal HIV infection and black race were associated with decreased likelihood of CPAP-S (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.45, 0.96 and APR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.96, respectively). Presence of any STI was independently associated with increased likelihood of CPAP-S (APR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21, 2.02). CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <200 cells/mL and previous STI were independently associated with increased likelihood of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 2.19, 95% CI 1.26, 3.78 & APR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29, 2.92, respectively). Conclusions Among sexually active HIV-infected adolescent females, prevalence of CPAP-S was low and cytology was abnormal in more than half of Pap smears. Perinatally HIV-infected, sexually active females were less likely to undergo CPAP-S than their behaviorally HIV-infected counterparts. Interventions targeted at HIV-infected adolescents and care providers are needed to improve CPAP-S in HIV-infected young women, especially those with perinatally acquired HIV infection. PMID:22088311

  3. Neighborhood factors associated with time to resolution following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Llanos, Adana A.; Pennell, Michael L.; Weier, Rory C.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of neighborhood and healthcare access factors on cancer outcomes among patients enrolled in navigator programs is not clearly understood. This study assessed associations between: 1) neighborhood factors and diagnostic time to resolution (TTR) and, 2) geographic access and TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test among women participating in the Ohio Patient Navigator Research Program (OPNRP). Methods Patient (demographic, socioeconomic status [SES], home-to-clinic distance) and neighborhood (deprivation, racial segregation) characteristics of 801 women living in one of 285 census tracts (CTs) in greater Columbus, Ohio were examined. Randomization to receive navigation occurred at the clinic level. Multilevel Cox regression and spatial analysis were used to estimate effects of various factors on TTR and assess model assumptions, respectively. Results TTR increased as neighborhood deprivation increased. After adjustment for age, friend social support, education and healthcare status, the TTR among women living in a neighborhood with a moderate median household income (between $36,147 and $53,099) was shorter compared to women living in low median household income neighborhoods (< $36,147) (p < 0.05). There is little evidence that unmeasured confounders are geographically patterned. Conclusions Increased neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with longer TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test. Impact These results highlight the need for addressing patient- and neighborhood-level factors to reduce cancer disparities among underserved populations. PMID:25205516

  4. National Lung Screening Trial Results: Fast Facts

    Cancer.gov

    On November 4, 2010, the NLST reported initial trial results, showing 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT (also known as spiral CT) compared to those who got screened with chest X-rays.

  5. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  6. Multiple Barriers Delay Care Among Women with Abnormal Cancer Screening Despite Patient Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Karen M.; Bak, Sharon M.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Chen, Clara A.; Battaglia, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: While there is widespread dissemination of patient navigation programs in an effort to reduce delays in cancer care, little is known about the impact of barriers to care on timely outcomes. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Boston Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) to examine the effect that the presence of barriers had on time to diagnostic resolution of abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening tests. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression with time to diagnostic resolution as the outcome to examine the effect of the number of barriers, controlling for demographic covariates and clustered by patients' primary navigator. Results: There were 1481 women who received navigation; mean age was 39 years; 32% were White, 27% Black, and 31% Hispanic; 28% had private health insurance; and 38% did not speak English. Overall, half (n=745, 50%) had documentation of one or more barriers to care. Women with barriers were more likely to be older, non-White, non-English language speakers, and on public or no health insurance compared with women without barriers. In multivariable analyses, we found less timely diagnostic resolution as the number of barriers increased (one barrier, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.81 [95% CI 0.56–1.17], p=0.26; two barriers, aHR 0.55 [95% CI 0.37–0.81], p=0.0025; three or more barriers, aHR 0.31 [95% CI 0.21–0.46], p<0.0001)]. Conclusion: Within a patient navigation program proven to reduce delays in care, we found that navigated patients with documented barriers to care experience less timely resolution of abnormal cancer screening tests. PMID:25513858

  7. Screening for abnormal eating attitudes in a population of Egyptian secondary school girls.

    PubMed

    Nasser, M

    1994-02-01

    Recent research indicates that identification with the western ideal of slimness can be followed by heightened weight consciousness and development of eating disorders in cultures thought to be relatively immune from developing such disorders. In this study, which is based on an earlier one by the same author, a population of secondary school girls in Cairo, Egypt (n = 351) was screened for abnormal eating attitudes using a translated version of the Eating Attitude Test Questionnaire. Of the girls screened, 11.4% scored positively on the questionnaire and were subsequently interviewed. Three cases clearly fulfilled Russell's criteria for a diagnosis of the full syndrome of bulimia nervosa (1.2%). This is broadly in keeping with rates in studies in the United Kingdom. Twelve pupils (3.4%) showed sufficient concern over their weight to qualify for diagnosis as a partial syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The results confirmed the initial impression that disorders of eating are emerging in cultures that did not produce such morbidity in the past, with more or less the same prevalence as in the United Kingdom. The study concludes that no society is truly immune to the development of such disorders, because of the globalisation of culture by virtue of the media. PMID:8178219

  8. Role of endometrial cancer abnormal MMR protein in screening Lynch-syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qiongxian; Peng, Yong; Tang, Zhirong; Wu, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify patients with endometrial cancer with potential Lynch-related DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression defects and to explore the role of these defects in screening for LS. Methods: Endometrial cancers from 173 patients recruited to the Nanchong Central Hospital were tested for MMR (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6) protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In the 173 tumor tissue samples, the expression loss rates of MSH6, MSH2, PMS2 and MLH1 protein were 16.18% (28/173), 12.14% (21/173), 7.51% (13/173) and 5.78% (10/173), respectively. The total loss rate of MMR protein was 29.89% (27/87). There were 19 patients with a family history of cancer, of which 18 patients demonstrated loss of expression of MMR protein. In the 22 abnormal MMR patients without family history, five families were found to have Lynch-associated cancer (colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer) after follow-up for two years. Conclusion: MMR proteins play an important role in the progress of endometrial cancer. The routine testing of MMR proteins in endometrial cancer can contribute to the screening of LS families, especially small families. PMID:25400828

  9. Screening for abnormal eating attitudes in a population of Egyptian secondary school girls.

    PubMed

    Nasser, M

    1994-02-01

    Recent research indicates that identification with the western ideal of slimness can be followed by heightened weight consciousness and development of eating disorders in cultures thought to be relatively immune from developing such disorders. In this study, which is based on an earlier one by the same author, a population of secondary school girls in Cairo, Egypt (n = 351) was screened for abnormal eating attitudes using a translated version of the Eating Attitude Test Questionnaire. Of the girls screened, 11.4% scored positively on the questionnaire and were subsequently interviewed. Three cases clearly fulfilled Russell's criteria for a diagnosis of the full syndrome of bulimia nervosa (1.2%). This is broadly in keeping with rates in studies in the United Kingdom. Twelve pupils (3.4%) showed sufficient concern over their weight to qualify for diagnosis as a partial syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The results confirmed the initial impression that disorders of eating are emerging in cultures that did not produce such morbidity in the past, with more or less the same prevalence as in the United Kingdom. The study concludes that no society is truly immune to the development of such disorders, because of the globalisation of culture by virtue of the media.

  10. Mining association rules between abnormal health examination results and outpatient medical records.

    PubMed

    Chao Huang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, interpretation of health examination reports relies primarily on the physician's own experience. If health screening data could be integrated with outpatient medical records to uncover correlations between disease and abnormal test results, the physician could benefit from having additional reference resources for medical examination report interpretation and clinic diagnosis. This study used the medical database of a regional hospital in Taiwan to illustrate how association rules can be found between abnormal health examination results and outpatient illnesses. The rules can help to build up a disease-prevention knowledge database that assists healthcare providers in follow-up treatment and prevention. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm, the data cutting and sorting method, or DCSM, in place of the traditional Apriori algorithm. DCSM significantly improves the mining performance of Apriori by reducing the time to scan health examination and outpatient medical records, both of which are databases of immense sizes.

  11. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up: An experience from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the "perceived benefits" domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between groups. We

  12. Ultrasound screening: Status of markers and efficacy of screening for structural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rashmi; Platt, Lawrence D

    2016-02-01

    Aneuploidy is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and can have a significant impact on expecting parents and their families. With early screening and diagnosis it is important to be able to educate parents regarding the potential impact of the diagnosis. This knowledge allows parents the opportunity to consider management options early in the pregnancy, permitting more time to mentally and emotionally prepare both for the course of the pregnancy, and after the birth of the child should the pregnancy continue. Prenatal screening provides pregnant women a non-invasive risk assessment for the most common aneuploidies. Those who are considered "high-risk" then have the option for additional diagnostic (invasive) testing. Prior to the 1980s, prenatal screening consisted of risk assessment through maternal age; however, with the advent of maternal serum biochemical analysis and ultrasound, the field of prenatal screening developed significantly. As biochemical and sonographic advances continued into the 1990s, the emphasis shifted to risk assessment in the first trimester, with the combination of maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation of the nuchal translucency.(1) Within the last decade, the introduction of non-invasive screening (NIPT/S) has shown great impact on the expansion and evolving practice of prenatal screening. Although in many places the standard for prenatal testing continues to include maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation, the role of each marker alone and in combination remains important. In the era of increasingly available screening tests, especially with NIPT/(NIPS), this article attempts to review the current role of ultrasound in prenatal care and elucidate the role of ultrasound markers in prenatal screening. PMID:26777687

  13. Interventions to Improve Follow-Up of Abnormal Findings in Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Yabroff, K. Robin; Myers, Ronald E.; Glenn, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The potential reduction in morbidity and mortality through cancer screening cannot be realized without receipt of appropriate follow-up care for abnormalities identified via screening. In this paper, the authors critically examine the existing literature on correlates of receipt of appropriate follow-up care for screen-detected abnormalities, as well as the literature on interventions designed to increase rates of receipt of follow-up care. Lessons learned describe what is known and not known about factors that are related to or predict receipt of follow-up care. Similarly, effective interventions to increase follow-up are described and gaps identified. A conceptual model is developed that categorizes the health care system in the United States as comprising four levels: policy, practice, provider, and patient. Some patient-level factors that influence follow-up receipt are identified, but the lack of data severely limit the understanding of provider, practice, and policy-level correlates. The majority of intervention studies to increase follow-up receipt have focused on patient-level factors and have targeted follow-up of abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Insufficient information is available regarding the effectiveness of provider, practice, or policy-level interventions. Standard definitions of what constitutes appropriate follow-up are lacking, which severely limit comparability of findings across studies. The validity of various methods of obtaining outcome data has not been clearly established. More research is needed on interventions targeting provider, system, and policy-level factors, particularly interventions focusing on follow-up of colorectal and breast abnormalities. Standardization of definitions and measures is needed to facilitate comparisons across studies. PMID:15316914

  14. Trends in breast biopsies for abnormalities detected at screening mammography: a population-based study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Breest Smallenburg, V; Nederend, J; Voogd, A C; Coebergh, J W W; van Beek, M; Jansen, F H; Louwman, W J; Duijm, L E M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic surgical breast biopsies have several disadvantages, therefore, they should be used with hesitation. We determined time trends in types of breast biopsies for the workup of abnormalities detected at screening mammography. We also examined diagnostic delays. Methods: In a Dutch breast cancer screening region 6230 women were referred for an abnormal screening mammogram between 1 January 1997 and 1 January 2011. During two year follow-up clinical data, breast imaging-, biopsy-, surgery- and pathology-reports were collected of these women. Furthermore, breast cancers diagnosed >3 months after referral (delays) were examined, this included review of mammograms and pathology specimens to determine the cause of the delays. Results: In 41.1% (1997–1998) and in 44.8% (2009–2010) of referred women imaging was sufficient for making the diagnosis (P<0.0001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology decreased from 12.7% (1997–1998) to 4.7% (2009–2010) (P<0.0001), percutaneous core-needle biopsies (CBs) increased from 8.0 to 49.1% (P<0.0001) and surgical biopsies decreased from 37.8 to 1.4% (P<0.0001). Delays in breast cancer diagnosis decreased from 6.7 to 1.8% (P=0.003). Conclusion: The use of diagnostic surgical breast biopsies has decreased substantially. They have mostly been replaced by percutaneous CBs and this replacement did not result in an increase of diagnostic delays. PMID:23695018

  15. Provider management strategies of abnormal test result alerts: a cognitive task analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep

    2010-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through “alert” notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. Design 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Results Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Conclusion Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results. PMID:20064805

  16. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:22047978

  17. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Hoppman, Nicole L.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Sattler, Christopher A.; Borowski, Kristi S.; Wick, Myra J.; Highsmith, W. Edward; Aypar, Umut

    2016-01-01

    Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and specificity for aneuploidy detection, false positives are possible due to isolated placental mosaicism, vanishing twin or cotwin demise, and maternal chromosome abnormalities or malignancy. Results. We report a case of false negative cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening due to fetoplacental mosaicism. An infant male with negative cfDNA screening result was born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal chromosome and FISH studies on a blood specimen revealed trisomy 13 in 20/20 metaphases and 100% interphase nuclei, respectively. FISH analysis on tissues collected after delivery revealed extraembryonic mosaicism. Conclusions. Extraembryonic tissue mosaicism is likely responsible for the false negative cfDNA screening result. This case illustrates that a negative result does not rule out the possibility of a fetus affected with a trisomy, as cffDNA is derived from the placenta and therefore may not accurately represent the fetal genetic information. PMID:26998368

  18. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Hoppman, Nicole L; Kerr, Sarah E; Sattler, Christopher A; Borowski, Kristi S; Wick, Myra J; Highsmith, W Edward; Aypar, Umut

    2016-01-01

    Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and specificity for aneuploidy detection, false positives are possible due to isolated placental mosaicism, vanishing twin or cotwin demise, and maternal chromosome abnormalities or malignancy. Results. We report a case of false negative cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening due to fetoplacental mosaicism. An infant male with negative cfDNA screening result was born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal chromosome and FISH studies on a blood specimen revealed trisomy 13 in 20/20 metaphases and 100% interphase nuclei, respectively. FISH analysis on tissues collected after delivery revealed extraembryonic mosaicism. Conclusions. Extraembryonic tissue mosaicism is likely responsible for the false negative cfDNA screening result. This case illustrates that a negative result does not rule out the possibility of a fetus affected with a trisomy, as cffDNA is derived from the placenta and therefore may not accurately represent the fetal genetic information. PMID:26998368

  19. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  20. Results of Colorectal Cancer Screening of the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung Im; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Sun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the current situation of national colorectal cancer screening by analyzing participation rates, positive rates of screening methods and screening rate of secondary screening tests in colorectal screening of the national cancer screening program in 2008. Materials and Methods With database about target population and screened individuals of the national cancer screening program, the results of target population and participants of colorectal cancer screening in 2008 were analyzed. Among adults aged over 50 years of medical aid and beneficiaries of national health insurance paying lower 50% premiums in the total subscribers, 4,640,365 were target population of colorectal cancer screening and the data of 984,915 undergoing fecal occult blood test (FOBT) as a primary screening were analyzed. Results The colorectal cancer screening rate was 21.2% and the rates of national health insurance subscribers, females and the elderly aged 60-64 years were higher than those of others. The recipients with a positive result in FOBT recorded approximately 7.5%. Medical aid beneficiaries (7.9%), males (8.8%) and seniors aged over 75 years (9.1%) showed higher positive rates than the average one. Out of the FOBT positive recipients, 43.0% took a secondary screening and the rate undergoing colonoscopy (31.4%) was higher than that of doing double-contrast barium enema test (11.6%). Conclusion Colorectal cancer screening rate of medical aid beneficiaries and people paying lower 50% premiums among national health insurance subscribers, was different according to demographic characters (gender, age and types of health insurance). This finding meant that screening for the vulnerable needed to be encouraged by considering socio-demographic characters. Additionally, more efforts were necessary to increase the secondary screening rate of people with a positive result in primary one. PMID:21253320

  1. Multimodal noninvasive and invasive imaging of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI: Results of the PREMiSe pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    viewer, upon which consensus was reached. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated using contingency tables denoting the presence or absence of vein-specific abnormality findings between all imaging modalities used individually as the benchmark. Results The sensitivity of CV + IVUS was 68.4% for the right and 90% for the left IJV and 85.7% for the azygos vein/VVs, compared to venous anomalies detected on DS. Compared to the venous anomalies detected on MRV, the sensitivity of CV + IVUS was 71.4% in right and 100% in left IJVs and 100% in the azygos vein/VVs; however, the specificity was 38.5%, 38.9% and 11.8%, respectively. The sensitivity between the two invasive imaging techniques, used as benchmarks, ranged from 72.7% for the right IJV to 90% for the azygos vein but the IVUS showed a higher rate of venous anomalies than the CV. There was excellent correspondence between identifying collateral veins on MRV and CV. Conclusions Noninvasive DS screening for the detection of venous anomalies indicative of CCSVI may be a reliable approach for identifying patients eligible for further multimodal invasive imaging testing of the IJVs. However, the noninvasive screening methods were inadequate to depict the total amount of azygos vein/VVs anomalies identified with invasive testing. This pilot study, with limited sample size, shows that both a non-invasive and invasive multimodal imaging diagnostic approach should be recommended to depict a range of extracranial venous anomalies indicative of CCSVI. However, lack of invasive testing on the study subjects whose results were negative on the DS screening and of healthy controls, limits further generalizibility of our findings. In addition, the findings from the 2 invasive techniques confirmed the existence of severe extracranial venous anomalies that significantly impaired normal blood outflow from the brain in this group of MS patients. PMID:24139135

  2. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using combined test in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Jang, In Ae; Lee, Min Ah; Kim, Young Ju; Chun, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. Methods All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. Results The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. Conclusion This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue. PMID:27668198

  3. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using combined test in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Jang, In Ae; Lee, Min Ah; Kim, Young Ju; Chun, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. Methods All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. Results The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. Conclusion This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue.

  4. How Are My Newborn's Screening Results Used?

    MedlinePlus

    ... might say, the results were "negative" or "in-range." Parents with concerns should feel free to contact their physician and ask about the results. Most states notify parents only when the results are out of range for a particular condition. 1 Out of Range ...

  5. The Ohio Patient Navigation Research Program (OPNRP): Does the American Cancer Society patient navigation model improve time to resolution among patients with abnormal screening tests?

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Katz, Mira L.; Post, Douglas M.; Pennell, Michael L.; Young, Gregory S.; Seiber, Eric E.; Harrop, J. Phil; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Dean, Julie A.; Murray, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient navigation (PN) has been suggested as a way to reduce cancer health disparities; however, many models of PN exist and most have not been carefully evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the Ohio American Cancer Society model of PN as it relates to reducing time to diagnostic resolution among persons with abnormal breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening tests or symptoms. Methods 862 patients from 18 clinics participated in this group-randomized trial. Chart review documented the date of the abnormality and the date of resolution. The primary analysis used shared frailty models to test for the effect of PN on time to resolution. Crude Hazard Ratios (HR)were used since there was no evidence of confounding. Costs were tracked with a 52-item instrument that recorded fixed costs of running a PN program and operational costs of navigating patients. Results HRs became significant at 6 months; conditional on the random clinic effect, the resolution rate at 15 months was 65% higher in the PN arm (p=0.012 for difference in risk across arms; p=0.009) for an increase in relative risk over time. The cost of navigating to diagnostic resolution averaged $150 per participant. Conclusions Participants with abnormal cancer screening tests or symptoms resolved faster if assigned to PN compared to those not assigned to PN. The effect of PN became apparent beginning six months after detection of the abnormality. Impact PN may help address health disparities by reducing time to resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test. PMID:23045536

  6. Timeliness of Follow-up after Abnormal Screening Mammogram: Variability of Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haneuse, Sebastien J. P. A.; Geller, Berta M.; Buist, Diana S. M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Brenner, R. James; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the timeliness of follow-up care in community-based settings among women who receive a recommendation for immediate follow-up during the screening mammography process and how follow-up timeliness varies according to facility and facility-level characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was an institutional review board–approved and HIPAA-compliant study. Screening mammograms obtained from 1996 to 2007 in women 40–80 years old in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium were examined. Inclusion criteria were a recommendation for immediate follow-up at screening, or subsequent imaging, and observed follow-up within 180 days of the recommendation. Recommendations for additional imaging (AI) and biopsy or surgical consultation (BSC) were analyzed separately. The distribution of time to follow-up care was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Results: Data were available on 214 897 AI recommendations from 118 facilities and 35 622 BSC recommendations from 101 facilities. The median time to subsequent follow-up care after recommendation was 14 days for AI and 16 days for BSC. Approximately 90% of AI follow-up and 81% of BSC follow-up occurred within 30 days. Facilities with higher recall rates tended to have longer AI follow-up times (P < .001). Over the study period, BSC follow-up rates at 15 and 30 days improved (P < .001). Follow-up times varied substantially across facilities. Timely follow-up was associated with larger volumes of the recommended procedures but not notably associated with facility type nor observed facility-level characteristics. Conclusion: Most patients with follow-up returned within 3 weeks of the recommendation. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21900620

  7. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Background, Goals, Organization, Operations, Results.

    PubMed

    Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Greenwald, Peter; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-01-01

    The randomized PLCO trial was designed to answer four primary questions: does screening for these cancers using often promoted tests reduce cancer-specific mortality? Nearly 155,000 men and women were allocated to screening or usual care arms in a 1:1 ratio under a centralized, secure randomization algorithm at ten competitively selected screening centers nationwide. Screened men received PSA blood tests and digital rectal examinations. Screened women received CA125 blood tests and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Both men and women in the screened arm received anterolateral view chest x-ray and 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy. Blood specimens were collected at each screening visit and buccal cell DNA was collected once from the usual care participants. Histology slides were collected for cancer cases. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire covering health and risk factors and a dietary questionnaire. Data collected on standardized machine-readable forms were scanned remotely at screening and laboratory sites utilizing PLCO dedicated, NCI provided and configured computer systems for quality checks, archiving, and analysis. Comprehensive quality assurance was implemented over recruitment, consenting, randomization, screening, data management, records keeping, patient-specific screening results reporting, follow-up, and data analysis. Performance and data quality were monitored on-site and remotely by data edits, site visits, and random record audits. Specially trained and certified professionals performed screening procedures and medical record abstracting. An independent committee of medical specialists reviewed and certified case-specific cause of death. Scientific leadership was provided by NCI Project Officers, PLCO principal investigators, external consultants, and an independent data and safety monitoring board.

  8. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  9. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  11. Genetic Counseling for Patients Considering Screening and Diagnosis for Chromosomal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chard, Renée L; Norton, Mary E

    2016-06-01

    With the introduction of cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and chromosomal microarray for prenatal diagnostic testing, options for pregnant women have become increasingly complex. Discussions regarding options for prenatal testing for aneuploidy should occur prior to any testing and should include pertinent risks and benefits of each alternative test. There is no single screening or diagnostic test option that is the right choice for all patients; patient decisions should be based on each individual woman's values and preferences after a discussion of all options. PMID:27235908

  12. Assessing the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy in Asymptomatic Women With Abnormal CA 125 and Transvaginal Ultrasound in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Edward E.; Greenlee, Robert T.; Riley, Thomas L.; Commins, John; Ragard, Lawrence; Xu, Jian-Lun; Buys, Saundra S.; Prorok, Philip C.; Fouad, Mona N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of ovarian malignancy among asymptomatic women with abnormal transvaginal ultrasound or CA 125 and to provide guidance to physicians managing these women. Methods A cohort of women from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial with abnormal ovarian results at the initial (T0) and subsequent (T1+) screens were analyzed to estimate which findings were associated with high risk of ovarian cancer. Risks of cancer of greater than 10% were designated as high and risks of 3% or less as low. Results For the T0 screen, two high-risk categories were identified: CA 125 of 70 or more with negative transvaginal ultrasound (positive predictive value [PPV] 15.9%, CI 14.7%–17.7%); and positive for both CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound (PPV 25.0%, CI 23.3%–27.3%). For T1+ screens, three high-risk categories were identified: negative transvaginal ultrasound with change in CA 125 greater than 45 or more (PPV 29.0%, CI 28.3%–30.3%); increase in size of cyst 6 cm or greater with negative CA 125 (PPV 13.3%, CI 10.5%–18.0%); and positive for both tests (PPV 42.9%, CI 40.0%–46.0%). High-risk criteria for T0 provide a sensitivity of 60%, specificity 96.2%, PPV 19.7%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.3%. T1+ criteria yielded a sensitivity of 85.3%, specificity 95.6%, PPV 29.6% and NPV 99.7%. Conclusions High risk categories for predicting risk of cancer in women with abnormal CA 125, TVU or both at initial and subsequent screens have been identified. The large number of women in this study, the four year complete follow-up, and very small number of invasive cancers in the low risk categories provides guidance for clinical decisions regarding need for surgery in these women. PMID:23262924

  13. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  14. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  15. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. IARC Working Group on evaluation of cervical cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A collaborative study of screening programmes in eight countries was performed to estimate the risks of cervical cancer associated with different screening policies. Most of the data came from centrally organised screening programmes. Relative protection was higher in women who had had two or more negative results of screening tests than in those who had had only one negative smear, particularly in the first five years after the last test. There was little difference in the protection afforded by screening every year compared with every three years, but screening only once every five or 10 years offered appreciably less protection. The age of the women did not affect the sensitivity of the test or the sojourn time of the disease (the length of the detectable preclinical phase during which abnormal cytology could be picked up if a smear were taken); invasive cancer in women under 25 was rare. Centrally organised screening programmes were more effective than uncoordinated screening. Screening programmes should be aimed principally at women aged 35-60 but should start some years before the age of 35, and the intervals between screening should be three years or less. PMID:3092971

  16. Usefulness of screening cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to detect aortic abnormalities after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shane F; Trivedi, Mira; Boettner, Bethany; Daniels, Curt J

    2011-01-15

    Guidelines recommend screening cardiovascular magnetic resonance (Sc-CMR) imaging for all patients after coarctation of the aorta repair, although there are limited data verifying its clinical utility. Therefore, we sought to assess the value of Sc-CMR in detecting aortic complications and at-risk abnormalities after coarctation of the aorta repair and to identify significant risk factors. We reviewed 76 patients (mean age 31 ± 10 years), including 40 with symptomatically indicated CMR (Sx-CMR) and 36 with Sc-CMR studies. CMR angiograms were evaluated for aortic abnormalities. Recoarctation was defined as residual narrowing/descending aorta at the diaphragm ≤0.5 (at risk ≤0.75), ascending aorta aneurysm as maximum ascending cross-sectional area/height ≥10 (at risk ≥5), and descending aorta aneurysm as maximum descending diameter/descending aorta at the diaphragm ≥1.5 (at risk ≥1.25). Aortic complications or abnormalities were found in 45 patients (59%). No patient met criteria for recoarctation (at risk 10 Sx-CMR vs 5 Sc-CMR). Significant risk factors included heart failure symptoms and female gender (p <0.05). One patient (Sc-CMR) had ascending aneurysm (at risk 17 Sx-CMR vs 8 Sc-CMR). Time from repair was a significant predictor (p <0.05). There were 10 patients (6 Sx-CMR vs 4 Sc-CMR) with descending aneurysm (at risk 8 Sx-CMR vs 7 Sc-CMR). Cardiovascular symptoms, hypertension, and echocardiogram were not predictive. In conclusion, >50% of patients undergoing Sc-CMR had aortic abnormalities, which was not significantly different from those undergoing Sx-CMR. In particular, Sc-CMR identified descending aorta aneurysms that were not predicted by clinical parameters or echocardiogram.

  17. Notification of abnormal lab test results in an electronic medical record: do any safety concerns remain?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Sittig, Dean F.; Wilson, Lindsey; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Follow-up of abnormal outpatient laboratory test results is a major patient safety concern. Electronic medical records can potentially address this concern through automated notification. We examined whether automated notifications of abnormal laboratory results (alerts) in an integrated electronic medical record resulted in timely follow-up actions. Methods: We studied four alerts: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥15%, positive hepatitis C antibody (HCV), prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥15 ng/mL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥ 15 mIU/L. An alert tracking system determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider clicked on and opened the message) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. Within 30 days of result transmission, record review and provider contact determined follow-up actions (e.g. patient contact, treatment etc.). Multivariable logistic regression models analyzed predictors for lack of timely follow-up. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2008, 78,158 tests (HbA1c, HCV, TSH and PSA) were performed, of which 1163 (1.48%) were transmitted as alerts; 10.2% of these (119/1163) were unacknowledged. Timely follow-up was lacking in 79 (6.8%) and was statistically not different for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (6.4% vs. 10.1%; p =.13). Two-hundred two alerts (17.4% of 1163) arose from unnecessarily ordered (redundant) tests. Alerts for a new versus known diagnosis were more likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 7.35; 95% CI: 4.16-12.97) whereas alerts related to redundant tests were less likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.84). Conclusions: Safety concerns related to timely patient follow-up remain despite automated notification of non-life threatening abnormal laboratory results in the outpatient setting. PMID:20193832

  18. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  19. Lack of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in mice results in gait abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Suidan, Georgette L; Duerschmied, Daniel; Dillon, Gregory M; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (-/-) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system. PMID:23516593

  20. Microcalcifications Detected as an Abnormality on Screening Mammography: Outcomes and Followup over a Five-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa; Bicknell, Anne M; Hazan, Georges J; Flegg, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study reviewed the outcome of women attending a breast screening program recalled for assessment of microcalcifications and examined the incidence of a breast carcinoma detected during the following five years in any of the women who were given a benign diagnosis at assessment. Method. A retrospective study consisted of 235 clients attending an Australian BreastScreen program in 2003, who were recalled for investigation of microcalcifications detected on screening mammography. Records for the following five years were available for 168 women in the benign outcome group including those who did not require biopsy at initial assessment. Results. Malignant disease was detected in 26.0% (n = 146) of the women who underwent biopsy. None of the women in the benign outcome group, with available five-year follow-up records, developed a subsequent breast cancer, arising from the calcifications initially recalled in 2003. Conclusions. This study highlights the effectiveness of an Australian screening program in diagnosing malignancy in women with screen detected microcalcification. This has been achieved by correctly determining 38% (n = 235) of the women as benign without the need for biopsy or early recall. A low rate of open surgical biopsies was performed with no cancer diagnoses missed at the time of initial assessment. PMID:24194985

  1. Microcalcifications Detected as an Abnormality on Screening Mammography: Outcomes and Followup over a Five-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Anne M.; Hazan, Georges J.; Flegg, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study reviewed the outcome of women attending a breast screening program recalled for assessment of microcalcifications and examined the incidence of a breast carcinoma detected during the following five years in any of the women who were given a benign diagnosis at assessment. Method. A retrospective study consisted of 235 clients attending an Australian BreastScreen program in 2003, who were recalled for investigation of microcalcifications detected on screening mammography. Records for the following five years were available for 168 women in the benign outcome group including those who did not require biopsy at initial assessment. Results. Malignant disease was detected in 26.0% (n = 146) of the women who underwent biopsy. None of the women in the benign outcome group, with available five-year follow-up records, developed a subsequent breast cancer, arising from the calcifications initially recalled in 2003. Conclusions. This study highlights the effectiveness of an Australian screening program in diagnosing malignancy in women with screen detected microcalcification. This has been achieved by correctly determining 38% (n = 235) of the women as benign without the need for biopsy or early recall. A low rate of open surgical biopsies was performed with no cancer diagnoses missed at the time of initial assessment. PMID:24194985

  2. Genetic Deletion of Cadm4 Results in Myelin Abnormalities Resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Neev; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Spiegel, Ivo; Salomon, Daniela; Sabanay, Helena; Rechav, Katya; Vainshtein, Anya; Frechter, Shahar; Maik-Rachline, Galia; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Momoi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between myelinating Schwann cells and the axons they ensheath is mediated by cell adhesion molecules of the Cadm/Necl/SynCAM family. This family consists of four members: Cadm4/Necl4 and Cadm1/Necl2 are found in both glia and axons, whereas Cadm2/Necl3 and Cadm3/Necl1 are expressed by sensory and motor neurons. By generating mice lacking each of the Cadm genes, we now demonstrate that Cadm4 plays a role in the establishment of the myelin unit in the peripheral nervous system. Mice lacking Cadm4 (PGK-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl), but not Cadm1, Cadm2, or Cadm3, develop focal hypermyelination characterized by tomacula and myelin outfoldings, which are the hallmark of several Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. The absence of Cadm4 also resulted in abnormal axon–glial contact and redistribution of ion channels along the axon. These neuropathological features were also found in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of Cadm4 lacking its cytoplasmic domain in myelinating glia Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT), as well as in mice lacking Cadm4 specifically in Schwann cells (DHH-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl). Consistent with these abnormalities, both PGK-Cre/Cadm4fl/fl and Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT) mice exhibit impaired motor function and slower nerve conduction velocity. These findings indicate that Cadm4 regulates the growth of the myelin unit and the organization of the underlying axonal membrane. PMID:23825401

  3. Quality assurance results from a breast screening pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, D L

    1991-09-01

    A mammography quality assurance programme has been established as part of the breast cancer screening pilot project based in south-east Queensland. Prospective radiology clinics are required to participate in the quality assurance programme as part of the project's accreditation requirements. The programme follows the ACPSEM position paper on quality assurance in mammography and is divided into radiographer and physicist tests. Radiographer tests include film processor sensitometry (daily), image quality (weekly) and focal spot measurements (monthly). Physicist tests occur annually. The programme has been running successfully for 12 months on 17 machines from 6 manufacturers. Of the radiographer tests, sensitometry has proved the most beneficial with a number of chemistry problems detected early. Physicist tests have found x-ray/light field misalignment and poor automatic exposure control performance as the most common machine problems. Results also show that our kVp measuring system requires recalibration. PMID:1953503

  4. Evaluating a Bilingual Patient Navigation Program for Uninsured Women With Abnormal Screening Tests for Breast and Cervical Cancer: Implications for Future Navigator Research

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Laura S.; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Murphy, Kara R.; Endress, Richard; Dong, XinQi; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The DuPage Patient Navigation Collaborative evaluated the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) model for uninsured women receiving free breast or cervical cancer screening through the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in DuPage County, Illinois. Methods. We used medical records review and patient surveys of 477 women to compare median follow-up times with external Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program and Chicago PNRP benchmarks of performance. We examined the extent to which we mitigated community-defined timeliness risk factors for delayed follow-up, with a focus on Spanish-speaking participants. Results. Median follow-up time (29.0 days for breast and 56.5 days for cervical screening abnormalities) compared favorably to external benchmarks. Spanish-speaking patients had lower health literacy, lower patient activation, and more health care system distrust than did English-speaking patients, but despite the prevalence of timeliness risk factors, we observed no differences in likelihood of delayed (> 60 days) follow-up by language. Conclusions. Our successful replication and scaling of the PNRP navigation model to DuPage County illustrates a promising approach for future navigator research. PMID:25713942

  5. STEAM - Statistical Template Estimation for Abnormality Mapping: A personalized DTI analysis technique with applications to the screening of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian G; Miller, Steven P; Brown, Colin J; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-15

    We introduce the STEAM DTI analysis engine: a whole brain voxel-based analysis technique for the examination of diffusion tensor images (DTIs). Our STEAM analysis technique consists of two parts. First, we introduce a collection of statistical templates that represent the distribution of DTIs for a normative population. These templates include various diffusion measures from the full tensor, to fractional anisotropy, to 12 other tensor features. Second, we propose a voxel-based analysis (VBA) pipeline that is reliable enough to identify areas in individual DTI scans that differ significantly from the normative group represented in the STEAM statistical templates. We identify and justify choices in the VBA pipeline relating to multiple comparison correction, image smoothing, and dealing with non-normally distributed data. Finally, we provide a proof of concept for the utility of STEAM on a cohort of 134 very preterm infants. We generated templates from scans of 55 very preterm infants whose T1 MRI scans show no abnormalities and who have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The remaining 79 infants were then compared to the templates using our VBA technique. We show: (a) that our statistical templates display the white matter development expected over the modeled time period, and (b) that our VBA results detect abnormalities in the diffusion measurements that relate significantly with both the presence of white matter lesions and with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18months. Most notably, we show that STEAM produces personalized results while also being able to highlight abnormalities across the whole brain and at the scale of individual voxels. While we show the value of STEAM on DTI scans from a preterm infant cohort, STEAM can be equally applied to other cohorts as well. To facilitate this whole-brain personalized DTI analysis, we made STEAM publicly available at http://www.sfu.ca/bgb2/steam. PMID:26515903

  6. STEAM - Statistical Template Estimation for Abnormality Mapping: A personalized DTI analysis technique with applications to the screening of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian G; Miller, Steven P; Brown, Colin J; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-15

    We introduce the STEAM DTI analysis engine: a whole brain voxel-based analysis technique for the examination of diffusion tensor images (DTIs). Our STEAM analysis technique consists of two parts. First, we introduce a collection of statistical templates that represent the distribution of DTIs for a normative population. These templates include various diffusion measures from the full tensor, to fractional anisotropy, to 12 other tensor features. Second, we propose a voxel-based analysis (VBA) pipeline that is reliable enough to identify areas in individual DTI scans that differ significantly from the normative group represented in the STEAM statistical templates. We identify and justify choices in the VBA pipeline relating to multiple comparison correction, image smoothing, and dealing with non-normally distributed data. Finally, we provide a proof of concept for the utility of STEAM on a cohort of 134 very preterm infants. We generated templates from scans of 55 very preterm infants whose T1 MRI scans show no abnormalities and who have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The remaining 79 infants were then compared to the templates using our VBA technique. We show: (a) that our statistical templates display the white matter development expected over the modeled time period, and (b) that our VBA results detect abnormalities in the diffusion measurements that relate significantly with both the presence of white matter lesions and with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18months. Most notably, we show that STEAM produces personalized results while also being able to highlight abnormalities across the whole brain and at the scale of individual voxels. While we show the value of STEAM on DTI scans from a preterm infant cohort, STEAM can be equally applied to other cohorts as well. To facilitate this whole-brain personalized DTI analysis, we made STEAM publicly available at http://www.sfu.ca/bgb2/steam.

  7. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  8. Thyroid abnormalities in patients treated with lenalidomide for hematological malignancies: results of a retrospective case review.

    PubMed

    Figaro, M Kathleen; Clayton, Warren; Usoh, Chinenye; Brown, Kara; Kassim, Adetola; Lakhani, Vipul T; Jagasia, Shubhada

    2011-06-01

    Lenalidomide is an antiangiogenic drug associated with hypothyroidism. We describe a case-series of lenalidomide use in hematological cancers and the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities. We reviewed medical records of patients treated with lenalidomide at a single center form 2005 to 2010 and extracted demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Of 170 patients with confirmed lenalidomide use (age 64.9 ± 15 years), 148 were treated for multiple myeloma and 6% had thyroid abnormalities attributable only to lenalidomide. In patients with a previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction, the addition of lenalidomide therapy was associated with a higher incidence of subsequent TFTF abnormality (17%) as compared to patients with no previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction (6%) (P=0.0001). Many patients (44%) with pre-existing disease and a change in thyroid function before or while on lenalidomide had no further follow-up of their thyroid abnormalities, Of 20 patients who did not undergo any thyroid function testing either before starting or while on lenalidomide for a median of 9.4 months (± 6.5), 35% developed new symptoms compatible with hypothyroidism, including worsened fating, constipation or cold intolerance. Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction overlap with side effects of lenalidomide. Thyroid hormone levels are not regularly evaluated in patients on lenalidomide. While on this treatment, thyroid abnormalities can occur in patients with no previous diagnoses and in patients with pre-existing abnormalities. Because symptoms of thyroid dysfunction could be alleviated by appropriate treatment, thyroid function should be evaluated during the course of lenalidomide to improve patients quality of life. PMID:21544854

  9. Expression of an Arabidopsis plasma membrane aquaporin in Dictyostelium results in hypoosmotic sensitivity and developmental abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, F; Loomis, W F; Chrispeels, M J

    1997-06-10

    The rd28 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a water channel protein, or aquaporin, of the plasma membrane. A construct in which transcription of the rd28 cDNA is controlled by the Dictyostelium actin15 promoter was transformed into Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Transformants contained RD28 protein in their plasma membranes. When shifted to a low-osmotic-strength buffer, cells expressing rd28 swelled rapidly and burst, indicating that the plant aquaporin allowed rapid water entry in the amoebae. The rate of osmotic lysis was a function of the osmotic pressure of the buffer. We also selected transformants in which the expression of the rd28 cDNA is driven by the promoter of the prespore cotB gene. These transformants accumulated rd28 mRNA uniquely in prespore cells. In low-osmotic-strength buffer, the cotB::rd28 cells aggregated and formed normally proportioned slugs but failed to form normal fruiting bodies. The number of spores was reduced 20-fold, and the stalks of the fruiting bodies were abnormally short. The consequences of expressing RD28 in prespore cells could be partially overcome by increasing the osmolarity of the medium. Under these conditions, the cotB::rd28 cells formed fruiting bodies of more normal appearance, and the number of viable spores increased slightly. Because prespore cells have to shrink and dehydrate to form spores, it was not unexpected that expression of an aquaporin would disrupt this process, but it was surprising to find that stalk differentiation was also affected by expression of rd28 in prespore cells. It appears that osmotic stress on prespore cells alters their ability to signal terminal differentiation in prestalk cells. The results provide independent confirmation that plant aquaporins can function in the cells of other organisms, and that D. discoideum can be used to study the properties of these water channels.

  10. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis: choices women make about pursuing testing and acting on abnormal results.

    PubMed

    Pryde, P G; Drugan, A; Johnson, M P; Isada, N B; Evans, M I

    1993-09-01

    Liberalization of abortion laws in several US states (e.g., New York and California) coincided with the development of prenatal techniques, which diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and biochemical disorders. Increased use of prenatal diagnostic services has not been accompanied by adequate examination of the decision making process women undergo when contemplating prenatal diagnosis, pregnancy termination, or experimental fetal therapy. The limited literature exploring these issues indicates that many women do not know as much as possible about the health of their fetus. Women who are at risk of abnormal pregnancy tend to become distressed and willing to accept invasive testing, even when they know the significant, albeit low, risks of such testing. Women's perceptions of risk, which stem from complex psychologic-phenomena, are likely to be very inconsistent with objective reality. Neither counseling nor education can easily change these misperceptions. Nevertheless, counseling can at least alter misperceptions enough so they move closer to objective reality. On the other hand, counseling can sway perceptions and choices made based on these perceptions. Decision making is even more complex and emotional when women encounter abnormalities. Considerable social, moral, and psychologic factors influence this process, making this a very problematic area to study. Almost all women who carry an abnormal fetus with a very serious prognosis and a high degree of diagnostic certainty chose to terminate the pregnancy. The decision is much more difficult for women carrying a fetus with less diagnostic or prognostic certainty. Insufficient data exists to determine how they handle these management decisions. Women tend to opt for abortion in cases of chromosomal abnormalities, regardless of the severity or certainty of the outcome. Women carrying a fetus with anatomic disorders with prognostic uncertainty or less severity choose to abort at lower rates. More research is needed to

  12. Egestion of asbestos fibers in Tetrahymena results in early morphological abnormalities. A step in the induction of heterogeneous cell lines?

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1989-01-01

    In Tetrahymena populations exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers, many cells develop morphological abnormalities within 1-2 hours. The abnormalities are mainly large or small protrusions or indentations, or flattened parts of the cell surface and most often located in the posterior part of the cell. They are formed repeatedly in all cells but are also continuously repaired so that the fraction of cells affected represents an equilibrium between these two processes. Their formation is connected with egestion of the large bundles of fibers formed by phagocytosis. Such effects of egestion of fibers do not seem to have been reported previously. Egestion of a bundle of fibers is much slower than for other types of undigestible residues. In contrast to normal exocytosis occurring invariably at the cytoproct, egestion of asbestos often occurs in the posterior part of the cell outside the cytoproct. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of either very slow or extra-cytoproctal egestion in Tetrahymena. Cells with large abnormalities have a greater tendency to develop into "early heterogeneous" cells than the average abnormal cell. Some of these give rise to hereditarily stable heterogeneous cell lines of Tetrahymena. The morphological abnormalities are probably caused by mechanical action of the crocidolite fibers resulting in local damage of the cytoskeletal elements responsible for normal cell shape. The heterogenous cell lines may arise when cellular structures carrying non-genic cytotactically inherited information are modified. The relevance of these ideas to the induction of cancer by asbestos is briefly discussed.

  13. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening. PMID:27538188

  14. The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake - Result of Local and Abnormal Mass Imbalances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan margin of the eastern Tibetan plateau in the Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China. A complex and NNW dipping reverse fault system including the Beichuan fault ruptured 250-300 km parallel to the Longmen Shan thrust belt. This region has been tectonically loaded for >10kyr. It has low deformation rates of less than 1.0±1.0 mm yr-1 resulting in no major seismic activity during the Quaternary period. Several geophysical observations suggest that this M7.9 earthquake was triggered by local and abnormal mass imbalances on the surface of the Earth's crust. These observations include (1) elastostatic response of the crust to the mass changes (2) slip distribution of the main rupture, and (3) aftershock distribution. Initially, approximately 2 years prior the nucleation of the mainshock, at least 320 million tonnes of water accumulated within the upper Min river valley. It enters the Chengdu plain of the Sichuan basin, a stable continental region (SCR). The water volume amplified the strain energy on the Earth's crust. Shear stresses increased by >1kPa on the Beichuan fault at the nucleation point in about 20km depth. Normal stresses decreased by <-4kPa and weakened the fault strength. Pore pressure increases might have additionally destabilized the fault locally due to pore pressure diffusion. This effect, however, might be minor in 20km depth, because of low lateral fracture connectivity and permeability between the area of water accumulation and the Beichuan fault. Overall, the stress alterations within a 120±70km2 large area resulted in the Beichuan fault coming closer to failure. Such an area ruptured would account for a M7.2±0.1 earthquake assuming only 10 MPa stress drop. Secondly, a reverse fault focal mechanism dominated, in particular, during the first 50 seconds of the main M7.9 rupture. The Beichuan fault slipped up to 7m upward peaking at shallow depth (<7km) (Nishimura

  15. [Abnormal psychosocial development and legal responsibility--results of psychopathometric studies].

    PubMed

    Littmann, E; Friemert, K; Szewczyk, H

    1989-05-01

    The introduction (1968) of the legal concept of Grave Abnormal Development of the Personality Amounting to a Disorder into the penal code, made possible criminal deculpation on the basis of psychosocial maldevelopment. On the basis of an intelligence- and personality-diagnostic test-battery (Psychopathometry), the findings obtained in the examination of a sample of culprits on probation under this legal provision, has been compared with a control group homogeneous in respect of the significant parameters. Psychopathometric methods can and should reasonably supplement expertises of this culprits with defective psychosocial development.

  16. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... systems. Extensive background on the Agency's endocrine program is available at http://www.epa.gov/endo..., ``Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Policies and Procedures for Initial Screening,'' (74 FR 17560), http... AGENCY Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

  17. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart.

  18. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these tests as well as the possible harms, both of which are explained below. This fact ... after receiving abnormal test results. Benefits and Possible Harms The main benefit of screening is that it ...

  19. Women's Experiences of Inaccurate Breast Cancer Screening Results: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunct screening with ultrasound has the potential to detect breast cancers that may not be visible on screening mammography. The use of adjunct ultrasonography is thought to be a safe and inexpensive approach to improving the sensitivity of screening with mammography alone, but potentially at the expense of increasing the rate of false-positive findings. The objective of this review was to examine women's experiences of inaccurate breast cancer screening results and how they affect perceptions of breast cancer screening technologies. Methods This report synthesizes 16 primary qualitative studies, which together involved 690 participating women, to examine women's experiences of inaccurate breast cancer screening results. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results The experience of a false-positive result caused short-term anxiety until the negative result was confirmed. It also led to reoccurring anxiety during future screening. The anxiety experienced in the face of a false-positive result was magnified in high-risk women, who often reflected on the previous breast cancer experiences of family members while awaiting further results. Despite this increased anxiety, women who had experienced a false-positive result were generally not deterred from future screening. Rather, the experiences heightened their awareness of breast cancer and led to a desire for more examinations and more technologies. Women who had experienced false-negative results struggled to restore trust in screening but recognized that some breast cancers were identified through mammography. They were willing to see themselves as exceptions to an otherwise beneficial service. Conclusions Qualitative studies provide some insight into how breast cancer screening inaccuracy affects women, including their faith in the screening technology. Although women suffered marked anxiety from experiencing false-positive mammography tests and

  20. A decision support system based on an ensemble of random forests for improving the management of women with abnormal findings at cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bountris, Panagiotis; Haritou, Maria; Pouliakis, Abraham; Karakitsos, Petros; Koutsouris, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In most cases, cervical cancer (CxCa) develops due to underestimated abnormalities in the Pap test. Today, there are ancillary molecular biology techniques available that provide important information related to CxCa and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) natural history, including HPV DNA tests, HPV mRNA tests and immunocytochemistry techniques such as overexpression of p16. These techniques are either highly sensitive or highly specific, however not both at the same time, thus no perfect method is available today. In this paper we present a decision support system (DSS) based on an ensemble of Random Forests (RFs) for the intelligent combination of the results of classic and ancillary techniques that are available for CxCa detection, in order to exploit the benefits of each technique and produce more accurate results. The proposed system achieved both, high sensitivity (86.1%) and high specificity (93.3%), as well as high overall accuracy (91.8%), in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). The system's performance was better than any other single test involved in this study. Moreover, the proposed architecture of employing an ensemble of RFs proved to be better than the single classifier approach. The presented system can handle cases with missing tests and more importantly cases with inadequate cytological outcome, thus it can also produce accurate results in the case of stand-alone HPV-based screening, where Pap test is not applied. The proposed system may identify women at true risk of developing CxCa and guide personalised management and therapeutic interventions.

  1. Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Pourasad-Shahrak, Shakiba; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Mostafa-Garebaghi, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malakouti, Jamileh; Haghsay, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P < 0.05). Results: Nine-hundred and seventy-four (94.7%) cases were normal and had no abnormal findings and 26 (2.6%) participants had positive results in Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. Conclusion: As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear. PMID:25657491

  2. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Latacz, Pawel; Ludyga, Tomasz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Świerad, Marcin; Janas, Piotr; Piegza, Jacek

    Summary The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established. PMID:22364940

  3. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Simka, M; Latacz, P; Ludyga, T; Kazibudzki, M; Swierad, M; Janas, P; Piegza, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established.

  4. Independent predictors of breast malignancy in screen-detected microcalcifications: biopsy results in 2545 cases

    PubMed Central

    Farshid, G; Sullivan, T; Downey, P; Gill, P G; Pieterse, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mammographic microcalcifications are associated with many benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer. Careful assessment criteria are required to minimise benign biopsies while optimising cancer diagnosis. We wished to evaluate the assessment outcomes of microcalcifications biopsied in the setting of population-based breast cancer screening. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2007, cases biopsied in which microcalcifications were the only imaging abnormality were included. Patient demographics, imaging features and final histology were subjected to statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of malignancy. Results: In all, 2545 lesions, with a mean diameter of 21.8 mm (s.d. 23.8 mm) and observed in patients with a mean age of 57.7 years (s.d. 8.4 years), were included. Using the grading system adopted by the RANZCR, the grade was 3 in 47.7% 4 in 28.3% and 5 in 24.0%. After assessment, 1220 lesions (47.9%) were malignant (809 DCIS only, 411 DCIS with invasive cancer) and 1325 (52.1%) were non-malignant, including 122 (4.8%) premalignant lesions (lobular carcinoma in situ, atypical lobular hyperplasia and atypical ductal hyperplasia). Only 30.9% of the DCIS was of low grade. Mammographic extent of microcalcifications >15 mm, imaging grade, their pattern of distribution, presence of a palpable mass and detection after the first screening episode showed significant univariate associations with malignancy. On multivariate modeling imaging grade, mammographic extent of microcalcifications >15 mm, palpable mass and screening episode were retained as independent predictors of malignancy. Radiological grade had the largest effect with lesions of grade 4 and 5 being 2.2 and 3.3 times more likely to be malignant, respectively, than grade 3 lesions. Conclusion: The radiological grading scheme used throughout Australia and parts of Europe is validated as a useful system of stratifying microcalcifications into

  5. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  6. [Reference standards in the performance of a mammographic screening program. Results of the screening program in the province of Florence, 1992].

    PubMed

    Ciatto, S; Bonardi, R; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1993-10-01

    The authors report the results of the Florence District program for the year 1992. 11,033 subjects were examined. Attendance rate (64.4%) was significantly related to age (42-49 = 71.0%; 50-59 = 66.7%; 60-70 = 58.5%). Recall rate to diagnostic assessment was 2.09% (mammographic abnormalities = 199, subjective symptoms other than pain = 32) and was related to age (42-49 = 3.12%; 50-59 = 1.65%; 60-70 = 1.77%). According to the results of diagnostic assessment 53 surgical biopsies (0.48%) were recommended and performed. The biopsy rate was also related to age (42-49 = 0.2%; 50-59 = 0.4%; 60-70 = 0.7%). Forty-seven carcinomas were detected in 46 subjects (benign/malignant biopsy ratio = 0.13). Cancer detection rate was 0.42% and changed significantly with age (42-49 = 0.13; 50-59 = 0.36; 60-70 = 0.68%), as well as the observed/expected cancer ratio (42-49 = 0.89; 50-59 = 2.03; 60-70 = 2.98). Detected cancers were nonpalpable in 57% of cases. Pathologic staging was pTIS in 2 cases, pT1a in 5, pT1b in 17, pT1c in 17, pT2 in 5, and pT4b in one case. Six of 47 (12.8%) cancers involved axillary nodes. A preliminary estimate of screening cost yielded a total cost of Lit. 397,671,000 for the year 1992--i.e., Lit. 36,000 per examined subject and Lit. 8,461,000 per detected cancer. The results are compared with reference standards for the evaluation of screening performance provided by the national breast screening program in the United Kingdom.

  7. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-U-202, push mode, cores 75 and 78

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.

    1995-05-05

    This document is a report of the analytical results for samples collected from the radioactive wastes in Tank 241-U-202 at the Hanford Reservation. Core samples were collected from the solid wastes in the tank and underwent safety screening analyses including differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and total alpha analysis. Results indicate that no safety screening notification limits were exceeded.

  8. Cumulative Incidence of False-Positive Results in Repeated, Multimodal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Croswell, Jennifer Miller; Kramer, Barnett S.; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Prorok, Phil C.; Xu, Jian-Lun; Baker, Stuart G.; Fagerstrom, Richard; Riley, Thomas L.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Berg, Christine D.; Gohagan, John K.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Chia, David; Church, Timothy R.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas J.; Schoen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Multiple cancer screening tests have been advocated for the general population; however, clinicians and patients are not always well-informed of screening burdens. We sought to determine the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result and the resulting risk of a diagnostic procedure for an individual participating in a multimodal cancer screening program. METHODS Data were analyzed from the intervention arm of the ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening on disease-specific mortality. The 68,436 participants, aged 55 to 74 years, were randomized to screening or usual care. Women received serial serum tests to detect cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), transvaginal sonograms, posteroanterior-view chest radiographs, and flexible sigmoidoscopies. Men received serial chest radiographs, flexible sigmoidoscopies, digital rectal examinations, and serum prostate-specific antigen tests. Fourteen screening examinations for each sex were possible during the 3-year screening period. RESULTS After 14 tests, the cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive screening test is 60.4% (95% CI, 59.8%–61.0%) for men, and 48.8% (95% CI, 48.1%–49.4%) for women. The cumulative risk after 14 tests of undergoing an invasive diagnostic procedure prompted by a false-positive test is 28.5% (CI, 27.8%–29.3%) for men and 22.1% (95% CI, 21.4%–22.7%) for women. CONCLUSIONS For an individual in a multimodal cancer screening trial, the risk of a false-positive finding is about 50% or greater by the 14th test. Physicians should educate patients about the likelihood of false positives and resulting diagnostic interventions when counseling about cancer screening. PMID:19433838

  9. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies.

  10. Multiple phenotypes resulting from a mutagenesis screen for pharynx muscle mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Andrew; Charron, Alexandra; Sadozai, Yama; Switaj, Lynn; Szutenbach, Anneliese; Smith, Pliny A

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel screen to isolate pharyngeal cell morphology mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans using myo-2::GFP to rapidly identify abnormally shaped pharynxes in EMS (Ethyl Methanesulfonate) mutagenized worms. We observed over 83 C. elegans lines with distinctive pharyngeal phenotypes in worms surviving to the L1 larval stage, with phenotypes ranging from short pharynx, unattached pharynx, missing cells, asymmetric morphology, and non-adherent pharynx cells. Thirteen of these mutations have been chromosomally mapped using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and deficiency strain complementation. Our studies have focused on genetically mapping and functionally testing two phenotypes, the short pharynx and the loss of muscle cohesion phenotypes. We have also identified new alleles of sma-1, and our screen suggests many genes directing pharynx assembly and structure may be either pharynx specific or less critical in other tissues.

  11. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  12. Shifting from glucose diagnosis to the new HbA1c diagnosis reduces the capability of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) to screen for glucose abnormalities within a real-life primary healthcare preventive strategy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate differences in the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as a screening tool for glucose abnormalities after shifting from glucose-based diagnostic criteria to the proposed new hemoglobin (Hb)A1c-based criteria. Methods A cross-sectional primary-care study was conducted as the first part of an active real-life lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes within a high-risk Spanish Mediterranean population. Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years (n = 3,120) were screened using the FINDRISC. Where feasible, a subsequent 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c test were also carried out (n = 1,712). The performance of the risk score was calculated by applying the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic, using three sets of criteria (2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, HbA1c) and three diagnostic categories (normal, pre-diabetes, diabetes). Results Defining diabetes by a single HbA1c measurement resulted in a significantly lower diabetes prevalence (3.6%) compared with diabetes defined by 2-hour plasma glucose (9.2%), but was not significantly lower than that obtained using fasting plasma glucose (3.1%). The FINDRISC at a cut-off of 14 had a reasonably high ability to predict diabetes using the diagnostic criteria of 2-hour or fasting glucose (AUC = 0.71) or all glucose abnormalities (AUC = 0.67 and 0.69, respectively). When HbA1c was used as the primary diagnostic criterion, the AUC for diabetes detection dropped to 0.67 (5.6% reduction in comparison with either 2-hour or fasting glucose) and fell to 0.55 for detection of all glucose abnormalities (17.9% and 20.3% reduction, respectively), with a relevant decrease in sensitivity of the risk score. Conclusions A shift from glucose-based diagnosis to HbA1c-based diagnosis substantially reduces the ability of the FINDRISC to screen for glucose abnormalities when applied in this real-life primary-care preventive strategy. PMID

  13. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-01

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  14. Muscle atrophy in chronic kidney disease results from abnormalities in insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Price, S Russ; Gooch, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Sue K; Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K

    2010-09-01

    Muscle atrophy is a significant consequence of chronic kidney disease that increases a patient's risk of mortality and decreases their quality of life. The loss of lean body mass results, in part, from an increase in the rate of muscle protein degradation. In this review, the proteolytic systems that are activated during chronic kidney disease and the key insulin signaling pathways that regulate the protein degradative processes are described. PMID:20797566

  15. Inducible Expression of Runx2 Results in Multiorgan Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Nan; Xiao, Zhousheng; Yin, Tong; Stubbs, Jason; Li, Linheng; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Runx2 is a transcription factor controlling skeletal development, and is also expressed in extraskeletal tissues where its function is not well understood. Existing Runx2 mutant and transgenic mouse models do not allow the necessary control of Runx2 expression to understand its functions in different tissues. We generated conditional, doxycyline-inducible, triple transgenic mice (CMV-Cre;ROSA26-neoflox/+-rtTA;Tet-O-Runx2) to investigate the effects of wide spread overexpression of Runx2. Osteoblasts isolated from CMV-Cre;ROSA26-neoflox/+-rtTA; Tet-O-Runx2 mice demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of doxycycline to stimulate Runx2 transgene expression. Doxycycline administration to CMV-Cre;ROSA26-neoflox/+-rtTA;Tet-O-Runx2 mice induced Runx2 transgene expression in all tissues tested, with the highest levels observed in kidney, ovary, and bone. Runx2 overexpression resulted in deceased body size and reduced viability. With regard to bone, Runx2 overexpressing mice paradoxically displayed profound osteopenia and diminished osteogenesis. Induced expression of Runx2 in extraskeletal tissues resulted in ectopic calcification and induction of the osteogenic program in a limited number of tissues, including lung and muscle. In addition, the triple transgenic mice showed evidence of a myeloproliferative disorder and an apparent inhibition of lymphocyte development. Thus, overexpression of Runx2 both within and outside of the skeleton can have diverse biological effects. Use of tissue specific Cre mice will allow this model to be used to conditionally and inducibly overexpress Runx2 in different tissues and provide a means to study the post-natal tissue- and cell context-dependent functions of Runx2. PMID:21268087

  16. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  17. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  18. First breast cancer mammography screening program in Mexico: initial results 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Guisa-Hohenstein, Fernando; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia worldwide. In emergent countries as Mexico, an increase has been shown in frequency and mortality, unfortunately, most cases in advanced loco-regional stages developed in young women. The success of breast screening in mortality reduction has been observed since 1995 in Western Europe and the United States, where as many as 40% mortality reduction has been achieved. Most countries guidelines recommends an annual or biannual mammography for all women >40 years of age. In 2005, FUCAM, a nonlucrative civil foundation in Mexico join with Mexico City government, initiated the first voluntary mammography screening program for women >40 years of age residing in Mexico City's Federal District. Mammographies were carried out with analogical mammographs in specially designed mobile units and were performed in the area of women's domiciles. This report includes data from the first 96,828 mammographies performed between March 2005 and December 2006. There were 1% of mammographies in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0, 4, or 5 and 208 out of 949 women with abnormal mammographies (27.7%) had breast cancer, a rate of 2.1 per thousand, most of them in situ or stage I (29.4%) or stage II (42.2%) nevertheless 21% of those women with abnormal mammography did not present for further clinical and radiologic evaluation despite being personally notified at their home addresses. The breast cancer rate of Mexican women submitted to screening mammography is lower than in European or North American women. Family history of breast cancer, nulliparity, absence of breast feeding, and increasing age are factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Most cancers were diagnosed in women's age below 60 years (68.5%) with a mean age of 53.55 corroborating previous data published. It is mandatory to sensitize and educate our population with regard to accepting to visit the Specialized Breast Centers.

  19. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. Methods A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. Results The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). Conclusions The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations. PMID:24096620

  1. False-positive urine phencyclidine immunoassay screen result caused by interference by tramadol and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ly, Binh T; Thornton, Stephen L; Buono, Colleen; Stone, Judith A; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-06-01

    Phencyclidine is one of the drugs of abuse included in qualitative urine drug screens that are frequently ordered in the emergency department despite concerns about specificity and clinical utility. Many drugs have been described to cause false-positive results for phencyclidine. We present 2 cases of false-positive phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen results in patients with seizures from tramadol misuse or abuse. The involvement of tramadol and its active metabolite, N-desmethyltramadol, was confirmed by in vitro testing. These cases illustrate that tramadol and its metabolites can trigger a false-positive phencyclidine urine drug screen result in nonfatal cases and highlight the lack of specificity of the phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen.

  2. Predicting High-Throughput Screening Results With Scalable Literature-Based Discovery Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, T; Widdows, D; Stephan, C; Zinner, R; Kim, J; Rindflesch, T; Davies, P

    2014-01-01

    The identification of new therapeutic uses for existing agents has been proposed as a means to mitigate the escalating cost of drug development. A common approach to such repurposing involves screening libraries of agents for activities against cell lines. In silico methods using knowledge from the biomedical literature have been proposed to constrain the costs of screening by identifying agents that are likely to be effective a priori. However, results obtained with these methods are seldom evaluated empirically. Conversely, screening experiments have been criticized for their inability to reveal the biological basis of their results. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of a scalable literature-based approach, discovery-by-analogy, to identify a small number of active agents within a large library screened for activity against prostate cancer cells. The methods used permit retrieval of the knowledge used to infer their predictions, providing a plausible biological basis for predicted activity. PMID:25295575

  3. Predicting high-throughput screening results with scalable literature-based discovery methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, T; Widdows, D; Stephan, C; Zinner, R; Kim, J; Rindflesch, T; Davies, P

    2014-10-08

    The identification of new therapeutic uses for existing agents has been proposed as a means to mitigate the escalating cost of drug development. A common approach to such repurposing involves screening libraries of agents for activities against cell lines. In silico methods using knowledge from the biomedical literature have been proposed to constrain the costs of screening by identifying agents that are likely to be effective a priori. However, results obtained with these methods are seldom evaluated empirically. Conversely, screening experiments have been criticized for their inability to reveal the biological basis of their results. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of a scalable literature-based approach, discovery-by-analogy, to identify a small number of active agents within a large library screened for activity against prostate cancer cells. The methods used permit retrieval of the knowledge used to infer their predictions, providing a plausible biological basis for predicted activity.

  4. Screening for Barrett’s Esophagus: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Milli; Beebe, Timothy J.; Dunagan, Kelly T.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Locke, G. Richard; Iyer, Prasad G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and adenocarcinoma (EAC) is controversial, but interest remains in finding the optimal method. Attitudes on screening within the community are unknown. We aimed to assess these attitudes via a survey. Study A mixed-mode survey was conducted in adults <50 years to assess awareness regarding BE, willingness to participate in screening, and preferences regarding method of screening. Methods evaluated were sedated endoscopy (sEGD), unsedated transnasal endoscopy (uTNE) and video capsule (VCE). Results A total of 136 from 413 (33 %) adults responded [47 % males, mean (SD) age 63 (10.2) years], and 26 % of responders knew of BE at baseline. After reading the information on BE, 72 % were interested in screening. A history of undergoing screening tests and GI symptoms were predictive of interest. Unsedated techniques were preferred by 64 % (VCE: 56 % and uTNE: 8 %) versus sEGD (36 %). Conclusions The majority of adults were willing to undergo screening for BE/EAC, with a preference for unsedated techniques. PMID:24652109

  5. Parent perception of newborn hearing screening: results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Handelsman, Jaynee A.; King, Ericka F.; Singer, Dianne C.; Davis, Matthew M.; Lesperance, Marci M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance An unacceptably high number of children who do not pass universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) are lost to follow-up. Objectives Our objective was to gain insight into parent recall of UNHS. We compared responses of parents whose children were born before versus after UNHS. Design Survey Setting Nationally representative cross-sectional survey Participants 1,539 parent households surveyed in May 2012 Main Outcome(s) and Measures Outcome measures included recall of hearing screen at birth, hearing screen results, and recommendations for follow-up. All outcome measures were based on parent recall and report. We used descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Only 62.9% of parents recall a newborn hearing screen, and among those children with risk indicators for hearing loss, only 68.6% recall a hearing screen. Higher parent education (p=0.034), younger age of the child (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.11 – 1.23, p<0.001), and the presence of any risk indicator for hearing loss (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13 – 2.13, p=0.007) were associated with parent recall of hearing screen. Reported pass rates were higher than expected. Parents’ recall of follow-up recommendations was not always consistent with guidelines. Conclusions and Relevance While this study is inherently limited by recall bias, our findings demonstrate a lack of parent awareness of UNHS. We believe changes in the system of reporting UNHS results are necessary to improve parents’ recall of screen results and improve follow up for children who do not pass the screen. PMID:26967534

  6. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Results of Seed and Data-Driven Analyses.

    PubMed

    Gay, Charles W; Robinson, Michael E; Lai, Song; O'Shea, Andrew; Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Staud, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Although altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is a characteristic of many chronic pain conditions, it has not yet been evaluated in patients with chronic fatigue. Our objective was to investigate the association between fatigue and altered resting-state FC in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Thirty-six female subjects, 19 ME/CFS and 17 healthy controls, completed a fatigue inventory before undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two methods, (1) data driven and (2) model based, were used to estimate and compare the intraregional FC between both groups during the resting state (RS). The first approach using independent component analysis was applied to investigate five RS networks: the default mode network, salience network (SN), left frontoparietal networks (LFPN) and right frontoparietal networks, and the sensory motor network (SMN). The second approach used a priori selected seed regions demonstrating abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ME/CFS patients at rest. In ME/CFS patients, Method-1 identified decreased intrinsic connectivity among regions within the LFPN. Furthermore, the FC of the left anterior midcingulate with the SMN and the connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex with the SN were significantly decreased. For Method-2, five distinct clusters within the right parahippocampus and occipital lobes, demonstrating significant rCBF reductions in ME/CFS patients, were used as seeds. The parahippocampal seed and three occipital lobe seeds showed altered FC with other brain regions. The degree of abnormal connectivity correlated with the level of self-reported fatigue. Our results confirm altered RS FC in patients with ME/CFS, which was significantly correlated with the severity of their chronic fatigue.

  7. Knockdown of zebrafish Lgi1a results in abnormal development, brain defects and a seizure-like behavioral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Rempala, Grzegorz; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disorder, typified by recurrent seizures with underlying neurological disorders or disease. Approximately one-third of patients are unresponsive to currently available therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the genetics and etiology of epilepsy is needed to advance the development of new therapies. Previously, treatment of zebrafish with epilepsy-inducing pharmacological agents was shown to result in a seizure-like phenotype, suggesting that fish provide a tractable model to understand the function of epilepsy-predisposing genes. Here, we report the first model of genetically linked epilepsy in zebrafish and provide an initial characterization of the behavioral and neurological phenotypes associated with morpholino (MO) knockdown of leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1a (lgi1a) expression. Mutations in the LGI1 gene in humans have been shown to predispose to a subtype of autosomal dominant epilepsy. Low-dose Lgi1a MO knockdown fish (morphants) appear morphologically normal but are sensitized to epilepsy-inducing drugs. High-dose Lgi1a morphants have morphological defects which persist into adult stages that are typified by smaller brains and eyes and abnormalities in tail shape, and display hyperactive swimming behaviors. Increased apoptosis was observed throughout the central nervous system of high-dose morphant fish, accounting for the size reduction of neural tissues. These observations demonstrate that zebrafish can be exploited to dissect the embryonic function(s) of genes known to predispose to seizure-like behavior in humans, and offer potential insight into the relationship between developmental neurobiological abnormalities and seizure. PMID:20819949

  8. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... screening test result? 40.247 Section 40.247 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.247 What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is...

  9. Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

  10. Transcriptional activation by TAL1 and FUS-CHOP proteins expressed in acute malignancies as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, I; Rabbitts, T H

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that appear to participate in transcriptional control of gene expression are increasingly implicated in leukemias and malignant solid tumors. We report here that the N-terminal domains of the proteins TAL1 (ectopically activated in T-cell acute leukemias after chromosomal abnormalities caused by V-D-J recombinase error) (V, variable; D, diversity; J, joining) and FUS-CHOP (a liposarcoma tumor-specific fusion protein that is produced as a result of a chromosomal translocation) can function as transcription activators of specific responsive reporter genes. The result with TAL1 provides evidence that transcriptional activation can be mediated by a gene activated by translocation in T-cell acute leukemias. In the case of the liposarcoma, transactivation by the FUS-CHOP protein occurs because the FUS transcriptional activation domain is added to the DNA-binding CHOP protein normally lacking such activity. Therefore, the association of transcriptional activation and DNA-binding elements is a common consequence in proteins activated or newly created as fusion proteins after chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias and in malignant solid tumors. Images PMID:8058726

  11. Echocardiographic findings and abnormalities in HIV-infected patients: results from a large, prospective, multicenter HIV-heart study

    PubMed Central

    Reinsch, Nico; Kahlert, Philipp; Esser, Stefan; Sundermeyer, Andreas; Neuhaus, Katrin; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Potthoff, Anja; Erbel, Raimund; Buck, Thomas; Neumann, Till

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the current study was to assess cardiac structure and function as well as cardiac abnormalities in a large patient-population based multicenter study of HIV-infected subjects. Materials and methods: We enrolled 803 HIV-positive adults (83.4% men, mean age: 44.2 ± 10.3 yrs) in this prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. The study protocol included a standardized documentation of patient history, medical treatment and clinical examination. All subjects underwent a standardized transthoracic echocardiographic examination protocol including Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Echocardiographic measurements revealed a structural dilatation of the left ventricle in 10.1% of all HIV-infected subjects. Interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness were increased in 18.0% and 11.1%, respectively, with elevated muscle mass in 14.3% male and 19.4% female patients. Of all participants 13.5% exhibited a pathologic contraction characteristic of one or more myocardial segments. Prevalence of systolic and diastolic dysfunction was 34.3% and 48.0%, respectively. However, severe forms of ventricular dysfunction were rare. Conclusions: In conclusion our results demonstrate the relevance of echocardiography in this patient-population in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Above all, left ventricular wall thickness and function should be controlled regularly in HIV-infected subjects. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01119729). PMID:22254197

  12. The Early Results of a New Health Care Program Implementation in HBV Screening: an Iranian Experience.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Afsaneh; Naderi, Nostratollah; Sanati, Azar; Mohebi, Seyed Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Golmohamadi, Ali; Nori, Simin; Khanyaghma, Mahsa; Sheikhesmaeili, Farshad; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND According to the reports of World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran has decreased from 2-7% in 2001 to 1.3-0.8% in children aged 2-14 years. In 2010 the Institute of Medicine recommended more comprehensive screening by primary care physicians (PCPs) for evaluation, vaccination, and management of infected patients for further decrease in the prevalence of chronic HBV infection. Thus, with contribution of the Health Department, we developed a practical flowchart for PCPs to start active screening of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in all visited patients and refer the positive cases for further evaluation and management to Taleghani Hospital. METHODS With collaboration of Health Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences), physicians of health centers were asked to screen all their patients for HBsAg. Positive cases were referred to Taleghani Hospital. They were first registered and educated about their disease, life style, and prevention methods. Their first degree families were screened for HBV infection too and were referred for vaccination if needed. According to the results of lab tests, appropriate management was done by a hepatologist. RESULTS Since implementation of this program, we have encountered a significant rise in patient detection (even in high risk groups). Many of them were not aware of their disease and most of those who were aware of their disease were not managed appropriately. Family screening and vaccination were inadequate and need more emphasis. CONCLUSION Although health system is active about screening of HBV infection in high risk populations, it is not perfect. It seems that health system needs to upgrade the screening and management programs of HBV infection.

  13. The knowledge gap in expanded newborn screening: survey results from paediatricians in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Gennaccaro, M; Waisbren, S E; Marsden, D

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts currently offers an optional expanded newborn screening programme that tests for 20 biochemical genetic disorders in addition to the mandated newborn screening tests, including phenylketonuria (PKU) and nine other biochemical genetic disorders. We conducted a mail survey of 550 paediatricians listed in the 2000 Massachusetts Healthcare Directory to determine paediatricians' preparedness in discussing expanded newborn screening and its results with families, and to determine in what specific format physicians in Massachusetts would prefer to receive educational materials and updates. Of surveys mailed, 35% (190/550) were returned within the allotted 3 weeks: 25 paediatricians (14%) were unaware of expanded newborn screening; 78 respondents (42%) indicated feeling less than prepared talking about test results with families; 100 paediatricians (54%) indicated a lack of information about metabolic disorders; 134 (73%) preferred information sent in postal mailings, 62 (34%) preferred grand rounds, 60 (33%) preferred educational seminars, and 58 (32%) preferred websites. Other formats receiving preferences of less than 30% included e-mail (27%), phone calls (8%), video (6%), and distance learning (1%). Paediatricians are ill-prepared for expanded newborn screening for biochemical genetic disorders. To address this problem, paediatricians in Massachusetts indicated a preference for unsolicited periodic mailings including short reviews and brochures. PMID:16435173

  14. Geriatric screening in first opinion practice – results from 45 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and report the results of screening geriatric dogs in a first opinion practice. Methods A prospective health screen of dogs over nine-years-old involving history taking, physical examination and urinalysis. Results At least one previously unrecognised problem was identified in 80% of 45 dogs and 353 findings (mean 7·8 per dog) were recorded. Owners often failed to recognise and report serious signs of age-related disease. However, they most often reported increased sleeping (31%), loss of hearing (29%) or sight (20%), stiffness or lameness (22%) and “slowing down” (20%). Increased lens opacity (64%), increased thirst (58%), pain (24%), increased frequency of urination (24%), signs of osteoarthritis (24%) and dental disease (22%) were most frequently identified at the time of consultation. Potentially, life-threatening findings included respiratory distress, palpable abdominal masses and metastatic lung disease. Screening resulted in 29 further diagnostic procedures, including 10 dental procedures, seven medical treatments, two surgical procedures and euthanasia of two dogs. Clinical Significance Screening elderly dogs identified unrecognised and unreported health risk factors resulting in lifestyle modification and ongoing monitoring, as well as signs of age-related diseases resulting in diagnostic investigations, early diagnoses and surgical and medical interventions to improve quality of life. PMID:22835038

  15. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-C-105, push mode, cores 72 and 76

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-05-03

    This document is a report of the analytical results for samples collected between March 14 and March 22, 1995 from the radioactive wastes in Tank 241-C-105 at the Hanford Reservation. Core samples were collected from the solid wastes in the tank and underwent safety screening analyses including differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and total alpha analysis.

  16. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O C; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1-LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1 may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1((-/-)) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1((-/-)) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1((-/-)) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology.

  17. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  18. Abnormalities in larvae from the once-largest Pacific herring population in Washington State result primarily from factors independent of spawning location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Wittouck, J.; Stick, K.; Kocan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Among larvae from populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Washington State those from Cherry Point have consistently demonstrated abnormalities indicative of distress, including low weights and lengths at hatch, increased prevalences of skeletal abnormalities, and shorter survival times in food deprivation studies. The biomass of adult, prespawn Pacific herring at Cherry Point declined from 13,606 metric tons in 1973 to a record low 733 metric tons in 2000. However, correlation of larval abnormalities with adult recruitment was weak, indicating that the larval abnormalities did not directly cause the decline. Larval abnormalities originated primarily from factors independent of conditions at the spawning location because they were not reproduced by incubation of foreign zygotes along the Cherry Point shoreline but were reproduced after the development of indigenous zygotes in controlled laboratory conditions. Although the precise cause of the abnormalities was not determined, recent zoographic trends in elevated natural mortality among adult Pacific herring and resulting reduced age structures may be involved. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. 45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-C-101, auger sample 95-AUG-019

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-05-11

    One auger sample from Tank 241-C-101 was received by the 222-S Laboratory and underwent safety screening analyses--differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha analysis--in accordance with the tank characterization plan. Analytical results for the TGA on the crust sample (the uppermost portion of the auger sample) (sample number S95T000823) were less than the safety screening notification limit of 17 weight percent water. Verbal and written notifications were made on May 3, 1995. No exotherms were observed in the DSC analyses and the total alpha results were well below the safety screening notification limit. This report includes the primary safety screening results obtained from the analyses and copies of all DSC and TGA raw data scans as requested per the TCP. Although not included in this report, a photograph of the extruded sample was taken and is available. This report also includes bulk density measurements required by Characterization Plant Engineering. Additional analyses (pH, total organic carbon, and total inorganic carbon) are being performed on the drainable liquid at the request of Characterization Process Control; these analyses will be reported at a later date in a final report for this auger sample. Tank C-101 is not part of any of the four Watch Lists.

  20. 45-Day safety screening results for tank 241-U-102, push mode cores 143 and 144

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-06-28

    This document is the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-U-102 push mode core segments collected between April 16, 1996 and May 6, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between April 17, 1996 and May 8, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance, with the Tank 241-U-102 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1996) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Attachment I is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagram identifying the hydrostatic head fluid (HHF) blank is also included, Primary safety screening results and the raw data from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses are included in this report. Two of the samples submitted for DSC analysis exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow, et al., 1995). Cyanide analysis was requested on these samples and a Reactive System Screening Tool analysis was requested for the sample exhibiting the highest exothenn in accordance with the TSAP (Hu, 1996). The results for these analyses will be reported in a revision to this document.

  1. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  2. Gastric Cancer Screening Uptake Trends in Korea: Results for the National Cancer Screening Program From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of

  3. Citations of scientific results and conflicts of interest: the case of mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kristine; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2001, a Cochrane review of mammography screening questioned whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality, and a more comprehensive review in Lancet, also in 2001, reported considerable overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This led to a heated debate and a recent review of the evidence by UK experts intended to be independent. Objective To explore if general medical and specialty journals differed in accepting the results and methods of three Cochrane reviews on mammography screening. Methods We identified articles citing the Lancet review from 2001 or updated versions of the Cochrane review (last search 20 April 2012). We explored which results were quoted, whether the methods and results were accepted (explicit agreement or quoted without caveats), differences between general and specialty journals, and change over time. Results We included 171 articles. The results for overdiagnosis were not quoted in 87% (148/171) of included articles and the results for breast cancer mortality were not quoted in 53% (91/171) of articles. 11% (7/63) of articles in general medical journals accepted the results for overdiagnosis compared with 3% (3/108) in specialty journals (p=0.05). 14% (9/63) of articles in general medical journals accepted the methods of the review compared with 1% (1/108) in specialty journals (p=0.001). Specialty journals were more likely to explicitly reject the estimated effect on breast cancer mortality 26% (28/108), compared with 8% (5/63) in general medical journals, p=0.02. Conclusions Articles in specialty journals were more likely to explicitly reject results from the Cochrane reviews, and less likely to accept the results and methods, than articles in general medical journals. Several specialty journals are published by interest groups and some authors have vested interests in mammography screening. PMID:23635839

  4. Computerized classification of auditory trauma: Results of an investigation on screening employees exposed to noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klockhoff, I.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic, computerized method was developed to classify results from a screening of employees exposed to noise, resulting in a fast and effective method of identifying and taking measures against auditory trauma. This technique also satisfies the urgent need for quick discovery of cases which deserve compensation in accordance with the Law on Industrial Accident Insurance. Unfortunately, use of this method increases the burden on the already overloaded investigatory resources of the auditory health care system.

  5. Strategies for Increasing Mammography Screening in Primary Care in Chile: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Püschel, Klaus; Coronado, Gloria; Soto, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Karla; Martinez, Javiera; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence among women in Chile and in many Latin American countries. Breast cancer screening has very low compliance among Chilean women. Methods We compare the effects on mammography screening rates of standard care, of a low intensity intervention based on mail contact, and of a high intensity intervention based on mail plus telephone or personal contact. A random sample of 500 women 50 to 70 years registered at a community clinic in Santiago who had not had a mammogram in the past two years were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups. Six months after randomization, participants were re-evaluated for their compliance with mammography screening. The outcome was measured by self report and by electronic clinical records. An intention to treat model was used to analyze the results. Results Between 92% and 93% of participants completed the study. Based on electronic records, mammography screening rates increased significantly from 6% in the control group to 51.8% in the low intensity group, and 70.1% in the high intensity group. About 14% of participants in each group received opportunistic advice, 100% of participants in the low and high intensity groups received the mail contact, and 50% in the high intensity group received a telephone or personal contact. Conclusion A primary care intervention based on mail or brief personal contact could significantly improve mammogram screening rates. Impact A relatively simple intervention could have a strong impact in breast cancer prevention in underserved communities. PMID:20826832

  6. Late onset variants in Fabry disease: Results in high risk population screenings in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serebrinsky, G.; Calvo, M.; Fernandez, S.; Saito, S.; Ohno, K.; Wallace, E.; Warnock, D.; Sakuraba, H.; Politei, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for Fabry disease (FD) in high risk populations yields a significant number of individuals with novel, ultra rare genetic variants in the GLA gene, largely without classic manifestations of FD. These variants often have significant residual α-galactosidase A activity. The establishment of the pathogenic character of previously unknown or rare variants is challenging but necessary to guide therapeutic decisions. Objectives To present 2 cases of non-classical presentations of FD with renal involvement as well as to discuss the importance of high risk population screenings for FD. Results Our patients with non-classical variants were diagnosed through FD screenings in dialysis units. However, organ damage was not limited to kidneys, since LVH, vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia and cornea verticillata were also present. Lyso-Gb3 concentrations in plasma were in the pathologic range, compatible with late onset FD. Structural studies and in silico analysis of p.(Cys174Gly) and p.(Arg363His), employing different tools, suggest that enzyme destabilization and possibly aggregation could play a role in organ damage. Conclusions Screening programs for FD in high risk populations are important as FD is a treatable multisystemic disease which is frequently overlooked in patients who present without classical manifestations. PMID:26937405

  7. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  8. Looking you in the mouth: abnormal gaze in autism resulting from impaired top-down modulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dirk; Spezio, Michael L; Piven, Joseph; Adolphs, Ralph

    2006-12-01

    People with autism are impaired in their social behavior, including their eye contact with others, but the processes that underlie this impairment remain elusive. We combined high-resolution eye tracking with computational modeling in a group of 10 high-functioning individuals with autism to address this issue. The group fixated the location of the mouth in facial expressions more than did matched controls, even when the mouth was not shown, even in faces that were inverted and most noticeably at latencies of 200-400 ms. Comparisons with a computational model of visual saliency argue that the abnormal bias for fixating the mouth in autism is not driven by an exaggerated sensitivity to the bottom-up saliency of the features, but rather by an abnormal top-down strategy for allocating visual attention.

  9. Implementation of universal newborn bloodspot screening for sickle cell disease and other clinically significant haemoglobinopathies in England: screening results for 2005–7

    PubMed Central

    Streetly, A; Latinovic, R; Hall, K; Henthorn, J

    2009-01-01

    Early results from the National Health Service Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia Screening programme covering the whole of England are reported following the implementation of the national newborn blood-spot screening programme. Of the 13 laboratories performing screening, 10 chose high-performance liquid chromatography as the first screen, with isoelectric focusing as the second confirmatory test. Screening results for April 2005 to March 2007 are presented and include data from all the laboratories screening newborns in England, and almost 1.2 million infants. The screen-positive results show a national birth prevalence of almost 1 in 2000. The birth prevalence in London is five times that of most of the rest of the country. Over 17 000 carriers have been identified. Approximately seven per 1000 samples are reported as post-transfusion with wide ethnic category variation. Given the prevalence of the conditions, and coverage by ethnicity, 3–4 screen-positive cases could be missed each year. National implementation of newborn screening in England has increased the number of children identified with sickle cell disease, in many areas almost doubling the workload. Underascertainment of the condition has allowed a downplaying of the scale of need. It may also have contributed to infant mortality rates in urban areas as babies died without a diagnosis or treatment. The value of a co-ordinated national approach to policy development and implementation is emphasised by the English experience. The programme provides a model for Europe as well as other countries with significant minority populations, such as Canada. Potentially it also offers important lessons for Africa where the World Health Organization is supporting the introduction of newborn screening. PMID:19103854

  10. Unequal mitotic sister chromatid exchange: A rare mechanism for chromosomal abnormality resulting in duplication/deletion of chromosome 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Eydoux, P.; Ortenberg, J.; Chalifoux, N.

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of unequal mitotic chromatid exchange, which has rarely been reported as a mechanism for microscopic chromosomal anomalies. The proposita was born at 40 weeks, after an uneventful pregnancy, of parents with a negative family history. The baby was small for gestational age and had dysmorphic features, including scaphocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds and palpebral ptosis, mild hypertelorism, hypoplasia of orbital contours, right coloboma, bulbous prominent nose, retrognathism, downturned mouth, low set posteriorly rotated ears, tapering of the limbs. bilateral Sydney creases. At 5 months, she was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference, and had a mild developmental delay. The karyotype showed an abnormality of chromosome 7 in all cells, half with a duplication and half with a deletion of the same region; 46,XX,del(7)(q33{yields}q34)/46,XX,dup(7)(q33{yields}q34). This chromosomal abnormality could be explained by an unequal chromatid exchange occuring in the first mitosis of the embryo. To our knowledge, only one such human microscopic abnormality, involving chromosome Y, has been reported to date. This type of genetic unbalance could be missed by molecular techniques.

  11. Questioning the Consensus: Managing Carrier Status Results Generated by Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jason Scott; Hayeems, Robin Z.

    2009-01-01

    An apparent consensus governs the management of carrier status information generated incidentally through newborn screening: results cannot be withheld from parents. This normative stance encodes the focus on autonomy and distaste for paternalism that characterize the principles of clinical bioethics. However, newborn screening is a classic public health intervention in which paternalism may trump autonomy and through which parents are—in effect—required to receive carrier information. In truth, the disposition of carrier results generates competing moral infringements: to withhold information or require its possession. Resolving this dilemma demands consideration of a distinctive body of public health ethics to highlight the moral imperatives associated with the exercise of collective authority in the pursuit of public health benefits. PMID:19059852

  12. Anxiety in women with low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening results.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, D N; Hopmann, M R; Barsel-Bowers, G; Goldstein, A

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure anxiety in pregnant women who had low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test levels, received genetic counselling and chose to undergo amniocentesis for fetal chromosome analysis. Their anxiety levels were compared with the levels in women undergoing amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. The results indicate a higher level of anxiety in women with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels.

  13. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig: Woven screen and metal felt results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    We present correlating expressions, in terms of Reynolds or Peclet numbers, for friction factors, Nusselt numbers, enhanced axial conduction ratios, and overall heat flux ratios in four porous regenerator samples representative of stirling cycle regenerators: two woven screen samples and two random wire samples. Error estimates and comparison of data with others suggest our correlations are reliable, but we need to test more samples over a range of porosities before our results will become generally useful.

  14. Screening of fruit products for norovirus and the difficulty of interpreting positive PCR results.

    PubMed

    Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; Jasson, Vicky; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-03-01

    Despite recent norovirus (NoV) outbreaks related to consumption of fruit products, little is known regarding the NoV load on these foods. Therefore, 75 fruit products were screened for NoV presence by using an evaluated in-house NoV detection methodology consisting of a NoV extraction method and a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Additionally, the fruit samples were screened for bacterial pathogens and bacterial hygiene indicators. Results of the NoV screening showed that 18 of 75 samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoV despite a good bacteriological quality. The recovery of murine norovirus 1 virus particles acting as process control was successful in 31 of 75 samples with a mean recovery efficiency of 11.32% ± 6.08%. The level of detected NoV genomic copies ranged between 2.5 and 5.0 log per 10 g. NoV GI and/or GII were found in 4 of 10, 7 of 30, 6 of 20, and 1 of 15 of the tested raspberries, cherry tomatoes, strawberries, and fruit salad samples, respectively. However, confirmation of the positive quantitative PCR results by sequencing genotyping regions in the NoV genome was not possible. Due to the nature of the method used (reverse transcription quantitative PCR) for detection of genomic material, no differentiation was possible between infectious and noninfectious viral particles. No NoV outbreaks related to the tested fruit product types were reported during the screening period, which hampers a conclusion as to whether these unexpected high numbers of NoV-positive results should be perceived as a public health threat. These results, however, may indicate a prior NoV contamination of the tested food samples throughout the fresh produce chain. PMID:21375879

  15. Crystallization Optimum Solubility Screening: using crystallization results to identify the optimal buffer for protein crystal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Bernard; Stevens, Raymond C.; Page, Rebecca

    2005-12-01

    It is shown how protein crystallization results can be used to identify buffers that improve protein solubility and, in turn, crystallization success. An optimal solubility screen is described that uses the results of crystallization trials to identify buffers that improve protein solubility and, in turn, crystallization success. This screen is useful not only for standard crystallization experiments, but also can easily be implemented into any high-throughput structure-determination pipeline. As a proof of principle, the predicted novel-fold protein AF2059 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, which was known to precipitate in most buffers and particularly during concentration experiments, was selected. Using the crystallization results of 192 independent crystallization trials, it was possible to identify a buffer containing 100 mM CHES pH 9.25 that significantly improves its solubility. After transferring AF2059 into this ‘optimum-solubility’ buffer, the protein was rescreened for crystal formation against these same 192 conditions. Instead of extensive precipitation, as observed initially, it was found that 24 separate conditions produced crystals and the exchange of AF2059 into CHES buffer significantly improved crystallization success. Fine-screen optimization of these conditions led to the production of a crystal suitable for high-resolution (2.2 Å) structure determination.

  16. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result: drug consumption before and after screening.

    PubMed

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Background Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake. Methods We calculated the ratio of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact. Results Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s) Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal mammograms already before the screening event, while the changes from before to after screening were similar for both groups. The results point to the importance of control for potential selection in studies of screening effects.

  17. Screening Analysis : Volume 2, Impact Results (Columbia River System Operation Review).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Detailed results from all of the work groups are presented in this chapter. Ninety alternatives were analyzed during the screening process. Three of the alternative represent various base cases and are used for comparison purposes. The other 87 alternatives represent a wide variety of operational possibilities ranging from current operations to emphasizing a single river use to compromise operations that attempt to accommodate the multiple uses. Every possible alternative suggested during the screening phase was considered. Each alternative was given an abbreviated name, a number and assigned by ROSE to either the Corps (C) or BPA (B) for hydroregulation modeling. A list of the alternatives with its number and hydroregulation assignment is given below. The results in this chapter are presented in numerical order. The first 3 letters in the name identify which work group suggested the alternative. The format for the results includes a brief description of each alternative, a tabulation of the screening calculations organized by work group, and observations/comments on the alternative by the work groups. The description summarizes the key operational requirements for the alternative and was taken directly from the instructions given to the hydroregulation modelers.

  18. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Rachel M.; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M.; Shur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10–30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient. PMID:27625836

  19. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients.

    PubMed

    Marano, Rachel M; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M; Shur, Natasha

    2013-03-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10-30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient.

  20. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients.

    PubMed

    Marano, Rachel M; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M; Shur, Natasha

    2013-03-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10-30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient. PMID:27625836

  1. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Rachel M.; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M.; Shur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10–30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient.

  2. AB017. The extended newborn screening by tandem mass in Taiwan—results from two national newborn screening centers: Taipei Institute of Pathology & Chinese Foundation of Health

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dau-Ming; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, tandem mass spectrometry was introduced for newborn screening by two Taiwan national newborn screening centers: Taipei Institute of Pathology and Chinese Foundation of Health, in Taiwan, respectively. A total of 24 metabolic disorders, including 6 amino acidopathies, 8 organic acid disorders and 9 fatty acid disorders, etc., were screened and the newborns with positive screening result were referred to Taipei Veterans General Hospital for confirmatory diagnosis. Until Dec 2014, a total of 1,391,583 newborns have been screened by these two newborn screening centers. The overall incidence of inborn errors of metabolism identified by tandem mass was approximately 1/6,000. The most common inborn errors were defects of phenylalanine metabolism (phenylketonuria: 1/60,000; 6-pyruvoyltertrahydropterin synthase (PTPS): 1/110,000). Maple syrup urine disease was the second most common amino acidopathy (1/100,000) and, significantly, most MSUD patients (75%) belonged to the Austronesian aboriginal tribes of southern Taiwan. The most frequently detected organic acid disorder was 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (1/35,000). Glutaric aciduria type 1 and methylmalonic academia were the second most common organic acid disorders (1/100,000 for each disease). The incidence of fatty acid disorder is relatively less than most western countries. Out of them, carnitine transport defect was the most common fatty acid disease (1/100,000). In this report we will present this large population study of tandem mass newborn screening in Chinese population.

  3. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women aged 30-74 years with no history of cancer diagnosis. The annual percentage change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to examine changes in annual screening rates. Results Screening rates with recommendation increased by 4.4% annually for stomach cancer, 1.5% for liver cancer, 2.8% per year for colorectal cancer, 4.5% for breast cancer, and 1.2% for cervix uteri cancer. The increasing trend in cancer screening rates, with the exception of liver cancer, was significant. Conclusion Cancer screening rates have increased consistently from 2004 to 2010 among Korean men and women. Stomach and breast cancer screening rates in particular have increased markedly. PMID:22022290

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  6. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  7. Screening for Tuberculosis at an Adult Education Center: Results of a Community-Based Participatory Process

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jennifer A.; Olney, Marilynn W.; Alemán, Marty; Sullivan, Susan; Millington, Kendra; O'Hara, Connie; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to plan and implement free TB skin testing at an adult education center to determine the efficacy of CBPR with voluntary tuberculosis (TB) screening and the prevalence of TB infection among immigrant and refugee populations. Methods. We formed a CBPR partnership to address TB screening at an adult education center that serves a large immigrant and refugee population in Rochester, Minnesota. We conducted focus groups involving educators, health providers, and students of the education center, and used this input to implement TB education and TB skin testing among the center's students. Results. A total of 259 adult learners volunteered to be skin-tested in April 2009; 48 (18.5%) had positive TB skin tests. Conclusions. Our results imply that TB skin testing at adult education centers that serve large foreign-born populations may be effective. Our findings also show that a participatory process may enhance the willingness of foreign-born persons to participate in TB skin-testing efforts. PMID:21653249

  8. How well do people recall risk factor test results? Accuracy and bias among cholesterol screening participants.

    PubMed

    Croyle, Robert T; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Barger, Steven D; Sun, Yi-Chun; Hart, Marybeth; Gettig, JoAnn

    2006-05-01

    The authors conducted a community-based cholesterol screening study to examine accuracy of recall for self-relevant health information in long-term autobiographical memory. Adult community residents (N = 496) were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based cholesterol screening and were also provided cholesterol counseling in accordance with national guidelines. Participants were subsequently interviewed 1, 3, or 6 months later to assess their memory for their test results. Participants recalled their exact cholesterol levels inaccurately (38.0% correct) but their cardiovascular risk category comparatively well (88.7% correct). Recall errors showed a systematic bias: Individuals who received the most undesirable test results were most likely to remember their cholesterol scores and cardiovascular risk categories as lower (i.e., healthier) than those actually received. Recall bias was unrelated to age, education, knowledge, self-rated health status, and self-reported efforts to reduce cholesterol. The findings provide evidence that recall of self-relevant health information is susceptible to self-enhancement bias.

  9. [Does education influence the results of the Amsterdam Dementia-Screening Test (ADS)?].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between education and the results of five dementia screening tests. In a study of 551 consecutively enrolled psychogeriatric day care attendants individual differences in education explained only very small portions of variance (< or = 0.63%) in four tests (visual recognition memory, orientation, category fluency and alternating sequences) of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test, a standard neuropsychological battery. The only exception was graphical copying of two- or three-dimensional geometric designs, where education explained 6.25% of the variance in copying accuracy. The more education participants had (from incomplete or complete primary education, through extended primary education, lower technical and vocational training, and secondary to higher education), the better their copying performance was. There was however one exception, in that participants with secondary education copied designs significantly less accurately than participants with lower technical and vocational training. Differences in copying accuracy of subjects with higher versus lower educational attainment were largest for participants matched for high levels of cognitive function. More severe cognitive impairment attenuated education effects. Higher education did not protect against decline of copying performance as a consequence of increasing cognitive impairment. For each of three educational levels, premorbid copying performance was estimated by constructing a regression equation using an independent measure of cognitive functioning (in terms of visual recognition memory, orientation and category fluency) as the predictor variable. The results support the clinical utility of controlling for educational level when interpreting individual copying performance. PMID:12611290

  10. A Novel Intra-Oral Diabetes Screening Approach in Periodontal Patients: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Tuthill, Janet; Singh, Geetika; Rindskopf, David; Maggiore, Jack A.; Schoor, Robert; Brodsky, Anya; Einhorn, Adi; Hochstein, Amanda; Russell, Stefanie; Rosedale, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined whether a novel diabetes screening approach using gingival crevicular blood (GCB) could be used to test for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) during the periodontal visit. Methods At a large periodontics clinic, finger stick blood (FSB) samples from 120 patients as well as GCB samples from those patients with adequate bleeding on probing were collected on special blood collection cards and were analyzed for HbA1c levels in a laboratory. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure correlation between FSB and GCB HbA1c values for 75 paired FSB and GCB samples. A Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine an optimal GCB HbA1c criterion value for a positive diabetes screen. Results For the 75 paired samples, the Pearson correlation coefficient was .842. The ROC analysis identified a criterion value of 6.3% for the GCB HbA1c test with high sensitivity (.933) and high specificity (.900) corresponding to FSB HbA1c values of 6.5% or greater (in the diabetes range). Using this GCB HbA1c criterion value for 27 additional paired samples in which there was an unidentified component observed to co-elute within the elution window of GCB HbA1c in the laboratory, there was agreement between FSB and GCB values for 24 of the pairs according to whether they were both within, or both outside of the diabetes range. Conclusions Using a criterion value of 6.3%, GCB samples are acceptable for HbA1c testing to screen for diabetes in most persons with bleeding on probing at the GCB collection site. PMID:22087806

  11. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  12. OPTIMAL DNA TIER FOR THE IRT/DNA ALGORITHM DETERMINED BY CFTR MUTATION RESULTS OVER 14 YEARS OF NEWBORN SCREENING

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mei W.; Groose, Molly; Hoffman, Gary; Rock, Michael; Levy, Hara; Farrell, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been great variation and uncertainty about how many and what CFTR mutations to include in cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening algorithms, and very little research on this topic using large populations of newborns. Methods We reviewed Wisconsin screening results for 1994–2008 to identify an ideal panel. Results Upon analyzing approximately 1 million screening results, we found it optimal to use a 23 CFTR mutation panel as a second tier when an immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT)/DNA algorithm was applied for CF screening. This panel in association with a 96th percentile IRT cutoff gave a sensitivity of 97.3%, but restricting the DNA tier to F508del was associated with 90% (P<.0001). Conclusions Although CFTR panel selection has been challenging, our data show that a 23 mutation method optimizes sensitivity and is practically advantageous. The IRT cutoff value, however, is actually more critical than DNA in determining CF newborn screening sensitivity. PMID:21388895

  13. The association of pseudoephedrine sales restrictions on emergency department urine drug screen results in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, M A; Brown, S J; Arneson, W L; Arneson, D L

    2007-11-01

    On June 15, 2004, Oklahoma became the first state to reclassify pseudoephedrine as a Schedule V drug. Arrests in Oklahoma for the manufacture of methamphetamines in clandestine laboratories precipitously declined. It was hypothesized that a decrease in methamphetamine use could be shown in the patient population in Oklahoma's largest emergency department. To test this hypothesis, all urine drug screen results in the Saint Francis Hospital Trauma Emergency Center from January 2003 through May 2005 were reviewed. There was a significant increase in the total tests performed and the percentage of positive test results for the amphetamine drug class (p = 0.0004, R2 = 0.3785) over time. These results suggest that methamphetamine usage has not decreased in the emergency department patient population. Possibly, methamphetamine usage in Oklahoma has not been impacted by the passage of HB 2176 due to an increase in drug trafficking of methamphetamine into the state.

  14. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; den Enden, Apollonia T. Helderman-van; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful

  15. Residual risk for cytogenetic abnormalities after prenatal diagnosis by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Homer, Jeanne; Bhatt, Sucheta; Huang, Bing; Thangavelu, Maya

    2003-07-01

    Results from conventional cytogenetic studies on 21 609 amniotic fluid specimens were analyzed retrospectively to determine the residual risk for a cytogenetic abnormality if interphase FISH, capable of only detecting aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y, was performed and did not reveal an abnormality. Detection rates (the probability of detecting a cytogenetic abnormality when an abnormality is present) and residual risks (the likelihood of a cytogenetic abnormality, in view of normal interphase FISH results) were calculated for the four major clinical indications for prenatal diagnosis (advanced maternal age, abnormal maternal serum screen indicating increased risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 21, abnormal maternal serum screen indicating increased risk for neural tube defects and ultrasound abnormality). Differences in detection rates were observed to depend on clinical indication and presence or absence of ultrasound abnormalities. The detection rate ranged from 18.2 to 82.6% depending on the clinical indication. The detection rates of abnormalities significant to the pregnancy being evaluated (i.e. abnormalities excluding familial balanced rearrangements and familial markers) were between 28.6 and 86.4%. The presence of ultrasound abnormalities increased the detection rate from 72.2 to 92.5% for advanced maternal age and from 78.6 to 91.3% for abnormal maternal serum screen, indicating increased risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 21. With regard to residual risk, the risk for a clinically significant abnormality decreased from 0.9-10.1%, prior to the interphase FISH assay, to a residual risk of 0.6-1.5% following a normal interphase FISH result in the 4 groups studied. Providing patients with detection rates and residual risks, most relevant to their situation (clinical indication and presence or absence of ultrasound abnormality) during counseling, could help them better understand the advantages and limitations of interphase FISH in their prenatal

  16. Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed

  17. Dispelling myths about coagulation abnormalities in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Thachil, Jecko

    2014-06-01

    The clotting screen is an 'integral' part of the routine blood tests in most medical wards. It is likely that only with the increasing requests for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are abnormal results noted. Interpretation of these results requires good understanding of the coagulation system and problems with the laboratory analysis. Due to variable understanding of this complex system, many misconceptions have arisen in relation to the clinical effects expected from abnormal clotting screens. Some of these are discussed with considerations of appropriate management in those situations.

  18. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  19. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  20. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in Spain: Results of Key Performance Indicators After Five Rounds (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    Binefa, Gemma; Garcia, Montse; Milà, Núria; Fernández, Esteve; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Gonzalo, Núria; Benito, Llúcia; Clopés, Ana; Guardiola, Jordi; Moreno, Víctor

    2016-01-20

    Effective quality assurance is essential in any screening programme. This article provides a unique insight into key quality indicators of five rounds of the first population-based colorectal cancer screening programme implemented in Spain (2000-2012), providing the results according to the type of screening (prevalent or first screen and incident or subsequent screen) and test (guaiac or immunochemical). The total crude participation rate increased from 17.2% (11,011) in the first round to 35.9% (22,988) in the last one. Rescreening rate was very high (88.6% in the fifth round). Positivity rate was superior with the faecal immunochemical test (6.2%) than with the guaiac-based test (0.7%) (p < 0.0001) and detection rates were also better with the immunochemical test. The most significant rise in detection rate was observed for high risk adenoma in men (45.5 per 1,000 screened). Most cancers were diagnosed at an early stage (61.4%) and there was a statistically significant difference between those detected in first or subsequent screening (52.6% and 70.0% respectively; p = 0.024). The availability of these results substantially improves data comparisons and the exchange of experience between screening programmes.

  2. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr–drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  3. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired Long-QT Syndrome (aLTQS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired Long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O’Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired Long QT Syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  4. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E

    2014-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed "in silico mutagenesis" by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  5. Teleradiology and screening mammography: a telemammography system evaluation and comparison to clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, Joseph K.; Chough, Denise; Clearfield, Ronald J.; Ganott, Marie A.; Hakim, Christiane; Hardesty, Lara; Shindel, Betty; Sumkin, Jules H.; Drescher, John M.; Maitz, Glenn S.; Gur, David

    2005-04-01

    Radiologists' performance reviewing and rating breast cancer screening mammography exams using a telemammography system was evaluated and compared with the actual clinical interpretations of the same interpretations. Mammography technologists from three remote imaging sites transmitted 245 exams to a central site (radiologists), which they (the technologists) believed needed additional procedures (termed "recall"). Current exam image data and non-image data (i.e., technologist's text message, technologist's graphic marks, patient's prior report, and Computer Aided Detection (CAD) results) were transmitted to the central site and displayed on three high-resolution, portrait monitors. Seven radiologists interpreted ("recall" or "no recall") the exams using the telemammography workstation in three separate multi-mode studies. The mean telemammography recall rates ranged from 72.3% to 82.5% while the actual clinical recall rates ranged from 38.4% to 42.3% across the three studies. Mean Kappa of agreement ranged from 0.102 to 0.213 and mean percent agreement ranged from 48.7% to 57.4% across the three studies. Eighty-seven percent of the disagreement interpretations occurred when the telemammography interpretation resulted in a recommendation to recall and the clinical interpretation resulted in a recommendation not to recall. The poor agreement between the telemammography and clinical interpretations may indicate a critical dependence on images from prior screening exams rather than any text based information. The technologists were sensitive, if not specific, to the mammography features and changes that may lead to recall. Using the telemammography system the radiologists were able to reduce the recommended recalls by the technologist by approximately 25 percent.

  6. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  7. DiSCuS: an open platform for (not only) virtual screening results management.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Paweł

    2014-01-27

    DiSCuS, a "Database System for Compound Selection", has been developed. The primary goal of DiSCuS is to aid researchers in the steps subsequent to generating high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) results, such as selection of compounds for further study, purchase, or synthesis. To do so, DiSCuS provides (1) a storage facility for ligand-receptor complexes (generated with external programs), (2) a number of tools for validating these complexes, such as scoring functions, potential energy contributions, and med-chem features with ligand similarity estimates, and (3) powerful searching and filtering options with logical operators. DiSCuS supports multiple receptor targets for a single ligand, so it can be used either to evaluate different variants of an active site or for selectivity studies. DiSCuS documentation, installation instructions, and source code can be found at http://discus.ibb.waw.pl .

  8. [Down syndrome maternal serum screening: results' comments recommended by accredited biologists].

    PubMed

    Muller, F; Dreux, S; Czerkiewicz, I; Bernard, M; Guibourdenche, J; Lacroix, I; Moineau, M-P; Read, M-H; Sault, C; Thibaud, D; Veyrat, B; Bidat, L

    2014-11-01

    Down syndrome maternal serum screening is largely used in France. The aim of this article is to specify and to explain the different comments applied on the reports in order to optimize the management of the patient. These comments represent the consensus of the study group of the biologist accredited for Down syndrome maternal serum screening. PMID:25218268

  9. [Down syndrome maternal serum screening: results' comments recommended by accredited biologists].

    PubMed

    Muller, F; Dreux, S; Czerkiewicz, I; Bernard, M; Guibourdenche, J; Lacroix, I; Moineau, M-P; Read, M-H; Sault, C; Thibaud, D; Veyrat, B; Bidat, L

    2014-11-01

    Down syndrome maternal serum screening is largely used in France. The aim of this article is to specify and to explain the different comments applied on the reports in order to optimize the management of the patient. These comments represent the consensus of the study group of the biologist accredited for Down syndrome maternal serum screening.

  10. Autism and Developmental Screening in a Public, Primary Care Setting Primarily Serving Hispanics: Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Smith, Karen S.; Rosen, Nila; Anderson, Meredith C.; Grether, Judith K.; Coolman, Richard B.; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We implemented screening of children 16-30 months of age (n = 1,760) from a typically under-served, primarily Hispanic, population, at routine pediatric appointments using the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Screen positive rates of 26 and 39%, respectively, were higher than previous reports.…

  11. Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

  12. Usefulness of previous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening results in guiding empirical therapy for S aureus bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Anthony D; Burry, Lisa; Showler, Adrienne; Steinberg, Marilyn; Ricciuto, Daniel; Fernandes, Tania; Chiu, Anna; Raybardhan, Sumit; Tomlinson, George A; Bell, Chaim M; Morris, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection. Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) screening is performed on hospitalized patients for infection control purposes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of past MRSA screening for guiding empirical antibiotic therapy for SAB. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study examined consecutive patients with confirmed SAB and previous MRSA screening swab from six academic and community hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Diagnostic test properties were calculated for MRSA screening swab for predicting methicillin resistance of SAB. RESULTS: A total of 799 patients underwent MRSA screening swabs before SAB. Of the 799 patients, 95 (12%) had a positive and 704 (88%) had a negative previous MRSA screening swab. There were 150 (19%) patients with MRSA bacteremia. Overall, previous MRSA screening swabs had a positive likelihood ratio of 33 (95% CI 18 to 60) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.45 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.54). Diagnostic accuracy differed depending on mode of acquisition (ie, community-acquired, nosocomial or health care-associated infection) (P<0.0001) and hospital (P=0.0002). At best, for health care-associated infection, prior MRSA screening swab had a positive likelihood ratio of 16 (95% CI 9 to 28) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.27 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: A negative prior MRSA screening swab cannot reliably rule out MRSA bacteremia and should not be used to guide empirical antibiotic therapy for SAB. A positive prior MRSA screening swab greatly increases likelihood of MRSA, necessitating MRSA coverage in empirical antibiotic therapy for SAB. PMID:26361488

  13. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  14. [Results of multiphasic oncology screening of the population in the community of Beĕj 1986-1987. II. Questionnaire screening].

    PubMed

    Burány, B; Beretka, F; Dzigurski-Sekulić, N

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the multiphase oncologic population screening in the community of Becej in the period from 1986-1987, the inquiry screening comprised 16,895 persons, whereby the following results were obtained: two malignant breast neoplasms, one uterine corpus neoplasm, one carcinoma of the larynx, and out of the non-target locations, not included in the specific questionnaire, there was one carcinoma of the lower lip and one malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland. Besides, 10 benign breast neoplasms and 12 benign uterine neoplasms were also detected. These specific results lagged behind the expected ones on the basis of the known average incidence and mortality in locations of Vojvodina included by this questionnaire. The elucidation of all possible causes leading to this disaccordance, was the task of specific studies intended for the improvement of this questionnaire as a method for the early detection of malignant and premalignant lesions. Other numerous mass pathological states were detected during the screening of either the characteristic signs of specific malignant neoplasm locations, or of risk factors of particular importance for the appearances of these malignant neoplasms. These health problems with clarified epidemiological dimensions in the population studied, necessitated planned solution according to the accepted doctrinary principals (protocols). Data on these diseases gave new dimensions to the inquiry (and the overall multiphase) oncologic population screening. The target-health educational effect of this inquiry which reached every man over 40 years of age in the population studied should not be neglected, either.

  15. Results from screening over 9000 mutation-bearing mice for defects in the electroretinogram and appearance of the fundus.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lawrence H; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Siepka, Sanda M; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Lumayag, Stephen; Baker, Matthew; Fenner, Deborah; Mullins, Robert F; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M; Heffron, Edward; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2004-12-01

    Random mutagenesis combined with phenotypic screening using carefully crafted functional tests has successfully led to the discovery of genes that are essential for a number of functions. This approach does not require prior knowledge of the identity of the genes that are involved and is a way to ascribe function to the nearly 6000 genes for which knowledge of the DNA sequence has been inadequate to determine the function of the gene product. In an effort to identify genes involved in the visual system via this approach, we have tested over 9000 first and third generation offspring of mice treated with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for visual defects, as evidenced by abnormalities in the electroretinogram and appearance of the fundus. We identified 61 putative mutations with this procedure and outline the steps needed to identify the affected genes.

  16. [Community-based hearing screening project in Tochigi prefecture and results thorough audiometric test].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Satoru; Nakamura, Mamiko; Baba, Kohtaro; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shinichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Kotaro

    2009-02-01

    Community-based hearing screening projects have the objectives of screening hearing to identify early and intervene in cases of hearing-impaired infants and to consider how to implement mass screening, education, and support suitable. This project started in Tochigi prefecture in 2002. Of 6198 infants undergoing automatic auditory brainstem response (ABR), those rescreened accounted for 1.1% and those referred for diagnostic testing for 0.7%. After initial thorough audiometric testing, 20 infants were suggested to have bilateral hearing loss, although this was finally reduced to 17. Inconsistency between automatic and conventional ABR was found in 10 cases. Automatic ABR showed 7 false-positive and 3 false-negative cases, all of which finally proved to be within normal range hearing. Newborn-hearing screening enabled infants with hearing loss to be identified early. Japan has yet, however, to implement needed medical treatment and appropriate educational and support systems for hearing-impaired infants. PMID:19317225

  17. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-U-203, push mode, cores 79 and 80

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-05-05

    Two one-segment core samples from tank 241-U-203 (U-203) were received by the 222-S Laboratories and underwent safety screening analysis, consisting of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity. In addition to the safety screening requirements, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrographic analysis for lithium was performed to determine the extent of hydrostatic head fluid contamination during the sampling event. No notification limits were exceeded for these analyses.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics.

  19. [Implementation of performance indicators in the Czech Breast Cancer Screening Programme -  results of the regular monitoring].

    PubMed

    Májek, O; Bartoňková, H; Daneš, J; Skovajsová, M; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    The Czech organised breast cancer screening programme was initiated in 2002. Collection of data on screening mammography examinations, subsequent diagnostic procedures, and final dia-gnosis is an indispensable part of the programme. Data collection is obligatory for all accredited centres, in accordance with regulations issued by the Czech Ministry of Health. This contribution aims to demonstrate the recent results of quality monitoring of the accredited centres. Quality indicators, whose definition complies with international standards, involve the women's participation, the volume of performed examinations, the accuracy of screening mammography, the use of preoperative diagnostics, and the proportion of early detected tumours. Our evaluation documents a continuous improvement in quality of the Czech mammography screening programme, which is thereby in full agreement with international recommendations on quality assurance. PMID:25494896

  20. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  1. Utilization of breast cancer screening methods in a developing nation: results from a nationally representative sample of Malaysian households.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2011-01-01

    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays. PMID:21615819

  2. Utilization of breast cancer screening methods in a developing nation: results from a nationally representative sample of Malaysian households.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2011-01-01

    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.

  3. Prolonged elevation of intraocular pressure results in retinal ganglion cell loss and abnormal retinal function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A Kareem; Tse, Dennis Y; van der Heijden, Meike; Shah, Priya; Nusbaum, Derek; Yang, Zhuo; Wu, Samuel M; Frankfort, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of prolonged intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on retinal anatomy and function in a mouse model of experimental glaucoma. IOP was elevated by anterior chamber injection of a fixed combination of polystyrene beads and sodium hyaluronate, and maintained via re-injection after 24 weeks. IOP was measured weekly with a rebound tonometer for 48 weeks. Histology was assessed with a combination of retrograde labeling and antibody staining. Retinal physiology and function was assessed with dark-adapted electroretinograms (ERGs). Comparisons between bead-injected animals and various controls were conducted at both 24 and 48 weeks after bead injection. IOP was elevated throughout the study. IOP elevation resulted in a reduction of retinal ganglion cell (RGCs) and an increase in axial length at both 24 and 48 weeks after bead injection. The b-wave amplitude of the ERG was increased to the same degree in bead-injected eyes at both time points, similar to previous studies. The positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR) amplitude, a measure of RGC electrical function, was diminished at both 24 and 48 weeks when normalized to the increased b-wave amplitude. At 48 weeks, the pSTR amplitude was reduced even without normalization, suggesting more profound RGC dysfunction. We conclude that injection of polystyrene beads and sodium hyaluronate causes chronic IOP elevation which results in phenotypes of stable b-wave amplitude increase and progressive pSTR amplitude reduction, as well as RGC loss and axial length elongation. PMID:25450059

  4. Compound heterozygosity for a dominant glycine substitution and a recessive internal duplication mutation in the type XVII collagen gene results in junctional epidermolysis bullosa and abnormal dentition.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J A; Gatalica, B; Li, K; Dunnill, M G; McMillan, J R; Christiano, A M; Eady, R A; Uitto, J

    1996-06-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited blistering skin disorder associated with fragility at the dermal-epidermal junction. Previously, mutations in this condition have been described in the three genes for the anchoring filament protein laminin 5 (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2), in the gene encoding the hemidesmosome-associated beta4 integrin (ITGB4), and in the gene for the hemidesmosomal protein type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BPAG2). In this study, we report a patient with a form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa with skin fragility and dental anomalies who is a compound heterozygote for a novel combination of mutations, ie, a glycine substitution mutation in one allele and an internal duplication in the other allele of COL17A1. The patient also has two offspring, both of whom have inherited the glycine substitution mutation, whereas the other COL17A1 allele is normal. The latter individuals show no evidence of skin fragility but have marked dental abnormalities with enamel hypoplasia and pitting. The clinical phenotype of junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the proband in this family probably arises due to a combination of the glycine substitution and the internal duplication in COL17A1, whereas the dental abnormalities of her offspring may be the result of the glycine substitution in COL17A1 alone, resulting in this dominantly inherited clinical phenotype. PMID:8669466

  5. Early versus delayed minimal enteral feeding and risk for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm growth-restricted infants with abnormal antenatal Doppler results.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Paraskevi; Briana, Despina D; Mitsiakos, George; Elias, Anestis; Theodoridis, Theodoros; Chatziioannidis, Elias; Kyriakidou, Maria; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    We studied the effect of early (< or = 5 days) versus delayed (> or = 6 days) initiation of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and feeding intolerance in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal antenatal Doppler results. We performed a randomized, nonblinded pilot trial of infants receiving early or delayed MEF in addition to parenteral feeding within 48 hours of life. Demographic data, maternal preeclampsia, antenatal steroid exposure, Doppler studies, as well as cases of NEC and feeding intolerance were all recorded. Of the 84 infants enrolled, 81 completed the study: 40 received early (median age: 2 days, range: 1 to 5 days) and 41 delayed (median age: 7 days, range: 6 to 14 days) MEF. The incidence of NEC and feeding intolerance was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.353 and p = 0.533, respectively). Birth weight was an independent risk factor for NEC in both groups. Early MEF of preterm infants with IUGR and abnormal antenatal Doppler results may not have a significant effect on the incidence of NEC or feeding intolerance. Furthermore, birth weight seems to be an independent risk factor for the development of NEC, irrespectively of the timing of MEF introduction.

  6. Compound heterozygous desmoplakin mutations result in a phenotype with a combination of myocardial, skin, hair, and enamel abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, My G; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2010-04-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses.

  7. Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

  8. Disruption of Arp2/3 Results in Asymmetric Structural Plasticity of Dendritic Spines and Progressive Synaptic and Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Hwan; Racz, Bence; Wang, Hong; Burianek, Lauren; Weinberg, Richard; Yasuda, Ryohei; Wetsel, William C.; Soderling, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knockout of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders. PMID:23554489

  9. Disruption of Arp2/3 results in asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines and progressive synaptic and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Hwan; Racz, Bence; Wang, Hong; Burianek, Lauren; Weinberg, Richard; Yasuda, Ryohei; Wetsel, William C; Soderling, Scott H

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knock-out of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together, these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders.

  10. Decreased expression of ARV1 results in cholesterol retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fumin; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Shechtman, Caryn F; Liu, Ying; Crooke, Roseann; Graham, Mark; Cohen, David E; Sturley, Stephen L; Rader, Daniel J

    2010-10-29

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane cholesterol is maintained at an optimal concentration of ∼5 mol % by the net impact of sterol synthesis, modification, and export. Arv1p was first identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a key component of this homeostasis due to its probable role in intracellular sterol transport. Mammalian ARV1, which can fully complement the yeast lesion, encodes a ubiquitously expressed, resident ER protein. Repeated dosing of specific antisense oligonucleotides to ARV1 produced a marked reduction of ARV1 transcripts in liver, adipose, and to a lesser extent, intestine. This resulted in marked hypercholesterolemia, elevated serum bile acids, and activation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulatory pathway. Knockdown of ARV1 in murine liver and HepG2 cells was associated with accumulation of cholesterol in the ER at the expense of the plasma membrane and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and their targets. These studies indicate a critical role of mammalian Arv1p in sterol movement from the ER and in the ensuing regulation of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism.

  11. Decreased Expression of ARV1 Results in Cholesterol Retention in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Abnormal Bile Acid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Shechtman, Caryn F.; Liu, Ying; Crooke, Roseann; Graham, Mark; Cohen, David E.; Sturley, Stephen L.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane cholesterol is maintained at an optimal concentration of ∼5 mol % by the net impact of sterol synthesis, modification, and export. Arv1p was first identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a key component of this homeostasis due to its probable role in intracellular sterol transport. Mammalian ARV1, which can fully complement the yeast lesion, encodes a ubiquitously expressed, resident ER protein. Repeated dosing of specific antisense oligonucleotides to ARV1 produced a marked reduction of ARV1 transcripts in liver, adipose, and to a lesser extent, intestine. This resulted in marked hypercholesterolemia, elevated serum bile acids, and activation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulatory pathway. Knockdown of ARV1 in murine liver and HepG2 cells was associated with accumulation of cholesterol in the ER at the expense of the plasma membrane and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and their targets. These studies indicate a critical role of mammalian Arv1p in sterol movement from the ER and in the ensuing regulation of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. PMID:20663892

  12. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  13. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11-15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11-15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  14. Current State of and Needs for Hepatitis B Screening: Results of a Large Screening Study in a Low-Prevalent, Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Bottero, Julie; Boyd, Anders; Lemoine, Maud; Carrat, Fabrice; Gozlan, Joel; Collignon, Anne; Boo, Nicolas; Dhotte, Philippe; Varsat, Brigitte; Muller, Gerard; Cha, Olivier; Valin, Nadia; Nau, Jean; Campa, Pauline; Silbermann, Benjamin; Bary, Marc; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background In low hepatitis B virus (HBV)-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i) previous HBV-testing, (ii) physicians decision to screen, and (iii) CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. Methods During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb). Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. Results 85 (2.2%) participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8%) had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8–100) than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0–93.4) or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3–47.6) (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6–32.6). Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU). Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. Conclusions Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development of

  15. [Possibilities for modifying risk factors for chromosome abnormalities--advantages of the so-called "triple" marker studies in comparison with pure "maternal age screening"].

    PubMed

    Holzgreve, W; Schloo, R; Veress, L; Schlegel, W; Tercanli, S; Schneider, H P

    1994-01-01

    We have offered the so-called "triple-marker screening" since May 1991 to all patients who came for prenatal care and did not select an invasive procedure primarily. First evaluation of 5210 cases revealed that 3.7% were test-positive for neural tube defects, 13.8% for Down's syndrome and 0.5% for both at the same time. The explanation for the comparatively high "test-positive" rate of 13.5% is the maternal age distribution with the median at 31.4 years. The highest number of women selecting triple-marker determinations was in the age group of 35 years. We detected 16 cases of Down's syndrome and in this group the majority of women was below 35 years. The decision of women to have an invasive procedure was obviously very much influenced by the actual risk assessment, because amniocentesis was chosen by 72/85 (84.8%) of women with a risk of more than 1:50, 192/290 (66.2%) of women in the risk category of 1:51 to 1:200 and 182/333 (54.6%) in the risk category of 1:201 to 1:400. The follow-up is not yet complete, but there is already good evidence for the efficiency of the screening program. Triple-marker screening also proved predictive in 10 cases of trisomy 18 and 8 cases of triploidy in this series. As a cut-off value we chose the risk of 1:386 which is equivalent to the odds of a 35 year old to have a child with Down's syndrome at birth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7871918

  16. More screen operation than calling: the results of observing cyclists' behaviour while using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Lewis-Evans, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In addition the impact of mobile phone use on lateral position, i.e. distance from the front wheel to the curb, was also examined to see if it compared to the results seen in previous experimental studies. Bicyclists were observed at six different locations and their behaviour was scored. It was found that compared to five years ago the use of mobile phones while cycling has changed, not in frequency, but in how cyclists were operating their phones. As found in 2008, three percent of the bicyclists were observed to be operating a phone, but a shift from calling (0.7% of cyclists observed) to operating (typing, texting, 2.3% of cyclists) was found. In 2008 nearly the complete opposite usage was observed: 2.2% of the cyclists were calling and 0.6% was texting. Another finding was that effects on lateral position were similar to those seen in experimental studies in that cyclists using a phone maintained a cycling position which was further away from the curb. It was also found that when at an intersection, cyclist's operating their phone made less head movements to the right than cyclists who were just cycling. This shift from calling to screen operation, when combined with the finding related to reduced head movements at intersections, is worrying and potentially dangerous.

  17. More screen operation than calling: the results of observing cyclists' behaviour while using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Lewis-Evans, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In addition the impact of mobile phone use on lateral position, i.e. distance from the front wheel to the curb, was also examined to see if it compared to the results seen in previous experimental studies. Bicyclists were observed at six different locations and their behaviour was scored. It was found that compared to five years ago the use of mobile phones while cycling has changed, not in frequency, but in how cyclists were operating their phones. As found in 2008, three percent of the bicyclists were observed to be operating a phone, but a shift from calling (0.7% of cyclists observed) to operating (typing, texting, 2.3% of cyclists) was found. In 2008 nearly the complete opposite usage was observed: 2.2% of the cyclists were calling and 0.6% was texting. Another finding was that effects on lateral position were similar to those seen in experimental studies in that cyclists using a phone maintained a cycling position which was further away from the curb. It was also found that when at an intersection, cyclist's operating their phone made less head movements to the right than cyclists who were just cycling. This shift from calling to screen operation, when combined with the finding related to reduced head movements at intersections, is worrying and potentially dangerous. PMID:25590920

  18. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  19. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  20. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  1. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  2. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  3. Identification of two clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patient phenotypes from results of standard screening parameters

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Brian I.; Giannini, Edoardo G.; Farinati, Fabio; Ciccarese, Francesca; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Marco, Maria Di; Benvegnù, Luisa; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Caturelli, Eugenio; Chiaramonte, Maria; Trevisani, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that 2 general processes contribute to hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prognosis. They are: a. liver damage, monitored by indices such as blood bilirubin, prothrombin time and AST; as well as b. tumor biology, monitored by indices such as tumor size, tumor number, presence of PVT and blood AFP levels. These 2 processes may affect one another, with prognostically significant interactions between multiple tumor and host parameters. These interactions form a context that provide personalization of the prognostic meaning of these factors for every patient. Thus, a given level of bilirubin or tumor diameter might have a different significance in different personal contexts. We previously applied Network Phenotyping Strategy (NPS) to characterize interactions between liver function indices of Asian HCC patients and recognized two clinical phenotypes, S and L, differing in tumor size and tumor nodule numbers. Aims To validate the applicability of the NPS-based HCC S/L classification on an independent European HCC cohort, for which survival information was additionally available. Methods Four sets of peripheral blood parameters, including AFP-platelets, derived from routine blood parameter levels and tumor indices from the ITA.LI.CA database, were analyzed using NPS, a graph-theory based approach, which compares personal patterns of complete relationships between clinical data values to reference patterns with significant association to disease outcomes. Results Without reference to the actual tumor sizes, patients were classified by NPS into 2 subgroups with S and L phenotypes. These two phenotypes were recognized using solely the HCC screening test results, consisting of eight common blood parameters, paired by their significant correlations, including an AFP-Platelets relationship. These trends were combined with patient age, gender and self-reported alcoholism into NPS personal patient profiles. We subsequently validated (using actual

  4. Cancer screening via infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP): results for the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.

    PubMed

    Diem, Max; Miljković, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Mazur, Antonella I; Schubert, Jen M; Townsend, Douglas; Laver, Nora; Almond, Max; Old, Oliver

    2016-01-21

    Instrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a cell; this composition varies subtly but reproducibly with cellular effects such as progression through the cell cycle, cell maturation and differentiation, and disease. The aim of this summary is to provide a synopsis of the progress achieved in infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) - the combination of infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate methods of analysis - for the detection of abnormalities in exfoliated human cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tract, namely the oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, and the esophagus.

  5. Dentists’ Willingness to Provide Expanded HIV Screening in Oral Health Care Settings: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Margaret; Parish, Carrigan L.; Abel, Stephen; Messinger, Shari; Singer, Richard; Kunzel, Carol; Greenberg, Barbara; Gerbert, Barbara; Glick, Michael; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using a nationally representative survey, we determined dentists’ willingness to provide oral rapid HIV screening in the oral health care setting. Methods. From November 2010 through November 2011, a nationally representative survey of general dentists (sampling frame obtained from American Dental Association Survey Center) examined barriers and facilitators to offering oral HIV rapid testing (n = 1802; 70.7% response). Multiple logistic regression analysis examined dentists’ willingness to conduct this screening and perceived compatibility with their professional role. Results. Agreement with the importance of annual testing for high-risk persons and familiarity with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommendations regarding routine HIV testing were positively associated with willingness to conduct such screening. Respondents’ agreement with patients’ acceptance of HIV testing and colleagues’ improved perception of them were also positively associated with willingness. Conclusions. Oral HIV rapid testing is potentially well suited to the dental setting. Although our analysis identified many predictors of dentists’ willingness to offer screening, there are many barriers, including dentists’ perceptions of patients’ acceptance, that must be addressed before such screening is likely to be widely implemented. PMID:24625163

  6. Identification of two clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patient phenotypes from results of standard screening parameters.

    PubMed

    Carr, Brian I; Pancoska, Petr; Giannini, Edoardo G; Farinati, Fabio; Ciccarese, Francesca; Ludovico Rapaccini, Gian; Di Marco, Maria; Benvegnù, Luisa; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Caturelli, Eugenio; Chiaramonte, Maria; Trevisani, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown that two general processes contribute to hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prognosis: liver damage, monitored by indices such as blood bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), and aspartate aminostransferase (AST); and tumor biology, monitored by indices such as tumor size, tumor number, presence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and blood alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. These processes may affect one another, with prognostically significant interactions between multiple tumor and host parameters. These interactions form a context that provide personalization of the prognostic meaning of these factors for every patient. Thus, a given level of bilirubin or tumor diameter might have a different significance in different personal contexts. We previously applied network phenotyping strategy (NPS) to characterize interactions between liver function indices of Asian HCC patients and recognized two clinical phenotypes, S and L, differing in tumor size and tumor nodule numbers. Our aim was to validate the applicability of the NPS-based HCC S/L classification on an independent European HCC cohort, for which survival information was additionally available. Four sets of peripheral blood parameters, including AFP-platelets, derived from routine blood parameter levels and tumor indices from the ITA.LI.CA database, were analyzed using NPS, a graph-theory-based approach that compares personal patterns of complete relationships between clinical data values to reference patterns with significant association to disease outcomes. Without reference to the actual tumor sizes, patients were classified by NPS into two subgroups with S and L phenotypes. These two phenotypes were recognized using solely the HCC screening test results, consisting of eight common blood parameters, paired by their significant correlations, including an AFP-platelets relationship. These trends were combined with patient age, gender, and self-reported alcoholism into NPS personal patient profiles. We

  7. Identification of two clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patient phenotypes from results of standard screening parameters.

    PubMed

    Carr, Brian I; Pancoska, Petr; Giannini, Edoardo G; Farinati, Fabio; Ciccarese, Francesca; Ludovico Rapaccini, Gian; Di Marco, Maria; Benvegnù, Luisa; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Caturelli, Eugenio; Chiaramonte, Maria; Trevisani, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown that two general processes contribute to hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prognosis: liver damage, monitored by indices such as blood bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), and aspartate aminostransferase (AST); and tumor biology, monitored by indices such as tumor size, tumor number, presence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and blood alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. These processes may affect one another, with prognostically significant interactions between multiple tumor and host parameters. These interactions form a context that provide personalization of the prognostic meaning of these factors for every patient. Thus, a given level of bilirubin or tumor diameter might have a different significance in different personal contexts. We previously applied network phenotyping strategy (NPS) to characterize interactions between liver function indices of Asian HCC patients and recognized two clinical phenotypes, S and L, differing in tumor size and tumor nodule numbers. Our aim was to validate the applicability of the NPS-based HCC S/L classification on an independent European HCC cohort, for which survival information was additionally available. Four sets of peripheral blood parameters, including AFP-platelets, derived from routine blood parameter levels and tumor indices from the ITA.LI.CA database, were analyzed using NPS, a graph-theory-based approach that compares personal patterns of complete relationships between clinical data values to reference patterns with significant association to disease outcomes. Without reference to the actual tumor sizes, patients were classified by NPS into two subgroups with S and L phenotypes. These two phenotypes were recognized using solely the HCC screening test results, consisting of eight common blood parameters, paired by their significant correlations, including an AFP-platelets relationship. These trends were combined with patient age, gender, and self-reported alcoholism into NPS personal patient profiles. We

  8. Evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS) at the Green Island Hydroelectric Project: 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Shiers, P.F.; Downing, J.K.; Plizga, A.W.; Taft, E.P.; Amaral, S.V.; Cook, T.C.; Marks, R.A.; Winchell, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed a fish diversion screen, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), to prevent fish mortality at water intakes. hydraulic model testing and successful biological evaluation of the MIS had been completed in the laboratory. Following discussions with various federal and state agencies, the Green Island hydroelectric Project was selected as the field test location. This project is located on the Hudson River, just north of Albany, in Green Island, New York. The MIS test facility was operated and tested in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system was studied to determine its ability to divert blueblack herring form the river to the MIS.

  9. Enhancing cancer screening in primary care: rationale, design, analysis plan, and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Murray, David M; Katz, Mira L; Post, Doug M; Pennell, Michael L; Young, Gregory S; Tatum, Cathy M; Paskett, Electra D

    2013-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. National policy-making organizations recognize and support a variety of CRC screening strategies among average-risk adults aged 50 and older based on strong evidence showing that screening decreases mortality from CRC and can also reduce the incidence of the disease. The goal of this study was to test a multi-level stepped intervention to increase CRC screening rates. We used a group-randomized trial design where the units of assignment were clinics and the units of observation were eligible patients receiving care at those clinics, with stratified random assignment of clinics to study conditions. The primary analysis was planned as a mixed-model logistic regression to account for the expected positive intraclass correlation associated with clinics. Our recruitment experience reflected the difficulties of conducting research in the real world where changes in economic conditions, staff turnover/layoff, inadequate medical records, and poor acceptance of research can significantly impact study plans. It demonstrated the problems that can emerge when procedures used in the study depart from those used in the pilot work to generate parameter estimates for power analysis. It also demonstrated the importance of allowing for attrition at the group and patient levels so that if recruitment falls short, it is possible to maintain adequate power with only a slight increase in the detectable difference. This experience should assist others planning group-randomized trials, whether in cancer screening or in other areas.

  10. Results of two-dimensional time-evolved phase screen computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Kevin J.; Weeks, Arthur R.; Myler, Harley R.; Rabadi, Wissam A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents a 2D computer simulation of observed intensity and phase behind a time evolved phase screen. Both spatial and temporal statistics of the observed intensity is compared to theoretical predictions. In particular, the intensity statistics as a function of detector position within the propagated laser beam are investigated. The computer simulation program was written using the C-programming language running on a SUN SPARC-5 workstation.

  11. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  12. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  13. Results of fish tissue screening studies from sites in the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1990-07-01

    TVA analyzes tissues of Tennessee Valley area fish as part of intensive evaluations and as pat of screening level evaluations. Intensive studies are conducted in reservoirs where contamination problems are known or suspected and include analysis of individual fillets from important fish species from several areas in the reservoir. This information is used by State public health officials to determine whether fish consumption advisories are necessary to protect human health. Screening studies are based on analysis of composite rather than individual samples and are intended to provide trend information and to identify areas where problems may exist indicating need for an intensive evaluation. All studies are coordinated with State agencies because they ultimately must make management decisions regarding public health. TVA has two fish tissue screening programs. One examines fish on an annual basis at inflow points from eight of the major tributaries into the Tennessee River reservoir system. The other examines fish from within the reservoirs on a rotating basis with the goal of sampling each reservoir at least once every three years. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. 45-Day Safety Screen results for Tank 241-TY-104, Auger Samples, 95-AUG-008 and 95-AUG-009

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1995-04-06

    The two auger samples were collected from single-shell tank 241-TY-104 on February 28, 1995, and were analyzed by the 222-S Laboratory in accordance with the tank characterization plan. The results of the analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, total alpha radioactivity, and total organic carbon) indicate that no safety screening notification limits were exceeded.

  15. Timely Follow-Up of Abnormal Diagnostic Imaging Test Results in an Outpatient Setting: Are Electronic Medical Records Achieving Their Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Mani, Shrinidi; Sittig, Dean; Arora, Harvinder; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the fragmentation of outpatient care, timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results remains a challenge. We hypothesized that an EMR that facilitates the transmission and availability of critical imaging results through either automated notification (alerting) or direct access to the primary report would eliminate this problem. Methods We studied critical imaging alert notifications in the outpatient setting of a tertiary care VA facility from November 2007 to June 2008. Tracking software determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider opened the message for viewing) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. We reviewed medical records and contacted providers to determine timely follow-up actions (e.g. ordering a follow-up test or consultation) within 4 weeks of transmission. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering effect by providers analyzed predictors for two outcomes; lack of acknowledgment and lack of timely follow-up. Results Of 123,638 studies (including X-rays, CT scans, ultrasounds, MRI and mammography), 1196 (0.97%) images generated alerts; 217 (18.1%) of these were unacknowledged. Alerts had a higher risk of being unacknowledged when ordering providers were trainees (OR, 5.58;95%CI, 2.86-10.89) and when dual (more than one provider alerted) as opposed to single communication was used (OR, 2.02;95%CI, 1.22-3.36). Timely follow-up was lacking in 92 (7.7% of all alerts) and was similar for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (7.3% vs. 9.7%;p=0.2). Risk for lack of timely follow-up was higher with dual communication (OR,1.99;95%CI, 1.06-3.48) but lower when additional verbal communication was used by the radiologist (OR, 0.12;95%CI: 0.04-0.38). Nearly all abnormal results lacking timely follow-up at 4 weeks were eventually found to have measurable clinical impact in terms of further diagnostic testing or treatment. Conclusions Critical imaging results may not

  16. Various distinctive cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years and older express adverse prognostic value: results from a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van der Holt, Bronno; Breems, Dimitri A; Berna Beverloo, H; van den Berg, Eva; Burnett, Alan K; Sonneveld, Pieter; Löwenberg, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities are considered important prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, the prognostic assessments have mainly been derived from patients with AML aged <60 years. Two recent studies of AML patients of 60 years and older proposed prognostic classifications with distinct discrepancies. To further study the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in this patient population, we have evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities in a series of 293 untreated patients with AML aged 60 years and older, included in a randomised phase 3 trial, also in relation to patient characteristics and clinical outcome. The most frequently observed cytogenetic abnormality was trisomy 8 (+8), in 31 (11%) patients. Abnormalities, such as -5, 5q-, abn(17p) and abn(17q), were almost exclusively present in complex karyotypes. A relatively favourable outcome was only observed in five patients with core-binding factor abnormalities t(8;21) and inv(16)/del(16)/t(16;16). However, most of the other evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities, such as 5q-, -7, +8, abn(17p), abn(17q), and complex aberrations expressed a more adverse prognosis when compared with patients with AML aged 60 years and older with a normal karyotype. Large studies to confirm the prognosis of individual cytogenetic aberrations are warranted.

  17. Screening of Quarkonia in hot and dense media: historical overview and latest lattice results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-03-01

    Already the first lattice QCD calculations at non-zero temperature, performed around 1980, showed that the interaction among heavy (static) quarks that are emerged into a hot and dense medium of quarks and gluons is strongly modified. The heavy quark potential is screened and will not allow for the formation of bound states when the Debye screening radius becomes smaller than the typical size of heavy quark bound states. This observation has been utilized in the seminal 1986 paper by Matsui and Satz on J / Ψ suppression by quark-gluon plasma formation to predict the dissolution of bound states of heavy quarks at sufficiently high temperature. They established the reduction of quarkonium yields in heavy ion collisions as a sensitive tool for probing thermal properties of hot and dense matter. We discuss progress made in understanding the thermal modification of heavy quark bound states and the sequential suppression pattern, predicted for higher excited states, through refined lattice QCD calculations of temperature dependent potentials as well as through direct calculations of spectral functions.

  18. Electronic screen media for persons with autism spectrum disorders: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Shane, Howard C; Albert, Patti Ducoff

    2008-09-01

    Social and anecdotal reports suggest a predilection for visual media among individuals on the autism spectrum, yet no formal investigation has explored the extent of that use. Using a distributed questionnaire design, parents and caregivers report on time allotted toward media, including observable behaviors and communicative responses. More time was spent engaged with electronic screen media (ESM) than any other leisure activity. Television and movie viewing was more popular than computer usage. Across media platforms, animated programs were more highly preferred. Prevalent verbal and physical imitation was reported to occur during and following exposure to ESM. Clinical implications to strategically incorporate ESM into learning approaches for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are provided.

  19. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  20. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  1. Suppression of the ELO-2 FA elongation activity results in alterations of the fatty acid composition and multiple physiological defects, including abnormal ultradian rhythms, in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Sieber, Matt; McCauley, Scott; Zhang, Kang; Watts, Jennifer L; Han, Min

    2003-01-01

    While the general steps of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis are well understood, the individual enzymes involved in the elongation of long chain saturated and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) are largely unknown. Recent research indicates that these enzymes might be of considerable physiological importance for human health. We use Caenorhabditis elegans to study FA elongation activities and associated abnormal phenotypes. In this article we report that the predicted C. elegans F11E6.5/ELO-2 is a functional enzyme with the FA elongation activity. It is responsible for the elongation of palmitic acid and is involved in PUFA biosynthesis. RNAi-mediated suppression of ELO-2 causes an accumulation of palmitate and an associated decrease in the PUFA fraction in triacylglycerides and phospholipid classes. This imbalance in the FA composition results in multiple phenotypic defects such as slow growth, small body size, reproductive defects, and changes in rhythmic behavior. ELO-2 cooperates with the previously reported ELO-1 in 20-carbon PUFA production, and at least one of the enzymes must function to provide normal growth and development in C. elegans. The presented data indicate that suppression of a single enzyme of the FA elongation machinery is enough to affect various organs and systems in worms. This effect resembles syndromic disorders in humans. PMID:12586704

  2. Ectopic expression of an apple apomixis-related gene MhFIE induces co-suppression and results in abnormal vegetative and reproductive development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Fang, Mou-Jing; Chen, Ke-Qin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-12-15

    It has been well documented that FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) plays important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is largely unknown how FIE genes function in economically important crops. In this study, MhFIE gene, which was previously isolated from apomictic tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), was introduced into tomato. The hemizygous transgenic tomato lines produced curly leaves and decreased in seed germination. In addition, the co-suppression of the transgenic MhFIE and endogenous (SlFIE) genes occurred in homozygous transgenic tomatoes. As a result, FIE silencing brought about abnormal phenotypes during reproductive development in tomato, such as increased sepal and petal numbers in flower, a fused ovule and pistil and parthenocarpic fruit formation. A yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that MhFIE interacted with a tomato protein, EZ2 (SlEZ2). Its ectopic expression and SlFIE co-suppression notably influenced the expression of genes associated with leaf, flower, and fruit development. Therefore, together with other PcG proteins, FIE was involved in the regulation of vegetative and reproductive development by modulating the expression of related genes in plants.

  3. 45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-U-201, push mode, cores 70, 73 and 74

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-05-04

    Three core samples, each having two segments, from Tank 241-U-201 (U-201) were received by the 222-S Laboratories. Safety screening analysis, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity were conducted on Core 70, Segment 1 and 2 and on Core 73, Segment 1 and 2. Core 74, Segment 1 and 2 were taken to test rotary bit in push mode sampling. No analysis was requested on Core 74, Segment 1 and 2. Analytical results for the TGA analyses for Core 70, Segment 1, Upper half solid sample was less than the safety screening notification limit of 17 percent water. Notification was made on April 27, 1995. No exotherm was associated with this sample. Analytical results are presented in Tables 1 to 4, with the applicable notification limits shaded.

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  5. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  6. Encouraging the right women to attend for cervical cancer screening: results from a targeted television campaign in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Robyn; Wakefield, Melanie; Broun, Kate

    2008-06-01

    The study assessed whether a mass media campaign could encourage women who were overdue for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test to have one, without prompting unnecessary early re-screening. A telephone survey of a representative sample of 1000 Victorian women aged 25-65 years assessed recall of the advertisement and intention to act after seeing it. The television advertisement was recalled by 61.5% of women. Significantly more who said 'I mean to have a test every two years, but I usually leave it longer' indicated they would have a Pap test more often as a result of seeing the advertisement (63%), than women who had Pap tests every 1 (6%) or 2 (12%) years. Negative binomial regression analysis on data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry from the middle of 2002 to the end of 2004 showed that during the campaign the number of Pap tests conducted increased by 18% (coeff = 0.169, df < 0.029). The rate increased most among those due or overdue for a Pap test. In a population with a high level of awareness of cervical screening, it is possible to run a mass media campaign to encourage screening which is specific to women whose test is due or overdue.

  7. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screen Related tests: hCG Pregnancy ; Estrogens ; First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen ; Amniotic Fluid Analysis ; Chromosome Analysis Were you ... that a fetus has certain chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) , or ...

  8. Results of high-dose therapy for 1000 patients with multiple myeloma: durable complete remissions and superior survival in the absence of chromosome 13 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Desikan, R; Barlogie, B; Sawyer, J; Ayers, D; Tricot, G; Badros, A; Zangari, M; Munshi, N C; Anaissie, E; Spoon, D; Siegel, D; Jagannath, S; Vesole, D; Epstein, J; Shaughnessy, J; Fassas, A; Lim, S; Roberson, P; Crowley, J

    2000-06-15

    High-dose therapy (HDT) has increased complete remission (CR) rates and survival in multiple myeloma (MM). We now report on continuous CR (CCR) and associated prognostic factors in 1000 consecutive patients receiving melphalan-based tandem HDT. Five-year CCR was 52% among 112 CR patients without chromosome 13 (triangle up13) abnormalities and with beta-2-microglobulin abnormalities, 35% enjoyed 5-year CCR but none of 54 with triangle up13 abnormalities. triangle up13 abnormalities, present in overall 16%, reduced 5-year event-free survival from 20% to 0% and overall survival from 44% to 16% (both P <.0001). CR and a second HDT cycle applied within 6 months both extended event-free and overall survival significantly, justifying further pursuit of HDT, especially toward curing non-triangle up13 MM. (Blood. 2000;95:4008-4010)

  9. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the National Cancer Screening Program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy

  10. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Pierotti, Paola; Cariaggi, Maria Paola; Palma, Paolo Dalla; Naldoni, Carlo; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Parisio, Franca; Pojer, Ada; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Sintoni, Catia; Zorzi, Manuel; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy. Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm. Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus. Main outcome measure Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result. Results In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69). Conclusion Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive

  11. Non-normal Screening Mammography Results, Lumpectomies, and Breast Cancer Reported by California Women, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Breen, Nancy; Meissner, Helen I.; Liu, Benmei; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although screening mammography may contribute to decreases in breast cancer mortality in a population, it may also increase the risk of false positives, anxiety, and unnecessary and costly medical procedures in individuals. We report trends in self-reported non-normal screening mammography results, lumpectomies, and breast cancer in a representative sample of California women. Methods Data were obtained from the 2001, 2005, and 2009 cross-sectional California Health Interview Surveys (CHIS) and weighted to the California population. CHIS employed a multistage sampling design to administer telephone surveys in 6 languages. Our study sample was restricted to women 40 years and older who reported a screening mammogram in the past 2 years. Sample sizes were 13,974 in 2001, 12,069 in 2005, and 15,552 in 2009. Women reporting non-normal results were asked whether they had an operation to remove the lump and, if so, whether the lump was confirmed as malignant. Findings Between 2001 and 2009, the percent of California women who reported having been diagnosed with breast cancer was relatively stable. For each of the three age groups studied, the percentage of non-normal mammography results increased and the percentages of lumpectomies decreased and, for every woman reporting a diagnosis of breast cancer, three women reported a lumpectomy that turned out not to be cancer. This ratio was greater for younger women and less for older women. Conclusions Despite relatively constant rates of breast cancer diagnosis from 2001 to 2009, the percentage of non-normal mammography results increased and lumpectomies declined. PMID:26070253

  12. Serum screening for Down's syndrome: some women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Statham, H; Green, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the experiences of a small group of women who had positive results after serum screening for Down's syndrome. DESIGN--Semistructured telephone interviews and correspondence with women after a positive screening result (four women) negative amniocentesis results (eight), or termination of a pregnancy with a confirmed abnormality (eight). SUBJECTS--20 women who contacted Support After Termination For Abnormality about their experiences of serum screening for Down's syndrome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Women's knowledge and understanding of the test; staff misconceptions; communication of results; how women coped with the diagnostic process; attitudes to the test and to termination of abnormal fetuses. RESULTS--All women were made anxious by their positive screening test, no matter how they were told. The women's experiences suggested that medical staff were unclear about the implications of screening tests and how to interpret risk. Even after receipt of negative amniocentesis results some women remained anxious. Staff did not always recognise women's concerns while awaiting amniocentesis results. CONCLUSIONS--The way in which serum screening is being implemented does not always meet the needs of women with positive results. Some of the problems were not specific to screening for Down's syndrome. When screening tests are introduced policies should be adopted to ensure appropriate support for participants. PMID:8343748

  13. Factors Associated with Participation in HIV Antibody Screening and Results Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Identified differences among 110 gay and bisexual men who decided whether to be tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, if so, whether to return for results. Fifty percent refused testing. Of those tested, only 35% returned to obtain test results. Education was significantly and inversely related to being tested and to…

  14. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Mariano; Thomas, Sumi; Kamath, Mohan S.; Ramalingam, Ramya; Kongari, Ann Marie; Yuvarani, S; Srivastava, Vivi M.; George, Korula

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml) attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5%) men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9%) men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133) of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133). Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87). Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:27803587

  15. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  16. Racial Differences in False-Positive Mammogram Rates: Results from the ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yamartino, Philip; Yang, Jianing; Bristol, Mirar; Conant, Emily; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but false-positive tests are common. Few studies have assessed racial differences in false-positive rates. Objectives We compared false-positive mammography rates for black and white women, and the effect of patient and facility characteristics on false-positives. Research Design and Subjects Prospective cohort study. From a sample of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), we identified black/African American (N=3176) or white (N=26,446) women with no prior breast surgery or breast cancer. Measures Race, demographics, and breast cancer risk factors were self-reported. Results of initial digital and film mammograms were assessed. False-positives were defined as a positive mammogram (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS] category 0, 4, 5) with no cancer diagnosis within 15 months. Results The false-positive rate for digital mammograms was 9.2% for black women compared to 7.8% for white women (p=0.009). After adjusting for age, black women had 17% increased odds of false-positive digital mammogram compared to whites (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, p=0.033). This association was attenuated after adjusting for patient factors, prior films and study site (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20, p=0.561). There was no difference in the occurrence of false-positives by race for film mammography. Conclusion Black women had higher frequency of false-positive digital mammograms explained by lack of prior films and study site.The variation in the disparity between the established technique (film) and the new technology (digital) raises the possibility that racial differences in screening quality may be greatest for new technologies. PMID:26125419

  17. Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Education and Research Hospital newborn hearing screening results and assessment of the patients

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, İstemi Han; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Demirel, Gamze; Eras, Zeynep; Sungur, Veli Gençay; Sarıer, Barış; Dilmen, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Social, emotional, cognitive and language development of infants is provided with early diagnosis of hearing deficit. Hearing deficit is reported with a rate of 1–6 in 1000 live births in healthy newborns, while it reaches up to 10–30 in 1000 live births in newborns with risk factors. We aimed to compile the results of the hearing screening program applied in our hospital. Material and Methods: The records of the hearing screening program were examined and the results were compiled by reaching the records of the patients who were found to have hearing deficit. Results: Hearing test was applied in a total of 142 128 patients between 2005 and 2011. Hearing test was performed by evoked autoaucistic emission for two times in 26 690 of these patients and for three times in 2 412. A diagnosis of hearing deficit was made in 385 patients (0.27%) after application of ARB (Auditory Brainstem Response). The medical records of 171 of the patients who were referred for advanced investigations and treatment were obtained. 116 of these patients had a history of hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit, while 55 patients had no history of hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit. 49 of the patients had a gestational age below the 32th week and 122 had a gestational age above the 32th week. The median gestational age and birth weight values and ranges were found to be 35 (22–43) and 2 140 g (580–4 590 g), respectively. The risk factors included intrauterine growth retardation (n=24), multiple pregnancy (n=22), hyperbilirubinemia (n=74), blood exchange because of hyperbilirubinemia (n=7), sepsis (n=52), hypoglycemia (n=2), use of aminoglycoside and glycopeptide (n=99), use of furosemide (n=27), mechanical ventilation therapy (n=37), polycythemia (n=12), prenatal asphyxia (n=2), respiratory distress syndrome (n=45), chronic lung disease (n=11), surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (n=8) and hearing deficit in the mother or father (n=7). Conclusions: In

  18. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  19. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  20. Unexpected results from large-scale cryptosporidiosis screening study in calves in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chang'a, J S; Robertson, L J; Mtambo, M M A; Mdegela, R H; Løken, T; Reksen, O

    2011-10-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate Cryptosporidium infection in crossbreed dairy calves in two districts in Tanzania. A total of 943 fecal samples from 601 dairy calves were included in the study, with calves from both smallholder dairy farms and from large-scale and medium-scale dairy farms. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN) technique was used to examine 710 samples, and 13 of these were considered to be positive for Cryptosporidium. These 13 samples considered positive by mZN, along with the remaining 233 samples, were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Of these 246 samples examined by IFAT, 15 samples, 10 of which were considered positive by mZN, were also examined by the auramine phenol technique, and 5 samples, all of which were considered positive by mZN, were analysed by PCR. The results from the IFAT, auramine phenol and PCR analyses demonstrated that none of the samples contained Cryptosporidium oocysts, indicating that, cryptosporidiosis is currently not a problem in dairy calves in these regions of Tanzania. These unexpected results are discussed with respect to other reports on cryptosporidiosis in calves that suggest that this parasite is a serious calf disease globally, and particularly in relation to studies from Tanzania. We suggest that results from studies of cattle in Tanzania, in which mZN has been used as the sole analytical method, should be treated with caution.

  1. Prospective Coronary Heart Disease Screening in Asymptomatic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Using Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Results and Risk Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, Theodore; M’Kacher, Radhia; Koscielny, Serge; Elfassy, Eric; Raoux, François; Carde, Patrice; Santos, Marcos Dos; Margainaud, Jean-Pierre; Sabatier, Laure; Paul, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the coronary artery status using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with combined modalities and mediastinal irradiation. Methods and Materials: All consecutive asymptomatic patients with Hodgkin lymphoma entered the study during follow-up, from August 2007 to May 2012. Coronary CT angiography was performed, and risk factors were recorded along with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurements. Results: One hundred seventy-nine patients entered the 5-year study. The median follow-up was 11.6 years (range, 2.1-40.2 years), and the median interval between treatment and the CCTA was 9.5 years (range, 0.5-40 years). Coronary artery abnormalities were demonstrated in 46 patients (26%). Coronary CT angiography abnormalities were detected in nearly 15% of the patients within the first 5 years after treatment. A significant increase (34%) occurred 10 years after treatment (P=.05). Stenoses were mostly nonostial. Severe stenoses were observed in 12 (6.7%) of the patients, entailing surgery with either angioplasty with stent placement or bypass grafting in 10 of them (5.5%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age at treatment, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as radiation dose to the coronary artery origins, were prognostic factors. In the group of patients with LTL measurements, hypertension and LTL were the only independent risk factors. Conclusions: The findings suggest that CCTA can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk of acute coronary artery disease who might require either preventive or curative measures. Conventional risk factors and the radiation dose to coronary artery origins were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic value of LTL needs further investigation.

  2. Burden and predictors of hypertension in India: results of SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to investigate the burden and predictors of HTN in India. Methods 6120 subjects participated in the Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney disease (SEEK), a community-based screening program in 53 camps in 13 representative geographic locations in India. Of these, 5929 had recorded blood pressure (BP) measurements. Potential predictors of HTN were collected using a structured questionnaire for SEEK study. Results HTN was observed in 43.5% of our cohort. After adjusting for center variation (p < 0.0001), predictors of a higher prevalence of HTN were older age ≥40 years (p < 0.0001), BMI of ≥ 23 Kg/M2 (p < 0.0004), larger waist circumference (p < 0.0001), working in sedentary occupation (p < 0.0001), having diabetes mellitus (p < 0.0001), having proteinuria (p < 0.0016), and increased serum creatinine (p < 0.0001). High school/some college education (p = 0.0016), versus less than 9th grade education, was related with lower prevalence of HTN. Of note, proteinuria and CKD were observed in 19% and 23.5% of HTN subjects. About half (54%) of the hypertensive subjects were aware of their hypertension status. Conclusions HTN was common in this cohort from India. Older age, BMI ≥ 23 Kg/M2, waist circumference, sedentary occupation, education less, diabetes mellitus, presence of proteinuria, and raised serum creatinine were significant predictors of hypertension. Our data suggest that HTN is a major public health problem in India with low awareness, and requires aggressive community-based screening and education to improve health. PMID:24602391

  3. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  4. Breast Cancers Detected at Screening MR Imaging and Mammography in Patients at High Risk: Method of Detection Reflects Tumor Histopathologic Results.

    PubMed

    Sung, Janice S; Stamler, Sarah; Brooks, Jennifer; Kaplan, Jennifer; Huang, Tammy; Dershaw, D David; Lee, Carol H; Morris, Elizabeth A; Comstock, Christopher E

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of breast cancers detected at screening magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, screening mammography, and those detected between screening examinations (interval cancers) in women at high risk. Materials and Methods This retrospective institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant review of 7519 women at high risk for breast cancer who underwent screening with MR imaging and mammography between January 2005 and December 2010 was performed to determine the number of screening-detected and interval cancers diagnosed. The need for informed consent was waived. Medical records were reviewed for age, risk factors (family or personal history of breast cancer, BRCA mutation status, history of high-risk lesion or mantle radiation), tumor histopathologic results, and time between diagnosis of interval cancer and most recent screening examination. The χ(2) test and logistic regression methods were used to compare the features of screening MR imaging, screening mammography, and interval cancers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to calculate P values. Results A total of 18 064 screening MR imaging examinations and 26 866 screening mammographic examinations were performed. Two hundred twenty-two cancers were diagnosed in 219 women, 167 (75%) at MR imaging, 43 (19%) at mammography, and 12 (5%) interval cancers. Median age at diagnosis was 52 years. No risk factors were associated with screening MR imaging, screening mammography, or interval cancer (P > .06). Cancers found at screening MR imaging were more likely to be invasive cancer (118 of 167 [71%]; P < .0001). Of the 43 cancers found at screening mammography, 38 (88%) manifested as calcifications and 28 (65%) were ductal carcinoma in situ. Interval cancers were associated with nodal involvement (P = .005) and the triple-negative subtype (P = .03). Conclusion In women at high risk for breast cancer who underwent screening with mammography and MR

  5. Screening and Registering Patients with Asthma and Copd in Slovenian Primary Care: First Results

    PubMed Central

    POPLAS-SUSIČ, Tonka; ŠVAB, Igor; KLANČAR, Darinka; PETEK, Davorina; VODOPIVEC-JAMŠEK, Vlasta; BULC, Mateja; KERSNIK, Janko; PETROVSKI, Beáta Éva

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate a new project of the Slovene Ministry of Health – the Family Medicine Model Practices (MPs) Project in Slovenia, and to show its effectiveness in the management of asthma and COPD by family medicine practice teams, consisting of a family physician, a nurse practitioner and a practice nurse. Methods A total of 107 family practices with 203122 patients joined the project during the first year of its initiation. The effectiveness of the program in disease management was analysed in two phases according to the registration of family practices. The number of patients registered and the number of asthma and COPD patients (existing and newly detected) by model practice teams were being reported. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the study populations. Prevalence by diseases and phases was established after the initial round of data collection. Chi square (χ2) test was used to analyse the difference between the phases. Results The frequency of asthma was 2.12%, while the frequency of COPD was 1.15% throughout the study period. For both diseases, more than 30% of patients were newly diagnosed. Conclusions The project of implementing Family Medicine MPs in the area of COPD has given first positive results and the project is still ongoing to its full implementation. PMID:27646723

  6. Tumor phenotype and breast density in distinct categories of interval cancer: results of population-based mammography screening in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories. Methods We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd’s scale and was conflated into: <25%; 25 to 50%; 50 to 75%; >75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2-. The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (<25%) than in denser breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; <0

  7. MRI features of spinal Fluorosis: Results of an endemic community screening

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Iftekhar; Sohail, Saba; Hussain, Munawwar; Khan, Nazeer; Hameed Khan, Masood

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluorosis is endemic in many parts of the world. However community studies on MRI features of fluorosis are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine MRI features of spinal changes in a community with endemic fluorosis in the Thar Desert Pakistan. Methodology: Randomly selected adults from the Village Samorindh, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, with spinal fluorosis diagnosed on plain x-rays and raised serum fluoride levels were studied from June 2008 to January 2009. MRI was carried out on 0.5 T open magnet MRI system. Features of vertebral body, spinal ligaments, intervertebral disc, facet joints, iliac wings and other incidental findings were noted. Sclerosis was defined as low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Results were described as mean and percentage values. Results: All the studied 27 subjects complained of back ache without neurological signs. The average age was 43.33 ± 10.45 years; 21 being male (77.8%). The most frequent findings included generalized vertebral sclerosis (24, 88.8%), ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (23, 85%), anterior (20, 74%) and lateral (17, 62.9%) disc herniation, thickened longitudinal ligaments, and narrowing of spinal foramina. Hemangioma was seen in 04(14.8%). The most commonly involved level was L1-2, L4-5 and lower dorsal spine. Conclusion: Vertebral sclerosis, a combination of premature degeneration with anterior disc herniation and an unusually high frequency of vertebral hemangioma formed the spectrum of MRI findings in subjects with spinal fluorosis having back ache but no neurological findings. PMID:24353535

  8. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  9. [Toxoplasmosis round-robin test in Austria: results and limits of the toxoplasmosis screening].

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Vander-Möse, Angelika; Picher, Otto; Aspöck, Horst

    2005-01-01

    In 1983 the Osterreichische Gesellschaft für Qualitätssicherung und Standardisierung medizinisch-diagnostischer Untersuchungen (OQUASTA) has invited the Department of Medical Parasitology of the Clinical Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Vienna (today: Medical University of Vienna), to establish an external quality assessment service on the detection of specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, one of the most prevalent protozoic parasites in the world. The objective of this project was the support of Austrian laboratories in standardising their test methods for the detection of specific antibodies against T. gondii. Between 1983 and 2004, 45 collaborating studies were carried out. During this period, the number of participating laboratories has increased from 10 in 1983 to about 50 in recent years. In total, the test results produced by the laboratories matched with the nominal values in more than 90%. On the examples of three human cases we demonstrate that externally validated serological methods alone, despite their great benefit, are not enough for a sufficient serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis; unusually complicated serological situations do arise and can only be met by the knowledge about special tests, the application of an appropriate examination strategy and -- last but not least -- by many years of experience. PMID:16416381

  10. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious.

  11. Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. I. Urine Screening and Confirmation Results

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Edward J.; Bigelow, George E.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Mitchell, John M.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0–34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

  12. Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.

    PubMed

    Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given.

  13. Are PRO discharge screens associated with postdischarge adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, F.; Mark, D.; Hartz, A.; Campbell, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We evaluate whether patient outcomes may be affected by possible errors in care at discharge as assessed by Peer Review Organizations (PROs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The three data sources for the study were (1) the generic screen results of a 3 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years or older who were admitted to California hospitals between 1 July 1987 and 30 June 1988 (n = 20,136 patients); (2) the 1987 and 1988 California Medicare Provided Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data files; and (3) the American Hospital Association (AHA) 1988 Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the results of generic discharge administered by the PROs and two patient outcomes: mortality and readmission within 30 days. The analysis was adjusted for other patient characteristics recorded on the uniform discharge abstract. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Four discharge screens indicated an increased risk of an adverse outcome-absence of documentation of discharge planning, elevated temperature, abnormal pulse, and unaddressed abnormal test results at discharge. The other three discharge screens examined-abnormal blood pressure, IV fluids or drugs, and wound drainage before discharge-were unrelated to postdischarge adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Generic discharge screens based on inadequate discharge planning, abnormal pulse, increased temperature, or unaddressed abnormal tests may be important indicators of substandard care. Other discharge screens apparently do not detect errors in care associated with major consequences for patients. PMID:7649753

  14. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal death. Expression of T antigen was tissue specific and in the main characteristic of the mouse alpha 1(II) collagen gene. Chondrocyte densities and levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs were reduced in the transgenic mice. Islands of cells which express cartilage characteristic genes such as type IIB procollagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, alpha 2(XI) collagen, and aggrecan were found in the articular and growth cartilages of pAL21 chimeric fetuses and neonates. But these cells, which were expressing T antigen, were not properly organized into columns of proliferating chondrocytes. Levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNA were reduced in these chondrocytes. In addition, these cells did not express type X collagen, a marker for hypertrophic chondrocytes. The skeletal abnormality in pAL21 mice may therefore be due to a retardation of chondrocyte maturation or an impaired ability of chondrocytes to complete terminal differentiation and an associated paucity of some cartilage matrix components. PMID:7822417

  15. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: principles, background and updated results of the United Kingdom systematic genome screen.

    PubMed

    Chataway, J; Feakes, R; Coraddu, F; Gray, J; Deans, J; Fraser, M; Robertson, N; Broadley, S; Jones, H; Clayton, D; Goodfellow, P; Sawcer, S; Compston, A

    1998-10-01

    Genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is implicated on the basis of classical family studies and phenotype analyses. The only reproducible legacy from the candidate gene approach has been the discovery of population associations with alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. Systematic genome scanning has since been applied using a panel of anonymous markers to identify areas of linkage in co-affected siblings. Here, we describe the principles of genome screening and update the UK survey of multiple sclerosis. This identified 20 regions of potential interest, but in none was there unequivocal linkage. In theory, attempting to replicate these findings in a second set of sibling pair families is the most appropriate way to distinguish true from false positives, but unfortunately the number of families required to do this reliably is prohibitively large. We used three approaches to increase the definition achieved by the screen: (i) the number of sibling pairs typed in an identified region of potential linkage was extended; (ii) the information extraction was increased in an identified region; and (iii) a search was made for missed regions of potential linkage. Each of these approaches has considerable limitations. A chromosome-by-chromosome account is given to direct future searches. Although an additional marker placed distal to the 'hit' on chromosome 14q increased linkage in this area, and typing extra sibling pairs increased linkage on chromosomes 6p and 17q, evidence for linkage was more commonly reduced and no additional regions of interest were found. A further refinement of the genome screen was undertaken by conditioning for the presence of HLA-DR15. This produced a surprising degree of segregation among the regions of interest, which divided into two distinct groups depending on DR15 sharing: the DR15-sharing cohort comprised loci on chromosomal areas 1p, 17q and X; and the DR15-non-sharing cohort was made up of loci on 1cen, 3p, 7p, 14q and

  16. [Cost-benefit analysis of population screening for abdominal aortic aneurism, based on five-year results of a randomised hospital-based screening trial].

    PubMed

    Lindholt, Jes S; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge; Henneberg, Eskild W

    2006-08-21

    The lethality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is 80-95% compared to 5-6% after elective surgery. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before rupture. From 1994 to 1998, 12,639 men aged 64-73, from Viborg County, were randomised 1:1 for an invitation to an ultrasonographic scan or for controls. There were 75% fewer emergency operations (P < 0.001), and 67% lower AAA-specific mortality in the screening group (P = 0.002). The costs were 6,221 pounds sterling (4,034-13,782) per saved living year, expected to decrease to about 1,860 pounds sterling after 10 years. Screening of Danish men, aged 65-73, is recommended. PMID:16942705

  17. The results of an ecological risk assessment screening at the Idaho National Engineering`s waste area group 2

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, R.

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho and occupies approximately 890 square miles on the northwestern portion of the eastern Snake River Plain. INEL has been devoted to nuclear energy research and related activities since its establishment in 1949. In the process of fulfilling this mission, wastes were generated, including radioactive and hazardous materials. Most materials were effectively stored or disposed of, however, some release of contaminants to the environment has occurred. For this reason, the INEL was listed by the US environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List (NPL), in November, 1989. This report describes the results of an ecological risk assessment performed for the Waste Area Groups 2 (WAG 2) at the INEL. It also summarizes the performance of screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERA).

  18. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the k sub e test

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  20. [Is 'attention' important for the results of dementia screening? Relation among Digit Span Test, CST amd ADS in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Mol, B A; de Jonghe, J F; Lindeboom, J

    2000-02-01

    This study focused on the relationship between attention and dementia screening test performance, using the adapted Wechsler's Digit Span test for elderly patients, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADS6). Participants were dementia patients and psychiatric patients (n = 147). In both groups no floor-effect was found on the Digit Span test. Principal components analysis showed that CST and ADS6-scores had relatively high loadings on one factor, in contrast to digit span scores that loaded on a second factor. On average, psychiatric patients did hardly worse than normal controls. Attention deficits were more apparent in dementia patients. Considering a maximum of r = .41, these more or less subtle deficits were only moderately related to dementia screening test performance. It is concluded that the adapted Digit Span test is suitable for measuring attention deficits in elderly patients. However, Digit Span predicts performance on dementia screening test only to a modest degree.

  1. Factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results in a free and anonymous screening centre.

    PubMed

    Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope

    2015-07-01

    Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.

  2. Secondary EWSR1 Gene Abnormalities in SMARCB1-Deficient Tumors with 22q11-12 Regional Deletions: Potential Pitfalls in Interpreting EWSR1 FISH Results

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2016-01-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. PMID:27218413

  3. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  4. [Results and lessons after 10 years of universal neonatal hearing screening in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France].

    PubMed

    Chays, André; Labrousse, Marc; Makeieff, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In France, universal newborn hearing screening has been mandatory since April23rd, 2012, but it began in the Champagne-Ardenne region on January 15th 2004. More than 99 % of 160 196 newborns have since been systematically screened in this region. Bilateral hearing impairment was thus identified in 116 infants when they were around 3.5 months old. Earlier diagnosis improves the outcome of deafness, which is only diagnosed around age 20 months without screening. The authors report their experience and the lessons learnt.

  5. [Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Results of genetic screening in Hungarian patients].

    PubMed

    Balogh, Katalin; Hunyady, László; Patócs, Attila; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Bertalan, Rita; Gergics, Péter; Majnik, Judit; Toke, Judit; Tóth, Miklós; Szucs, Nikolette; Gláz, Edit; Futo, László; Horányi, János; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2005-10-23

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by endocrinopathies involving the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreas. Also, it may be associated with foregut carcinoid, adrenocortical tumors and non-endocrine tumors. After reviewing the prevalence, genetic background, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, the authors present their genetic screening method used for the detection of mutations of the MEN1 gene (prescreening of polymerase chain reaction amplified exons using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis followed by direct DNA sequencing). Using this method, the authors identified disease-causing MEN1 gene mutations in 9 probands (small deletions in 2 cases, insertion in 2 cases, nonsense mutations in 2 cases and missense mutations in 3 cases). Of the 9 mutations, 4 proved to be novel mutation not reported in the literature. Family screening indicated de novo mutations in 2 probands. In addition to mutations, several sequence polymorphisms were also detected. The authors conclude that one of the major advantages of genetic screening in families with MEN1 syndrome was the identification of family members carrying the mutation who should be regularly screened for disease manifestations and those not carrying the mutation in whom clinical screening is unnecessary. Also, genetic screening may be useful in cases when MEN1 syndrome is suspected, but the clinical manifestations do not fully establish the diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome. PMID:16323565

  6. Forebrain deletion of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter results in deficits in executive function, metabolic, and RNA splicing abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kolisnyk, Benjamin; Al-Onaizi, Mohammed A; Hirata, Pedro H F; Guzman, Monica S; Nikolova, Simona; Barbash, Shahar; Soreq, Hermona; Bartha, Robert; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania F

    2013-09-11

    One of the key brain regions in cognitive processing and executive function is the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which receives cholinergic input from basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. We evaluated the contribution of synaptically released acetylcholine (ACh) to executive function by genetically targeting the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the mouse forebrain. Executive function was assessed using a pairwise visual discrimination paradigm and the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRT). In the pairwise test, VAChT-deficient mice were able to learn, but were impaired in reversal learning, suggesting that these mice present cognitive inflexibility. Interestingly, VAChT-targeted mice took longer to reach criteria in the 5-CSRT. Although their performance was indistinguishable from that of control mice during low attentional demand, increased attentional demand revealed striking deficits in VAChT-deleted mice. Galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor used in Alzheimer's disease, significantly improved the performance of control mice, but not of VAChT-deficient mice on the 5-CSRT. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed altered levels of two neurochemical markers of neuronal function, taurine and lactate, suggesting altered PFC metabolism in VAChT-deficient mice. The PFC of these mice displayed a drastic reduction in the splicing factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2/B1), whose cholinergic-mediated reduction was previously demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, several key hnRNPA2/B1 target transcripts involved in neuronal function present changes in alternative splicing in VAChT-deficient mice, including pyruvate kinase M, a key enzyme involved in lactate metabolism. We propose that VAChT-targeted mice can be used to model and to dissect the neurochemical basis of executive abnormalities. PMID:24027290

  7. Is aortopathy in bicuspid aortic valve disease a congenital defect or a result of abnormal hemodynamics? A critical reappraisal of a one-sided argument.

    PubMed

    Girdauskas, Evaldas; Borger, Michael A; Secknus, Maria-Anna; Girdauskas, Gracijus; Kuntze, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Although there is adequate evidence that bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an inheritable disorder, there is a great controversy regarding the pathogenesis of dilatation of the proximal aorta. The hemodynamic theory was the first explanation for BAV aortopathy. The genetic theory, however, has become increasingly popular over the last decade and can now be viewed as the clearly dominant one. The widespread belief that BAV disease is a congenital disorder of vascular connective tissue has led to more aggressive treatment recommendations of the proximal aorta in such patients, approaching aortic management recommendations for patients with Marfan syndrome. There is emerging evidence that the 'clinically normal' BAV is associated with abnormal flow patterns and asymmetrically increased wall stress in the proximal aorta. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies on BAV function provide a unique hemodynamic insight into the different phenotypes of BAV disease and asymmetry of corresponding aortopathy even in the presence of a 'clinically normal' BAV. On the other hand, there is a subgroup of young male patients with BAV and a root dilatation phenotype, who may present the predominantly genetic form of BAV disease. In the face of these important findings, we feel that a critical review of this clinical problem is timely and appropriate, as the prevailing BAV-aortopathy theory undoubtedly affects the surgical approach to this common clinical entity. Thorough analysis of the recent literature shows a growing amount of evidence supporting the hemodynamic theory of aortopathy in patients with BAV disease. Data from recent studies requires a reevaluation of our overwhelming support of the genetic theory, and obliges us to acknowledge that hemodynamics plays an important role in the development of this disease process. Given the marked heterogeneity of BAV disease, further studies are required in order to more precisely determine which theory is the 'correct' one for explaining the

  8. Psychometric analysis of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) student form: Results from high school student samples.

    PubMed

    Harrell-Williams, Leigh M; Raines, Tara C; Kamphaus, Randy W; Dever, Bridget V

    2015-06-01

    The Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) is a relatively new method for identifying behavior and emotional risk (BER) in children and adolescents. Psychometric evidence regarding this instrument is important for researchers and practitioners considering the use of the BESS for identifying BER in students. Previous psychometric research specifically regarding the BESS Student Form involved the use of samples of elementary and middle school-age children. This study adds to the psychometric evidence for scores on the BESS Student Form by using samples of high school aged students to assess both the factor structure reported by Dowdy, Twyford et al. (2011) and the measurement invariance of the BESS items with regard to ethnicity, English language proficiency, and socioeconomic status. The results indicate that while the proposed 4-factor structure of the BESS Student Form is appropriate, lower than preferred reliabilities for some of the factors indicates that reporting the overall risk T score is more appropriate than reporting factor scores for risk classification purposes. Additionally, the BESS Student Form items did not exhibit measurement bias when comparing across ethnicities, language proficiency classification, or socioeconomic status (via free/reduced lunch classification). PMID:25642926

  9. Results of a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a culturally-targeted and a generic video on mammography screening among Chinese-American immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Schwartz, Marc D.; Brown, Roger L.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Lee, Marion M.; Adams, Inez F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research comparing the effects of culturally-targeted and generic but linguistically appropriate intervention programs is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a culturally-targeted video, a generic video, and a fact sheet (control) in promoting mammography screening among Chinese-American immigrants. Methods We randomized 664 Chinese-American women from the Washington, DC and New York City areas who were >40 years and non-adherent to annual mammography screening guidelines to three study arms (each with ~221 women). The outcome was self-reported mammography screening six months post intervention. Measures of knowledge, Eastern cultural views, and health beliefs were administered before and after the intervention. Results The culturally-targeted video, the generic video, and the fact sheet increased mammography utilization by 40.3%, 38.5%, and 31.1% from baseline, respectively. A significant intervention effect was observed only in one subgroup: The culturally-targeted video significantly increased mammography screening among low-acculturated women over the fact sheet (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.04, 2.78). Overall, women who obtained a mammogram during the follow-up period reported significantly fewer barriers to screening after intervention than those who had not obtained screening. Both of the video groups reported fewer barriers after intervention than the control group. Conclusions Both theoretically-guided videos increased the likelihood of mammography use to a similar extent. Cultural targeting was only effective for low-acculturated women. Both videos reduced perceived barriers to screening and consequently increased screening behavior. Impact The results of this study provide empirical evidence on the efficacy of cultural targeting for minority immigrants. PMID:22971901

  10. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  11. A molecular epidemiologic study of thalassemia using newborns' cord blood in a multiracial Asian population in Singapore: results and recommendations for a population screening program.

    PubMed

    Kham, S K; Yin, Shirley Kham Kow; Quah, Thuan Chong; Loong, Ai Mei; Tan, Poh Lin; Fraser, Angus; Chong, S S; Chuan, Samuel Chong Siong; Yeoh, A E; Eng-Juh, Allen Yeoh

    2004-12-01

    DNA technology provides a new avenue to perform neonatal screening tests for single-gene diseases in populations of high frequency. Thalassemia is one of the high-frequency single-gene disorders affecting Singapore and many countries in the malaria belt. The authors explored the feasibility of using PCR-based diagnostic screening on 1,116 unselected sequential cord blood samples for neonatal screening. The cord blood samples were screened for the most common reported alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations in each ethnic group (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) in a multiracial population. The carrier frequency for alpha-thalassemia mutations was about 6.4% in the Chinese (alpha deletions = 3.9%, alpha deletions = 2.5%), 4.8% in Malays, and 5.2% in Indians. Only alpha deletions were observed in the Chinese. The carrier frequency for beta-thalassemia mutations was 2.7% in the Chinese, 6.3% in Malays, and 0.7% in Indians. Extrapolating to the population distribution of Singapore, the authors found a higher overall expected carrier frequency for alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations of 9% compared with a previous population study of 6% by phenotype. The highly accurate results make this molecular epidemiologic screening an ideal method to screen for and prevent severe thalassemia in high-risk populations.

  12. The use and misuse of sex chromatin screening for 'gender identification' of female athletes.

    PubMed

    de la Chapelle, A

    1986-10-10

    According to the rules of sports organizations such as the International Olympic Committee, competitors registered as females must undergo a "gender verification" test that consists of screening with sex chromatin, followed by further tests in those with an abnormal or inconclusive result. The aims of the gender verification test have not been published but presumably they are to exclude from women's sports events males or other individuals whose muscle strength or body build gives them an unfair advantage over their competitors. It is shown herein that the sex chromatin screening method reveals only a small proportion of such individuals. Moreover, women with certain congenital chromosome abnormalities and other abnormal conditions without increased muscle strength are found to have "abnormal" sex chromatin. Thus, the present screening method is both inaccurate and discriminatory. It is proposed that the aims of gender identification should be defined and methods chosen that achieve the desired result. PMID:3761498

  13. Hemoglobinopathy carrier prevalence in the United Arab Emirates: first analysis of the Dubai Health Authority premarital screening program results.

    PubMed

    Belhoul, Khawla M; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alraei, Rafeeiah F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy carriers in United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals subjected to mandatory premarital screening in Dubai over a 4-year period. Data from UAE nationals who underwent premarital screening by the Dubai Health Authority between January 2007 and December 2010 were collected and analyzed. Premarital screening in Dubai is based on complete blood counts (CBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 6,420 UAE nationals screened, 8.5% (n = 545) were suspected to be carriers. The following carrier frequencies were observed: β-thalassemia (β-thal), 4.56% (n = 293); Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T], 2.9% (n = 186); Hb D-Punjab [β121(GH4)Glu→Gln, GAA>CAA; HBB: c.364G>C], 0.78% (n = 50); Hb Lepore (δβ hybrid gene) with an undetermined molecular genotype, 0.17% (n = 11); Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], 0.03% (n = 2); and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH), 0.016% (n = 1). Hb E-Hb S and Hb E-β-thal also occurred at a rate of 0.016% (n = 1) each; and 0.87% (n = 56) subjects were suspected of carrying silent β-thal. The prevalence of β-thal trait was consistent with the prevalence published by others in the region. Silent β-thal is challenging for screening programs, and is expected to arise in populations with a high prevalence of β-thal carriers. The prevalence of Hb S trait observed in this study was lower than that in other reports for the region. New cases of β-thal major (β-TM) still arise because many fertile couples got married before the screening programs were implemented, and pregnancy termination is not widely practiced in the UAE due to religious restraints. Moreover, some couples choose not to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) or pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), even if they are aware of their risk status. The prevalence of β-thal trait in the UAE is high. This justifies efforts to control the disease by

  14. Transport cross sections based on a screened interaction potential: Comparison of classical and quantum-mechanical results

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2005-06-15

    Standard classical and quantum-mechanical methods are used to characterize the momentum-transfer cross section needed in energy-loss calculations and simulations for heavy, swift charges moving in an electron gas. By applying a well-known, finite-range screened Coulombic potential energy to model the two-body collision, the quantitative applicability range of the classical cross section is investigated as a function of charge (Z), screening length (R), and scattering relative velocity (v). The a posteriori condition (Z/R)/v{sup 2}<1, as an upper bound for heavy charges, is deduced for this applicability range from the comparative study performed.

  15. Screening results correlating to personality disorder traits in a new employee population of People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptation to a new environment may have an uncertain influence on young employees, whose values are still being formed during early adulthood. To understand the current mental status and further improve the mental health level of the new employee population of People’s Republic of China, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen the prevalence and correlates of personality disorder (PD) traits in this population. Methods This study included all male participants who were new employees (those who had started working in approximately the last three months) from 12 machinery factories in People’s Republic of China. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ was used to evaluate the mental status of all participants. The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale was used to assess the resilience of the study participants. Results A total of 3,960 male participants were included in the analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 18.7±1.5 years. The mean values of all PD subtypes were scored from 0.74 to 2.90, with a total of 16.85. Of all 10 PD traits, obsessive–compulsive, histrionic, and narcissistic scored the highest. PD traits scored significantly higher among participants who had higher education levels, came from a single-parent (divorced or separated) family, were raised in a neglectful parental rearing pattern, were the only child of the family, were living in city areas, or had a lower family income. All subtype PD traits were significantly and negatively correlated with resilience. Conclusion Education level, single-parent family, parental rearing pattern, only-child status, living place, and family income may influence the development of PD traits. Additional high-quality studies are needed to learn more about the mental health status of new employees. Optimal interventions are warranted to avoid potential adverse events in this population. PMID:27785032

  16. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

  17. Year One Results for Tolerance Screening of Selected Gossypium hirsutum Varieties to Rotylenchulus Reniformis in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen varieties of Gossypium hirsutum were screened for tolerance to the reniform nematode in 2006 at the Delta Research and Extension Center, Stoneville, MS. The trials were arranged in a split plot design, with four rows of untreated and four rows of Temik 15G, 7 lb/acre for each variety. This ...

  18. Screening for Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Emergency Department Medical Patients: Instrument and Results from the Psychiatric Emergency Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…

  19. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess: results of microbial screening and identification of positive cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently we reported methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocessing (Hou and Lin, 2013). Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produce...

  20. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  1. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  3. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  4. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  5. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  6. An examination of differential follow-up rates in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Fox, P; Amsberger, P; Zhang, X

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that follow-up rates for women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results vary by age, ethnicity, and initial screening results in California's Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program. The sample consisted of women in the screening program who received an abnormal cervical screening result (N = 1.738). Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were utilized to examine variables that account for differences in follow-up rates among these women. Bivariate analysis showed significant differences by age, race/ethnicity, initial screening results, and urban/rural residence. In logistic regression analysis, these variables also retained significance. Severity of diagnosis was a highly significant predictor of follow-up. Women of color, older women, and women with less severe diagnoses should be targeted as groups needing assistance in adhering to follow-up recommendations. PMID:9178119

  7. Women’s responses to changes in U.S. preventive task force’s mammography screening guidelines: results of focus groups with ethnically diverse women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed mammography guidelines to recommend routine biennial screening starting at age 50. This study describes women’s awareness of, attitudes toward, and intention to comply with these new guidelines. Methods Women ages 40–50 years old were recruited from the Boston area to participate in focus groups (k = 8; n = 77). Groups were segmented by race/ethnicity (Caucasian = 39%; African American = 35%; Latina = 26%), audio-taped, and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used. Results Participants were largely unaware of the revised guidelines and suspicious that it was a cost-savings measure by insurers and/or providers. Most did not intend to comply with the change, viewing screening as obligatory. Few felt prepared to participate in shared decision-making or advocate for their preferences with respect to screening. Conclusions Communication about the rationale for mammography guideline changes has left many women unconvinced about potential disadvantages or limitations of screening. Since further guideline changes are likely to occur with advances in technology and science, it is important to help women become informed consumers of health information and active participants in shared decision-making with providers. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of the USPSTF change on women’s screening behaviors and on breast cancer outcomes. PMID:24330527

  8. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  9. First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... is carrying has a chromosomal abnormality such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) . The ...

  10. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  11. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Informing children of their newborn screening carrier result for sickle cell or cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of parents' intentions, views and support needs.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2014-06-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease enables the early identification and treatment of affected children, prolonging and enhancing their quality of life. Screening, however, also identifies carriers. There are minimal or no health concerns for carriers. There are, however, potential implications when carriers reach reproductive age, and thus research attention has been given to how best to convey information about these implications in a meaningful, balanced way which does not raise undue anxieties. Most research focuses on the communication from health professional to parent, yet ultimately this information is of greatest significance to the child. This study examines parents' intentions to inform their child of newborn screening carrier results. Semi-structured interviews with 67 family members explored their intentions to inform the child, and related views and support needs. Parents almost unanimously indicated they planned to inform the child themselves. Health professionals were expected, however, to provide guidance on this process either to parents through advice and provision of written materials, or directly to the child. Although parents initially stated that they would convey the result once their child had developed the ability to understand the information, many appeared to focus on discrete life events linked to informed reproductive decision making. The results highlight ways in which health care providers may assist parents, including providing written material suitable for intergenerational communication and ensuring that cascade screening is accessible for those seeking it. Priorities for further research are identified in light of the results.

  13. 60-day safety screen results and final report for tank 241-C-111, auger samples 95-Aug-002, 95-Aug-003, 95-Aug-016, and 95-Aug-017

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.D.

    1995-05-30

    This report presents the details of the auger sampling events for underground waste tank C-111. The samples were shipped to the 222-S laboratories were they underwent safety screening analysis and primary ferricyanide analysis. The samples were analyzed for alpha total, total organic carbon, cyanide, Ni, moisture, and temperature differentials. The results of this analysis are presented in this document.

  14. Informing children of their newborn screening carrier result for sickle cell or cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of parents' intentions, views and support needs.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2014-06-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease enables the early identification and treatment of affected children, prolonging and enhancing their quality of life. Screening, however, also identifies carriers. There are minimal or no health concerns for carriers. There are, however, potential implications when carriers reach reproductive age, and thus research attention has been given to how best to convey information about these implications in a meaningful, balanced way which does not raise undue anxieties. Most research focuses on the communication from health professional to parent, yet ultimately this information is of greatest significance to the child. This study examines parents' intentions to inform their child of newborn screening carrier results. Semi-structured interviews with 67 family members explored their intentions to inform the child, and related views and support needs. Parents almost unanimously indicated they planned to inform the child themselves. Health professionals were expected, however, to provide guidance on this process either to parents through advice and provision of written materials, or directly to the child. Although parents initially stated that they would convey the result once their child had developed the ability to understand the information, many appeared to focus on discrete life events linked to informed reproductive decision making. The results highlight ways in which health care providers may assist parents, including providing written material suitable for intergenerational communication and ensuring that cascade screening is accessible for those seeking it. Priorities for further research are identified in light of the results. PMID:24306142

  15. Significant prevalence of sickle cell disease in Southwest Germany: results from a birth cohort study indicate the necessity for newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Joachim B; Awad, Saida; Happich, Margit; Muckenthaler, Lena; Lindner, Martin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bruckner, Thomas; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-02-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit from newborn screening, because life-threatening complications can be prevented by pre-symptomatic diagnosis. In Germany, the immigration of people from endemic countries is steadily growing. Comprehensive data about the epidemiology and prevalence of SCD in Germany are however lacking, and SCD is not included in the national newborn screening program. We provide data on the prevalence of SCD in a population from both urban and rural areas in Southwest Germany. Anonymized dried blood spots from 37,838 unselected newborns were analyzed by allele-specific PCR for the HbS mutation. Samples tested positive were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the entire β-globin coding sequence firstly to validate the screening and secondly to identify compound heterozygous SCD patients with other mutations of the β-globin gene. We identified 83 carriers of the sickle cell trait, three compound heterozygous SCD patients (two with sickle cell-β-thalassemia, one with sickle cell-Hb Tianshui) but no homozygous SCD patients. The novel molecular method and strategy for newborn screening for SCD presented here compares favorably in terms of sensitivity (1.0 for homozygous HbS, 0.996 for heterozygous HbS), specificity (0.996), practicability, and costs with conventional biochemical screening. Our results demonstrate a significant prevalence of SCD of approximately 1:12,000 in an unselected urban and rural population in Southwest Germany. Together with previously published even higher results from exclusively urban populations in Berlin and Hamburg, our data provide the basis for the decision on a newborn screening program for SCD in Germany.

  16. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  17. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  18. Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannosylphosphodolichol synthase-encoding gene in Trichoderma reesei results in an increased level of protein secretion and abnormal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kruszewska, J S; Butterweck, A H; Kurzatkowski, W; Migdalski, A; Kubicek, C P; Palamarczyk, G

    1999-06-01

    Production of extracellular proteins plays an important role in the physiology of Trichoderma reesei and has potential industrial application. To improve the efficiency of protein secretion, we overexpressed in T. reesei the DPM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding mannosylphosphodolichol (MPD) synthase, under homologous, constitutively acting expression signals. Four stable transformants, each with different copy numbers of tandemly integrated DPM1, exhibited roughly double the activity of MPD synthase in the respective endoplasmic reticulum membrane fraction. On a dry-weight basis, they secreted up to sevenfold-higher concentrations of extracellular proteins during growth on lactose, a carbon source promoting formation of cellulases. Northern blot analysis showed that the relative level of the transcript of cbh1, which encodes the major cellulase (cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I]), did not increase in the transformants. On the other hand, the amount of secreted CBH I and, in all but one of the transformants, intracellular CBH I was elevated. Our results suggest that posttranscriptional processes are responsible for the increase in CBH I production. The carbohydrate contents of the extracellular proteins were comparable in the wild type and in the transformants, and no hyperglycosylation was detected. Electron microscopy of the DPM1-amplified strains revealed amorphous structure of the cell wall and over three times as many mitochondria as in the control. Our data indicate that molecular manipulation of glycan biosynthesis in Trichoderma can result in improved protein secretion.

  19. Specific cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with a significantly inferior outcome in children and adolescents with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study.

    PubMed

    Poirel, H A; Cairo, M S; Heerema, N A; Swansbury, J; Aupérin, A; Launay, E; Sanger, W G; Talley, P; Perkins, S L; Raphaël, M; McCarthy, K; Sposto, R; Gerrard, M; Bernheim, A; Patte, C

    2009-02-01

    Clinical studies showed that advanced stage, high LDH, poor response to reduction therapy and combined bone marrow and central nervous system disease are significantly associated with a decreased event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) treated on FAB/LMB96. Although rearranged MYC/8q24 (R8q24) is characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), little information is available on other cytogenetic abnormalities and their prognostic importance. We performed an international review of 238 abnormal karyotypes in childhood mature B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96: 76% BL, 8% Burkitt-like lymphoma, 13% diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The main BL R8q24-associated chromosomal aberrations were +1q (29%), +7q and del(13q) (14% each). The DLBCL appeared heterogeneous and more complex. Incidence of R8q24 (34%) was higher than reported in adult DLBCL. The prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities on EFS was studied by Cox model controlling for the known risk factors: R8q24, +7q and del(13q) were independently associated with a significant inferior EFS (hazard ratio: 6.1 (P=0.030), 2.5 (P=0.015) and 4.0 (P=0.0003), respectively). The adverse prognosis of R8q24 was observed only in DLBCL, whereas del(13q) and +7q had a similar effect in DLBCL and BL. These results emphasize the significant biological heterogeneity and the development of cytogenetic risk-adapted therapy in childhood mature B-NHL.

  20. Specific cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with a significantly inferior outcome in children and adolescents with mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, HA; Cairo, MS; Heerema, NA; Swansbury, J; Aupérin, A; Launay, E; Sanger, WG; Talley, P; Perkins, SL; Raphaël, M; McCarthy, K; Sposto, R; Gerrard, M; Bernheim, A; Patte, C

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies showed that advanced stage, high LDH, poor response to reduction therapy and combined bone marrow and central nervous system disease are significantly associated with a decreased event free survival (EFS) in pediatric mature B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96. Although rearranged MYC/8q24 (R8q24) is characteristic of Burkitt Lymphoma (BL), little information is available on other cytogenetic abnormalities and their prognostic importance. We performed an international review of 238 abnormal karyotypes in childhood mature-B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96: 76% BL, 8% Burkitt-like lymphoma, 13% diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The main BL R8q24 associated chromosomal aberrations were +1q [29%], +7q and del(13q) [14% each]. The DLBCL appeared heterogeneous and more complex. Incidence of R8q24 [34%] was higher than reported in adult DLBCL. The prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities on EFS was studied by Cox model controlling for the known risk factors: R8q24, +7q and del(13q) were independently associated with a significant inferior EFS [HR: 6.1 (p=0.030), 2.5 (p=0.015), 4.0 (p=0.0003), respectively]. The adverse prognosis of R8q24 was observed only in DLBCL while del(13q) and +7q had a similar effect in DLBCL and BL. These results emphasize the significant biological heterogeneity and the development of cytogenetic risk adapted therapy in childhood mature-B-NHL. PMID:19020548

  1. Conditional disruption of mouse Klf5 results in defective eyelids with malformed meibomian glands, abnormal cornea and loss of conjunctival goblet cells.

    PubMed

    Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Swamynathan, Sudha; Gupta, Divya; Wan, Huajing; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2011-08-01

    Members of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors regulate diverse developmental processes in various organs. Previously, we have demonstrated the role of Klf4 in the mouse ocular surface. Herein, we determined the role of the structurally related Klf5, using Klf5-conditional null (Klf5CN) mice derived by mating Klf5-LoxP and Le-Cre mice. Klf5 mRNA was detected as early as embryonic day 12 (E12) in the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelids, wherein its expression increased during development. Though the embryonic eye morphogenesis was unaltered in the Klf5CN mice, postnatal maturation was defective, resulting in smaller eyes with swollen eyelids that failed to separate properly. Klf5CN palpebral epidermis was hyperplastic with 7-9 layers of keratinocytes, compared with 2-3 in the wild type (WT). Klf5CN eyelid hair follicles and sebaceous glands were significantly enlarged, and the meibomian glands malformed. Klf5CN lacrimal glands displayed increased vasculature and large number of infiltrating cells. Klf5CN corneas were translucent, thicker with defective epithelial basement membrane and hypercellular stroma. Klf5CN conjunctiva lacked goblet cells, demonstrating that Klf5 is required for conjunctival goblet cell development. The number of Ki67-positive mitotic cells was more than doubled, consistent with the increased number of Klf5CN ocular surface epithelial cells. Co-ablation of Klf4 and Klf5 resulted in a more severe ocular surface phenotype compared with Klf4CN or Klf5CN, demonstrating that Klf4 and Klf5 share few if any, redundant functions. Thus, Klf5CN mice provide a useful model for investigating ocular surface pathologies involving meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, corneal or conjunctival defects.

  2. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. [Callus distraction for lengthening of mid-hand and finger stumps in congenital hand abnormalities--personal results and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Hierner, R; Wilhelm, K; Brehl, B

    1998-05-01

    Distraction-lengthening technique is quite useful in a variety of congenital hand deformities with hypoplastic, or primary normal but secondary shortened (constriction ring syndrome) finger rays. It appears that around the age of two years is the earliest practical time to start distraction; certainly distraction and secondary surgical procedures to improve function should be completed before school entry age whenever possible. Between June 1990 and March 1993, nine distraction lengthening procedures (5 thumbs, 1 index, 3 little fingers) in five patients presenting with congenital hand deformities, were carried out. Although restoring length to the finger, lengthening does not provide normal circumference or, of course, interphalangeal joint motion. Amelioration in function seems to be more important than the esthetic gain. Distraction lengthening tolerates only few errors of indication, operative technique, and/or postoperative management. A high compliance of the patient and her/his parents as well as a close follow-up by an experienced surgeon, are mandatory for a good result. A variety of possible complications have been described. Generally, complication risk increases in cases of simultaneous and multiple level lengthening. Provided adequate operative technique and postoperative care, superficial pin infection and fracture in the region of distraction are the major complications. Contrary to adults, sufficient bone formation by distraction is the rule in children. Therefore, the distraction-lengthening technique is preferred to the distraction-interposition technique in the treatment of congenital hand deformities. The latter should only be used as a salvage procedure in the rare cases of insufficient callus formation. Because of the missing growth potential and reduced joint mobility, distraction lengthening is the therapy of second choice when compared to microvascular second toe transplantation. PMID:9677484

  5. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age–gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99–6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39–4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  6. Targeted Mutations in the Na,K-ATPase Alpha 2 Isoform Confer Ouabain Resistance and Result in Abnormal Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L.; Lingrel, Jerry B; Moseley, Amy E.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatases (Na,K-ATPase) are ubiquitous, participate in osmotic balance and membrane potential, and are composed of α, β, and γ subunits. The α subunit is required for the catalytic and transport properties of the enzyme and contains binding sites for cations, ATP, and digitalis-like compounds including ouabain. There are four known α isoforms; three that are expressed in the CNS in a regional and cell-specific manner. The α2 isoform is most commonly found in astrocytes, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adults, and developmentally in several other neuronal types. Ouabain-like compounds are thought to be produced endogenously in mammals, bind the Na,K-ATPase, and function as a stress-related hormone, however, the impact of the Na,K-ATPase ouabain binding site on neurobehavioral function is largely unknown. To determine if the ouabain binding site of the α2 isoform plays a physiological role in CNS function, we examined knock-in mice in which the normally ouabain-sensitive α2 isoform was made resistant (α2R/R) while still retaining basal Na,K-ATPase enzymatic function. Egocentric learning (Cincinnati water maze) was impaired in adult α2R/R mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. They also exhibited decreased locomotor activity in a novel environment and increased responsiveness to a challenge with an indirect sympathomimetic agonist (methamphetamine) relative to WT mice. The α2R/R mice also demonstrated a blunted acoustic startle reflex and a failure to habituate to repeated acoustic stimuli. The α2R/R mice showed no evidence of altered anxiety (elevated zero maze) nor were they impaired in spatial learning or memory in the Morris water maze and neither group could learn in a large Morris maze. These results suggest that the ouabain binding site is involved in specific types of learning and the modulation of dopamine-mediated locomotor behavior. PMID:20936682

  7. [Audit system on quality of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment: results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2010].

    PubMed

    Ponti, Antonio; Mano, Maria Piera; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Bisanti, Luigi; Casella, Denise; Deandrea, Silvia; Delrio, Daria; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frammartino, Brunella; Frigerio, Alfonso; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Pagano, Giovanni; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Sedda, Maria Laura; Taffurelli, Mario; Cataliotti, Luigi; Segnan, Nereo

    2012-01-01

    This survey, conducted by the Italian breast screening network (GISMa), collects yearly individual data on diagnosis and treatment on about 50% of all screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2010 results show good overall quality and an improving trend over time. Critical issues were identified, including waiting times and compliance with the recommendations on not performing frozen section examination on small lesions. Preoperative diagnosis improved constantly over the years, but there is still a large variation between regions and programmes. For almost 90% of screen-detected invasive cancers the sentinel lymph node technique (SLN) was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN for ductal carcinoma in situ deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, also by means of a web data warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any issues documented by the data. It should be assigned priority to the problem of waiting times. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making monitoring effective in producing quality improvements with shorter waiting times.

  8. Audit system on Quality of breast cancer diagnosis and Treatment (QT): results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Antonio; Mano, Maria Piera; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Casella, Denise; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Delos, Erika; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frammartino, Brunella; Frigerio, Alfonso; Giudici, Fabiola; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Olla Atzeni, Carlo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Pagano, Giovanni; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Pitarella, Sabina; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Silvestri, Anna; Taffurelli, Mario; Tidone, Enrica; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-01-01

    This annual survey, conducted by the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa), collects individual data on diagnosis and treatment of about 50% of screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2011-2012 results show good overall quality and an improving trend over time. A number of critical issues have been identified, including waiting times (which have had a worsening trend over the years) and compliance with the recommendation of not performing frozen section examination on small lesions. Pre-operative diagnosis improved constantly over time, but there is still a large variation between Regions and programmes. For almost 90% of screen-detected invasive cancers a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN dissection for ductal carcinoma in situ, although apparently starting to decline, deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, among other ways by means of a web-based data-warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes, in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any issues documented by the data. The problem of waiting times should be assigned priority. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making monitoring effective in producing quality improvements with shorter waiting times.

  9. Audit system on Quality of breast cancer diagnosis and Treatment (QT): results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2007.

    PubMed

    Mano, Maria Piera; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Bordon, Rita; Casella, Denise; Delrio, Daria; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frigerio, Alfonso; Furini, Alessia; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Pagano, Giovanni; Piccini, Paola; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Rodella, Donatella; Sapino, Anna; Sedda, Maria Laura; Taffurelli, Mario; Vettorazzi, Marcello; Zorzi, Manuel; Cataliotti, Luigi; Segnan, Nereo

    2010-01-01

    This survey, conducted by the Italian Breast Screening Network (GISMa), collects individual data yearly on about 50% of all screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2007 results show good overall quality of diagnosis and treatment and an improving trend over time. Critical issues were identified concerning waiting times, compliance with the recommendations on not performing frozen section examination on small lesions and on performing specimen X-rays. Preoperative diagnosis reached the acceptable target, but there is a large variation between Regions and programmes. For more than 80%of screen-detected invasive cancers the sentinel lymph node technique (SLN) was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, also by means of a web data-warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any problem documented by the data. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making audits effective in producing quality improvements with a shorter waiting times.

  10. Audit system on Quality of breast cancer diagnosis and Treatment (QT): results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Antonio; Mano, Maria Piera; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Casella, Denise; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Delos, Erika; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frammartino, Brunella; Frigerio, Alfonso; Giudici, Fabiola; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Olla Atzeni, Carlo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Pagano, Giovanni; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Pitarella, Sabina; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Silvestri, Anna; Taffurelli, Mario; Tidone, Enrica; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-01-01

    This annual survey, conducted by the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa), collects individual data on diagnosis and treatment of about 50% of screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2011-2012 results show good overall quality and an improving trend over time. A number of critical issues have been identified, including waiting times (which have had a worsening trend over the years) and compliance with the recommendation of not performing frozen section examination on small lesions. Pre-operative diagnosis improved constantly over time, but there is still a large variation between Regions and programmes. For almost 90% of screen-detected invasive cancers a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN dissection for ductal carcinoma in situ, although apparently starting to decline, deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, among other ways by means of a web-based data-warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes, in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any issues documented by the data. The problem of waiting times should be assigned priority. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making monitoring effective in producing quality improvements with shorter waiting times. PMID:26405775

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  12. Screening for negative symptoms: preliminary results from the self-report version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephanie G; Llerena, Katiah; McCarthy, Julie M; Couture, Shannon M; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-03-01

    Though negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a host of deleterious outcomes (e.g., White et al., 2009), not all individuals with schizophrenia suffer from negative symptoms (e.g., Blanchard et al., 2005). Thus, methods to quickly screen and identify patients for more intensive clinical interview assessments may have significant clinical and research utility. The present study is a preliminary examination of the reliability and validity of a self-report version of the newly developed Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS; Blanchard et al., 2011; Forbes et al., 2010; Horan et al., 2011). The CAINS-SR is a 30-item self-report measure that assesses Experiential (avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and Expressive (blunted affect, alogia) domains of negative symptoms. Participants (N = 69) completed the CAINS-SR questionnaire and were evaluated with symptom interviews using the CAINS and other non-negative symptom interviews that assessed psychotic, affective, and other symptoms. The Experience subscale of the CAINS-SR demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, while the poorer psychometric properties of the Expression subscale suggest that self-report of negative symptoms should focus on the experiential domain. Overall, preliminary findings indicate that the CAINS-SR (addressing experiential deficits) may be a useful complement to the clinician-rated interview measure. Future research on the sensitivity and specificity of the CAINS-SR will determine its suitability as a screening measure.

  13. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  16. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E.; Bann, Carla M.; Watson, Victoria E.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Bodnar, Anna; Yolton, Kimberly; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Dusick, Anna M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Heyne, Roy J.; Hintz, Susan R.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Fuller, Janell; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Vohr, Betty R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm (EP) infants screen positive for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) at high rates. However it is not clear whether this is due to high rates of ASD in EPs or to high rates of false positive screens for ASD in children with a high rate of underlying neurodevelopmental impairments. Combining a parent questionnaire designed to distinguish developmental delay from ASD with direct observation of infant behavior may more accurately screen for ASD in EPs. Objectives To determine rates of positive screen for ASD at 18–22months(m) in EPs using three screens; to determine factors associated with a positive screen. Methods 554 infants born <27 weeks were screened at 18–22m using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test, 2nd edition, Stage 2 (PDDST-II) and the response to name and response to joint attention items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Infants with severe cerebral palsy, deafness and blindness were excluded. Associations between positive screen and neonatal/infant characteristics were determined. Results 113/554 (20 %) had ≥1 positive screen. 10% had a positive PDDST-II, 6% response to name, 9% response to joint attention; in only 1% were all 3 screens positive. Positive screen was associated with male gender, more hospital days, white race, lower maternal education, abnormal behavioral scores, and cognitive/language delay. Conclusions The use of three screens for ASD in EPs results in higher screen positive rates than use of one screen alone. Diagnostic confirmation is needed before true rates of ASD in EPs are known. PMID:22926660

  17. Chromosome abnormalities diagnosed in utero: a Japanese study of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens collected before 22 weeks gestations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Miyuki; Yan, Jim; Yotsumoto, Junko; Sawai, Hideaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of abnormal karyotype in Japan by amniocentesis before 22 weeks of gestation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens in a local population collected before 22 weeks gestations for fetal karyotyping. The incidence of abnormal karyotype was 6.0%. The main indication was advanced maternal age (AMA) of 35 years and older, which represented over half of the clinical indications. Abnormal karyotype was most frequently reported among the referrals for abnormal ultrasound findings (21.8%), followed by positive maternal serum screen results (5.3%). Three-fourths of abnormal karyotype was either autosomal aneuploidy (64.0%) or sex chromosome aneuploidy (11.6%). Abnormal karyotype was detected in 2.8% of pregnant women referred for AMA. Clinically significant abnormal karyotype increased with advancing maternal age. The frequency and type of abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis for various indications were determined. Amniocentesis was mainly performed among the referrals for AMA, which is a characteristic distribution of indications of Japan.

  18. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Taylor P; Clavijo, Raul; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Hakky, Tariq; Candrashekar, Aravind; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations of autosomal chromosomes are present in about 1/625 men, yet often there are no symptoms except primary infertility. Abnormal segregation during meiosis often produces sperm and subsequent embryos with unbalanced translocations that often ultimately result in spontaneous abortions. We report on a 37-year-old man and his 39-year-old wife who complained of primary infertility. Previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) had resulted in pregnancy, but two spontaneous abortions. Upon chromosomal testing, the man was diagnosed with a reciprocal translocation and his wife was diagnosed with mosaic Turner's syndrome. Through testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and IVF with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), they succeeded in having two healthy children. Since men with different karyotype abnormalities can have male infertility, we reviewed the literature and summarized the reproductive outcomes for men with both autosome and sex chromosomal karyotype abnormalities. PMID:26425238

  19. 45-Day safety screen results and final report for Tank 241-SX-113, Auger samples 94-AUG-028 and 95-AUG-029

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-06-22

    This document serves as the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-SX-113 auger samples collected on May 9 and 10, 1995. The samples were extruded, and analyzed by the 222-S Laboratory. Laboratory procedures completed include: differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetric analysis; and total alpha analysis. This report incudes the primary safety screening results obtained from the analyses. As the final report, the following are also included: chains of custody; the extrusion logbook; sample preparation data; and total alpha analysis raw data.

  20. Screening for Open Neural Tube Defects.

    PubMed

    Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence W; Carmichael, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical prenatal screening was initiated with the use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein to screen for open neural tube defects. Screening now includes multiple marker and sequential screening protocols involving serum and ultrasound markers to screen for aneuploidy. Recently cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy has been initiated, but does not screen for neural tube defects. Although ultrasound is highly effective in identifying neural tube defects in high-risk populations, in decentralized health systems maternal serum screening still plays a significant role. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein alone or in combination with other markers may indicate adverse pregnancy outcome in the absence of open neural tube defects. PMID:27235920

  1. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. Method This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. Results A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN12582470 PMID:24576042

  2. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    PubMed

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  3. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  4. Cytological screening for cervical cancer and human papillomavirus in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, E.; Reece, G.

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective study of cervical screening in a general practice in Birmingham 156 out of 1913 smears taken over three years showed some abnormality. Smears from 65 women showed severe non-specific inflammation, and 91 women had various grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, of whom 53 were aged under 30 and 13 over 40. Of 35 women with clinical evidence of human papillomavirus, 21 had normal results on cervical testing and 14 abnormal results. The incidence of genital warts among sexually active young people is growing, but the association of human papillomavirus with abnormal cervical smears is not clear. The efficacy of screening in the United Kingdom must be improved by actively encouraging younger patients to attend for regular screening. PMID:2852515

  5. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Zaman, Shamsuz; Das, Bankim; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible) and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51%) cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis). Only 23.3% of donors (662) responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%). Only 373 (56.3%) responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6%) reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors. PMID:25485163

  6. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  7. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  8. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  9. Low yield of unselected testing in patients with acutely abnormal liver function tests

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To audit the diagnostic yield and cost implications of the use of a ‘liver screen’ for inpatients with abnormal liver function tests. Design We performed a retrospective audit of inpatients with abnormal liver function tests. We analysed all investigations ordered including biochemistry, immunology, virology and radiology. The final diagnosis was ascertained in each case, and the diagnostic yield and cost per positive diagnosis for each investigation were calculated. Setting St Thomas’ NHS Trust. Participants All inpatients investigated for abnormal liver function tests over a 12-month period. Main outcome measures We calculated the percentage of courses due to each diagnosis, the yield of each investigation and the cost per positive diagnosis for each investigation. Results A total of 308 patients were included, and a final diagnosis was made in 224 patients (73%) on the basis of both clinical data and investigations. There was considerable heterogeneity in the tests included in an acute liver screen. History and ultrasound yielded the most diagnoses (40% and 30%, respectively). The yield of autoimmune and metabolic screens was minimal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the low yield of unselected testing in patients with abnormal liver function tests. A thorough history, ultrasound and testing for blood-borne viruses are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Specialist input should be sought before further testing. Prospective studies to evaluate the yield and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies are needed. PMID:26770816

  10. [High frequency of thyroid abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calvar, Cecilia E; Bengolea, Sonia V; Deutsch, Susana I; Hermes, Ricardo; Ramos, Gustavo; Loyato, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities (TA) has not been sufficiently assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to evaluate this relationship. In this prospective study 194 women were included. The PCOS group consisted of 142 patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and the control group included 52 age-matched healthy women. Fasting blood samples were drawn for free T4, thyrotropin, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), fasting insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were calculated. A total of 52 PCOS patients had either autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT+) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) (36.6%) (thyroid abnormalities:TA+) compared with 7 women of the control group (13.5%), accounting for more than a five fold higher prevalence of TA in PCOS patients, compared with the age-matched controls (adjusted odds ratio: 5.6; CI 95%: 2.1 -14.9; p<0.001). TA+ patients had significantly higher FI and HOMA-IR values than patients without thyroid abnormalities (p<0.05). These results demonstrate a high rate of TA in young PCOS women, associated with higher levels of FI and HOMA-IR. As PCOS, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity may have a profound impact on reproductive health, our data indicate that PCOS patients should be screened for TA. PMID:26339875

  11. Mammography-based screening program: preliminary results from a first 2-year round in a Brazilian region using mobile and fixed units

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The use of mobile mammography units to offer screening to women living in remote areas is a rational strategy to increase the number of women examined. This study aimed to evaluate results from the first 2 years of a government-organized mammography screening program implemented with a mobile unit (MU) and a fixed unit (FU) in a rural county in Brazil. The program offered breast cancer screening to women living in Barretos and the surrounding area. Methods Based on epidemiologic data, 54 238 women, aged 40 to 69 years, were eligible for breast cancer screening. The study included women examined from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2005. The chi-square test and Bonferroni correction analyses were used to evaluate the frequencies of tumors and the importance of clinical parameters and tumor characteristics. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Overall, 17 964 women underwent mammography. This represented 33.1% of eligible women in the area. A mean of 18.6 and 26.3 women per day were examined in the FU and MU, respectively. Seventy six patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (41 (54%) in the MU). This represented 4.2 cases of breast cancer per 1000 examinations. The number of cancers detected was significantly higher in women aged 60 to 69 years than in those aged 50 to 59 years (p < 0.001) or 40 to 49 years (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between women aged 40 to 49 years and those aged 50 to 59 years (p = 0.164). The proportion of tumors in the early (EC 0 and EC I) and advanced (CS III and CS IV) stages of development were 43.4% and 15.8%, respectively. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that this mammography screening program is feasible for implementation in a rural Brazilian territory and favor program continuation. PMID:23031787

  12. Auto-Thermal Reforming of Jet-A Fuel over Commercial Monolith Catalysts: MicroReactor Evaluation and Screening Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Judy C. H.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of catalyst screening tests conducted with Jet-A fuel under auto-thermal reforming (ATR) process conditions at the research laboratories of SOFCo-EFS Holdings LLC under Glenn Research Center Contract. The primary objective is to identify best available catalysts for future testing at the NASA GRC 10-kW(sub e) reformer test facility. The new GRC reformer-injector test rig construction is due to complete by March 2004. Six commercially available monolithic catalyst materials were initially selected by the NASA/SOFCo team for evaluation and bench scale screening in an existing 0.05 kW(sub e) microreactor test apparatus. The catalyst screening tests performed lasted 70 to 100 hours in duration in order to allow comparison between the different samples over a defined range of ATR process conditions. Aging tests were subsequently performed with the top two ranked catalysts as a more representative evaluation of performance in a commercial aerospace application. The two catalyst aging tests conducted lasting for approximately 600 hours and 1000 hours, respectively.

  13. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: Results from the ADDITION-Denmark study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. Design. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. Setting. 190 general practices around Denmark. Subjects. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Results. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Conclusion. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25659194

  14. Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p = 0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

  15. Change in cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life after diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes: Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Black, J.A.; Long, G.H.; Sharp, S.J.; Kuznetsov, L.; Boothby, C.E.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Establishing a balance between the benefits and harms of treatment is important among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, for whom the burden of treatment might be higher than the burden of the disease. We described the association between cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among individuals with screen-detected diabetes. Methods 867 participants with screen-detected diabetes underwent clinical measurements at diagnosis, one and five years. General HRQoL (EQ5D) was measured at baseline, one- and five-years, and diabetes-specific HRQoL (ADDQoL-AWI) and health status (SF-36) at one and five years. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in HRQoL and change in cardio-protective medication. Results The median (IQR) number of prescribed cardio-protective agents was 2 (1 to 3) at diagnosis, 3 (2 to 4) at one year and 4 (3 to 5) at five years. Change in cardio-protective medication was not associated with change in HRQoL from diagnosis to one year. From one year to five years, change in cardio-protective agents was not associated with change in the SF-36 mental health score. One additional agent was associated with an increase in the SF-36 physical health score (2.1; 95%CI 0.4, 3.8) and an increase in the EQ-5D (0.05; 95%CI 0.02, 0.08). Conversely, one additional agent was associated with a decrease in the ADDQoL-AWI (−0.32; 95%CI −0.51, −0.13), compared to no change. Conclusions We found little evidence that increases in the number of cardio-protective medications impacted negatively on HRQoL among individuals with screen-detected diabetes over five years. PMID:25937542

  16. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  17. Health fair glaucoma screening: follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Skorin, L; Multack, R F; Holtzman, J N

    1991-07-01

    Glaucoma screening is a standard procedure at many health fairs. Information on correct screening techniques, instrumentation, and target populations has been available. However, a scarcity of information exists concerning the success of efforts to follow up on abnormal results. This study reports on the findings of a long-term (6-month) follow-up of all individuals with abnormal tonometric results screened at an inner-city osteopathic hospital. Of the 218 subjects screened, 15 were found to have abnormal tonometric results. Seven of the 15 subjects were actually reached at the 6-month follow-up interval. Four of the seven had not sought any further eye care; two had sought nonmedical evaluation; only one had sought medical ocular care, and that subject was later found to have glaucoma. The results presented in this article indicate that compliance by this population is inadequate. Inner-city participants require more education. We encourage physicians to promptly refer such patients for appropriate medical ocular care.

  18. Factors associated with failure of clinical screening among blood donors who have altered serological results in the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Oranice; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening. Methods A descriptive study was performed between July 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006 by interviewing 106 donorsafter medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. Results There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%), followed by hepatitis B (20.7%), HIV (12.3%) and syphilis(10.4%). About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality. Conclusion The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors. PMID:23323063

  19. Disruption of the A-Kinase Anchoring Domain in Flagellar Radial Spoke Protein 3 Results in Unregulated Axonemal cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Activity and Abnormal Flagellar Motility

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Anne R.; Fox, Laura A.; Rhea, Jeanne M.; Craige, Branch

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical studies of Chlamydomonas flagellar axonemes revealed that radial spoke protein (RSP) 3 is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). To determine the physiological role of PKA anchoring in the axoneme, an RSP3 mutant, pf14, was transformed with an RSP3 gene containing a mutation in the PKA-binding domain. Analysis of several independent transformants revealed that the transformed cells exhibit an unusual phenotype: a fraction of the cells swim normally; the remainder of the cells twitch feebly or are paralyzed. The abnormal/paralyzed motility is not due to an obvious deficiency of radial spoke assembly, and the phenotype cosegregates with the mutant RSP3. We postulated that paralysis was due to failure in targeting and regulation of axonemal cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). To test this, reactivation experiments of demembranated cells were performed in the absence or presence of PKA inhibitors. Importantly, motility in reactivated cell models mimicked the live cell phenotype with nearly equal fractions of motile and paralyzed cells. PKA inhibitors resulted in a twofold increase in the number of motile cells, rescuing paralysis. These results confirm that flagellar RSP3 is an AKAP and reveal that a mutation in the PKA binding domain results in unregulated axonemal PKA activity and inhibition of normal motility. PMID:16571668

  20. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  1. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  2. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  3. Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Penelope; McClaren, Belinda J; Hodgson, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have explored women's psychosocial experience of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality, and within this small group of studies it is rare for research to consider the embodied aspect of women's experiences. This paper reports on qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 59 women in Melbourne, Australia who received a prenatal diagnosis of a significant abnormality and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Interview transcripts were coded inductively through thematic analysis. Two themes about embodiment were generated from the interviews: transitioning embodiment, and vulnerable bodies in un/comfortable spaces. Theory of pregnant embodiment was drawn on in interpreting women's narratives. Recommendations arising from the analysis include health professionals recognising, acknowledging and accommodating the transitioning embodied state of women as they consider, prepare for, undergo and recover from pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Further recommendations address the connections and disconnections between this transitioning embodied state and the spaces of clinics, hospitals and home. PMID:27578350

  4. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence.

  5. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence. PMID:12429440

  6. 45-day safety screen results and final report for tank 241-C-202, auger samples 95-Aug-026 and 95-Aug-027

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1995-06-19

    Two auger samples from tank 241-C-202 (C-202) were received at the 222-S Laboratories and underwent safety screening analysis, consisting of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity. Two samples were submitted for energetics determination by DSC. Within the triplicate analyses of each sample, one of the results for energetics exceeded the notification limit. The sample and duplicate analyses for both augers exceeded the notification limit for TGA. As required by the Tank Characterization Plan, the appropriate notifications were made within 24 hours of official confirmation that the limits were violated.

  7. The value of improving failures within a cervical cancer screening program: an example from Norway.

    PubMed

    Burger, Emily A; Kim, Jane J

    2014-10-15

    Failures in cervical cancer (CC) screening include nonparticipation, underscreening and loss to follow-up of abnormal results. We estimated the long-term health benefits from and maximum investments in interventions targeted to improving compliance to guidelines while remaining cost-effective. We used a mathematical model empirically calibrated to simulate the natural history of CC in Norway. A baseline scenario reflecting current practice using cytology-based screening was compared to scenarios that target different sources of noncompliance: (i) failure to follow-up women with abnormal results, (ii) screening less frequently than recommended (i.e., underscreening) and (iii) absence of screening. A secondary analysis included human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening as the primary test. Model outcomes included reductions in lifetime cancer risk and incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) resulting from improvements with compliance. Compared to the status quo, improving all sources of noncompliance leads to important health gains and produced positive INMBs across a range of developed-country willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. For example, a 2% increase in compliance could reduce lifetime cancer risk by 1-3%, depending on the targeted source of noncompliance and primary screening method. Assuming a WTP threshold of $83,000 per year of life saved and cytology-based screening, interventions that increase follow-up of abnormal results yielded the highest INMB per 2% increase in coverage [$19 ($10-21)]. With HPV-based screening, recruiting nonscreeners resulted in the largest INMB [$23 ($18-32)]. Considerable funds could be allocated toward policies that improve compliance with screening under the current cytology-based program or toward adoption of primary HPV-based screening while remaining cost-effective.

  8. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  9. Capillary blood islet autoantibody screening for identifying pre-type 1 diabetes in the general population: design and initial results of the Fr1da study

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Jennifer; Haupt, Florian; Scholz, Marlon; Matzke, Claudia; Warncke, Katharina; Lange, Karin; Assfalg, Robin; Weininger, Katharina; Wittich, Susanne; Löbner, Stephanie; Beyerlein, Andreas; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Lang, Martin; Laub, Otto; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Bonifacio, Ezio; Achenbach, Peter; Winkler, Christiane; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed at an early presymptomatic stage by the detection of islet autoantibodies. The Fr1da study aims to assess whether early staging of type 1 diabetes (1) is feasible at a population-based level, (2) prevents severe metabolic decompensation observed at the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes and (3) reduces psychological distress through preventive teaching and care. Methods and analysis Children aged 2–5 years in Bavaria, Germany, will be tested for the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies. Between February 2015 and December 2016, 100 000 children will be screened by primary care paediatricians. Islet autoantibodies are measured in capillary blood samples using a multiplex three-screen ELISA. Samples with ELISA results >97.5th centile are retested using reference radiobinding assays. A venous blood sample is also obtained to confirm the autoantibody status of children with at least two autoantibodies. Children with confirmed multiple islet autoantibodies are diagnosed with pre-type 1 diabetes. These children and their parents are invited to participate in an education and counselling programme at a local diabetes centre. Depression and anxiety, and burden of early diagnosis are also assessed. Results Of the 1027 Bavarian paediatricians, 39.3% are participating in the study. Overall, 26 760 children have been screened between February 2015 and November 2015. Capillary blood collection was sufficient in volume for islet autoantibody detection in 99.46% of the children. The remaining 0.54% had insufficient blood volume collected. Of the 26 760 capillary samples tested, 0.39% were positive for at least two islet autoantibodies. Discussion Staging for early type 1 diabetes within a public health setting appears to be feasible. The study may set new standards for the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and education. Ethics dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee of Technische Universit

  10. [HPV-Hr detection by home self sampling in women not compliant with pap test for cervical cancer screening. Results of a pilot programme in Bouches-du-Rhône].

    PubMed

    Piana, Lucien; Leandri, François-Xavier; Le Retraite, Laurence; Heid, Patrice; Tamalet, Catherine; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène

    2011-07-01

    The non-participation to cervical screening is the major determinant in the risk of mortality due to cervical cancer. In France, around 40% of women do not participate to regular screening. The cultural or economic barriers for performing screening by Pap test are numerous; one of the most frequent is the refusal of gynaecological examination. A persistent HPV(HR) infection is a necessary factor for developing cervical cancer. The HPV(HR) testing has a high sensibility to detect high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and a satisfactory specificity after 30-35 years old. The principal objective of this study was to compare the participation rates in women 35-69 years old who did not perform a Pap test after a first individual invitation, either when an HPV(HR) auto-test was offered to be performed at home or a second invitation to Pap test was sent. We also evaluated the quality of the two tests, the positive results obtained by age groups and the following histological type of lesions diagnosed in the women with positive results. The study included 9,334 women, 35-69 years old, who did not realized a Pap-test during the 2 previous years and who did not respond at a first individual invitation. These non-responders were randomized into two groups: one group (n=4,934) received a second individual invitation and the other (n=4,400) an offer of receiving and performing an HPV auto-test at home. In women 35-69 years the participation to the second invitation to Pap test was significantly lower (7.2%) than the participation to auto-test (26.4%) with P<0.001. The quality of the two tests was satisfactory; the auto-test was not altered by the postage to laboratory (non interpretable rate=1.4% [CI at 95%=0.65%; 2.15%]. From the 311 Pap tests done, 5.5% (17) were classified "abnormal" (nine ASCUS, one high grade and seven low grades). The follow up of 13 women out of 17 confirmed the diagnosis for 1 case of CIN2 and 2 cases of CIN3, 4 women are lost of

  11. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  12. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  15. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  17. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  18. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uttenthal, A

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus. PMID:1335756

  19. Cervical cytology screening convenient for the workforce.

    PubMed

    Andren, S M

    1991-01-01

    The study describes the demographic details and smear results of women attending a Well Woman Clinic in an Occupational Health setting over a two year period. The clinic is located close to the place of work, run during working hours, and operated by a doctor and nurse. Charging fees acceptable to women attending or their employers, the service has made a modest profit and offers scope for increasing the income against fixed costs. The age range attending is older than commonly found at screening clinics. The abnormal smear detection rate, 115 per 1000 is high while the proportion of inadequate results at 50 per 1000 compares favourably with other clinics. In an area with 13 per cent Asian population, only 5 per cent of attenders were Asian but of these one fifth had abnormal smears. A cervical cytology screening facility timed and located for the convenience of the working woman is found to attract a group of women in the older age range who have a high abnormal smear rate, and those who fail to attend elsewhere. PMID:1779673

  20. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  1. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Primary care endorsement letter and a patient leaflet to improve participation in colorectal cancer screening: results of a factorial randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, P; Ward, A M; Heneghan, C; Halloran, S P; Mant, D

    2011-01-01

    Background: The trial aimed to investigate whether a general practitioner's (GP) letter encouraging participation and a more explicit leaflet explaining how to complete faecal occult blood test (FOBT) included with the England Bowel Cancer Screening Programme invitation materials would improve uptake. Methods: A randomised controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial was conducted in the south of England. Overall, 1288 patients registered with 20 GPs invited for screening in October 2009 participated in the trial. Participants were randomised to either a GP's endorsement letter and/or an enhanced information leaflet with their FOBT kit. The primary outcome was verified with return of the test kit within 20 weeks. Results: Both the GP's endorsement letter and the enhanced procedural leaflet, each increased participation by ∼6% – the GP's letter by 5.8% (95% CI: 4.1–7.8%) and the leaflet by 6.0% (95% CI: 4.3–8.1%). On the basis of the intention-to-treat analysis, the random effects logistic regression model confirmed that there was no important interaction between the two interventions, and estimated an adjusted rate ratio of 1.11 (P=0.038) for the GP's letter and 1.12 (P=0.029) for the leaflet. In the absence of an interaction, an additive effect for receiving both the GP's letter and leaflet (11.8%, 95% CI: 8.5–16%) was confirmed. The per-protocol analysis indicated that the insertion of an electronic GP's signature on the endorsement letter was associated with increased participation (P=0.039). Conclusion: Including both an endorsement letter from each patient's GP and a more explicit procedural leaflet could increase participation in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme by ∼10%, a relative improvement of 20% on current performance. PMID:21829202

  4. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use among university students in South Africa: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; van der Heever, Hendry; Skaal, Linda

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was -1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. PMID:23698697

  5. Reducing Human-Tsetse Contact Significantly Enhances the Efficacy of Sleeping Sickness Active Screening Campaigns: A Promising Result in the Context of Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Camara, Mamadou; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Kagbadouno, Moise; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Oumou; Traoré, Ibrahima S.; Rouamba, Jérémi; Peylhard, Moana; Somda, Martin B.; Leno, Mamadou; Lehane, Mike J.; Torr, Steve J.; Solano, Philippe; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of gambiense sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020, relies mainly on mass screening of populations at risk and treatment of cases. This strategy is however challenged by the existence of undetected reservoirs of parasites that contribute to the maintenance of transmission. In this study, performed in the Boffa disease focus of Guinea, we evaluated the value of adding vector control to medical surveys and measured its impact on disease burden. Methods The focus was divided into two parts (screen and treat in the western part; screen and treat plus vector control in the eastern part) separated by the Rio Pongo river. Population census and baseline entomological data were collected from the entire focus at the beginning of the study and insecticide impregnated targets were deployed on the eastern bank only. Medical surveys were performed in both areas in 2012 and 2013. Findings In the vector control area, there was an 80% decrease in tsetse density, resulting in a significant decrease of human tsetse contacts, and a decrease of disease prevalence (from 0.3% to 0.1%; p=0.01), and an almost nil incidence of new infections (<0.1%). In contrast, incidence was 10 times higher in the area without vector control (>1%, p<0.0001) with a disease prevalence increasing slightly (from 0.5 to 0.7%, p=0.34). Interpretation Combining medical and vector control was decisive in reducing T. b. gambiense transmission and in speeding up progress towards elimination. Similar strategies could be applied in other foci. PMID:26267667

  6. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  7. Universal spatial correlations in the anisotropic Kondo screening cloud: Analytical insights and numerically exact results from a coherent state expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Serge; Snyman, Izak

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the spatial correlation structure of the spin density of an electron gas in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetically coupled Kondo impurity. Our analysis extends to the regime of spin-anisotropic couplings, where there are no quantitative results for spatial correlations in the literature. We use an original and numerically exact method, based on a systematic coherent-state expansion of the ground state of the underlying spin-boson Hamiltonian. It has not yet been applied to the computation of observables that are specific to the fermionic Kondo model. We also present an important technical improvement to the method that obviates the need to discretize modes of the Fermi sea, and allows one to tackle the problem in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, one can obtain excellent spatial resolution over arbitrary length scales, for a relatively low computational cost, a feature that gives the method an advantage over popular techniques such as the numerical and density-matrix renormalization groups. We find that the anisotropic Kondo model shows rich universal scaling behavior in the spatial structure of the entanglement cloud. First, SU(2) spin-symmetry is dynamically restored in a finite domain in the parameter space in the vicinity of the isotropic line, as expected from poor man's scaling. More surprisingly, we are able to obtain in closed analytical form a set of different, yet universal, scaling curves for strong exchange asymmetry, which are parametrized by the longitudinal exchange coupling. Deep inside the cloud, i.e., for distances smaller than the Kondo length, the correlation between the electron spin density and the impurity spin oscillates between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic values at the scale of the Fermi wavelength, an effect that is drastically enhanced at strongly anisotropic couplings. Our results also provide further numerical checks and alternative analytical approximations for the Kondo overlaps that were recently computed by

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  9. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. II - Combustion test rig evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several commercial monolithic catalysts were tested in a combustion test rig to determine their suitability for use in a gas-turbine combustor primary zone. The catalyst test bed consisted of two to four elements of 12-centimeter diameter by 2.5-centimeter long monolith. Results are presented of the measured combustion efficiency and catalyst bed temperature history for an inlet propane-air mixture temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 newtons per square meter, inlet velocities of 10 to 25 meters per second and equivalence ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. The best catalysts tested gave combustion efficiencies of virtually 100% for reaction temperatures ranging from 1325 K at 10 meters per second to 1400 K at 25 meters per second. This performance was only possible with fresh catalysts. The catalysts tested were not specifically developed for use at these conditions and showed some loss in activity after about 3 hours' testing.

  10. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  11. Degree of urbanization and mammographic density in Dutch breast cancer screening participants: results from the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Marleen J; Bakker, Marije F; Beelen, Rob M J; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that women living in urban areas have a higher mammographic density (MD) compared to women living in rural areas. This association might be explained by regional differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or perhaps by variation in exposure to ambient air pollution as air pollution particles have been described to show estrogenic activity. We investigated the association between degree of urbanization and MD, and aimed to unravel the underlying etiology. 2,543 EPIC-NL participants were studied, and general linear models were used. Urbanization was categorized into five categories according to the number of addresses/km(2). Information on reproductive and lifestyle factors was obtained from the recruitment questionnaire. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression models. MD was expressed as percent density (PD) and dense area (DA), and was quantified using Cumulus. Women living in extremely urbanized areas had a higher PD (21.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.5-22.3%) compared to women living in not urbanized areas (16.1, 95% CI 14.5-17.8%, P trend < 0.01).The association persisted after adjustment for reproductive and lifestyle factors as well as for individual exposure to air pollution (adjusted PDextremely_urbanized = 22.1%, 95% CI 18.0-26.5% versus adjusted PDnot_urbanized = 16.9%, 95% CI 13.0-21.2, P trend < 0.01).The results for DA showed close similarity to the results for PD. We found evidence that degree of urbanization is associated with MD. The association could not be explained by differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or by variation in air pollution exposure.

  12. Developing symptom-based predictive models of endometriosis as a clinical screening tool: results from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Nnoaham, Kelechi E.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Jenkinson, Crispin; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To generate and validate symptom-based models to predict endometriosis among symptomatic women prior to undergoing their first laparoscopy. Design Prospective, observational, two-phase study, in which women completed a 25-item questionnaire prior to surgery. Setting Nineteen hospitals in 13 countries. Patient(s) Symptomatic women (n = 1,396) scheduled for laparoscopy without a previous surgical diagnosis of endometriosis. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Sensitivity and specificity of endometriosis diagnosis predicted by symptoms and patient characteristics from optimal models developed using multiple logistic regression analyses in one data set (phase I), and independently validated in a second data set (phase II) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Result(s) Three hundred sixty (46.7%) women in phase I and 364 (58.2%) in phase II were diagnosed with endometriosis at laparoscopy. Menstrual dyschezia (pain on opening bowels) and a history of benign ovarian cysts most strongly predicted both any and stage III and IV endometriosis in both phases. Prediction of any-stage endometriosis, although improved by ultrasound scan evidence of cyst/nodules, was relatively poor (area under the curve [AUC] = 68.3). Stage III and IV disease was predicted with good accuracy (AUC = 84.9, sensitivity of 82.3% and specificity 75.8% at an optimal cut-off of 0.24). Conclusion(s) Our symptom-based models predict any-stage endometriosis relatively poorly and stage III and IV disease with good accuracy. Predictive tools based on such models could help to prioritize women for surgical investigation in clinical practice and thus contribute to reducing time to diagnosis. We invite other researchers to validate the key models in additional populations. PMID:22657249

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Home-based HPV self-sampling improves participation by never-screened and under-screened women: Results from a large randomized trial (iPap) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Drennan, Kelly T; Mullins, Robyn; Brotherton, Julia M L; Wrede, C David; Heley, Stella; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M

    2016-07-15

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether HPV self-sampling increases participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened (not screened in past 5 years) women when compared with a reminder letter for a Pap test. Never- or under-screened Victorian women aged 30-69 years, not pregnant and with no prior hysterectomy were eligible. Within each stratum (never-screened and under-screened), we randomly allocated 7,140 women to self-sampling and 1,020 to Pap test reminders. The self-sampling kit comprised a nylon tipped flocked swab enclosed in a dry plastic tube. The primary outcome was participation, as indicated by returning a swab or undergoing a Pap test; the secondary outcome, for women in the self-sampling arm with a positive HPV test, was undergoing appropriate clinical investigation. The Roche Cobas® 4800 test was used to measure presence of HPV DNA. Participation was higher for the self-sampling arm: 20.3 versus 6.0% for never-screened women (absolute difference 14.4%, 95% CI: 12.6-16.1%, p < 0.001) and 11.5 versus 6.4% for under-screened women (difference 5.1%, 95% CI: 3.4-6.8%, p < 0.001). Of the 1,649 women who returned a swab, 45 (2.7%) were positive for HPV16/18 and 95 (5.8%) were positive for other high-risk HPV types. Within 6 months, 28 (62.2%) women positive for HPV16/18 had colposcopy as recommended and nine (20%) had cytology only. Of women positive for other high-risk HPV types, 78 (82.1%) had a Pap test as recommended. HPV self-sampling improves participation in cervical screening for never- and under-screened women and most women with HPV detected have appropriate clinical investigation.

  15. Impact of Cardiovascular Counseling and Screening in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Daniëls, Laurien A.; Krol, Stijn D.G.; Graaf, Michiel A. de; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Veer, Mars B. van 't; Putter, Hein; Roos, Albert de; Schalij, Martin J.; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on health-related quality of life (HRQL). As part of a phase 2 screening study using computed tomography angiography (CTA) among HL survivors, an HRQL analysis was done to evaluate the emotional and practical burden and perceived benefits of screening and the effect of CVD-specific counseling on patient satisfaction. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in the screening study also took part in the HRQL study. The impact of undergoing screening was evaluated with a 9-item questionnaire, and impact on HRQL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire C30, version 3.0. The effect of counseling of CVD on perceived provision of information was evaluated with EORTC INFO-25. All questionnaires were completed at baseline and after screening. Results: Baseline questionnaires were received from 48 participants, and 43 completed questionnaires after screening. Mean age was 47 years, and mean time since diagnosis was 21 years. Of the total, 93% of subjects were content with participating, and 80% did not find the emphasis placed on late effects burdensome, although screening did have a small impact on social functioning and global quality of life. Perceived information on disease, medical tests, and treatment increased significantly after screening (P<.01). Differences were clinically relevant. There were no differences in perceived information between patients with and without screen-detected CVD. Conclusions: Screening was evaluated favorably, whether CTA showed abnormalities or not. Extensive counseling resulted in substantially increased provision of information and improved information satisfaction. Screening by

  16. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

    2014-05-01

    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.

  17. Identification of familial colorectal cancer and hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes through the Dutch population-screening program: results ofa pilot study

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Sanne J. H.; Leicher, Laura W.; Hennink, Simone D.; Ghorbanoghli, Zeinab; Breg, Simone A. C.; Morreau, Hans; Nielsen, Maartje; Hardwick, James C. H.; Roukema, Jan A.; Langers, Alexandra M. J.; Cappel, Walter H. de Vos tot Nederveen; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: In 2014, a population-screening program using immuno-faecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT) has started in the Netherlands. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proportion of individuals in the Dutch screening program with a positive I-FOBT that fulfill the criteria for familial colorectal cancer (FCC) and to evaluate the proportion of participants that needs genetic counseling or colonoscopic surveillance. Material and methods: This retrospective observational study was performed in two large hospitals. Individuals aged between 55 and 75 years with a positive I-FOBT that underwent colonoscopy were included. A detailed family history was obtained in all individuals. Results: A total of 657 individuals with a positive I-FOBT test underwent colonoscopy. A total of 120 (18.3%) participants were found to have a positive family history for CRC, 20 (3.0%) fulfilled the FCC criteria, 4 (0.6%) the Bethesda guidelines and 1 (0.2%) participant the Amsterdam criteria. Multiple adenomas (>10) were found in 21 (3.2%) participants. No cases of serrated polyposis were identified. Based on these criteria and guidelines, a total of 35 (5.3%) required referral to the clinical geneticist and the relatives of 20 (3.0%) participants should be referred for surveillance colonoscopy. Conclusion: Obtaining a detailed family history at the time of intake of participants with a positive I-FOBT in the Dutch surveillance program increased the identification of participants with familial CRC. PMID:27310819

  18. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  20. 45-day safety screen results and final report for Tank 241-C-203, Auger samples 95 AUG-020 and 95-AUG-021

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.M.

    1995-05-18

    This document serves as the 45-day report deliverable for the tank C-203 auger samples collected on April 5, 1995 (samples 95-AUG-20 and 95-AUG-021). As no secondary analyses were required and no other analyses have been requested, this document also serves as the final report for C-203 auger sampling. Each sample was received, extruded, and analyzed by the 222-S Laboratories in accordance with the Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) referenced below. Included in this report are the primary safety screening results (DSC, TGA, and alpha) and density results. The worklists and raw data are included in this report. Photographs of the auger samples were taken during extrusion and, although not included in this report, are available.

  1. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  2. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  3. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  4. Cervix smear abnormalities: linking pathology data in female twins, their mothers and sisters.

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Casparie, Mariel K; Meijer, Gerrit A; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Mass screening for cervical cancer precursors has decreased the incidence of cervical cancer in several countries, including the Netherlands. Persistent infections of certain types of human papillomavirus are strongly associated with the development of cervical cancer. A number of factors may affect the liability to infection and subsequent progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. This paper examines whether genetic factors are involved in explaining individual differences in liability. Data of 3178 women registered with the Netherlands Twin Register were successfully linked to the nationwide Dutch Pathology database that contains all results of mass screening for cervical cancer. The data from mono- and dizygotic twins and their female relatives were used to disentangle the influence of heritable and environmental factors on cervix smear abnormalities. Results showed that differences in cervix smear results clustered within families and resemblance was stronger in monozygotic twins (correlation 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.58) compared with other first-degree relatives (correlation 0.14, 95% confidence interval: -0.01-0.29). The familial clustering for an abnormal cervix smear is due to shared genetic factors that explain 37% of the variance in liability. The largest proportion of the variation in cervical smear abnormalities is due to unique environmental factors.

  5. Breast Cancer Detection with Short-Interval Follow-up Compared with Return to Annual Screening in Patients with Benign Stereotactic or US-guided Breast Biopsy Results

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alisa K.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Geller, Berta M.; Hotaling, Elise N.; Herschorn, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cancer detection rate and stage after benign stereotactic or ultrasonography (US)–guided core breast biopsy between patients with short-interval follow-up (SIFU) and those who return to annual screening. Materials and Methods The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry and the BCSC Statistical Coordinating Center received institutional review board approval for active and passive consent processes and a waiver of consent. All procedures were HIPAA compliant. BCSC data for 1994–2010 were used to compare ipsilateral breast cancer detection rates and tumor characteristics for diagnoses within 3 months after SIFU (3–8 months) versus return to annual screening (RTAS) mammography (9–18 months) after receiving a benign pathology result from image-guided breast biopsy. Results In total, 17 631 biopsies with benign findings were identified with SIFU or RTAS imaging. In the SIFU group, 27 ipsilateral breast cancers were diagnosed in 10 715 mammographic examinations (2.5 cancers per 1000 examinations) compared with 16 cancers in 6916 mammographic examinations in the RTAS group (2.3 cancers per 1000 examinations) (P = .88). Sixteen cancers after SIFU (59%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39%, 78%) were invasive versus 12 after RTAS (75%; 95% CI: 48%, 93%). The invasive cancer rate was 1.5 per 1000 examinations after SIFU (95% CI: 0.9, 2.4) and 1.7 per 1000 examinations (95% CI: 0.9, 3.0) after RTAS (P = .70). Among invasive cancers, 25% were late stage (stage 2B, 3, or 4) in the SIFU group (95% CI: 7%, 52%) versus 27% in the RTAS group (95% CI: 6%, 61%). Positive lymph nodes were found in seven (44%; 95% CI: 20%, 70%) invasive cancers after SIFU and in three (25%; 95% CI: 5%, 57%) invasive cancers after RTAS. Conclusion Similar rates of cancer detection were found between SIFU and RTAS after benign breast biopsy with no significant differences in stage, tumor size, or nodal status, although the present study was limited by sample size

  6. The Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Fisher, Stephen N.; Balogh, Paula; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Luketich, James D.; Siegfried, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The role of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer is controversial, currently under study, and not yet fully elucidated. Objectives: To report findings from initial and 1-year repeat screening low-radiation-dose CT of the chest and 3-year outcomes for 50- to 79-year-old current and ex-smokers in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS). Methods: Notified of findings on screening CT, subjects received diagnostic advice from both study and personal physicians. Tracking subjects for up to three years since initial screening, we obtained medical records to document diagnostic procedures, lung cancer diagnoses, and deaths. Measurements and Main Results: 3,642 and 3,423 subjects had initial and repeat screening. A total of 1,477 (40.6% of 3,624) were told about noncalcified lung nodules on the initial screening and, before repeat screening, 821 (55.6% of 1,477, 22.5% of 3,642) obtained one or more subsequent diagnostic imaging studies (CT, positron emission tomography [PET], or PET-CT). Tracking identified 80 subjects with lung cancer, including 53 subjects with tumor seen at initial screening. In all, 36 subjects (1.0% of the 3,642 screened), referred for abnormalities on either the initial or repeat screening, had a major thoracic surgical procedure (thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery [VATS], median sternotomy, or mediastinoscopy) leading to a noncancer final diagnosis. Out of 82 subjects with thoracotomy or VATS to exclude malignancy in a lung nodule, 28 (34.1%) received a noncancer final diagnosis. Forty of 69 (58%) subjects with non–small cell lung cancer had stage I disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Though leading to the discovery of early stage lung cancer, CT screening also led to many diagnostic follow-up procedures, including major thoracic surgical procedures with noncancer outcomes. PMID:18635890

  7. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E; Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M; Boyages, John

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

  8. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance. PMID:21668947

  9. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  10. Coronary calcium scoring: are the results comparable to computed tomography coronary angiography for screening coronary artery disease in a South Asian population?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need of having feasible screening tools like Coronary Calcium Scoring (CCS) and CT Coronary Artery (CTCA) for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) has become paramount. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CCS in determining the degree of stenosis of coronary vessels as compared to that determined by CTCA in a South Asian population. Methods A retrospective study was conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital. A total of 539 patient records were reviewed who had undergone CCS and CTCA between 2008 and 2010. Patient records were reviewed by comparing their CCS and CTCA results. Results About 268 out of 301 (89%) patients with a CCS of 0–9 were found to be free of stenosis on CTCA. On a CCS of 10–99, 110 out of 121 (91%) patients were either free of stenosis or had mild stenosis. About 66 out of 79 (84%) patients had moderate or severe stenosis with a calcium score of 100–400 while none of the patients were free of stenosis. Around 28 out of 38 (74%) patients with a CCS of more than 400 had severe stenosis. However, only 04 patients (11%) were found to have mild stenosis. Spearman’s rho revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.791 with a p-value of <0.001. Conclusion Our study reaffirms that in South Asian population, low CCS (<100) is associated with no or minimal stenosis while high CCS warrants further investigation; hence, making it a reliable tool for screening patients with CAD. PMID:23866861

  11. Randomised controlled trial evaluating cardiovascular screening and intervention in general practice: principal results of British family heart study. Family Heart Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the change in cardiovascular risk factors achievable in families over one year by a cardiovascular screening and lifestyle intervention in general practice. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial in 26 general practices in 13 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--12,472 men aged 40-59 and their partners (7460 men and 5012 women) identified by household. INTERVENTION--Nurse led programme using a family centred approach with follow up according to degree of risk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--After one year the pairs of practices were compared for differences in (a) total coronary (Dundee) risk score and (b) cigarette smoking, weight, blood pressure, and random blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations. RESULTS--In men the overall reduction in coronary risk score was 16% (95% confidence interval 11% to 21%) in the intervention practices at one year. This was partitioned between systolic pressure (7%), smoking (5%), and cholesterol concentration (4%). The reduction for women was similar. For both sexes reported cigarette smoking at one year was lower by about 4%, systolic pressure by 7 mm Hg, diastolic pressure by 3 mm Hg, weight by 1 kg, and cholesterol concentration by 0.1 mmol/l, but there was no shift in glucose concentration. Weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol concentration showed the greatest difference at the top of the distribution. If maintained long term the differences in risk factors achieved would mean only a 12% reduction in risk of coronary events. CONCLUSIONS--As most general practices are not using such an intensive programme the changes in coronary risk factors achieved by the voluntary health promotion package for primary care are likely to be even smaller. The government's screening policy cannot be justified by these results. PMID:8124121

  12. Chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer risks among Asian immigrants in New York City: results from a large, community-based screening, evaluation, and treatment program

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Henry J.; Kwon, Simona C.; Wang, Su H.; Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the predominant cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide, disproportionately affects Asian Americans. Limited data exists on the variability and characteristics of infection that determine disease progression risk within US Asian ethnic subgroups. Methods Retrospective analyses were conducted on a large, community-based HBV screening and treatment program in New York City (NYC). From 2005-2008 the program enrolled 7,272 Asian-born individuals. Determinants of HBV seroprevalence were calculated and risk factors for HCC progression were compared across Asian subgroups. Results Among newly tested individuals, 13% were HBV positive. Seroprevalence varied significantly with age, gender, education, birthplace, and family history of infection. Chinese-born individuals, particularly from the Fujian province, had the highest seroprevalence (23.2% and 33.1%, respectively). Clinical and virologic characteristics placed HBV-infected individuals at significant risk for HCC. Significant differences in HCC risk existed among Asian subgroups in bivariate analysis, including age, gender, HBV viral load and HBeAg status. Differences in HBV genotype and family history of HCC may further HCC risk among subgroups. Conclusions Asian immigrants in NYC have a high prevalence of HBV infection and are at significant risk of disease progression and HCC. Although heterogeneity in HBV seroprevalence was found by Asian subgroups, HCC risk among infected individuals was primarily explained by age and gender differences. Country and province of birth, age, and gender may further explain seroprevalence differences. Impact Findings provide estimates of HBV burden in Asian ethnic subgroups and identify high risk groups to target for screening and treatment that can prevent HCC. PMID:25368398

  13. The Effects of Obesity and Mobility Disability in Access to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in France: Results from the National Health and Disability Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bussière, Clémence; Sicsic, Jonathan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to disentangle the effects of obesity and mobility limitation on cervical and breast cancer screening among community dwelling women. Methods The data source was the French national Health and Disability Survey - Household Section, 2008. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to categorize obesity status. We constructed a continuous score of mobility limitations to assess the severity of disability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Logistic regressions were performed to examine the association between obesity, mobility limitations and the use of Pap test (n = 8 133) and the use of mammography (n = 7 561). Adjusted odds ratios were calculated (AOR). Interaction terms between obesity and the disability score were included in models testing for effect modifications. Results Compared with non-obese women, the odds of having a Pap test in the past 3 years was 24% lower in obese women (AOR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.89), the odds of having a mammogram in the past 2 years was 23% lower (AOR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.91). Each time the disability score was 5 points higher, the odds of having a Pap test decreases by 20% (AOR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98), the odds of having a mammogram decreases by 25% (AOR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97). There was no significant interaction between obesity and disability score. Conclusion Obesity and mobility limitation are independently associated with a lower likelihood of cervical and breast cancer screening. Protective outreach and follow-up are necessary to reduce inequalities and thus to reduce health disparities in these vulnerable and high-risk populations of obese women with disabilities. PMID:25133662

  14. Performance of the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening Using Different Stool-Collection Devices: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Young; Suh, Mina; Baik, Hyung Won; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Lee, Chan Wha; Oh, Jae Hwan; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We are in the process of conducting a randomized trial to determine whether compliance with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer screening differs according to the stool-collection method. This study was an interim analysis of the performance of two stool-collection devices (sampling bottle vs conventional container). Methods In total, 1,701 individuals (age range, 50 to 74 years) were randomized into the sampling bottle group (intervention arm) or the conventional container group (control arm). In both groups, we evaluated the FIT positivity rate, the positive predictive value for advanced neoplasia, and the detection rate for advanced neoplasia. Results The FIT positivity rates were 4.1% for the sampling bottles and 2.0% for the conventional containers; these values were significantly different. The positive predictive values for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −3.4 to 25.6) and 12.0% (95% CI, −0.7 to 24.7), respectively. The detection rates for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 4.5 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0) and 2.4 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 0.0 to 5.0), respectively. Conclusions The impact of these findings on FIT screening performance was unclear in this interim analysis. This impact should therefore be evaluated in the final analysis following the final enrollment period. PMID:27282262

  15. Diagnostic Yield of Fine-Needle Aspiration for Axillary Lymph Nodes During Screening Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Youn, Inyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary lymph node (LN) in patients who underwent screening US. We retrospectively reviewed 72 LNs of 69 patients (mean age, 44.9 years) who underwent US-FNA for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs on 50,488 screening US from January 2005 to December 2011. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were calculated. We evaluated US images for lymph node size, abnormal findings (hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, round shape, extranodal extension, or marked hypoechoic cortex), and mammography for the identification of abnormal LNs. The PPV of each finding was also calculated. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were 2.8% (2/72) and 0.004% (2/50,488), respectively. The mean (SD) measurements for long-axis, short-axis, and cortical thickening of the LNs were 14.9 (5.9) mm, 8.5 (3.5) mm, and 5.8 (2.8) mm, respectively. Of the positive LNs, US findings of hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, and extranodal extension were found, and each corresponding PPV was 6.3% (1/16), 1.8% (1/56), and 14.3% (1/7), respectively. The PPV of mammography was 14.3% (1/7). Our results suggest that the PPVs of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs during screening US are too low to recommend axillary US during breast US screening and that follow-up is acceptable for abnormal LNs detected during screening breast US that do not have extranodal extension or are negative on mammography. PMID:27054655

  16. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.

    PubMed

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-09-01

    In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  17. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13 842 women

    PubMed Central

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-01-01

    In a study involving 13 842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  18. Pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities during refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parli, Sara E; Ruf, Kathryn M; Magnuson, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome may occur after the reintroduction of carbohydrates in chronically malnourished or acutely hypermetabolic patients as a result of a rapid shift to glucose utilization as an energy source. Electrolyte abnormalities of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium occur, leading to complications of various organ systems, and may result in death. Patients should be screened for risk factors of malnutrition to prevent refeeding syndrome. For those at risk, nutrition should be initiated and slowly advanced toward the patient's goal over several days. Electrolyte disturbances should be aggressively corrected.

  19. Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in an Urban HIV Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Daniel K; Kaner, Robert J; Glesby, Marshall J

    2015-05-01

    Increased smoking and a detrimental response to tobacco smoke in the lungs of HIV/AIDS patients result in an increased risk for COPD. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a COPD screening strategy validated in the general population and to identify HIV-related factors associated with decreased lung function. Subjects at least 35 years of age at an HIV clinic in New York City completed a COPD screening questionnaire and peak flow measurement. Those with abnormal results and a random one-third of normal screens had spirometry. 235 individuals were included and 89 completed spirometry. Eleven (12%) had undiagnosed airway obstruction and 5 had COPD. A combination of a positive questionnaire and abnormal peak flow yielded a sensitivity of 20% (specificity 93%) for detection of COPD. Peak flow alone had a sensitivity of 80% (specificity 80%). Abnormal peak flow was associated with an AIDS diagnosis (p=0.04), lower nadir (p=0.001), and current CD4 counts (p=0.001). Nadir CD4 remained associated in multivariate analysis (p=0.05). Decreased FEV1 (<80% predicted) was associated with lower CD4 count nadir (p=0.04) and detectable current HIV viral load (p=0.01) in multivariate analysis. Questionnaire and peak flow together had low sensitivity, but abnormal peak flow shows potential as a screening tool for COPD in HIV/AIDS. These data suggest that lung function may be influenced by HIV-related factors.

  20. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-10-31

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids.

  1. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  2. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening.

    PubMed

    Wurcel, Alysse G; Chen, Daniel D; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E; Grasberger, Paula E; Kirshner, Caleb H; Anderson, Jordan E; Chui, Kenneth K H; Knox, Tamsin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods.  This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infectious Diseases clinic. Patients were classified into risk groups based on sexual risk factors. Results.  Although 85% of PLWH had repeat syphilis screening, less than two thirds had repeat HCVAb screening. The MSM status was associated with increased HCVAb and RPR testing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6 and 5.9, respectively). Seven persons had incident HCV infection: 3 were MSM, and 4 had symptoms or abnormal laboratory results to prompt testing. Conclusions.  Failure to find incident HCV infection in PLWH represents missed opportunities to cure HCV infection and prevent progressive liver disease. Further quality improvement studies are necessary to develop physician-focused interventions to increase HCV screening rates in PLWH.

  3. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Chen, Daniel D.; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E.; Grasberger, Paula E.; Kirshner, Caleb H.; Anderson, Jordan E.; Chui, Kenneth K. H.; Knox, Tamsin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods. This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infectious Diseases clinic. Patients were classified into risk groups based on sexual risk factors. Results. Although 85% of PLWH had repeat syphilis screening, less than two thirds had repeat HCVAb screening. The MSM status was associated with increased HCVAb and RPR testing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6 and 5.9, respectively). Seven persons had incident HCV infection: 3 were MSM, and 4 had symptoms or abnormal laboratory results to prompt testing. Conclusions. Failure to find incident HCV infection in PLWH represents missed opportunities to cure HCV infection and prevent progressive liver disease. Further quality improvement studies are necessary to develop physician-focused interventions to increase HCV screening rates in PLWH. PMID:26885544

  4. Assessment of Parental Understanding of Positive Newborn Screening Results and Carrier Status for Cystic Fibrosis with the use of a Short Educational Video.

    PubMed

    Temme, R; Gruber, A; Johnson, M; Read, L; Lu, Y; McNamara, J

    2015-06-01

    Many children are identified as unaffected carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) through newborn screening (NBS) programs. The aim of this study was to improve parental understanding of positive NBS results using an educational video in addition to genetic counseling. One hundred parents of infants identified as CF carriers through NBS were randomly assigned by household to either a genetic counseling only group or a genetic counseling and video group. All participants completed a knowledge-based questionnaire before, immediately after, and six weeks following genetic counseling. This included questions about resources accessed before and after the appointment. Seventy-two percent of participants accessed resources on their own prior to genetic counseling; these participants scored significantly higher on the pre-counseling questionnaire (p = 0.03). Post-counseling knowledge scores for both groups significantly improved after genetic counseling (p < 0.001). Post-counseling scores were significantly higher in the video group compared to the non-video group (p = 0.02). Knowledge was retained six weeks following genetic counseling. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an educational video and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling following positive NBS results for CF.

  5. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  10. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  11. Improved screening test for abnormal hemoglobins from dried blood samples.

    PubMed

    Altland, K; Kaempfer, M; Granda, H

    1979-01-01

    A method is described wherein blood samples taken from adults or newborns and dried on filter paper can be used for hemoglobin analysis within 2 years after sampling. The samples are eluted in 8 M urea in the presence of 5% 2-mercaptoethanol and 2% of the neutral detergent Nonidet P-40. Then the individual alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon chains are separated by means of electrofocusing in 8 M urea-PAA gels. Up to 96 samples can be applied to a gel using multiple syringes. Several hundred samples can be analyzed daily by one person. This method may be especially useful for preventive programs against sickle cell anemia as well as for human mutation monitoring systems.

  12. African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle

    2016-06-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073

  13. Segmentation of cytoplasm and nuclei of abnormal cells in cervical cytology using global and local graph cuts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Chin, Chien Ting; Liu, Shaoxiong; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-07-01

    Automation-assisted reading (AAR) techniques have the potential to reduce errors and increase productivity in cervical cancer screening. The sensitivity of AAR relies heavily on automated segmentation of abnormal cervical cells, which is handled poorly by current segmentation algorithms. In this paper, a global and local scheme based on graph cut approach is proposed to segment cervical cells in images with a mix of healthy and abnormal cells. For cytoplasm segmentation, the multi-way graph cut is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image, which can be effective when the image histogram presents a non-bimodal distribution. For segmentation of nuclei, especially when they are abnormal, we propose to use graph cut adaptively and locally, which allows the combination of intensity, texture, boundary and region information. Two concave points-based approaches are integrated to split the touching-nuclei. As part of an ongoing clinical trial, preliminary validation results obtained from 21 cervical cell images with non-ideal imaging condition and pathology show that our segmentation method achieved 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and 88.4% F-measure for abnormal nuclei, outperforming state of the art methods in terms of accuracy. Our method has the potential to improve the sensitivity of AAR in screening for cervical cancer.

  14. Cervical screening in England: the past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Albrow, Rebecca; Kitchener, Henry; Gupta, Nalini; Desai, Mina

    2012-04-25

    Cervical screening in England commenced in a disorganized fashion in 1964. The flaws of this approach became apparent in the mid-1980s and led to the inception of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). The main features of this program are its population-based registry, accessibility to all women within the screening age range, its systematic process of call and recall, national coordination, and quality assurance. Its success is in part based on its ability to evolve as evidence necessitates, and throughout the period of 2000-2010, it embarked upon a series of developments involving liquid-based cytology, which also provided the means to conduct reflex high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and the potential to automate the screening process. As a result of evidence acquired since 2000, the NHSCSP is currently based on a system of primary cytology with HPV triage for low-grade abnormalities combined with cytology plus a HR-HPV "test of cure" for women who have received treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Future challenges for the program will involve finding solutions to increasing screening uptake among women <30 years of age-a problem that may be exacerbated when vaccinated women reach the screening age, while making plans to accommodate HPV primary screening. PMID:22367883

  15. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005). PMID:27336020

  17. [Lived experience of women with fetal chromosomal abnormality receiving termination at second trimester].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mei; Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Lonng

    2007-12-01

    Fetal chromosomal examination helps screen fetal chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Diagnosis of such anomalies allows pregnancy termination, but causes tremendous trauma during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities who are urgently required to terminate their pregnancy. The qualitative field study was conducted at a medical center in Taipei. The researcher, a primary nurse, conducted interviews with five women face to face or over the phone to collect the data. The period of care lasted for two weeks, beginning with confirmed diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, followed by the subjects' decision on pregnancy termination, and ending up with their discharge from the hospital. The study is presented in narrative form and the data analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. Three categories of lived experience emerged from the data: (1) recurring nightmares, (2) the torment from making the decision of pregnancy termination, and (3) frustration or sadness afterwards. The results illustrated that the lived experience of the women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities and receiving termination was a continuous process. We suggest that medical staff concern themselves with the issue and provide humanistic caring for patients during the various different phases.

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005).

  19. Comprehensive automatic assessment of retinal vascular abnormalities for computer-assisted retinopathy grading.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinayak; Agurto, Carla; VanNess, Richard; Nemeth, Sheila; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important signs of systemic disease that presents on the retina is vascular abnormalities such as in hypertensive retinopathy. Manual analysis of fundus images by human readers is qualitative and lacks in accuracy, consistency and repeatability. Present semi-automatic methods for vascular evaluation are reported to increase accuracy and reduce reader variability, but require extensive reader interaction; thus limiting the software-aided efficiency. Automation thus holds a twofold promise. First, decrease variability while increasing accuracy, and second, increasing the efficiency. In this paper we propose fully automated software as a second reader system for comprehensive assessment of retinal vasculature; which aids the readers in the quantitative characterization of vessel abnormalities in fundus images. This system provides the reader with objective measures of vascular morphology such as tortuosity, branching angles, as well as highlights of areas with abnormalities such as artery-venous nicking, copper and silver wiring, and retinal emboli; in order for the reader to make a final screening decision. To test the efficacy of our system, we evaluated the change in performance of a newly certified retinal reader when grading a set of 40 color fundus images with and without the assistance of the software. The results demonstrated an improvement in reader's performance with the software assistance, in terms of accuracy of detection of vessel abnormalities, determination of retinopathy, and reading time. This system enables the reader in making computer-assisted vasculature assessment with high accuracy and consistency, at a reduced reading time.

  20. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  1. An assessment of biodegradability of quaternary carbon-containing fragrance compounds: comparison of experimental OECD screening test results and in silico prediction data.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Markus; Boschung, Alain

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of biodegradability was carried out for fragrance substances containing quaternary carbons by using data obtained from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301F screening tests for ready biodegradation and from Biowin and Catalogic prediction models. Despite an expected challenging profile, a relatively high percentage of common-use fragrance substances showed significant biodegradation under the stringent conditions applied in the OECD 301F test. Among 27 test compounds, 37% met the pass level criteria after 28 d, while another 26% indicated partial breakdown (≥20% biodegradation). For several compounds for which structural analogs were available, the authors found that structures that were rendered less water soluble by either the presence of an acetate ester or the absence of oxygen tended to degrade to a lesser extent compared to the primary alcohols or oxygenated counterparts under the test conditions applied. Difficulties were encountered when attempting to correlate experimental with in silico data. Whereas the Biowin model combinations currently recommended by regulatory agencies did not allow for a reliable discrimination between readily and nonbiodegradable compounds, only a comparably small proportion of the chemicals studied (30% and 63% depending on the model) fell within the applicability domain of Catalogic, a factor that critically reduced its predictive power. According to these results, currently neither Biowin nor Catalogic accurately reflects the potential for biodegradation of fragrance compounds containing quaternary carbons.

  2. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38%) in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change. PMID:22788387

  3. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  4. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  5. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  6. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  7. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  8. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  9. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  10. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; O'Mara, Roisin M.; Hayward, Charles N.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many adolescents who die by suicide have never obtained mental health services. In response to this, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention recommends screening for elevated suicide risk in emergency departments (EDs). This cross-sectional study was designed to examine 1) the concurrent validity and utility of an adolescent suicide risk screen for use in general medical EDs and 2) the prevalence of positive screens for adolescent males and females using two different sets of screening criteria. Methods Participants were 298 adolescents seeking pediatric or psychiatric emergency services (50% male; 83% white, 16% black or African American, 5.4% Hispanic). The inclusion criterion was age 13 to 17 years. Exclusion criteria were severe cognitive impairment, no parent or legal guardian present to provide consent, or abnormal vital signs. Parent or guardian consent and adolescent assent were obtained for 61% of consecutively eligible adolescents. Elevated risk was defined as 1) Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior [SIQ-JR] score of ≥31 or suicide attempt in the past 3 months or 2) alcohol abuse plus depression (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 [AUDIT-3] score of ≥3, Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 [RADS-2] score of ≥76). The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were used to ascertain concurrent validity. Results Sixteen percent (n = 48) of adolescents screened positive for elevated suicide risk. Within this group, 98% reported severe suicide ideation or a recent suicide attempt (46% attempt and ideation, 10% attempt only, 42% ideation only) and 27% reported alcohol abuse and depression. Nineteen percent of adolescents who screened positive presented for nonpsychiatric reasons. One-third of adolescents with positive screens were not receiving any mental health or substance use treatment. Demonstrating concurrent validity, the BHS scores of adolescents with positive screens

  11. Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory University.

    PubMed

    Garlow, Steven J; Rosenberg, Jill; Moore, J David; Haas, Ann P; Koestner, Bethany; Hendin, Herbert; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002-2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = -9.34, df = 706, P<.0001, d = 1.9), and 28.5% of the students with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (chi(2) = 56.29, df = 1, P<.0001, two-tailed). Suicidal ideation was prominently associated with symptoms of desperation (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6, P<.001). The vast majority of students with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults.

  12. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  13. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  14. Identification of coronary heart disease in asymptomatic individuals with diabetes mellitus: to screen or not to screen.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paco E; Psaty, Bruce M; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Branch, Kelley R

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and remains the single most common cause of death among this population. Regrettably, a significant percentage of diabetics fail to perceive the classic symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia. Among asymptomatic diabetics, the prevalence of abnormal cardiac testing appears to be high, ranging between 10% and 62%, and mortality is significantly higher in those with abnormal scans. Hence, the potential use of screening for CHD detection among asymptomatic DM individuals is appealing and has been recommended in certain circumstances. However, it was not until recently, that this question was addressed in clinical trials. Two studies randomized a total of 2,023 asymptomatic diabetics to screening or not using cardiac imaging with a mean follow up of 4.4 ± 1.4 years. In combination, both trials showed lower than expected annual event rates, and failed to reduce major cardiovascular events in the screened group compared to the standard of care alone. The results of these trials do not currently support the use of screening tools for CHD detection in asymptomatic DM individuals. However, these studies have important limitations, and potential explanations for their negative results that are discussed in this manuscript.

  15. Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads) was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments), associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary screening tests; but the

  16. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  17. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  19. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  20. Genetic Screens for Mutations Affecting Development of Xenopus tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matthew D; Stemple, Derek L; Zimmerman, Lyle B

    2006-01-01

    We present here the results of forward and reverse genetic screens for chemically-induced mutations in Xenopus tropicalis. In our forward genetic screen, we have uncovered 77 candidate phenotypes in diverse organogenesis and differentiation processes. Using a gynogenetic screen design, which minimizes time and husbandry space expenditures, we find that if a phenotype is detected in the gynogenetic F2 of a given F1 female twice, it is highly likely to be a heritable abnormality (29/29 cases). We have also demonstrated the feasibility of reverse genetic approaches for obtaining carriers of mutations in specific genes, and have directly determined an induced mutation rate by sequencing specific exons from a mutagenized population. The Xenopus system, with its well-understood embryology, fate map, and gain-of-function approaches, can now be coupled with efficient loss-of-function genetic strategies for vertebrate functional genomics and developmental genetics. PMID:16789825

  1. Skills-Based Residency Training in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: Results from the Georgia-Texas "Improving Brief Intervention" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Velasquez, Mary M.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Shellenberger, Sylvia; von Sternberg, Kirk; Dodrill, Carrie; Boltri, John M.; Takei, Roy; Clark, Denice; Grace, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is recommended for all primary care patients but is underutilized. This project trained 111 residents and faculty in 8 family medicine residencies to conduct SBI and implement SBI protocols in residency clinics, then assessed changes in self-reported importance and confidence in performing SBI and…

  2. Turbulent flow through screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.

  3. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  4. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. PMID:25174786

  5. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk.

  6. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    multivariate statistical tool called canonical correlation analysis was adopted to seek out relationships between a set of input variables and the abnormal character values. The input variables include the MgO, CaO, Na 2O, and SiO2 contents, the ratio of MgO:(CaO+SiO2), and the annealing time and temperature. The analysis was applied to 33 different samples and showed that the composition ratio and MgO content were the strongest processing variables. These variables are most closely related to the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio, the average magnitude of abnormality, and the variance in grain size. The physical implications of these relationships are explored for a number of samples with different abnormal grain growth behaviors. Several of the samples contained a beta"-alumina phase that is shown to have a dampening effect on abnormal grain growth. TEM investigation provides evidence that there is a grain boundary complexion with a different composition and structure than the second phase. A series of samples are compared after annealing for different times and are shown to have very different behaviors as a result of the second phase competing with complexions for control over the microstructure.

  7. Prevalence screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women by CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, I; Davies, A P; Bridges, J; Stabile, I; Fay, T; Lower, A; Grudzinskas, J G; Oram, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the performance of the sequential combination of serum CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography in screening for ovarian cancer. DESIGN--The serum CA 125 concentration of each subject was determined and those with a concentration > or = 30 U/ml were recalled for abdominal ultrasonography. If ultrasonography gave abnormal results surgical investigation was arranged. Volunteers were followed up by annual postal questionnaire. SETTING--General practice, occupational health departments, ovarian cancer screening clinic. SUBJECTS--22,000 women volunteers who were postmenopausal and aged over 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Apparent sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, years of cancer detected. RESULTS--41 women had a positive screening result and were investigated surgically. 11 had ovarian cancer (true positive result) and 30 had other disorders or no abnormality (false positive result). Of the 21,959 volunteers with a negative screening result, eight subsequently presented clinically with ovarian cancer (false negative result) and 21,951 had not developed ovarian cancer during follow up (apparent true negative result). The screening protocol achieved a specificity of 99.9%, a positive predictive value of 26.8%, and an apparent sensitivity of 78.6% and 57.9% at one year and two year follow up respectively. The estimated number of years of cancer detected by the prevalence screen was 1.4 years. CONCLUSIONS--This screening protocol is highly specific for ovarian cancer and can detect a substantial proportion of cases at a preclinical stage. Further investigation is required to determine the effect of the screening protocol on the ratio of early to late stage disease detected and on mortality from ovarian cancer. PMID:8490497

  8. Osteoporosis screening is unjustifiably low in older African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Goldfeder, Jason S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than one million Americans suffer osteoporotic fractures yearly, resulting in a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite a decrease in bone mineral density with increasing age in all ethnic groups and both genders, preventative and therapeutics efforts in osteoporosis have been focused on caucasian and Asian women. This study assesses the osteoporosis screening practices and the frequency of low bone density in a primarily African-American population of older women. METHODS: Medical records of 252 women at risk for osteoporosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, prior osteoporosis screening, prior breast cancer screening, and the use of calcium, vitamin D or estrogen. Subsequently, 128 women were assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis, and their bone mineral density was measured using a peripheral bone densitometer. RESULTS: Osteoporosis screening had been performed in 11.5% of the subjects. Of the women evaluated by peripheral bone densitometry, 44.5% of all women, 40.4% of African-American women, and 53.3% of caucasian women had abnormally low bone density measurements. The frequency of abnormal bone density increased with both increasing age and decreasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Although few women in this population were previously screened for osteoporosis, low bone density occurred in African-American women at substantial rates. Increasing age and low body mass are important risk factors for low bone density in African-American women. Ethnicity should not be used as an exclusion criterion for screening for osteoporosis. PMID:15101666

  9. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  10. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  11. Advanced Breast Imaging Availability by Screening Facility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christoph I.; Bogart, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Obadina, Eniola T.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A.; Sprague, Brian L.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lehman, Constance D.; Onega, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objective To determine the relationship between screening mammography facility characteristics and on-site availability of advanced breast imaging services required for supplemental screening and the diagnostic evaluation of abnormal screening findings. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from all active imaging facilities across six regional registries of the National Cancer Institute-funded Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium offering screening mammography in calendar years 2011–2012 (n=105). We used generalized estimating equations regression models to identify associations between facility characteristics (e.g., academic affiliation, practice type) and availability of on-site advanced breast imaging (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and image-guided biopsy services. Results Breast MRI was not available at any non-radiology or breast imaging only facilities. A combination of breast US, breast MRI, and imaging-guided breast biopsy services was available at 76.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 22.2% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p=0.0047) and 75.0% of facilities with academic affiliations compared to 29.0% of those without academic affiliations (p=0.04). Both supplemental screening breast ultrasound and screening breast MRI were available at 28.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 4.7% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p<0.01) and 25.0% of academic facilities compared to 8.5% of non-academic facilities (p=0.02). Conclusion Screening facility characteristics are strongly associated with the availability of on-site advanced breast imaging and image-guided biopsy service. Therefore, the type of imaging facility a woman attends for screening may have important implications on her timely access to supplemental screening and diagnostic breast imaging services. PMID:25851643

  12. Cartilage tissue engineering identifies abnormal human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Liu, Shiying; Woltjen, Knut; Thomas, Bradley; Meng, Guoliang; Hotta, Akitsu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Ellis, James; Yamanaka, Shinya; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2013-01-01

    Safety is the foremost issue in all human cell therapies, but human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) currently lack a useful safety indicator. Studies in chimeric mice have demonstrated that certain lines of iPSCs are tumorigenic; however a similar screen has not been developed for human iPSCs. Here, we show that in vitro cartilage tissue engineering is an excellent tool for screening human iPSC lines for tumorigenic potential. Although all human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and most iPSC lines tested formed cartilage safely, certain human iPSCs displayed a pro-oncogenic state, as indicated by the presence of secretory tumors during cartilage differentiation in vitro. We observed five abnormal iPSC clones amoungst 21 lines derived from five different reprogramming methods using three cellular origins. We conclude that in vitro cartilage tissue engineering is a useful approach to identify abnormal human iPSC lines.

  13. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  14. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is no cancer. This is called a false-positive result. For women who have had cancer in ... easier to treat. Risks of screenings can include: False-positive results . This occurs when a test shows cancer ...

  15. Expanding the results of a high throughput screen against an isochorismate-pyruvate lyase to enzymes of a similar scaffold or mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Kathleen M.; Luo, Qianyi; Riley, Andrew P.; Taylor, Byron; Roy, Anuradha; Stein, Ross L.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern, and new avenues of antimicrobial drug design are being actively sought. One suggested pathway to be targeted for inhibitor design is that of iron scavenging through siderophores. Here we present a high throughput screen to the isochorismate-pyruvate lyase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an enzyme required for the production of the siderophore pyochelin. Compounds identified in the screen are high nanomolar to low micromolar inhibitors of the enzyme and produce growth inhibition in PAO1 P. aeruginosa in the millimolar range under iron-limiting conditions. The identified compounds were also tested for enzymatic inhibition of E. coli chorismate mutase, a protein of similar fold and similar chemistry, and of Y. enterocolitica salicylate synthase, a protein of differing fold but catalyzing the same lyase reaction. In both cases, subsets of the inhibitors from the screen were found to be inhibitory to enzymatic activity (mutase or synthase) in the micromolar range and capable of growth inhibition in their respective organisms (E. coli or Y. enterocolitica). PMID:25282647

  16. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.

    PubMed

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  17. The C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat models for alopecia areata: review of preclinical drug screening approaches and results

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Silva, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Kevin J.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strain and the Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) strain spontaneously develop adult onset alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated disease directed against actively growing hair follicles. The low frequency of AA and the inability to predict the stage of AA as it evolves in the naturally occuring C3H/HeJ model of AA can be converted into a highly predictable system by grafting full thickness skin from AA affected mice to normal haired mice of the same strain. The rat DEBR model develops spontaneous AA at a higher frequency than in the mouse model but they are more expensive to use in drug studies due to their larger size. Regardless of the shortcomings of either model, these rodent models can be used succesfully to screen novel or approved drugs for efficacy to treat human AA. Since the pathogenesis of AA follows the canonical lymphocytic co-stimulatory cascade in the mouse AA model, it can be used to screen compounds potentially useful to treat a variety of cell mediated diseases. Efficacy of various agents can easily be screened by simply observing the presence, rate, and cosmetic acceptability of hair regrowth. More sophisticated assays can refine how the drugs induce hair regrowth and evaluate the underlying pathogenesis of AA. Some drugs commonly used to treat human AA patients work equally as well in both rodent models validating their usefulness as models for drug efficacy and safety for human AA. PMID:18798913

  18. Expanding the results of a high throughput screen against an isochorismate-pyruvate lyase to enzymes of a similar scaffold or mechanism.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Riley, Andrew P; Taylor, Byron; Roy, Anuradha; Stein, Ross L; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Lamb, Audrey L

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern, and new avenues of antimicrobial drug design are being actively sought. One suggested pathway to be targeted for inhibitor design is that of iron scavenging through siderophores. Here we present a high throughput screen to the isochorismate-pyruvate lyase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an enzyme required for the production of the siderophore pyochelin. Compounds identified in the screen are high nanomolar to low micromolar inhibitors of the enzyme and produce growth inhibition in PAO1 P. aeruginosa in the millimolar range under iron-limiting conditions. The identified compounds were also tested for enzymatic inhibition of Escherichia coli chorismate mutase, a protein of similar fold and similar chemistry, and of Yersinia enterocolitica salicylate synthase, a protein of differing fold but catalyzing the same lyase reaction. In both cases, subsets of the inhibitors from the screen were found to be inhibitory to enzymatic activity (mutase or synthase) in the micromolar range and capable of growth inhibition in their respective organisms (E. coli or Y. enterocolitica). PMID:25282647

  19. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Hee

    2014-01-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant. PMID:25114694

  20. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-07-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant.

  1. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  2. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  3. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  4. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  5. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  6. Cervical screening in HIV-positive women in the East of England: recent CD4 as the predictive risk factor.

    PubMed

    Davies, Olubanke; Rajamanoharan, Sasikala; Balachandran, Thambiah

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between CD4 count and cervical cytological abnormality in HIV-positive women attending two district general hospital genitourinary medicine clinics in the East of England. It aims to determine whether the rate of cervical cytological abnormalities differs in HIV-positive women with CD4 count >350 cells/µl and those with CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl; and to compare the rates of abnormalities with that of the general population. We retrospectively reviewed data from a cross-sectional audit undertaken between December 2010 and December 2011 and analysed them using multivariable statistics. There was a significant association between recent CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl and cervical cytological abnormality (p < 0.001). A total of 6.3% of women with recent CD4 counts >350 cells/µl had abnormal cervical smear results, compared with 6.6% of the general population in the screening period 2010-11 and 7.2% of the general population in the screening period 2009-10. In our study population of women with recent CD4 counts >350 cells/µl, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were also similar to national figures. This raises important questions about the cost effectiveness of blanket annual screening for HIV-positive women.

  7. The management of abnormal haemostasis in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Retter, A; Barrett, N A

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology and management of haemostatic abnormalities in critical care patients are considered in this narrative review. The mechanisms of normal haemostasis and derangements that occur as a result of sepsis and organ dysfunction are discussed. Finally, the management of haemostatic abnormalities as they relate to critical care practice are considered, including the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  8. Obesity, Gynecological Factors, and Abnormal Mammography Follow-Up in Minority and Medically Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Wujcik, Debra; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Grau, Ana; Wilson, Veronica; Champion, Victoria; Zheng, Wei; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between obesity and screening mammography adherence has been examined previously, yet few studies have investigated obesity as a potential mediator of timely follow-up of abnormal (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS-0]) mammography results in minority and medically underserved patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35 women who did not return for follow-up >6 months from index abnormal mammography and 41 who returned for follow-up ≤6 months in Nashville, Tennessee. Patients with a BIRADS-0 mammography event in 2003–2004 were identified by chart review. Breast cancer risk factors were collected by telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on selected factors with return for diagnostic follow-up. Results Obesity and gynecological history were significant predictors of abnormal mammography resolution. A significantly higher frequency of obese women delayed return for mammography resolution compared with nonobese women (64.7% vs. 35.3%). A greater number of hysterectomized women returned for diagnostic follow-up compared with their counterparts without a hysterectomy (77.8% vs. 22.2%). Obese patients were more likely to delay follow-up >6 months (adjusted OR 4.09, p = 0.02). Conversely, hysterectomized women were significantly more likely to return for timely mammography follow-up ≤6 months (adjusted OR 7.95, p = 0.007). Conclusions Study results suggest that weight status and gynecological history influence patients' decisions to participate in mammography follow-up studies. Strategies are necessary to reduce weight-related barriers to mammography follow-up in the healthcare system including provider training related to mammography screening of obese women. PMID:19558307

  9. Prevalence and distribution of congenital abnormalities in Turkey: differences between the prenatal and postnatal periods.

    PubMed

    Oztarhan, Kazim; Gedikbasi, Ali; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Adal, Erdal; Kavuncuoglu, Sultan; Ozbek, Sibel; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of cases associated with congenital abnormalities during the following three periods: pregnancy, birth, and the neonatal period. This was a retrospective study of cases between 2002 and 2006. All abnormal pregnancies, elective terminations of pregnancies, stillbirths, and births with congenital abnormalities managed in the Neonatology Unit were classified based on the above distribution scheme. During the 5-year study period, 1906 cases with congenital abnormalities were recruited, as follows: 640 prenatally detected and terminated cases, with most abnormalities related to the central nervous system, chromosomes, and urogenital system (56.7%, 12.7%, and 8.9%, respectively); 712 neonates with congenital abnormalities (congenital heart disease [49.2%], central nervous system abnormalities [14.7%], and urogenital system abnormalities [12.9%]); and hospital stillbirths, of which 34.2% had malformations (220 prenatal cases [34.4%] had multiple abnormalities, whereas 188 liveborn cases [26.4%] had multiple abnormalities). The congenital abnormalities rate between 2002 and 2006 was 2.07%. Systematic screening for fetal anomalies is the primary means for identification of affected pregnancies.

  10. Household Contact Screening and Yield of Tuberculosis Cases—A Clinic Based Study in Chennai, South India

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dina; Rajshekhar, Nandita; Klinton, Joel Shyam; Watson, Basilea; Velayutham, Banurekha; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Jawahar, Mohideen Shaheed; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Contact investigation is an active case finding strategy to increase detection of Tuberculosis (TB) and a key component of TB control programs. The household contacts are at a higher risk of exposure than members of the general population. The information on the value and yield of household contact screening and the approaches used in high incidence settings like India is limited. Objective To evaluate the yield of active case finding in household contacts of newly diagnosed smear positive TB patients and the factors associated with increased yield. Method Retrospective record review of the household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive patients (index case) enrolled in a clinical trial at National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai during the period 2007–2014. A sequential screening algorithm with chest x-ray followed by symptom screen was employed to identify presumptive TB patients. Results 643 household contacts of 280 index TB patients were identified out of which 544 (85%) consented for screening. 71/544 (13%) patients had an abnormal chest radiograph and out of them 70% were symptomatic. A total of 29/544 (5.3%) contacts were found to have TB among whom 23/29 (79%) were sputum smear positive. The number needed to screen (NNS) to identify a new TB case among all household contacts was 19 and among those with an abnormal CXR was 02. Age group > 44 years, male gender and siblings of the index case was associated with abnormal chest radiograph whereas age group between 15–44 was significantly associated with developing TB disease among household contacts. Conclusion Active screening among household contacts is an effective way to improve TB case detection. The yield for new TB cases among contacts with abnormal x-ray was high in this study and the use of Chest X-rays in combination with symptom screen is recommended. PMID:27583974

  11. [DAX-1 abnormality].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Ei-ichi

    2002-02-01

    DAX-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and function of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Absence of DAX-1 results in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, a human inherited disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The DAX-1 gene may be responsible for a male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, referred to as dosage sensitive sex reversal(DSS), due to the duplication of a small region of human chromosome Xp21. Dax-1 and Sry have been shown to act antagonistically in the mouse system, where over-expression of Dax-1 leads to female development and increasing activity of Sry to male development. Although these data strongly implicate Dax-1 in sex determination, there is no evidence that DAX-1 is equivalent to DSS in human.

  12. [Abnormal popliteal arteries].

    PubMed

    Elbaz, C

    1975-01-01

    Arteriopathy restricted to the popliteal artery, except in cases of atheroma, must indicate three of four unusual diagnoses: the trapped popliteal artery and the dessicating haematoma are anatomo-clinical entities that have been identified only relatively recently. The popliteal artery may be trapped by the medial gastrocnomius muscle, round the tendon of which the artery passes (totally or partially). This results in compression of the artery and eventually in thrombosis. Clinically, intermittent claudication is seen that may deteriorate and lead to gangrene of the toes. Arteriography makes it possible to diagnose the condition as the condition as the artery is considerably displaced inwards. Surgical correction is simple: sectioning of the tendon and repositioning of the artery. Dessicating haematoma of the popliteal artery is due essentially to atheroma, associated with medianecrosis. A "egg-timer" stenosis is found by arteriography and this condition also progresses towards thrombosis. Arterial restoration is called for, usually by bridging. PMID:1230799

  13. Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Deferoxamine Retinopathy: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicola, Maura; Barteselli, Giulio; Dell'Arti, Laura; Ratiglia, Roberto; Viola, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is the most commonly used iron-chelating agent to treat transfusion-related hemosiderosis. Despite the clear advantages for the use of DFO, numerous DFO-related systemic toxicities have been reported in the literature, as well as sight-threatening ocular toxicity involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The damage to the RPE can lead to visual field defects, color-vision defects, abnormal electrophysiological tests, and permanent visual deterioration. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of the ocular findings, including both functional and structural abnormalities, in DFO-treated patients. In particular, we pay particular attention to analyzing results of multimodal technologies for retinal imaging, which help ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis and correct management of DFO retinopathy. Fundus autofluorescence, for example, is not only useful for screening patients at high-risk of DFO retinopathy, but is also a prerequisite for identify specific high-risk patterns of RPE changes that are relevant for the prognosis of the disease. In addition, optical coherence tomography may have a clinical usefulness in detecting extent and location of different retinal changes in DFO retinopathy. Finally, this review wants to underline the need for universally approved guidelines for screening and followup of this particular disease. PMID:26167477

  14. Relationship between lower urinary tract abnormalities and disease-related parameters in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koldewijn, E L; Hommes, O R; Lemmens, W A; Debruyne, F M; van Kerrebroeck, P E

    1995-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects the lower urinary tract in many patients. The relationship between lower urinary tract abnormalities and disease-related parameters of multiple sclerosis is not well described. We screened urologically and neurologically 212 patients according to a standard protocol. Micturition complaints were noted in 52% of the patients and urodynamic abnormalities were found in 64%. A statistical correlation was found between detrusor hyperactivity and detrusor hypoactivity with disease-related parameters, that is disease duration, disability status, myelin basic protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and neurophysiological investigations. No relationship was found between detrusor hypersensibility or detrusor hyposensibility and the aforementioned disease-related parameters. In 1 patient upper urinary tract abnormalities were noted in combination with urodynamic abnormalities. We conclude that lower urinary tract abnormalities can be found in every patient with multiple sclerosis unrelated to the state of the disease. Severe upper urinary tract abnormalities are rare. PMID:7539859

  15. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. I - Furnace studies of catalyst activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty commercially produced monolith and pellet catalysts were tested as part of a screening process to select catalysts suitable for use in a gas turbine combustor. The catalysts were contained in a 1.8 centimeter diameter quartz tube and heated to temperatures varying between 300 and 1200 K while a mixture of propane and air passed through the bed at space velocities of 44,000 to 70,000 per hour. The amount of propane oxidized was measured as a function of catalyst temperature. Of the samples tested, the most effective catalysts proved to be noble metal catalysts on monolith substrates.

  16. Preliminary results from screening tests of commercial catalysts with potential use in gas turbine combustors. Part 1: Furnace studies of catalyst activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty commercially produced monolith and pellet catalysts were tested as part of a screening process to select catalysts suitable for use in a gas turbine combustor. The catalysts were contained in a 1.8 centimeter diameter quartz tube and heated to temperatures varying between 300 and 1,200 K while a mixture of propane and air passed through the bed at space velocities of 44,000 to 70,000/hour. The amount of propane oxidized was measured as a function of catalyst temperature. Of the samples tested, the most effective catalysts proved to be noble metal catalysts on monolith substrates.

  17. Abnormalities of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nawata, H; Takayanagi, R; Yanase, T; Ikuyama, S; Okabe, T

    1996-01-01

    Sex differentiation is determined by a cascade of events proceeding from chromosomal sex to the completion of sexual maturation at puberty. Many factors involved in this cascade have been identified. Here we focus on DAX-1, androgen receptor and cytochrome P450c17, and discuss their functions in sex differentiation. We analyzed the DAX-1 genes of two unrelated Japanese patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using PCR amplification of genomic DNA and complete exonic sequencing, and established that congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism result from not only inherited but also de novo mutation in the DAX-1 gene. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a good model to clarify the relationship between the structure and function of androgen receptor, the androgen receptor gene mutation and clinical phenotype. We analyzed 15 cases of AIS and demonstrate the structural and functional relationships of the androgen receptor. We have sequenced the CYP17 (P450c17) gene in DNA from several patients with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, reconstructed the mutations in a human P450c17 cDNA and expressed the mutant P450c17 in COSl cells to characterize the kinetic properties of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. The molecular bases of cases clinically reported as 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency have turned out to be complete or partial combined deficiencies of 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase. PMID:8864743

  18. Circadian Rhythm Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Phyllis C.; Attarian, Hrayr; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of the fundamental properties of circadian rhythms and discusses the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs). Recent Findings: Recent evidence strongly points to the ubiquitous influence of circadian timing in nearly all physiologic functions. Thus, in addition to the prominent sleep and wake disturbances, circadian rhythm disorders are associated with cognitive impairment, mood disturbances, and increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The recent availability of biomarkers of circadian timing in clinical practice has improved our ability to identify and treat these CRSDs. Summary: Circadian rhythms are endogenous rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. These rhythms are synchronized to the physical environment by social and work schedules by various photic and nonphotic stimuli. CRSDs result from a misalignment between the timing of the circadian rhythm and the external environment (eg, jet lag and shift work) or a dysfunction of the circadian clock or its afferent and efferent pathways (eg, delayed sleep-phase, advanced sleep-phase, non–24-hour, and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorders). The most common symptoms of these disorders are difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance and excessive sleepiness that are associated with impaired social and occupational functioning. Effective treatment for most of the CRSDs requires a multimodal approach to accelerate circadian realignment with timed exposure to light, avoidance of bright light at inappropriate times, and adherence to scheduled sleep and wake times. In addition, pharmacologic agents are recommended for some of the CRSDs. For delayed sleep-phase, non–24-hour, and shift work disorders, timed low-dose melatonin can help advance or entrain circadian rhythms; and for shift work disorder, wake-enhancing agents such as caffeine, modafinil, and armodafinil are options

  19. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  20. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  1. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  2. Abnormality detection in retinal images using ant colony optimization and artificial neural networks - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Ganesan; Ramakrishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    Optic disc and retinal vasculature are important anatomical structures in the retina of the eye and any changes observed in these structures provide vital information on severity of various diseases. Digital retinal images are shown to provide a meaningful way of documenting and assessing some of the key elements inside the eye including the optic nerve and the tiny retinal blood vessels. In this work, an attempt has been made to detect and differentiate abnormalities of the retina using Digital image processing together with Optimization based segmentation and Artificial Neural Network methods. The retinal fundus images were recorded using standard protocols. Ant Colony Optimization is employed to extract the most significant objects namely the optic disc and blood vessel. The features related to these objects are obtained and corresponding indices are also derived. Further, these features are subjected to classification using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and compared with conventional training algorithms. Results show that the Ant Colony Optimization is efficient in extracting useful information from retinal images. The features derived are effective for classification of normal and abnormal images using Radial basis function networks compared to other methods. As Optic disc and blood vessels are significant markers of abnormality in retinal images, the method proposed appears to be useful for mass screening. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented. PMID:20467104

  3. Abnormality detection in retinal images using ant colony optimization and artificial neural networks - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Ganesan; Ramakrishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    Optic disc and retinal vasculature are important anatomical structures in the retina of the eye and any changes observed in these structures provide vital information on severity of various diseases. Digital retinal images are shown to provide a meaningful way of documenting and assessing some of the key elements inside the eye including the optic nerve and the tiny retinal blood vessels. In this work, an attempt has been made to detect and differentiate abnormalities of the retina using Digital image processing together with Optimization based segmentation and Artificial Neural Network methods. The retinal fundus images were recorded using standard protocols. Ant Colony Optimization is employed to extract the most significant objects namely the optic disc and blood vessel. The features related to these objects are obtained and corresponding indices are also derived. Further, these features are subjected to classification using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and compared with conventional training algorithms. Results show that the Ant Colony Optimization is efficient in extracting useful information from retinal images. The features derived are effective for classification of normal and abnormal images using Radial basis function networks compared to other methods. As Optic disc and blood vessels are significant markers of abnormality in retinal images, the method proposed appears to be useful for mass screening. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented.

  4. Abnormal tenocyte morphology is more prevalent than collagen disruption in asymptomatic athletes' patellar tendons.

    PubMed

    Cook, J L; Feller, J A; Bonar, S F; Khan, K M

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of each of the four features of patellar tendinosis in asymptomatic athletic subjects undergoing patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty subjects (39 males and 11 females) undergoing ACL reconstruction using a patellar tendon graft were screened for previous tendon symptoms, training and playing history and had their patellar tendons examined with ultrasound prior to surgery. During surgery, a small piece of proximal posterocentral tendon was harvested, fixed and examined under light microscopy. Histopathological changes were graded for severity. Results demonstrate that 18 tendons were abnormal on light microscopy and 32 were normal. There were no differences between subjects with and without pathology in respect of training, recovery after surgery and basic anthropometric measures. Three tendons were abnormal on ultrasound but only one had proximal and central changes. Tendons showed a consistent series of changes. Tenocyte changes were found in all but one of the abnormal tendons. In all but one of the tendons with increased ground substance there were tenocyte changes, and collagen separation was always associated with both tenocyte changes and increased ground subst